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# EQUATION OF CONTINUITY

1. Water runs through a water main of cross-sectional area 0.4 m 2 with a velocity of 6 m/s.
Calculate the velocity of the water in the pipe when the pipe tapers down to a cross-sectional
area of 0.3 m2.

Given:
A1 = 0.4 m2, A2 = 0.3 m2 , V1 = 6 m/s
Solution:
A1v1 = A2v2
v2 = (A1 / A2) v1 = (0.4 / 0.3) (6)
v2= 8 m/s

2. Water enters a typical garden hose of diameter 1.6 cm with a velocity of 3 m/s. Calculate the
exit velocity of water from the garden hose when a nozzle of diameter 0.5 cm is attached to the
end of the hose.

Given:
D1 = 1.6 cm 0.016 m, D2 = 0.5 0.005 m, v1 = 3 m/s
2
A1 = (0.008 m)

Solution:
A1v1 = A2v2

2
= 2 10 -2 m2, A2 = (0.0025 m) = 1.96 10-5 m2

4
5
v2 = (A1 / A2) v1 = ( 2 10 /2 10 ) (3)

## v2= 30.6 m/s

3. 10 m3/h of water flows through a pipe with 100 mm inside diameter. The pipe is reduced to an
inside dimension of 80 mm.
-velocity in the 100 mm pipe :
(10 m3/h) (1 / 3600 h/s) = v100 (3.14 (0.1 m)2 / 4)
v100 = (10 m3/h) (1 / 3600 h/s) / (3.14 (0.1 m)2 / 4) = 0.35 m/s
-velocity in the 80 mm pipe :
(10 m3/h) (1 / 3600 h/s) = v80 (3.14 (0.08 m)2 / 4)
v80 = (10 m3/h) (1 / 3600 h/s) / (3.14 (0.08 m)2 / 4) = 0.55 m/s

4. Water flows through a pipe that has a diameter of 4 cm at the entrance and 2 cm at the exit.
The pressure drop across the pipe is 2.7 103 Pa. Calculate the speed of the water in the
pipe.
Given:

A1 = (0.02)2 = 0.0012 m2
A2 = (0.01)2 = 0.0003 m2

Solution:
The pipe is horizontal, so it is similar to the example just above:
P1 P2 =

v12 (
2

A1
1
A2

( )

2.7 103 Pa =

1
1000
v12 ( 16 1 )
2

v = 0.6 m/s.
5. A garden hose with internal diameter of 13.5 mm lies flat on a sidewalk while water is flowing in
it at a speed of 6 m/s. A person happens to step on it at the very edge of the opening of the
hose and decreases its internal diameter by a factor of 9.
Given:
D1 = 0.0135 m, r1 = 0.00675 m, D2 = 0.0135/9 = 0.0015 m, r2 = 0.00075 m
A = (0.00675) 2 = 1.4134 10 -4
1

A2 = r

= (0.00075) = 1.767 10

-6

a. What was the water flow rate in the hose prior to the person stepping on it?

## Q = A1v1 = 8.59 m3/s

b. What is the flow rate of water after the person steps on it?

## v2 = (A1 / A2) v1 = 486 m/s

c. What is the speed of the water just as it exits the hose after the person steps on it?

Q = A2v2 = 8.59 10

-4

m3/s

## ENERGY EQUATION FOR STEADY FLOW OF INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS

1. Water flows at 10 m3/s in a 150 cm diameter pipe: the head loss in a 1000 m length this
pipe is 20 m. Find the increase in water temperature assuming no heat enters or leave
the pipe.

Given:

## c for water = 4187 N m/(kg K)

hL = 20 m =

c
g (T2 -T1)

Solution:

T = T -T = gh /c =
2
1
L

m
(20 m)
2
s

( )
4187 kg
[( ms ) m] /(kg K )
9.81

= 0.047 K

2. Find the rate of energy loss due to pipe friction for the pipe
Given:
H = 20 m = hL
Solution:
Rate of energy loss =

QH
1000
N
m3

10 m3
(20 m)
s
1000

)( )

1960 kW

9810

3. A liquid with specific gravity of 1.26 flows in a pipe at a rate of 700 L/s. At a point where
the pipe diameter is 60 cm, the pressure is 300kN/m 2. Find the pressure at a second
point where the pipe diameter is 30 cm if the second point is 1.0 lower than the first

Given:

Q = 700 L/s
r
A 4

Solution:
Q = Av

v1 = Q/A1 =

0.70 m3 / s
0.28 m2

= 2.5 m/s

A1v1 = A2v2

V2 =

0.28m 2
0.07 m2

## 2.5 m/s = 10 m/s

P1
+ z1 +

V 12
2g

300 kPa
+
3
0 +
1.26 (9.81 kN /m )

P2
+ z2 +

V 22
2g

m
)
s
2( 9.81)

(2.5

P2
3

1.26 (9.81 kN /m )

1.0 +

10 m/s

P2 = 254.24 Kn/m2
CENTER OF PRESSURE

1. The tank is 2 m wide into the paper. Neglecting atmospheric pressure, find the resultant
hydrostatic force on panel BC.
Given:
hc = 3 + 3 / 2
hc = 4.5 m
Solution:
A=

A = 10 m2
F = hA
F = 441 kN

## = ( 9.81Kn/m3 ) ( 4.5 ) (10 m2)

2. A student measures the pressure of a gas in a tube. If the atmospheric pressure is 76 cm Hg,
and h = 3 cm, find the pressure of the gas in the tube!
Solution:
P = Po h
P = 76 cmHg 3 cm Hg
P = 73 cm Hg
3. A jar of water with 15 cm of height. Find the pressure of water at the bottom of the jar, ignore
the atmospheric pressure and use the acceleration due to gravity g = 10 m/s 2 and the density
of water 1000 kg/m3?
Given:
The pressure at the depth of 15 cm
Solution:
P=gh
P = (1000 )( 10)( 0.15) = 1500 Pascal
POWER CONSIDERATIONS IN FLUID FLOW
1. A liquid with a specific gravity 0f 1.26 is being pumped in a pipeline from A to B. At A the
pipe diameter is 60 cm and the pressure is 300kN/m 2 . At B the pipe diameter is 30 cm
and the pressure is 330kN/m2. Point B is 1.0 m lower than A. Find the flow rate if the
pump puts 16 kW into the flow. Neglect head loss.

Given:

kW = 16 =

hp =

Solution:

1.29
Q

(1.26 9.81)Q h p
1000

P1
+ z1 +

0+

300
1.29(9.81)

P2
+ z2 +

V1
+ hp =
2g

Q
( 0.30 )2

1.29
Q

= -10 +

V2
2g

330
1.29(9.81)

Q
( 0.15 )2

Q = 0.42 m3/s

2. A forklift raises a 2000 lb. pallet 5 feet in 5 seconds. What is the power output? How
much horsepower is required?
Given:

Solution:

HP = 3.64

## KINETIC ENERGY ON FLOWING FLUID

1. A differential pressure gage attached to Pilot-static tube is calibrated to give speed rather than
the difference between the stagnation and static pressures. The calibration is done so that the
speed indicated on the gage is the actual fluid speed if the fluid flowing past the pilot-static
tube is air at standard sea level conditions. Assume the same device is used is water and the
gage indicates a speed of 200 knots. Determine the water speed?

Solution:

1
2
v
2

air

1
2 ( 0.00238

water

1
2 (1.94

slugs
2
ft 3 ) (200 knots)

slugs
2
ft 3 ) (v)

air

1
2 ( 0.00238

water

slugs
3
) (200 knots)2 =
ft

1
2 (1.94

slugs
3
) (v)2
ft

V = 7.01 knots

2. A person thrusts his hand into the water travelling 3 m/s in a motor boat. What is the maximum
pressure on his hand?

Solution:
P1
+ z1 +

V 12
2g

with Z 1=Z 2

V 1=3

m
s

1=0, V 2=0

Thus,

2=

1
V 12= V 12
2g
2

P2
+ z2 +

V 22
2g

3m

1 999 kg
2=

2 m3

3. Water flows steadily downward through the pipe. Viscous effects are negligible, and the
pressure gage indicates the pressure is zero at point (1). Determine the flowrate and the
pressure at point (2).

Given:
z1 = 3 ft, z3 = 0,
P1 = P 3 = 0

v1 =

A3
A1

v3 =

(0.1 ft )2
4

(0.12 ft )2 ) v3 = 0.694 v3
4

Solution:
(0.694)2 v 23
32.2 ft
2( 2 )
s

Q3 = A3 v3 =

32.2 ft /s
2
+ 3ft =
v 23

2
4 ( 0.1ft) (19.3

or v3 =19.3

ft
s

ft
s

= 0.152

ft
s

v 22
2g

P2
+ z2 +

Where

P1

P1
+ z1 +

V 12
2g

P2
Z2 Z1 = -

or

P2 = -2ft(62.4

lb
ft 3

P2

= -2ft

) = -125

lb
ft 2