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TRANSISTORS and AMPLIFIERS

DryCell

I. TRANSISTOR FUNDAMENTALS
TRANSISTOR
Developed in December 23,1947 in Bell laboratories
By John Bardeen, William Shockley and Walter Brattain
Basically a resistor that amplifies electrical impulses as they are transferred
from its input to its output terminals.
Basic Types
1. BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR (BJT)
It is a three layer semiconductor device consisting of either two N and one Ptype layers of materials or two P and one N-type layers of semiconductor
materials.
Three regions of BJT
a. Base
Region to which carriers flow from emitter to collector
1015 dopants/cm3
Lightly doped
b. Emitter
Region from which carriers flow
1019 dopants/cm3
Heavily doped
c. Collector
Region to which carriers flow
1017 dopants/cm3
Moderately doped
Largest
BJT Structure and Construction

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Transistor Currents and Configurations


a. Common Base Configuration
In this circuit, the input signal is applied at the emitter, the output is taken at the
collector and the base is the common terminal
This has very low input impedance

Alpha ()
In the dc mode the levels of IC and IE due to majority carriers are related by a quantity
called alpha and defined by the following equation:

Ic
Ie

b. Common Emitter Configuration


The input is applied at the base, the amplified output is taken from the
collector, and the emitter is the common terminal.
This circuit is the one generally used for transistors because the CE amplifier
has the best combination of current and voltage gains

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Ie = Ib I c
Beta ()

Ratio of the collector current to the base current


=

Ic
Ib

c. Common Collector Configuration


This circuit has the input applied at the base, the output taken at the emitter
terminal and the collector is the common terminal
Impedance matching

Gamma ()
Forward current gain for common collector configuration
=

Ie
Ib

Comparison of Amplifier Configurations


Characteristic
Power Gain
Voltage Gain
Current Gain

Common
Base
moderate
highest
lowest less
than1

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Common
Emitter
highest
moderate
moderate

Common
Collector
moderate
less than 1
highest

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Input
Impedance
Output
Impedance
Phase
Inversion
Applications

lowest

moderate

highest

highest

moderate

lowest

none

180 Out of phase

none

RF amp

universal

isolation

Transistor Biasing
Bias
an electrical, mechanical, or magnetic force applied to a device to establish a
desired electrical or mechanical reference level for its operation.
is a DC voltage or current that sets the operating point for amplifying the AC
signal
a. Fixed Bias
is taken from a battery or power supply

b. Self Bias
The amplifier produces its own DC voltage from an IR drop across a resistor in
the return circuit of the common terminal.
Self-bias is probably the type of bias used most often because it is economical
and has stabilizing effect on the DC level of the output current.
Can be emitter stabilized or collector stabilized

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c. Voltage-Divider Bias
The most stable type of circuit biasing

d. Signal Bias

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Regions of Transistor Action

a. Active Region
Base-emitter junction is forward biased and the collector-base junction is
reverse biased.
Transistors active operation as an amplifier
b. Saturation Region
both junctions are forward biased
switch on operation for the transistor
c. Cut off Region
both junctions are reverse biased
switch off operation for the transistor
Loadline and Q-point
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Loadline is a straight line drawn on the collector curves between the cut-off
and saturation points of the transistor
Q-point (Quiescent Point) is the operating point of the transistor with the time
varying sources out of the circuit
Review Question:
Given the circuit below, draw the DC loadline

Analysis: At cut-off, Ic = 0 thus VCE = VCC


At saturation, VCE = 0 thus Ic = VCC / Rc

BJT Small Signal Analysis

H-Parameters:
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1. hi - short circuit input impedance

hi

Vi
; (Vo = 0)
Ii

2. hr - open circuit reverse voltage gain (voltage feedback ratio)


hr =

Vi
(Ii = 0)
Vo

3. hf - short circuit forward current gain


hf =

Io
( Vo = 0)
Ii

4. ho - open circuit output admittance


ho =

Io
(Ii = 0)
Vo

2. FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET)


Unipolar device because they operate only with one type of charge carrier
Voltage controlled device where the voltage between two of the terminals
(gate and source) controls the current through the device.
Major feature is very high input resistance
a. Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET)
Operates with a reverse-biased PN junction to control current in the channel
Square law device because of the relation of I D and VGS

