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PHYSICS

INTRODUCTION:

Any body (or an assembly of bodies) represents, in fact, a system of mass points, or particles. If a system

changes with time, it is said that its state varies. The state of a system is defined by specifying the positions and

velocities of all constituent particles.

Experience shows that if the laws of forces acting on a system and the state of the system at a certain initial

moment are known, the motion equations can help predict the subsequent behaviour of the system.

However, an analysis of a systems behaviour by the use of motion equations requires so much effort (due

to the complexity of the system itself), that a comprehensive solution seems to be practically impossible. Moreover,

such an approach is absolutely out of the question if the laws of acting forces are not known. Besides, there are

some problems in which the accurate consideration of motion of individual particles is meaningless (example: gas).

Under these circumstances the following question naturally comes up: are there any general principles following

from Newtons laws that would help avoid these difficulties by opening up some new approaches to the solution of

the problem.

It appears that such principles exist. They are called conservation laws.

As we have already discussed, the state of a system varies in the course of time as that system moves.

However, there are some quantities, state functions, which possess the very important and remarkable property of

retaining their values constant with time. Among these constant quantities, energy, linear momentum and angular

momentum play the most significant role.

The laws of conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum fall into the category of the most

fundamental principles of physics. These laws have become even more significant since it was discovered that they

go beyond the scope of mechanics and represent universal laws of nature. In any case, no phenomena have been

observed so far which do not obey these laws. They work reliably in all quarters: in the field of elementary particles,

in outer space, in atomic physics and in solid state physics.

Having made possible a new approach to treating various mechanical phenomena, the conservation laws

turned into a powerful and efficient tool of research used by physicists. The importance of the conservation principles

is due to several reasons:

1.

The conservation laws do into depend on either the paths of particles or the nature of acting forces.

Consequently, they allow us to draw some general and essential conclusions about the properties of

various mechanical processes without restoring to their detailed analysis by means of motion equations.

2.

Since the conservation laws do not depend on the nature of the acting forces, they may be applied

even when the forces are not known. In these cases the conservation laws are the only and

indispensable tool of research. This is the present trend in physics of elementary particles.

3.

Even when the forces are known precisely, the conservation laws can help substantially to solve

many problems of motion of particles. Although all these problems can be solved with the use of

motion equations (and the conservation laws provide no additional information in this case), the

utilization of the conservation laws very often allows the solution to be obtained in the most straightforward and elegant fashion, obviating cumbersome and tedious calculations.

We shall begin examining the conservation laws with the energy conservation law, having introduced the

concept of energy and work.

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ENERGY:

It is possible to give a numerical rating, called energy, to the state of a physical system. The total energy is

found by adding up contributions from characteristics of the system such as motion of objects in it, heating of the

objects, and the relative positions of objects that interact via forces. The total energy of a closed system always

remains constant. Energy can not be created or destroyed, but only transferred from one system to another.

Energy comes in a variety of forms, and physicists didnt discover all of them right away. They had to start

somewhere, so they picked one form of energy to use as a standard for creating a numerical energy scale. One

practical approach is to defined an energy unit based on heating of water. The SI unit of energy is the joule, J, named

after the British physicist James Joule. One joule is the amount of energy required in order to heat 0.24 g of water

by 1C.

Note that heat, which is a form of energy, is completely different from temperature. In standard, formal

terminology, there is another, finer distinction. The word heat is used only to indicate an amount of energy that is

transferred, whereas thermal energy indicates an amount of energy contained in an object.

Once a numerical scale of energy bas been established for some form of energy such as heat, it can easily be

extended to other types of energy. For instance, the energy stored in one gallon of gasoline can be determined by

putting some gasoline and some water in an insulated chamber, igniting the gas, and measuring the rise in the waters

temperature. (The fact that the apparatus is known as a bomb calorimeter will give you some idea of how dangerous

these experiments are if you dont take the right safety precautions). Here are some examples of other types of

energy that can be measured using the same units of joules.

Type of energy:

energy required to break an object

energy required to melt a solid substance

chemical energy released by digesting food

raising a mass against the force of gravity

nuclear energy released in fission, etc.

Textbooks often give the impression that a sophisticated physics concept was created by one person who

had an inspiration one day, but in reality it is more in the nature of science to rough out an idea and then gradually

refine it over many years. The idea of energy was tinkered with from the early 1800s on, and new types of energy

kept getting added to the list.

To establish a new form of energy, a physicist has to

(1)

(2)

show that it could be converted to and from other forms of energy, and

show that it is related to some definite measurable property of the object, for example its temperature,

motion, position relative to another object, or being in a solid or liquid state.

For example, energy is released when a piece of iron is stoked in water, so apparently there is some form of

energy already stored in the iron. The release of this energy can also be related to a definite measurable property of

the chunk of metal: it turns reddish-orange. There has been a chemical change in its physical state, which we call

rusting.

Although the list of types of energy kept getting longer and longer, it was clear that many of the types were

just variations on a theme. There is an obvious similarity between the energy needed to melt ice and to melt butter,

or between rusting of iron and many other chemical reactions. All the types of energy can be reduced to a very small

number by simplifications.

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WORK:

The concept of work : The mass contained in closed sytsem is a conserved quantity, but if the system is not closed,

we also have ways of measuring the amount of mass that goes in or out.

We often have a system that is not closed, and would like to know how much energy comes in or out.

Energy, however, is not a physical substance like water, so energy transfer can not be measured by the same kind of

meter which we used to measure flow of water. How can we tell, for instance, how much useful energy a tractor can

put out on one tank of gas?

The law of conservation of energy guarantees that all the chemical energy in the gasoline will reappear in

some form, but not necessarily in a form that is useful for doing farm work. Tractors, like cars, are extremely

inefficient, and typically 90% of the energy they consume is converted directly into heat, which is carried away by

the exhaust and the air flowing over the radiator. We wish to distinguish energy that comes out directly as heat from

the energy that serves to accelerate a trailer or to plow a filed, so we defined a technical meaning of the ordinary

work to express the distinction.

Definition of work : Work is the amount of energy transferred into or out of a system, not taking into

account energy transferred by heat conduction.

[Based on this definition, is work a vector, or a scalar? What are its units?]

The conduction of heat is to be distinguished from heating by friction. When a hot potato heats up your hands by

conduction, the energy transfer occurs without any force, but when friction heats your cars brake shoes, there is a

force involved. The transfer of energy with and without a force are measured by completely different methods, so

we wish to include heat transfer by frictional heating under the definition of work, but not heat transfer by conduction.

The definition of work could thus be restated as the amount of energy transferred by forces.

