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chapter 1

Introduction
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Cloud computing is an architecture for providing computing services via the internet on demand and pay
per use access to a pool of shared resources namely networks, storage, servers, services and
applications, without physically acquiring them. So it saves managing cost and time for organizations.
Many industries, such as banking, healthcare and education are moving towards there cloud due to the
efficiency of services provided by the pay-per-use pattern based on the resources such as processing
power used, transactions carried out, bandwidth consumed, data transferred, or storage space occupied
etc.
1.2 MEANING AND DEFINITION OF CLOUD COMPUTING
Cloud computing is a computing paradigm, where a large pool of systems are connected in private or
public networks, to provide dynamically scalable infrastructure for application hosting, content storage and
delivery is reduced significantly.
Cloud computing has become the new buzz word given largely by marketing and service offerings from
big corporate players like Google, IBM and Amazon. Cloud computing is the next stage in evolutin of the
internet.
"Cloud computing is a specialized form of distributed computing that introduces utilization models for
remotely provisioning scalable and measured resources."
Cloud computing is a completely internet dependent technology7 where client data is stored and maintain
in the data center of a cloud provider like Google, Amazon, Salesforce.com and Microsoft etc. Limited
control over the data may incur various security issues and threats which include data leakage, insecure
interface, sharing of resources. Data availability and inside attacks. There are various research
challenges also there for adopting cloud computing such as well managed service level agreement (SLA),
privacy, interoperability and reliability.
Defines cloud computing as:
A pool of abstracted, highly scalable, and managed compute infrastructure capable of hosting endcustomer applications and billed by consumption.
Forrester Research provided its own definition of cloud computing as:
A standardized IT capability (services, software, or infrastructure) delivered via Internet technologies in a
pay-per-use, self-service way.
Cloud computing is the delivery of computing services over the Internet. Cloud services allow individuals
and businesses to use software and hardware that are managed by third parties at remote locations.
Example of cloud services include online file storage, social networking sites, webmail and online
business applications. The cloud computing model allows access to information and computer resources
from anywhere that a network connection is available. Cloud computing provides a shared pool of
resources, including data storage space, networks, computer processing power and specialized corporate
and user applications.
Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of
configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications and services) that can
be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This
Cloud model promotes availability and is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models
and four deployment model.
Institute of Standards and technology (NIST)
Cloud computing is an architecture for providing computer service via internet on demand and pay pert
use access to a pool of shared resources namely networks, storage, servers, services and applications,

without physically acquiring them.


1.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
The term cloud is used as a representation of the Internet and other communications systems as well as
an abstraction of the underlying infrastructures involved. What we now commonly refer to as cloud
computing is the result of an evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualization, service-oriented
architecture, autonomic and utility computing.
The idea of computing in a cloud traces back to the origins of utility computing, a concept that computer
scientist John McCarthy publicly proposed in 1961:
If computers of the kind I have advocated become the computers of the future, then computing may
someday be organized as a public utility just as the telephone system is a public utility. The computer
utility could become the basis of a new and important industry. In 1969, Leonard Klein rock, a chief
scientist of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network or ARPANET project that seeded the
Internet, stated: As of now, computer networks are still in their infancy, but as they grow up and become
sophisticated, we will probably see the spread of computer utilities
The general public has been leveraging forms of Internet based computer utilities since
the mid-1990s through various incarnations of search engines (Yahoo!, Google), E-MAIL SERVICES
(Hotmail, Gmail), open publishing platforms (Myspace, Facebook, YouTube), and other types of social
media (Twitter, LinkedIn).