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VGS
IDSS 1

VGS(off )

ID =
JFET/D-MOSFET transfer characteristics
Can be n-channel or p-channel

JFET Symbols

Operation of JFET
JFET is always operated with the gate-source PN junction reversed biased
Reverse biasing of the gate-source junction with negative voltage produces a
depletion region along the PN junction which extends into the n-channel and
thus increases its resistance by restricting the channel width as shown in the
preceding figure.

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b. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)


second category of the field effect transistor
because of the presence of an insulated gate then it is sometimes called
IGFETs
MOSFETS differs from JFET in that it has no PN junction structure
It has two basic types, D MOSFET and E MOSFET
Depletion MOSFET (D-MOSFET)
The drain and source are diffused into the substrate material and connected by
a narrow channel adjacent to the insulated gate
It can be operated in two modes-the depletion mode or the enhancement mode
and sometimes called depletion/enhancement mode MOSFET
It can be operated with a zero, positive or negative gate-source voltage
Normally operated in the depletion mode
When configured as switch, it is normally-on

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Depletion Mode
Negative gate to source voltage is applied
n channel is depleted of some electrons hence decreasing channel
conductivity
Enhancement Mode
positive gate voltage is applied
more conduction electrons are attracted to the channel thus enhancing channel
conductivity
Enhancement MOSFET (E-MOSFET)
operates only in the enhancement mode
has no depletion mode
it has no structural channel
it has no IDSS parameter
for an n-channel type of this device, a positive gate voltage above threshold
induces a channel by creating a layer of negative charges (inversion layer) in
the substrate portion that is adjacent to the SiO 2 layer.
An n-channel E-MOSFET has a positive VGS while a p-channel E-MOSFET has
a negative VGS
The conductivity of its channel is enhanced by increasing the gate to source
voltage
For gate voltage below the threshold, there is no channel to be formed
If configured as a switch, this device is normally off
LD MOSEFT, VMOSFET and TMOSFET are EMOSFET technologies
developed for higher power dissipation

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II. AMPLIFIERS
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Electronic devices capable of amplification or increasing the amplitude of


power, current or voltage at its output
Circuits designed to increase the amplitude or level of an electronic signal.
Used as boosters

Classifications of Amplifiers:
1. According to Function
a.Voltage Amplifier
Voltage controlled source
Op-amps are voltage amplifier
b.Current Amplifier
Current controlled source
BJTs are current amplifier
c.Power Amplifier
Boost the power level of the signal
2. According to Configuration
a. Common Base Amplifier
Transistor amplifier where input is applied at the emitter and output is taken
from the collector terminal
The base is common to both input and output
Maximum current gain is 1
No phase inversion from input to output
b. Common Collector Amplifier (emitter follower)
Transistor amplifier where input is applied at the base, output is taken from the
emitter terminal
Maximum voltage gain is 1
Capacitors must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation
No phase inversion from input to output
c. Common Emitter Amplifier
Transistor amplifier wherein the input is applied at the base and the output is
taken from the collector terminal
There is a phase inversion from input to output
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3. According to Class of Operation


a. Class A Amplifier
b. Class B Amplifier
c. Class C Amplifier
d. Class AB Amplifier

Class A

Class B

Class C

Class AB

Efficiency

50%

78.5%

100%

Between A
&B

Conduction
Angle

360

180

Below
180

Slightly
greater
than 180

Distortion

Low

High

extreme

moderate

Bias
(base emitter)

Linear
portion

Above
cut-off

Below
cut-off

cut-off

output

output

input

output
output

output
Comparison of Amplifier Classes

4. According to Frequency
a. DC Amplifier
Amplifies DC signal(zero frequency)
b. Audio Amplifier
Amplifies signal whose frequency is within the audio range(20 Hz-20KHz)
c. RF Amplifier
Amplifies signal whose frequency is within the radio frequency range
d. IF Amplifier
Amplifies signal whose frequency is in between the carrier and the modulating
frequency
e. Video Amplifier
A wide-band amplifier that amplifies video signal
Video signal refers to the frequency range of the picture information which
arises from the television scanning process

