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AIR QUALITY

MODELING

AIR QUALITY MODELING


(AQM)

Predict pollutant concentrations


locations around the source.

at

various

Identify source
problems.

air

quality

Assess source
strategies.

design

control

Predict future pollutant concentrations from


sources after implementation of new regulatory
programs.

contribution

impacts

and

to

AREAS SURROUNDING THE


SITE OF RELEASE

AIR QUALITY MODELING


(AQM)

Mathematical and numerical techniques are used


in AQM to simulate the dispersion of air pollutants.

Modeling of the dispersion of pollutants


Toxic

and odorous substances


Single or multiple points
Point, Area, or Volume sources

Input data required for Air Quality Modeling


Source

characteristics
Meteorological conditions
Site and surrounding conditions

AMBIENT AIR
CONCENTRATION MODELING
Types

Point Sources

e.g., stacks or vents

Area Sources

of Pollutant Sources

e.g., landfills, ponds, storage piles

Volume Sources

e.g., conveyors, structures with multiple vents

FACTORS AFFECTING DISPERSION


OF POLLUTANTS IN THE
ATMOSPHERE
Source Characteristics

Emission rate of pollutant

Stack height

Exit velocity of the gas

Exit temperature of the gas

Stack diameter

Meteorological

Conditions

Wind velocity

Wind direction

Ambient temperature

Atmospheric stability

GAUSSIAN MODELS
Advantages
Produce

results that match closely with

experimental data
Incorporate
Simple

in their mathematics

Quicker
Do

turbulence in an ad-hoc manner

than numerical models

not require super computers

GAUSSIAN MODELS
Disadvantages
Not

suitable if the pollutant is reactive in nature

Fails

to incorporate turbulence in comprehensive


sense

Unable

to predict concentrations beyond radius of


approximately 20 Km

For

greater distances, wind variations, mixing


depths and temporal variations become
predominant

SOURCES OF ERROR IN GAUSSIAN MODEL


Emission Data

Meteorological Data

Physical Deficiencies

Sources strength
Time variation of Q
Plume rise after emission
Location of source
Wind speed
Wind direction
Dispersion parameters
Mixing depth
Real sources are not point sources
Actual spreads are not Gaussian
Meteorological parameters vary with time
and space
Uncertainties in transportation and removal
processes
Terrain effects
Uncertainty about multiple sources
Diffusivity coefficients independent of
height

NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS
Involves solving a system of partial differential
equations
Equations mathematically represent the fate of
pollutants downwind concentration
The number of unknown parameters must be
equal to number of equations
System of equation is written in numerical form
with appropriate numerical scheme and solved
using computer codes
Classes of Numerical Models

Three Dimensional Equations (k-Theory) Model

Higher Order Closure Models (k- Type)

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
NUMERICAL MODELS AND
GAUSSIAN
MODEL in the mathematical
The degree of completeness
description of the atmospheric dispersion processes

Type of releases i.e., stack, jet or area source are


easy to handle manually

The models are designed to handle, degree of


completeness in the description of non-transport
processes like chemical reactions

Terrain feature complexities for which the model is


designed

METHODS TO
INCORPORATE PLUME RISE
Effective Source Height Method
Variable Plume Model Method

METHODS TO
INCORPORATE PLUME RISE

Effective source height method


Independent

of downwind distance, x
Effective source height,
h = hs + h ht
where,
hs = Physical chimney height
ht = Maximum terrain height between the source and
receptor

Variable plume method


Takes

into account the tilt of the plume

PROBLEM

Calculate the nighttime concentration of


nitrogen oxides 1 km downward of an open,
burning dump if the dump emits NOx at the
rate of 4 g/sec. The wind speed is 4 m/sec at
10 m above ground level. The one-hour
average diffusion coefficients at 1 km are
estimated as sy = 70 m and sz = 50 m and
the dump is assumed to be a point source.

SOLUTION

Use Gaussian Model for ground level, centerline concentration from a point source at
ground level.

MODIFICATIONS IN GAUSSIAN
PLUME MODEL

Simplified Equations for Maximum Ground Level


Concentration

Location of maximum concentrationh


z
2

Ground Level Concentration during Limited


Q
Mixing Condition
C
2 y Us L
Where,
L = Mixing Height

Concentration Estimate for Various


Sampling Times
C2 = C1 (t1/t2)

where,
q lies between 0.17 and 0.5
Average Time

Multiplying Factor

3 hours

0.9 (0.1)

8 hours

0.7 (0.1)

24 hours

0.4 (0.1)

PLUME DISPERSION
PARAMETERS
Different

Methods to Calculate Sigmas

Experimental
Modified

data

Experimental Curves

Lagrangian

Auto Correlation Function

Moment-Concentration
Taylor's

Method

Statistical Theory

PLUME DISPERSION
PARAMETERS
Factors

Considered while Calculating

Sigmas
Nature

of Release

Sampling
Release
Terrain

Time

Height

Features

Velocity

Field

PASQUILL CURVES

Curves are based on smoke plume elevation


Hsp (visible portion) and angular spread q
using the relations
z= Hsp/2.14
y= qx/4.28

The numerical coefficient 2.14 is just the


10% ordinate of the normal error curve

TVA DISPERSION
COEFFICIENTS

Sigmas are calculated as:


p = Area / [Cpeak*(2*p)0.5]

Where,
Area = Base times the average height of Concentration Profile along
the axis
Cpeak

= Maximum concentrations in that profile

In a number of cases, sz is calculated using


Cmax = Q / [2*U*y*z*p]

and thus, the distribution is considered Gaussian i.e.,


C = Cmax exp[-0.5*(xg/s)2]

PROBLEM-1

For the following data, find the maximum


ground level concentration at 4.2 km from
the following stack:
Effective

stack height = 75 m
Emission rate = 2520 g/sec
Wind speed at stack height = 6 m/sec
y = 560 m
z

= 535 m

PROBLEM-2

For the following data, find the maximum


ground level concentration.
Effective

stack height = 150 m


Emission rate = 1260 g/sec
Wind speed at stack height = 6 m/sec
o

Answer: C = --------- g/m3