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ROBOTICS

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I. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF ROBOT DEVELOPMENT


1801
Joseph Jacquard invents a textile machine that is operated by punch cards
1892
In the US, Seward Babbit designed motorized crane with gripper to
ingots from a furnace.

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1921
First reference to the word robot appears in a play opening in London entitled
Rossums Universal Robots. The play was written by Czechoslovakian Karel
Capek introduces the word robot from the Czeck robota meaning serf or
subservient labor
1939
Isaac Asimovs science fiction writing introduces robots designed for humanity
and work safely. He formulate the Three Laws of Robotics
1946
George Devol patents a general purpose playback device for controlling
machines
1948
Norbert Wiener, a professor of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
publishes Cybernetics, a book that describes the concept of communications and
control in electronic, mechanical and biological systems
1951
A tele-operator equipped articulated arm is designed by Raymond Goertz for
the Atomic Energy Commission
1954
The first programmable robot is designed by George Devol who coined the
term Universal Automation. Devol is joined by Joseph Engelberger in 1956 and
shorten the name to Unimation and form the first successful robot manufacturing
company

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II. ROBOTS
A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move parts,
materials, tools or special devices through variable programmed motions for the
performance of a variety of different tasks.
These multi-purpose machines are generally designed to carry out repetitive
function and be adapted to other functions.
1. Components of a Robot
a. Actuator
Serves as the muscle of the system, produces the motion with power supplied
electrically, pneumatically or hydraulics
b. Communicator
A unit transmitting information and receiving instructions from a remote operator
c. Control Computer/ Controller
The central computer that integrates the activity of several microprocessors
Brain of the robot
d. End effectors
Device at the end of the manipulator arm and use to make intentional contact
with an object
Gripper, hooks, scoops
e. Manipulator
Mechanism consisting of several segment or arms
f. Power Supply
Generally some energy storage device such as battery for a mobile unit
otherwise hook up to the power grid
g. Sensor
Usually a transducer of some kind whose inputs are physical phenomena and
whose outputs consists of electronic signals
2. Axes Control
a. Non Servo Control
Movement of the robots axes is stopped by a hard mechanical stop placed in
the travel path
Non-self correcting and not-self regulating

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b. Servo Control
The servo control allows the mechanics of the robot to communicate with the
electronics of the controller.
Equipped with feedback sensors so that controller knows the exact position of
the end effector at all times
self correcting and self regulating
3. Drive Systems / Actuations
a. Pneumatic Drive
reserved for smaller robots which are limited to simple, fast cycle and pick
place operation
have two to four degrees of freedom
quick response
lower initial and operating cost than a hydraulic system
accurate positioning and velocity control are impossible (requires mechanical
stops
weak force capability
b. Hydraulic Drive
used in larger robots
generally heavy and require large floor space and heavy floor loadings
great force capability
great holding strength when stopped (will not sag)
intrinsic safe in flammable environments such as paintings
accurate servo type positioning and velocity control can be achieved
Messy-tends to leak oil even in the periods when the robot is not in motion
High initial and operating cost
c. Electric Drive
Good for robots in light duty, precision applications but does not offer the speed
and strength of a hydraulic drive
Used in electronic assembly where precision is required
Clean no oil leaks
Lower initial and operating cost compared as compared to hydraulic and
pneumatic drive
Less force capability as compared to hydraulic system

4. Robots Manipulator Arm Geometry


a. Cartesian Coordinates
Uses three perpendicular slides to construct the X, Y and the Z axes
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Rectangular work space or work envelope


Work envelope refers to the space with which the robot can use its wrist
b. Cylindrical Coordinates
Cylindrical configurations uses a vertical column and a slide that moves up and
down the column
The work space is approximately a cylinder
c. Polar Coordinates
Uses a telescoping arm that can be lowered or raised about a horizontal pivot
which is mounted on a rotating base
d. Articulate Coordinates
This configuration consists of two straight components mounted on a vertical
pedestal
A rotary joint connects one of the straight components to the pedestal while
another joins the straight components
A wrist is attached to the end of the second straight component and provides
several additional joints

5. Wrist Rotation
a. Yaw axis
Describes the wrist angular movement from the left side to the right side
b. Pitch axis
Describes the wrists rotational movement up and down
c. Roll axis
Describes the rotation around the end of the wrist

6. Degrees of Freedom
Refers to different axes of motion of robotic arm
The movement about one axis is hardware independent of movement about
any other axis.
Total no. of locations = 2n
Where n degrees of freedom

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III. CLASSIFICATIONS OF ROBOTS


1. According to Control
a. Fixed/Variable Sequence
Pick and place robots
Point to point movement
b. Playback Robot
Robots that memorizes the path and sequence of motion
c. Numerically Controlled Robot
Servo-controlled by digital data
d. Intelligent Robot
Equipped with a variety of sensors