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5. According to the Signal being amplified


a. Small Signal Amplifiers
Amplifier that utilizes only the very linear portion of the active device
b. Large Signal Amplifiers
Amplifier that utilizes almost the full rated output power of the active device
6. According to Method of Coupling
a. Direct Coupling
Amplifiers connected or coupled without any passive component in between.
b. Capacitive Coupling
Amplifiers are connected or coupled by the used of capacitor termed as
coupling-capacitor
c. Inductive Coupling
Amplifiers are connected or coupled by the use of inductor or transformer
d. Transformer Coupling
Most often, inductor is not used as coupling device instead transformer is used
7. Power Amplifiers
a. Push-Pull Amplifiers
Amplifier with two similar circuits operating in phase opposition.
One amplifies half of the cycle and the remaining half is being amplified by the
other amplifier
b. Complementary Symmetry Amplifiers
Push-pull amplifiers using complementary transistors such as pair of pnp and
npn
c. Quasi-Complementary Amplifier
Push-pull amplifiers using the same transistors at the output but the driver is
using complementary transistors

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Compound Configurations
a. Cascade Connection
a cascade connection is a series connection with the output of one stage then
applied as input to the second stage.
The cascade connection provides a multiplication of the gain of each stage for
a larger overall gain.
Av = Av1Av2Av3.. Avn
Av(dB) = 20log (Av)
b. Cascode Connection
a cascode connection has one transistor on top of (in series with) another
This arrangement is design to provide high input impedance with low voltage
gain to ensure that the input Miller capacitance is minimum.
c. Darlington Connection
The main feature of the Darlington connection is that the composite transistor
acts a single unit with a current gain that is the product of the current gains of
the individual transistors.
It is a circuit meant to boost input resistance

D = 1 2
d. Feedback Pair
The feedback pair connection is a two-transistor circuit that operates like the
Darlington circuit
It uses a pnp transistor driving an npn.

TEST YOURSELF 8
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Review Questions
1. A PNP transistor is made of
a. silicon
b. germanium
c. carbon
d. either silicon or germanium
Answer d. either silicon or germanium
2. The transistor is usually encapsulated in
a. graphite powder
b. enamel paint
c. epoxy raisin
d. black plastic
Answer c. epoxy raisin
3. Power transistors are invariably provided with
a. solder connections
b. heat sink
c. metallic casing
d. screw bolt
Answer b. heat sink
4. The transistor specification number 2N refers to a
a. diode
b. junction transistor
c. FET with one gate
d. SCR
Answer b. junction transistor
5. Which if the following is necessary for a transistor action?
a. the base region must be very wide
b. the base region must be very narrow
c.the base region must be made from insulating materials
d. the collector region must be heavily doped
Answer b. the base region must be very narrow
6. As compared to a CB amplifier a CE amplifier has
a. low current amplification
b. higher current amplification
c. lower input resistance
d. higher input resistance
Answer b. higher current amplification
7. It is the most stable type of circuit biasing
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a. self-bias
b. signal bias
c. voltage-divider bias
d. fixed bias
Answer c. voltage-divider bias
8. The quiescent state of a transistor implies
a. zero bias
b. no output
c. no distortion
d. no input signal
Answer d. no input signal
9. Each of the 2 cascaded stages has a voltage gain of 30. What is the overall gain?
a.3
b. 9
c. 30
d. 900
Answer d. 900
Solution
Gtotal = (30)(30) = 900
10. Which class of amplifiers operates with the least distortion?
a.Class A
b. Class B
c. Class C
d. Class D
Answer a. Class A
11. Which of the following circuit is the fastest switching device?
a. JFET
b. BJT
c. MOSFET
d. Triode
Answer c. MOSFET
12. Which of the following device is a unipolar?
a. FET
b. BJT
c. Zener diode
d. LED
Answer a. FET
13. The cascaded amplifier which is often used in the IC is
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a. inductively coupled
b. capacitively coupled
c. direct coupled
d. transformer coupled
Answer c. direct coupled
14. Highest operating frequency can be expected in case of
a. bipolar transistor
b. JFET
c. MOSFET
d. IGFET
Answer a. bipolar transistor
15. Which of the following is expected to have the highest input impedance?
a. MOSFET
b. JFET amplifier
c. CE bipolar transistor
d. CC bipolar transistor
Answer a. MOSFET
16. The ______is quite popular in digital circuits especially in CMOS which require very low power
consumption.
a. JFET
b. BJT
c. D-type MOSFET
d. E-type MOSFET
Answer d. E-type MOSFET
17. What is the amplification factor in FET transistor amplifiers?
a. Zi
b. gm
c. ID
d. IG
Answer b. gm
18. The E-MOSFET is quite popular in what type of applications.
a. digital circuitry
b. high frequency
c.buffering
d. a, b and c
Answer d. a, b and c