Work done by a constant force:

Work done by a constant force is defined as product of the force and the component of the displacement

along the direction of the force.

F

m

fig. 5.1

Consider the situation shown in figure 5.1. A constant force F is applied on a block of mass m along the

horizontal direction. If the block moves by a distance S on the horizontal surface on which it is placed, as shown in

figure, then the work done by the force F is defined as

w = F S

...(1).

F(const.)

S

fig. 5.2

co

s

If the force and the displacement are not along the same direction, as shown in figure 5.2, then work done

by force F is calculated by multiplying the force and the component of the displacement along the force, as shown

in figure 5.3, therefore, for the given case, work done by force F is

fig. 5.3

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w = F S cos

...(2)

Here you should note that work done by the force F can also be written as

w = ( F cos ) S

and we know that Fcos

F(const.)

F cos

work done by F

= force along displacement displacement

fig. 5.4

Hence, work done by a constant force can also be defined as the product of the displacement and

the component of the force along the displacement.

! !

w = F S

...(3)

Hence, work done by a constant force is the scalar (dot) product of the force and the displacement. Here

!

!

I would like to emphasize that S is the displacement of the point of application of the force F .

!

Note: For a constant force F , in equation (3) you should notice the following:

! !

*

When F S, i.e., = 90, w f = 0.

*

When (0,90), w f > 0.

*

When (90,180), w f < 0.

*

When = 180, w f = F S

*

When = 0, w f = F S

! !

*

In a closed path work done by a constant force is zero. ( S = 0).

!

( w f denotes work done by the constant force F and S is the magnitude of the displacement S )

!

Equation (3) refers only to the work done on the particle by a particular force F . The work done on the particle

by the other forces must be calculated separately. The total work done on the particle is the sum of the work done

by the separate forces.

!

When is zero, as shown in figure 5.5, the work done by F is

F

m

simply F S, in agreement with equation (1). Thus, when a constant

F S ( = 0)

S

horizontal force draws a body horizontally, or when a constant

fig. 5.5

vertical force lifts a body vertically, the work done by the force is

the product of the magnitude of the force by the distance moved.

Work Power Energy

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body. For instance, the vertical force holding a body a fixed distance

off the ground does no work on the body, even if the body is

moved horizontally over the ground. Also the centripetal force

acting on a body in motion does no work on that body because

the force is always at right angles to the direction in which the

body is moving.

F

m

( = 90)

S

fig. 5.6

Of course, a force does no work on a body that does not move, for its displacement is then zero.

As I have already mentioned, the work done by a constant force can be calculated in two different ways:

Either we multiply the magnitude of the displacement by the component of the force in the direction of the displacement

or we multiply the magnitude of the force by the component of the displacement in the direction of the force. These

two methods always give the same result.

Work is a scalar, although the two quantities involved in its definition, force and displacement, are vectors. We

define the scalar product of two vectors as the scalar quantity that we find when we multiply the magnitude of one

vector by the component of a second vector along the direction of the first. Equation (3) shows that work is such a

quantity.

Work can be either positive or negative. If the particle on which a

force acts has a component of motion opposite to the direction of

the force, the work done by that force (Fig. 5.7) is negative. This

corresponds to an obtuse angle, between the force and

displacement vectors. For example, when a person lowers an

object to the floor, the work done on the object by the upward

force of his hand holding the object is negative.

( > 90)

S

fig. 5.7

Our special definition of the word work does not correspond to the daily usage of the term. This may be confusing.

A person holding a heavy weight at rest in the air may say that he is doing hard work- and he may work hard in the

physiological sense-but from the point of view of physics we say that he is not doing any work. We say this because

the applied force causes no displacement. The word work is used only in the strict sense of equation (3).

The unit of work is the work done by a unit force in moving a body a unit distance in direction of

the force. In the mks system the unit of work is 1 newton-meter, called 1 joule.

Work done by gravity (near earth surface):

Near the earths surface the gravitational force acting on a body due to attraction of the earth can be assumed to be

constant. Therefore work done by gravity can be calculated using equation (3), whatever be the path of motion of

the body.

1

1

mg

mg

mg

path

mg

path

h

S cos

mg

S cos

2

fig. 5.8

2

fig. 5.9

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Consider the situation shown in figure 5.8. A particle of mass m is moved on an arbitrary path in a vertical

plane. As the particle is moved from point 1 to point 2, its weight acting on it at different positions during its motion

is also shown in figure. From figure it is clear that work done by gravity can be found by multiplying mg (magnitude

of the force) by the downward displacement h of the body because the component of the displacement of the body

along the force is h only. If you are not satisfied with the discussion above and want to calculate it mathematically,

then you can proceed according to the following way:

Work done by gravity when particle moves from point 1to point 2 as shown in figure 5.9 is

! !

w g = mg s

= mg s cos

!

[ mg is constant]

= mg. h

Therefore, when a particle comes down by a distance h through any path, work done by gravity is given as

w g = mgh

(downward motion)

...(4)

You should note that this work done is independent of the path of the particle. You should also note that mgh is

work done by gravity only, not by all forces acting on the particle when it moved from point 1 to point 2.

What would be the work done by gravity when the particle moves from point 2 to point 1? In this case the

displacement of the particle has a component of length h in the vertical direction but this component is in the

!

opposite direction of mg , hence, work done by gravity for this case is

w g = mgh

(upward motion)

...(5)

You should note that this expression is also independent of the path followed by the particle while moving from point

2 to point 1.

Now, let me propose a common equation for the equations (4) and (5). When a particle of mass m moves near

earth surface, work done on it by gravity is given by

w g = mgh

...(6)

where h is the change in height of the particle. If the particle goes up by a height h then h = +h and

wg = mgh , which is in accordance with equation (5). If the particle comes down by a height h then h = h and

work done by gravity, wg = +mgh, which is in accordance with the equation (4). Hence, for all cases we can use

equation (6). The only restriction while using equation (4), (5) or (6) is that mg must be uniform over the path for

which work done is required.

Note that if the particle moves from 1 to 2 and then from 2 to 1, then work done by gravity is zero. Hence,

we can say that work done by gravity in a closed path is zero.

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When the force varies over the path of motion of a particle (it can

vary in magnitude or direction or both), then to calculate work

done by the force we divide the path of the particle in many

infinitesimally small intervals and calculate the work done in each

interval and by adding the work done for all these small intervals

we get the work

ds

1

fig. 5.10

!

done over the segment of the path under consideration. In figure 5.10, such an interval, d s , is! shown. As the

interval is very small, we can assume that in this interval force is constant and hence work done by F in this interval

can be written as

! !

dw = F ds

...(7)

!

where ds is the displacement of the particle for this interval. As the particle moves from point 1 to point 2 on the

!

shown path, the net work done by the force F is calculated by adding work done in all subintervals of the path from

!

point 1 to point 2. Therefore, net work done by F is

w = sum of all dw's

dw

w=

! !

w = F d s

2

...(8)

You should note that when you apply equation (8) for a constant force you get the same result as given by equation (3).