2. According to Movement
a. Rectilinear /Cartesian
Works with Cartesian manipulator arm geometry
Movement is three direction only: up/down, left/right and front/back
b. Cylindrical Robot
Robot whose work envelope is cylindrical
Robots arm swings around its base with up and down motion
c. Spherical Robot
Robot whose work envelope is spherical in shape and obviously it has spherical
manipulator arm geometry
With polar articulation for waist and shoulder and rectilinear motion for reach
The base moves in circular motion (up to 210 degrees) while its main arm
moves up and down and in and out(extension and retraction)
d. Fully Articulated Robot
Robot with polar articulation for all degrees of movement
One example is the SCARA(Selective Complaint Assembly Robot Arm) which
has six axes therefore increases its degrees of freedom
Used in welding, painting, laser cutting and water jet cutting
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3. According to Program Used


a. Positive Stop
Produces only 2 position motion
Bang-bang motion

b. Point to Point
Ability to move a robot axis to any position within its range

c. Continuous Path
Like point to point
Destination points are very closed together

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TEST YOURSELF 14
Review Questions
1. A robot that has the approximate appearance of a human being
a. Android
b. Cyborg
c. Nemic
d. Inhumanoid
Answer a. Android
2. A short term meaning a human being with artificial limbs or organs
a. Android
b. Cyborg
c. Nemic
d. Inhumanoid
Answer b. Cyborg
3. The operational basis for a machine, computer or mechanism to perform some function normally
associated with human intelligence
a. Intelligence
b. Artificial Intelligence
c. Knowledge
d. Heuristics
Answer b. Artificial Intelligence
4. A robot that performs tasks in the home
a. Household robot
b. Robomaid
c. Domestic robot
d. Buddy Robot
Answer c. Domestic robot
5. A program written by Joseph Weizenbaun to meet Turings definition of artificial intelligence.
a. MACBETH
b. ELIZA
c. AMJ
d. PARALLAX
Answer b. ELIZA
6. The desirable characteristics for handling the robots are
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a. Good pay load capacity


b. Large work space/robot size ratio
c. Simple point to point control
d. All of the above
Answer d. All of the above
7. SCARA robots are specifically designed for ______operations.
a. handling
b. welding
c. assembly
d. machining
Answer c. assembly
8. Robot classification is usually based on
a. Its manipulators anatomy
b. Its controller design
c. Its suitability for production tasks
d. All of the above
Answer d. All of the above
9. Which of the following country maintains the highest ratio of robot worker to human worker?
a. USA
b. UK
c. Japan
d. Germany
Answer c. Japan
10. A modern industrial robot is _______.
a. multi-functional
b. servo-controlled
c. programmable
d. all of the above
Answer d. all of the above
11. DC motors and stepper motors are mainly used in robots instead of AC motors because they
can
a. Be electronically controlled
b. Be operated by electric pulses
c. Withstand large overloads
d. Run at varying speed
Answer c. Withstand large overloads
12. Any solid object has a maximum _______degrees of freedom.
a. 3
b. 4
c. 5
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d.

Answer d. 6

13. Programming of a continuous path robot is normally carried out by a method called
________through.
a. lead
b. drive
c. walk
d. run
Answer c. walk
14. The essential feature of a non-servo controlled robot is that
a. it requires programmable logic controller
b. each of its axis can move only between hardware stops
c. it is small
d. it is used for heavy loads
Answer b. each of its axis can move only between hardware stops
15. The word robot was coined by
a. Kondratieff
b. Karel Capek
c. Cyril Walter Kenward
d. Jaime Licuanan
Answer b. Karel Capek
16. ________robot is primaril;y used for machining processes
a. Cincinatti T3
b. DEA PRAGMA
c. ADEPT One
d. Jolly 80
Answer a. Cincinatti T3
17. Serves as the muscle of the system, produces the motion with power supplied electrically,
pneumatically or hydraulically.
a. Communicator
b. Control Computer
c. Actuator
d. Manipulator
Answer c. Actuator
18. The arm assembly of the robot.
a. End effector
b. Manipulator
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c. Actuator
d. Controller
Answer b. Manipulator
19. ________is a device connected to the wrists flange of the manipulators arm. It is used in many
different situations in the production area.
a. End effector
b. Manipulator
c. Controller
d. Actuator
Answer a. End effector
20. Refers to the movement of the base of the robot
a. Actuation
b. Walk
c. Travel
d. Precession
Answer c. Travel
21. What is the other name for the axes found on the manipulator?
a. appendage
b. cycle time
c. degrees of freedom
d. actuator
Answer c. degrees of freedom
22. Describes the wrists angular movement from the left side to the right side.
a. Pitch
b. Roll
c. Rotation
d. Yaw
Answer d. Yaw
23. _______is a computer language developed in the 1950s at MIT. It is designed to manipulate
lists of symbols and is well suited for working with words and phrases
a. RAIL
b. BASIC
c. LISP
d. WAVE
Answer c. LISP
24. A high level programming language which was developed at the robotics research center at
Stanford University. It is useful for robotics research because it can provide coordination between
two arms of the robot.
a. MCL
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b.
c.
d.

