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A simple 1 watt audio amplifier

The solderless breadboard makes it easy to experiment with additions to the


radio circuit. In this section, we will build a simple amplifier, so that a whole
room can hear the radio through a speaker. Our amplifier will not be ear
shattering, since we have made it as simple as we can to build, but the
output is pretty impressive for a single transistor.

Click on photo for a larger picture

With the amplifier, our radio looks like the photo above.
Below is a closeup of the amplifier section:

Click on photo for a larger picture

We carry all the parts for the amplifier (except the battery) in our catalog.
The amplifier needs these parts:

An MPSW45A Darlington transistor


This is the main working part of the amplifier.

A small speaker

Two 100,000 ohm resistors


This resistor will have four colored bands on it. The
colors will be brown, black, yellow, and gold.

A 10,000 ohm resistor


The colors will be brown, black, orange, and gold.

A 50 ohm resistor
The colors will be green, black, black, and gold.

A 9 volt battery clip

A 9 volt battery

Using the labeled grid as before, the parts are connected this way:

Jumper wire: J22 to I27

10,000 ohm resistor( brown, black, orange): G20


to F28

100,000 ohm resistor( brown, black, yellow): H27


to H28

100,000 ohm resistor( brown, black, yellow): I28


to I29

MPSW45A: J27, J28, and J29

50 ohm resistor( green, black, black): I33 to I34

Speaker: F29 to J33

Negative 9 volt battery wire (black): F26

Positive 9 volt battery wire (red): F34

A more permanent version


As before, we can copy the circuit onto a printed circuit board and solder all
of the parts firmly in place.

Click on photo for a larger picture

Click on photo for a larger picture

Click on photo for a larger picture

How does it do that?


The heart of the amplifier is the transistor. We could have used a more
ordinary NPN transistor, such as the 2N4401, but to get a louder sound, we
use a special "two-in-one" type of transistor called a Darlington.

Click on photo for a larger picture

The Darlington transistor has two transistors in the same package, and can
amplify signals much more than a single transistor can.
Transistors amplify a signal by acting like a variable resistor. We put the
signal in at the base, and the signal controls how much current goes through
the transistor from the emitter to the collector.
If we simply put the signal into the base, however, the transistor would turn
off completely when the signal was low, and turn on completely when the
signal is high. This behavior is useful when we want to use the transistor as
a switch, but we have to change the behavior to make a good audio
amplifier.
When the signal is at zero, we want the output of the amplifier to be halfway
between 0 and 9 volts (4.5 volts). We can arrange for this to happen by
using a voltage divider. A voltage divider is two resistors, one connected to
the positive side of the battery, and the other to the negative side. Where
they meet in the middle, the voltage will be divided in half (if the resistors
are the same).
Since current flows through the resistors all the time, we want their values
to be high, so that not much current flows through them. This will prevent

them from getting hot, and make the battery last longer. In our circuit we
use 100,000 ohms.
Large resistors in the voltage divider also make it easier for the signal to
push the voltage higher or lower. This is a good thing, since it means our
amplifier will be more sensitive. In our case, the signal from the radio is a
little too strong, and the signal pushes the voltage too high and too low,
causing distortion. So, we add another resistor, with 10,000 ohms, to match
the signal to our amplifier.
The transistor can handle 1 watt before it gets too hot, reducing its lifetime.
If we let the full 9 volts get in, the circuit would draw over 2 watts, and while
the sound would be nice and loud, the transistor would get quite hot, and
the battery would not last long. To make the amplifier draw only one watt,
we put in a 50 ohm resistor to lower the current. You may have noticed in
the photos that I actually used 100 ohms for the prototype, to keep the
noise level down in the lab. You can think of this resistor as a volume
control, although you can't adjust it without picking another resistor. A
variable resistor that can handle 2 watts and went from 50 ohms to 150
ohms would let you vary the volume. We will leave that modification to the
experimenter.
Next: A 1 watt integrated circuit audio amplifier.

Class-A Audio Amplifier Circuit With MOSFET IRF511

Simple Class A amplifier circuit


This circuit is that of a simple class A audio amplifier. But with zero distortion, Q1 is a switch in the on or off, so that
no load current by the resistance R2. In the best case, the tension in Q1 and the load resistance must be equal to the
class-A operation.
A 100K potentiometer (R3) and a 1-megohms resistance (R1) Maker a simple variable-Bias circuit. Plase voltmeter
between Drain (D) of Q1 and dissemination of soil and adjust R3 for a meter to half the supply voltage.

Applications using an IRF511 has many project as it is pupola part for build the electronic circuit.
Almost every resistor value can be used for R2, as long as the maximum power and the FET are not exceeded.
A resistor value of 22 to 100 ohm is a good choice for experimentation. For high currents, a heat sink adapted to be
used.
Posted in Amplifier.