!

!

For a one dimensional case equation (8) can be modified by replacing d s with dx and replacing F with F(x).

Therefore, we get,

xf

w=

F ( x) dx

...(9)

xi

fin

w=

F ds

in

fin

in

fin

( Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz )

in

w=

xf

yf

zf

xi

yi

zi

Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz

...(10)

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!

If components of F along x, y and z are constant, then equation (10) reduces to

w = Fx x + Fy y + Fz z

...(11)

forces which would prove to be a powerful method

!

as we will proceed with the topic. Suppose we consider F as the sum of its components along the tangent and the

normal to the path of motion of the particle. In that case equation (8) gives

fin

w=

F d s

in

fin

at the point under consideration

( Ft t + Fn n ) d s!

in

fin

Ft (t d s) + Fn (n d s)

in

fin

w=

Ft ds

in

!

!

n

# d s and t d s = ds

...(12)

WORK DONE BY SPRING FORCE: A light spring of spring constant k is stretched from an initial deformation

xi to a final deformation x f quasistatically (i.e., equilibrium is always maintained). Find the work done by

(a)

spring force

(b)

external agent

Solution: In figure 5.11 the spring is shown at some arbitrary deformation x. As the spring always exerts restoring

force, at the shown moment it is applying a force in the opposite direction of x. Therefore,

natural

length

xi

xf

x

spring constant of the spring.

dx

Fext

Fsp

fig. 5.11

To increase the deformation the external must exert a force in the direction of x and the force exerted by the external

agent, Fext , must have a magnitude equal to that of Fsp because equilibrium is always maintained. Therefore,

Work Power Energy

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is maintained

Fext = + kx

If the spring is further deformed by dx from the shown position then work done by the spring force is

dwsp = (kx) dx

dwext = (+kx) dx

While deforming the spring from xi to x f , we get, total work done by the spring,

xf

wsp = dwsp = k x dx

xi

1

1

wsp = kx 2f kxi2

2

2

...(13)

xf

wext = dwext = +k x dx

xi

wext =

1 2 1 2

kx f kxi

2

2

...(14)

Initially if the spring has its natural length then substituting xi = 0, equation (13) and (14) give

and

1

wsp = kx 2f

2

...(15)

1

wext = + kx 2f

2

...(16)

Equations (13) and (15) are true for all cases but equations (14) and (16) are true only if equilibrium is

maintained.

Work done by the spring is independent of path, it depends only upon initial and final position.

[See equation (13) and (15)]

F (x )

xi

*

kxi

wsp = shaded area

xf

A1

A2

Wsp

kxf

= A1 + A2

fig. 5.12

Work Power Energy

F(x)= kx

=Fsp

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10

1

= (kxi )( x f xi ) + (kx f + kxi )( x f xi )

2

1

1

= kx 2f kxi2

2

2

If we put xi = x f in equation (13), then we get wsp = 0. Therefore, we can say that work done by spring

force in a closed path is zero.

! !

!

Suppose there are n forces F1, F2,........., Fn acting on a particle of mass m, as shown in figure 5.13. If the particle

suffers a displacement ds! in the next time interval dt, then the net work done on the particle is the sum of work

done by all the forces acting on it. Hence, we have net work done on the particle

!

!

F3

F2

dw = dw1 + dw2 + dw + ....... + dwn

!

! ! ! ! ! !

! !

F1

m

= F1 ds + F2 ds + F3 ds + ....... + Fn ds

! !

!

where dwi = Fi ds is work done by the force Fi .

Fn

w = w1 + w2 + ...... + wn

! !

! !

! !

= F1 ds + F2 ds + .......... + Fn ds

Fig. 5.13

...(17)

! !

!

!

= F1 + F2 + ...... + Fn ds

!

!

w = Fnet ds

...(18)

Therefore, if many forces are acting on a particle, then we have two ways to find out net work done on the particle:

(1)

find work done by each force individually and then find the sum of work done by all forces;

(2)

find the net force, sum of all forces, acting on the particle and then find work done by this net force.

When you are applying the above approach for a particle then no attention is needed but while applying this

concept on a system of particles or on a body you need to be cautious. If points of application of different forces

have different displacements then equation (17) can not be reduced to equation (18). Hence, in such a case you are

left with only one option and that is of using equation (17).

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1.

11

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

the force is always perpendicular to its acceleration

the object is stationary but the point of application of the force moves on the object

the object moves in such a way that the point of application of the force remains fixed.

2.

Find the work a boy of weight 55 kg has to do against gravity when climbing from the bottom to the top of

a 3.0 m high tree.

3.

A body is thrown on a rough surface such that friction force acting on it is linearly varying with distance

travelled by it as f = ax + b. Find the work done by the friction on the box if before coming to rest the box

travels a distance s.

4.

A force is given by F = kx 2 , where x is in meters and k = 10 Nt/m2 . What is the work done by this force

when it acts from x = 0 to x = 0.1 m?

5.

A body is acted upon by a force which is inversely proportional to the distance covered. The work done will

be proportional to :

(a) s

(c)

7.

(b) s

(d) None of these

F(n)

shown in figure. Find the work done by this force in

displacing the particle from

(a)

x = 2m to x = 0

(b)

x = 0 to x = 2m.

two ends of a light inextensible string passing over a smooth

pulley as shown in figure. If the system is released from

rest, find the work done by string on both the blocks in 1 s.

(Take g = 10 m/s)

10

2

2

x(m)

10

1 kg

2 kg

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12

As we have already discussed that normal component of a force does no work, the work is done only by

the tangential component of a force. The tangential component is related to rate of change of speed of the particle.

dv

, where v is speed of the particle and Ft denotes the sum of tangential

dt

components of all forces acting on the particle. We can now think of speed as a function of the distance s measured

along the curve (as shown in figure 5.14) and apply the chain rule for derivatives:

v = ds

dt

s

dv dv ds

dv

= = v

dt ds dt

ds

Ft = m v

dv

ds

fin

wnet =

or

wnet =

starting

point

fig. 5.14

ds

is just the speed v. The work done by resultant force is thus

dt

Ft ds =

fin

dv

mv ds ds

in

in

fin

fin

in

in

mv dv = m v dv

1 2 1 2

mv f mvi

2

2

...(19)

1

mv 2 has the same unit as that of work and hence it is a form of energy. As it depends upon the speed

2

of the particle, it is defined as the kinetic energy, k, of the particle. Hence equation (19) can be rewritten as

The quantity

wnet = k f ki

wnet = k

...(20)

Therefore, net work done on a particle is equal to the change in kinetic energy of the particle. This theorem

is known as the work energy theorem.