AL
RPL
Assembly language

Answer b. AL
25. It is a high level computer language developed by Robotronic Corporation to make
commanding a personal robot easier
a. Androtext
b. ARMBASIC
c. AML
d. HELP
Answer a. Androtext
26. It is considered as the robots brain.
a. chain knucle
b. sensor
c. end effector
d. controller
Answer d. controller
27. This is used to program and teach positional information for the manipulator.
a. operators panel
b. computer control
c. manual data input panel
d. teach pendant
Answer d. teach pendant
28. It is a robot software that produces only two position motion
a. pick and stop programs
b. point to point programs
c. continuous path programs
d. positive stop programs
Answer d. positive stop programs
29. A user program that has the ability to move a robot axis to any position within its range.
a. pick and place
b. point to point
c. positive stop
d. continuous path
Answer b. point to point
30. What are the basic categories of industrial robot?
a. fast and slow
b. mechanical and electrical
c. autobots and deceptions
d. pick and place manipulator and intelligent robot
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Answer d. pick and place manipulator and intelligent robot

31. It is a robot which is capable of decision making and has memory.


a. pick and place robot
b. expert robot
c. continuous robot
d. intelligent robot
Answer d. intelligent robot
32. It is a robot structure wherein the body can pivot vertically and horizontally and the arm moves
radially.
a. polar structure
b. pivotal
c. cylindrical structure
d. roborat
Answer a. polar structure
33. It is a robot structure wherein the body can rotate horizontally and the arm can move vertically
and horizontally.
a. polar structure
b. pivotal
c. cylindrical structure
d. roborat
Answer c. cylindrical structure
34. The total weight that a robot arm can carry.
a. burden capacity
b. payload
c. gripper
d. power
Answer b. payload
35. Which is not the usual power source that steers the arm of the robot?
a. thermionic
b. hydraulic
c. pneumatic
d. electric
Answer a. thermionic
36. The ______are two of the most common mechanical configurations of industrial robots.
a. spherical and pneumatic
b. articulated arm and cylindrical
c. spherical and hydraulic
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d. jointed-arm and electric


Answer b. articulated arm and cylindrical
37. A system in which the precise movement of a large load is controlled by a relatively weak
signal.
a. hydraulic
b. electro
c. synchro
d. servo
Answer d. servo
38. A limited robot sequence is__________.
a. pick and place
b. point to point
c. continuous path
d. robota
Answer a. pick and place
39. The first patent for an industrial robot was developed in 1954 by_______.
a. Asimov
b. Maniko
c. Devol
d. Hitachi
Answer c. Devol
40. The operational space of a robot is________.
a. coordinate system
b. dead zone
c. degrees of freedom
d. work envelope
Answer c. degrees of freedom
41. The individual sections of the robot arm between the joints are_______.
a. arms
b. branches
c. links
d. axes
Answer c. links
42. The control system for sport welding is__________.
a. point to point
b. pick and place
c. continuous path
d. point to multi-point

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Answer a. point to point

43. _______is a type of actuator of industrial robots that has great force capability and great
holding strength when stopped.
a. pneumatic
b. steam
c. electric
d. hydraulic
Answer d. hydraulic
44. __________, a professor at MIT publishes cybernetics, a book which describes the concept of
communications and control in electronic, mechanical and biological systems
a. Willard Polard
b. Seward Babitt
c. John Mauchly
d. Norber Wiener
Answer d. Norber Wiener
45. Stanford Research Institute (SRI) built and tested a mobile robot with vision capability is called
________.
a. Unimate
b. Universal automation
c. Cybernetics
d. Shakey
Answer d. Shakey
46. Riochard Hohn for Cincinnati Milacron Corporation develops the first commercially available
minicomputer-controlled industrial robot. The robot is called the ______.The Tomorrow Tool.
a. T3
b. Universal Automation
c. Versatran
d. Shakey
Answer a. T3
47. Joseph Engelberger starts Transition Robotics, later named _______, to develop service
robots.
a. Helpmates
b. Playmates
c. Classmates
d. Servicemates
Answer a. Helpmates

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48. The ability of a robot to produce meaningful speech output


a. Speech synthesis
b. Speech detection
c. Speech refinement
d. Speech recognition
Answer a. Speech synthesis
49. The length of time in years required for a robot to pay for itself through the savings it provides.
a. Propagation Period
b. Delay period
c. Payload period
d. Payback Period
Answer d. Payback Period
50. Condensed human intelligence on some subject area. A human is led through the system by
answering a series of questions asked by the system.
a. Robot choreography
b. Expert system
c. Roboteer
d. Knowledge system
Answer b. Expert system

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