19. A JFET just operates with specifically


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a. the drain connected to ground


b. gate to source PN junction forward biased
c. gate connected to the source
d. gate to source PN junction reverse biased
Answer d. gate to source PN junction reverse biased
20. The main difference of a MOSFET from a JFET is that
a. JFET has PN junction
b. of the power rating
c. MOSFETS has two gates
d. MOSFETs do not have physical channel
Answer a. JFET has PN junction
21. A small signal amplifier
a. uses only a small portion of its loadline
b. always has an output signal in the mV range
c. goes into saturation once on each input cycle
d. is always a common emitter amplifier
Answer a. uses only a small portion of its loadline
22. The parameter hfe corresponds to
a. DC
b. AC
c. r e
d. r c
Answer b. AC
23. If the DC emitter current in a certain transistor amplifier is 3 mA, the approximate value of re is
a. 3K
b. 3
c. 8.33
d. 0.33 K
Answer c. 8.33
Solution
re =

26mV
8.66
3mA

24. The input resistance of a common base amplifier is


a. very low
b. very high
c. the same as CE
d. the same as CC
Answer a. very low
25. Each stage of a four stage amplifier has a voltage gain of 15. The overall voltage gain is
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a. 60
b.15
c. 50625
d. 3078
Answer c. 50625
Solution
Vover-all = (15)(15)(15)(15) = 50 625
26. The maximum efficiency of a transformer coupled Class A amplifier is__.
a. 25
b. 50
c. 78.5
d. 100
Answer b. 50
27. In a MOSFET, the process of creating a channel by the addition of charge carrier is called.
a. inducement
b. improvement
c. balancing
d. enhancement
Answer d. enhancement
28. What is the current gain of a common base circuit called?
a. gamma
b. delta
c. bravo
d. alpha
Answer d. alpha
29. The name of the very first transistor
a. diode
b. junction transistor
c. point contact transistor
d. triode
Answer c. point contact transistor
30. Region in a transistor that is heavily doped.
a. collector
b. emitter
c. base
d. gate
Answer b. emitter
31. In a common base amplifier the voltage gain is_____.(April, 2003)
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a. medium
b. low
c. zero
d. high
Answer d. high
32. In a common collector amplifier, the input resistance is___.(Nov,2003)
a. high
b. zero
c. medium
d. low
Answer a. high
33. A depletion MOSFET (D-MOSFET) can operate with which of the following gate-source
voltage? (November, 2003)
1. zero
2. positive
3. negative
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. 3 only
d. 1, 2 and 3
Answer b. 3 only
34. What problem is caused by a loosely coupled transformer in an RF amplifier? (April, 2004)
a. a too narrow bandpass
b. over coupling
c. optimum coupling
d. a too-wide bandpass
Answer a. a too narrow bandpass
35. Normally, how are high power tubes tested? (April, 2004)
a. visually
b. individually
c. in their circuit
d. use portable testers
Answer c. in their circuit

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