If positive work is done on a particle then kinetic energy of the particle increases. If work done on a particle is

negative then kinetic energy of the particle decreases. If no work is done on a particle then kinetic energy of the

particle remains unchanged and hence speed of the particle remains constant. At this juncture you should recall the

very basic definition of work. We had defined it as energy transferred by forces and here work energy theorem

proves this definition. Now, it is clear that all the work done on a body goes to increase the kinetic energy of the

body.

Work Power Energy

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13

dw = dk

= Ft ds

Ft =

dk

ds

...(21)

Therefore, the derivative of kinetic energy with respect to distance covered along the path gives the tangential

component of the net force acting on a particle. The normal component of the net force can be found by multiplying

the mass of the particle by the centripetal acceleration of the particle. We have already learnt that to change the

speed we need a tangential component of the force (in circular motion). It is in accordance with equation (21). If

tangential force is zero, then no work is done on a particle and hence its kinetic energy remains unchanged or we can

say that the speed of the particle remains unchanged. Therefore to change the speed there must be a component of

the net force along the tangent to the path and this is exactly what we discussed while covering nonuniform circular

motion.

A small ball released from rest from a height h on a smooth surface of varying inclination, as shown in figure 5.15.

Find the speed of the ball when it reaches the horizontal part of the surface.

smooth

fig. 5.15

Solution: Let the speed of the ball when it reaches the horizontal part of the surface be v0 , as shown in figure 5.16(b).

N

m

v0

v

mg

(a)

(b)

fig. 5.16

The position of the ball at some arbitrary point of the inclined part of the surface is shown in figure 5.16(a). During

Work Power Energy

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14

the entire journey there are only two forces acting on the ball:

(1) Its weight; (2) Normal contact force from the surface. Applying the work energy theorem between the

moments when it was released from the rest and when it reaches the horizontal surface, we get.

wnet = k

wg + w

N

mgh + 0 =

= kf k

i

w = mgh

1 2

mv0 0

2

v0 = 2 gh

...(22)

As the normal contact force is always perpendicular to the direction of motion, work done by it is zero.

When a ball falls freely from rest by a distance h, its speed is the same as obtained in equation (22). During

free fall the only force doing work is gravity.

In the previous problem suppose that an uncompressed spring is fixed on the horizontal part of the surface, as

shown in figure 5.17. Now, if the particle is released from rest from the position shown in the figure, find the

maximum compression in the spring if its spring constant is k.

m

h

k

fig. 5.17

Solution: When compression in the spring is maximum, speed of the ball must be zero at that moment, as shown in

figure 5.18 (c). If x0 be the maximum compression in the spring then applying work energy theorem on the ball

between the instants when it was released from rest and when the compression in the spring is maximum, we get

N

m

N

v

x0

v0

v =0

mg

(a)

mg

(b)

(c)

fig. 5.18

Work Power Energy

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15

wnet = k

wg + w + wsp = k f

N

1

+mgh kx02 = 0

2

x0 =

k

i

2mgh

k

You should try to prove that the ball would bounce back to the same point from which it was released.

In the previous example suppose the spring is removed from the horizontal part of the surface and this part is made

rough. If friction coefficient between the rough part of the surface and the ball be , find the distance covered by the

ball on the horizontal part of the surface before it comes to rest.

Solution: Let the ball comes to rest having covered a distance s on the horizontal part of the surface. During the

motion of the ball only three forces act on the ball: (1) Gravity; (2) Normal contact force; (3) Frictional force.

Applying work energy theorem between the instants when the ball was released from rest and the ball comes to rest

on the horizontal part, we get,

N

N

sm

oo

th

mg

v

rough

mg

mg

(a)

(b)

Fig. 5.19

wnet = k

wg + wN + w fr = k f ki

+mgh + 0 mg s = 0 0

s=

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16

constant k is released from rest when the spring is in its natural

length state, as shown in figure 5.20. Find the maximum elongation

in the spring.

natural

length

m

released from rest

fig. 5.20

Solution: As the block is released from rest it falls downwards due to its own weight but as it moves downwards its

downward acceleration decreases due to the upward force exerted by the spring. Initially the spring force is zero,

hence the downward acceleration is maximum (=g). But as the spring elongates the net downward force decreases

and hence the downward acceleration also decreases. After some time the upward spring force becomes equal to

the weight of the block. This position is known as equilibrium position because net force in this position is zero. You

should note that at this position speed of the block is not zero. In fact, at this position speed of the block is maximum,

because before arriving to this position spring force is smaller than the weight of the block and hence the speed of

the block is increasing in the downward direction.

When the block reaches the equilibrium position, the net force on it becomes zero and hence its acceleration

also becomes zero. Therefore, speed becomes maximum because it can not increase further. Although acceleration

of the block is zero in this position, it will continue moving in the downward direction due to its downward velocity.

natural length

position

v=0

kx

a=g

mg

a

x

v(increasing kx0

x0

mg

k

2mg

2x0= k

=xmax

speed)

a=0

mg

kx

vmax

equilibrium

position

v (decreasing

speed)

mg

2kx0=2mg

a=g

v=0

fig. 5.21

mg

maximum

elongation

position

As the block passes the equilibrium position, the spring force exceeds the weight of the block and hence the

block starts decelerating and then after moving some distance with decreasing speed, it momentarily comes to rest.

Obviously when the ball comes to rest, elongation in the spring is maximum. If xmax be the maximum elongation in

the spring then applying work energy theorem on the block between the moment when it was released and when the

elongation is maximum, we get

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17

wnet = k

wg + wsp = k f ki

1 2

+mg xmax kxmax

= 00 = 0

2

xmax =

xmax = 2 x0

2mg

k

Note:

*

At this position velocity of the block is zero but acceleration is not zero. It has an upward acceleration of

magnitude g, as shown in figure 5.21.

When elongation is maximum in the spring its speed is zero which can be proved very easily if you proceed

mathematically rather than analyzing exactly whats happening there. When elongation in the spring is maximum,

distance of block from natural length state, x, as shown in figure 5.21, is also maximum. Hence, we have

dx

=0

dt

v = 0.

length l. When the ball is hanging vertically it is given a horizontal

speed u, as shown in figure 5.22. Find the speed of the ball and

tension in the thread supporting the ball when the thread makes an

angle with the vertical.

m

fig. 5.22

in figure 5.23. Applying work energy theorem on the ball, we get,

wall = k

v

l

wT + wg = k f ki

1 2 1

mv mu 2

2

2

0 + wg =

mg h =

mg.x =

1 2 1

mv mu 2

2

2

1 2 1

mv mu 2

2

2

T

# V

mg

x = l l cos

= l (1 cos )

fig. 5.23

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v 2 = u 2 2gx

v 2 = u 2 2 gl(1 cos )

18

(i)

v = u 2 2 gl (1 cos )

At the position shown in figure 5.23, the ball is moving in a vertical circle of radius l and has a speed v, therefore, its

radial acceleration is v 2 /l. Applying Newtons 2nd law along the radial direction at this moment, we get

Fnet = ma

T mg cos = m

T = mg cos +

u2

T = 3mg cos 2mg + m

l

mu 2

2mg (1 cos )

l

You should notice that we had done this problem in the previous chapter also (CIRCULAR MOTION).

That time we solved this problem by analyzing the varying tangential acceleration of the ball.

hemispherical surface fixed on a horizontal plane as shown

in figure 5.24. If m be the mass of the ball and R be the

radius of the hemispherical surface, find the speed of the

ball and normal contact force between the ball and the

hemispherical surface as a function of , where is the

angle between radial position of the ball with respect to the

centre of the hemisphere and the vertical direction.

sm

o

v2

l

h

ot

R

fig. 5.24

Solution: The position of the ball when it moves through an angle is shown in figure 5.25. As the ball is moving on

a circular path of radius R, at the shown position it has a centripetal acceleration of magnitude v 2/R. Although, I am

not discussing about the tangential acceleration of the ball at the shown moment, you should not forget that it is also

present.

s

sm

o

wall = k

wN + wg = k f kki

0 mg h =

1 2

mv 0

2

h

ot

x

m

mg

fig. 5.25

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mg ( x) =

v 2 = 2 gx

1 2

mv

2

...(i)

[ x = l (1 cos )]

v = 2 gx

19

Fnet = ma

mv 2

= 2mg (1 cos )

l

mg cos N =

[using (i)]

Notice that at = cos 1(2/3), N becomes zero. What is the physical significance of this ? What would

happen when the ball passes this position?

The kinetic energy of a particle moving along a circle of radius R depends upon the distance covered as k = s 2 ,

where is a constant. Find the magnitude of the force acting on the particle as a function of s.

Solution: Let us first find the tangential and normal components of the net force acting upon the particle, then we

can find the net force by adding these two components. If Ft be the tangential component of the net force, then

Ft =

dk d ( s 2 )

=

ds

ds

= 2 s

v2

Fn = m

R

2 1

= mv 2

R 2

2

( s 2 )

R

2 s 2

R

[ k = s 2 ]

Fnet = Ft 2 + Fn2

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2 s 2

(

)

= 2 s +

20

s

= 2 s 1 +

R

=

2 s

R2 + s2

R

A particle of mass m starts moving so that its speed varies according to the law v = s , where is a positive

constant, and s is the distance covered. Find the total work performed by all the forces which are acting on the

particle during the first t seconds after the beginning of motion.

Solution: Using work energy theorem, we have, work done by all forces

wall = k (change in K.E.)

= k f ki

=

1 2

mv 0

2

1 2

mv

2

1

m 2 s

2

[ initially s = 0 v = 0 k = 0]

...(i)

ds

=v

dt

ds

= dt

s

0

s

2 s = t 0

2 s = t

s=

ds

= s

dt

ds

= dt

s

s

2t 2

4

...(ii)

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m 2s

wall =

2

[Using (i)]

m 4t 2

8

[Using (ii)]

21

A particle of mass m moves along a circle of radius R with a normal acceleration varying with time as an = t 2,

where is a positive constant. Find the time dependence of the work done by all the forces.

Solution: We have,

an = t 2

v2

= t2

R

v 2 = Rt 2

...(i)

wall = k

= k f ki

1 2

mv 0

2

1 2

mv

2

m Rt 2

wall =

2

A chain of mass m and length l rests on a rough surfaced table so that one of its ends hangs over the edge.

The chain starts sliding off the table all by itself provided the overhanging part equals 1/3 of the chain length. What

will be the total work performed by the friction forces acting on the chain by the moment it slides completely off the

table?

Solution: When the chain has fallen by a distance x its position on the table is shown in figure 5.26. At this instant

friction is opposing the motion of the chain and is acting towards the left. If be the friction coefficient between the

chain and the table and m be the mass of the part of the chain on the surface of the table, then friction force is

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22

f = m ' g

2l/3

x

m 2l

= x g

l 3

=

l/3

mg 2l

x

l 3

fig 5.26

In the next infinitesimally small time interval dt if the chain slides further by dx, then work done by the frictional force

can be given as

dw = f dx

mg 2l

x dx

l 3

Therefore, till the moment when the chain leaves the table surface completely (i.e., value of x becomes 2l/3), net

work done by friction forces is

w = dw

mg

l

x = 2l/3

2l

x dx

3

2

mg 2l 2l ( 2l/3)

=

l 3 3

2

mg (2l/3)2

l

2

2

= mgl

9

You should note that was not given in the question. You have to find it on your own. (Of course you can

find it from the statement of the question).

[Suppose you have to find out the speed of the chain at the moment it just leaves the table, then that can be

found by using the result above in the work energy theorem. In this case there are only three forces acting on

the chain: gravity, friction and normal contact force from the table. Normal contact force is not doing work

so you need work done by friction and gravity only to find the change in K.E. of the chain, which would lead

you to the final speed of the chain. And hence in this way you can avoid complicated equations and their

solutions which youd have encounteredif you would have chosen methods learnt in chapter NEWTONS

LAWS OF MOTION.]

In the previous example find the work done by gravity (on the chain) for the same duration.

Solution: For the same time interval dt which we considered in the previous example, work done by gravity on the

chain is

ml

dwg = + x g dx

l 3

Work Power Energy

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23

mg l

+ x dx

l 3

Hence, net work done on the chain by gravity till the moment it leaves the table completely is

wg = dwg

mg

=

l

=

mg

l

x = 2l/3

+ x dx

3

2l/3

x

l 2l (2l/3) 2

+

2

3 3

mg 2l 2 2l 2

+

l 9

9

4

mgl

9

l/3

fig 5.27

x

dx

Note:

*

In the next topic we would study the concept of CENTRE OF MASS. When you are familiar with that

concept, you can find work done by gravity in a much easier way, although the method discussed here is

also simple and easy.

If v be the speed of the chain when it just leaves the horizontal surface, then applying work energy theorem

on the chain between the moments when it started sliding over the horizontal surface and when it just left the

surface, we get

wall = k

wg + w f + wN = k f ki

1 2

4

2

2

9

9

4

2

1

mgl mgl = mv 2

9

9

2

Put the value of and then solve the above equation to get v.

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24

POWER :

The rate of doing work by a force with respect to time is defined as power developed by that force. We know that

when a force does work on a body it transfers energy to that body, therefore, power developed by a force is the

rate of energy transfer by that force. Therefore, for power, P, we can write

P=

dw

dt

...(23)

! ds! ! !

P =F

= F v

dt

! !

P = F v

! !

dw = F d s ]

...(24)

Therefore, power developed by a force is the scalar product of the force and the velocity of point of application of

the force.

The unit of power is Joule/sec which is defined as watt.

It is obvious that when force is perpendicular to the velocity, the power developed by the force is zero.

If power developed by a force is known it can be used to calculate the work done by that force. We have,

P = dw/dt

dw = P dt

t2

w = dw = P.dt

...(25)

t1

Here w is the work done by the force which is developing the power P for the time interval [t1, t2 ].

Note: A common unit of power is horsepower.

1 horsepower = 746 watt

A body of mass m is thrown at an angle to the horizontal with an initial velocity v0 . Find the mean power

developed by gravity over the whole time of motion of the body, and the instantaneous power of gravity as a

function of time. Assume that the body is thrown at t = 0.

Solution: The average power developed can be defined as the average rate of doing work. Therefore, the average

power developed by gravity for the time interval [0, t] is .

P =

=

wg

t

!

!

Fg r

t

! !

= mg v

Work Power Energy

!

r

!

using t = v

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= mg v y

= mg

y

t

= mg

y(t ) y(0)

t 0

= mg

y(t )

t

25

!

v y is vertically upward component of v

y is displacement in the

vertical direction

1 2

v0 sin t gt

2

= mg

t

gt

= mg v0 sin

2

The average power developed for the entire duration of flight is zero, because for this duration y is zero.

!

Alternatively this could be explained in the following way: as the displacement, r , is horizontal for this interval its

scalar product with gravity is zero.

The instantaneous power developed by gravity is

! !

! !

P = Fg v = mg v

!

v y is vertically upward component of v

= mg v y

= mg (v0 sin gt )

From the equation above it is clear that while rising, the power developed by gravity is negative and while falling, the

power developed by gravity is positive. (while rising v y is +ve and while falling v y is ve.)

Alternate Method: We have

wg = mg h

Pg =

wg

t

mg h

t

= mg

h

t

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26

For the situation given in example-10 find the dependence of the power developed by all forces on t and find the

average value of this power for the first t seconds of motion.

Solution:

We have,

an = t 2

v2

= t2

R

v = R t

tangential acceleration, at =

dv

dt

at = R

Fn = man = m t 2

and tangential component of the net force,

Ft = mat = m R.

As we know that work is done by tangential component of the force, power is developed by this component only.

We have,

! !

Pall = Fnet v

! ! !

= (Ft + Fn ) v

( F || v! and F # v! )

Pall = Ft v

...(26)

= m R R t

= m Rt

Again, work done by all forces for the first t seconds of motion can be obtained by either finding the increment in

kinetic energy of the particle or by integrating the power with respect to time. Therefore, for the time interval [0, t],

work done by all forces is

t

wall = Pall dt = m R t dt

=

m Rt 2

2

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27

Therefore, average power developed by all forces for the same interval is

m Rt 2 /2

work done

=

Pav =

length of time interval

(t )

=

m Rt

2

Alternate-I:

We have, Pall = m Rt , which is a linear function in t, therefore, the average value of Pall

Pav =

2

Pav =

Pall (t ) + 0

2

m Rt

2

Alternate-II:

Using work energy theorem for the time interval [0, t] we get,

wall = k = k f ki = k f

0

wall =

1 2 m Rt 2

mv =

2

2

=

lenth of time interval

(m Rt 2 / 2) m Rt

=

(t )

2

Alternate-III:

Average value of f ( x) over the interval [ x1, x2 ] is given as

x2

f av =

f (x) dx

x1

[ x2 x1]

pav =

=

p(t) dt

0

(t 0)

m R t dt

0

m Rt

2

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28

Alternate-IV:

We have tangential acceleration, at = R , which is constant with time and we also have vinitial = 0,

therefore, distance traveled by the particle along the path for the first t seconds is

s=

1

1

at t 2 =

R t2

2

2

As the tangential force is constant and work done by normal force is always zero, work done by all forces for the

same time interval can be written as

wall = Ft s = m R R t 2

2

m Rt 2

2

(m Rt / 2)

=

2

Therefore,

Pall

(t )

m Rt

2

You should try to understand the physical significance of the equation wall = Ft s used here. Just give it a

thought, and you are sure to get it.

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1.

A heavy stone is thrown from a cliff of height h with a speed v. The stone will hit the ground with maximum

speed if it is thrown

(a) vertically downward

(c) horizontally

2.

29

(d) the speed does not depend on the initial direction.

Total work done on a particle is equal to the change in its kinetic energy

(a) always

(c) only if gravitational force alone acts on it

(d) only if elastic force alone acts on it.

3.

(a) The resultant force on the particle must be parallel to the velocity at all instants

(b) The resultant force on the particle must be at an angle less than 90 all the time

(c) Its height above the ground level must continuously decrease

(d) The magnitude of its normal acceleration is increasing continuously.

4.

Under the action of a force, a 2 kg body moves such that its position x as a function of time t is given by

t3

x = , x is in metre and t in second. Calculate the work done by the force in the first 2 second.

3

5.

track. If starts from rest at position A, what is its speed at

the point marked B?

A

45

1.0m

6.

variable force F is applied on it which brings the string

gradually at angle with the vertical. Find the work done

by the force F.

7.

A body of mass m accelerates uniformly from rest to v in time t. As a function of t, the instaneous power

delivered to the body is :

(a) m v / t

(c) mvt 2 /t

8.

(b) mv 2 /t

(d) mv 2 /t 2 .

Figure shows a rough horizontal plane which ends in a vertical wall, to which a spring is connected, having a

force constant k. Initially spring is in its relaxed state. A block of mass m starts with an initial velocity u

towards the spring from a distance l0 from the end of spring, as shown. When block strikes at the end of the

spring , it compresses the spring and comes to rest. Find the maximum compression in the spring. The friction

coefficient between the block and the floor is .

u

k

m

l0

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30

A point mass m starts from rest and slides down the surface of a frictionless

solid sphere of radius r as in figure. Measure angles from the vertical and

potential energy from the top. Find (a) the change in potential energy of the

mass with angle; (b) the kinetic energy as a function of angle; (c) the radial

and tangential accelerations as a functions of angle (d) the angle at which the

mass flies off the sphere. (e) If there is friction between the mass and the

sphere, does the mass fly off at a greater or lesser angle than in part (d)?

10.

the upper disk down enough so that when it is released it

will spring back and raise the lower disk off the table (see

figure)? Can mechanical energy be conserved in such a

case?

11.

A smooth sphere of radius R is made to translate in a straight line with a constant acceleration a. A particle

kept on the top of the sphere is releases from there at zero speed with respect to the sphere. Find the speed

of the particle with respect to the sphere as a function of the angle it slides.

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31

While calculating work done by gravity and an ideal spring, you must have noticed that these were independent

of the path of motion of the body. Work done by these forces depends only upon initial and final positions. The same

idea leads to the fact that work done by these forces in a closed path is zero. In later chapters you would see that

coulombs forces exhibit similar behaviour. This feature of these forces allow us to group them together in a different

class of forces which are called conservative forces . Therefore a conservative force can be defined as a force

whose work done is always independent of path. Alternatively, we can say that work done by a conservative force

depends only upon initial and final positions or we can say that work done by a conservative force in a closed path

is always zero. You can define a conservative force by any of the three statements. All these three statements have

the same physical significance. Therefore if any force behaves like this, that force can be defined as a conservative

force. Forces which do not satisfy these conditions can be defined as nonconservative forces.

For a while you are urged not to go into conceptual details of this new topic. We will first develop some

methods based on the concept of conservative forces. Learn the method and its application initially, and then we will

go into the conceptual details of conservative forces.

The region in which a conservative force is acting is defined as the conservative force field of that force. For

conservative force fields we associate potential energy with them. Why do we do so? This will be clear to you as

you will proceed with this section. In a conservative force field work done by a conservative force is defined as

negative of change in potential energy of the system. If potential energy is denoted by U, then, we define

wcons = U or U = wcon

...(27)

Therefore, for gravitational field near the earths surface, the change in gravitational potential energy,

U g = wg = (mg h)

U g = +mgh

[using (6)]

...(28)

1

1

U sp = wsp = kx 2f kxi2

2

U sp =

1 2 1 2

kx f kxi

2

2

[using (13)]

...(29)

Now, let us use the definition of change in potential energy in the work energy theorem. We have,

wall = k

wcon + wnoncon = k

wnoncon = k wnoncon

wnoncon = k + U

..(30)

wnoncon = E

...(31)

i.e., work done by nonconservative forces is equal to the change in mechanical energy of the

system.

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32

Now, it should be clear that equations (30) or (31) are equivalent to work energy theorem. Instead of using

work energy theorem we can use either of the two equations (30 or 31). So, whats the advantage if we do this?

The advantage is that if we proceed by this method we are not supposed to calculate the work done by the

conservative forces. U on the right side of the equation compensates for that. For any conservative force field

generally we obtain a general expression for potential energy or change in potential energy. Once this result is

available, we can use equation (30) for all motions in that field. We need not calculate the work done by conservative

forces for all these motions separately. Equation (30) saves us from calculating work done by conservative forces

which is a must if we follow the work energy theorem method. This is the basic idea behind the development of this

concept. At this level you may not enjoy or realize the importance of this method because in problems at this level

you can calculate both work done by conservative forces and change in potential energy very easily. But in the next

level of study of science, in most of the cases you would find the potential energy method much simpler and easier

than work energy theorem method, because calculating conservative forces and then their work done will be really

cumbersome and more time consuming. You can consider the example of planetary motions and forces on molecular/

atomic levels.

CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY:

If there are no nonconservative forces present in a conservative force field or work done by nonconservative forces

is zero, then from equation (30) or (31), we have,

k + U = 0

or

[when wnoncon = 0]

E = 0

...(32)

...(33)

i.e., change in mechanical energy of the system is zero. This is known as conservation of mechanical energy.

From equation (32) it is clear that if k is +ve then U must be ve and if k is ve then U +ve, i.e., increase

in kinetic energy is equal to decrease in potential energy and decrease in kinetic energy is equal to

increase in potential energy. The total energy remains the same. If you want a change in the mechanical

energy of a system, nonconservative forces must do work on the system.

Let us further extend equation (32). We have

k + U = 0

[when wnoncon = 0]

(k f ki ) + (U f U i ) = 0

k f + U f = ki + U i

E f = Ei

NOTE:

While using change in potential energy or mechanical energy in work energy principle you must not consider

work done by conservative forces.

Now, let us consider the equation (28) once again. We have,

U g = +mg h

U f U i = mg (h f hi )

U f U i = mgh f mghi

...(34)

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33

From the equation above we may infer that gravitational potential energy as a function of height (near earth surface)

can be given as

U (h) = mgh

...(35)

But for the assumption above we need to clarify the following issues:

1.

If you assume U (h) = mgh + C , where C is a constant, then also equation (34) holds true;

2.

The solution of both the problems lies in the fact that the potential energy is not defined absolutely. There is no

absolute value of potential energy. We always define change in potential energy. If we insist to define potential

energy then any reference position can be defined as the zero potential energy configuration of the system.

Consider equation (34) once again, we have,

U f U i = mgh f mghi

is assigned zero value, i.e., h = 0

ref

U f = mgh f

U (h) = mgh

Similarly zero deformation (i.e., x = 0) is defined zero potential energy configuration for the spring and block

system. In this case, we get

U ( x) =

1 2

kx

2

...(36)

Solution: While the ball slides on the given surface only two forces act on it: (1)gravitational force; (2) normal

contact force from the surface. As the gravitational force acting on the ball is conservative in nature, we will not

consider the work done by it. Normal contact force acting on the ball is the only nonconservative force acting on the

ball. Therefore, from equation (30), we have

N

h

v

smooth

mg

fig. 5.28

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34

wnoncon = U + k

wN 0 = U g + k

U g + k = 0

(mg h) + mv02 0 = 0

2

1

mg (h) + mv02 = 0

2

v0 = 2 gh

on the horizontal part of the surface

Alternate-I:

Normal contact force acting the ball is the only nonconservative force acting on it and work done by it

zero, therefore,

U + k = 0

k = U

i.e., gain in kinetic energy = loss in gravitational potential energy

1 2

mv0 = mgh

2

v0 = 2 gh

Alternate-II:

As the work done by nonconservative forces is zero in this case, mechanical energy must be conserved.

Therefore

E f = Ei

U f + k f = U i + ki

mgh f +

1

0 + mv02 = mgh + 0

2

v0 = 2 gh

1 2

1

mv f = mghi + mvi2

2

2

v=0

h

v0

smooth

mg

initial

position

final

position

O P.E. level

or

O height level

fig. 5.29

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Solution: Again this example can also be solved in various ways involving the concept of potential energy, as we did

in the last example. As the ball slides down the curved part of the surface, its speed increases with distance. When

the ball arrives on the horizontal part of the surface its speed becomes maximum. When the ball reaches the free end

of the spring it begins to compress the spring and its speed decreases due to the force of the spring acting on it.

When speed of the ball falls to zero, it can not compress the spring further. Hence when compression in spring is

maximum, speed of the ball is zero. You should try to analyze the motion of the ball after this moment too.

Therefore from the instant when the ball is released from rest to the moment when compression in the spring is

maximum, there are three forces which acted on the ball: (1) weight of the ball, mg; (2) normal contact force, N; (3)

spring force. Gravity and spring forces are conservative forces and normal contact force is the only non conservative

force acting on the ball. As the normal contact force is always perpendicular to the movement of the ball, work done

by it is zero.

Method-I:

According to equation (30), we have

wnoncon = U + k

wN = U sp + U g + k

U sp + U g + k = 0

1 2 1 2

1 2 1 2

kx f kxi + [mg h ] + mv f mvi = 0

2

2

2

1 2

kxmax mgh + 0 = 0

2

xmax =

wN = 0]

x f = xmax , xi = 0

h = h, vi = v f = 0

2mgh

.

k

Method-II:

Here work done by nonconservative forces is zero, therefore, total mechanical energy of the system remains

the same. Hence,

U + k = 0

U sp + U g + k = 0

U sp + U g = 0

U sp = U g

k f = ki = 0

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1 2

kxmax = mgh

2

xmax =

36

2mgh

k

Method-III:

As the total mechanical energy is conserved in this case,

Ei = E f

U sp,i + U g ,i + ki = U sp, f + U g , f + k f

0 + mgh + 0 =

xmax =

REST

m

1 2

kxmax + 0 + 0

2

k f = ki = 0

2mgh

k

h

xmax

k

zero

gravitational

P.E. level

final position

(b)

initial position

(a)

fig. 5.30

1 m.

A string with one end fixed on a rigid wall passing over a fixed

frictionless pulley at a distance of 2m from the wall has a mass

M = 2 kg attached to it at a distance of 1 m from the wall. A mass

m = 0.5 kg attached on the free end is held at rest so that the

string is horizontal between the wall and the pulley and vertical

beyond the pulley. What will be the speed with which the mass M

will hit the wall when mass m is released? (g = 9.8 m/s)

1 m.

M

C

A

B

m

fig. 5.31

when released from rest, as shown in figure 5.32.

1 m.

instant upward speed of block m is u = v cos .

work on the system block M + block m, because work done

by the part of the string between the block m and the vertical wall

one the block m is zero ( tension force exerted by this part of

the string is always perpendicular to the movement of the block)

and the net work done by the remaining part of the string on the

Work Power Energy

1 m.

M

1 m.

u

v

m

h

fig. 5.32

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37

block is nonzero) which can be proved as follows:

At any moment power delivered by the part of the string

between the blocks to the block M is negative of power

delivered by it to the block m. You can take the example

of the moment just before block M hits the vertical wall,

as shown in figure 5.33. At this moment if v be the speed

of the block M and u be the speed of the block m, as

shown in figure, and T be the tension in the thread, then

power delivered to block m is

D

v

s

v co

Pm = +T u

and that delivered to the block of mass M is

Pm = T v cos

T

M

blocks from the part of the

string between the blocks are shown

fig. 5.33

u = v cos

Pm = PM

or we can say that the net power delivered to the system block m and block M by the string at this

moment is zero. Similarly we can prove this fact for any moment. Hence net work done by the string on the

two blocks during any time interval is zero.

Alternate Way:

As the string is massless, gain in its kinetic energy must be zero, therefore, net work done on it by the two

blocks must be zero. Hence, net work done by the string on the two blocks is also zero.

Now, let us solve for the required unknown v:

Method-I:

Let us apply work energy theorem on the system block m + block M for the interval starting at the

moment when the system was released from rest and ending at the moment when the block M is just about

to hit the vertical wall. We have,

wall = k = k f ki

1

1

wg + wT = mu 2 + MV 2 (0 + 0)

2

2

(+ Mg AD mg h) + 0 =

1

1

m(v cos ) 2 + MV 2

2

2

...(i)

tan =

AD 1m 1

=

=

AC 2m 2

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38

2

;

5

cos =

and

h = increase in the length of the string on the left side of the pulley

= DC BC

) (

22 + 12 1 =

5 1

2 9 8 1 0 5 9 8

1

4 1

5 1 = 0 5 V 2 + 2 V 2

2

2 2

Solving the above equation we can find the value of v.

Method-II:

We have,

wnoncon = U + k

wT = U + k

U + k = 0

[ wT = 0]

i

f

i

i

f

f

U m + U M + km + k M = 0

1

1

(+mgh) + (Mg.AD) + mu 2 0 + Mv 2 0 = 0

2

2

Now, putting the appropriate values as we did in the last method, we can solve for v.

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In example 6 we have already calculated the speed of the ball and tension in the

thread at some arbitrary angular position with respect to the lowermost position

of the ball if the ball has a speed u at its lowermost position. But at that time you

might have thought that whats the possibility that the ball would complete the vertical

circle at all? If the ball is given a horizontal speed u when it is at its lowermost

position, as shown in figure 5.34, the following three cases are possible:

fig. 5.34

(a)

(b)

The ball does not reach the horizontal position and oscillates about its initial position, as shown in figure 5.35.

position. It oscillates with angular

amplitude about its vertical

position.

fig. 5.35

(c)

The ball succeeds in crossing the horizontal position but fails to complete the vertical circle. In this case we will

also discuss whether, when the ball leaves the circle it has zero speed or zero tension in the string supporting

it.

Out of these three possible cases, what actually happens would depend upon the value of u. You must have an

intuition that if u is very small then the ball would oscillate and if u is large than the ball would complete the vertical

circle.

Now, consider the results obtained in example 6.

At some arbitrary angular position speed of the ball, v, is given as

v = u 2 2 gl (1 cos )

v 2 = u 2 2 gl (1 cos )

...(i)

T = mg (3cos 2) +

T=

mu 2

l

m 2

u + gl (3cos 2)

...(ii)

CASE A:

BALL COMPLETES THE VERTICAL CIRCLE: If the ball moves in a complete vertical circle, its distance

from the point of suspension should be always equal to the length of the inextensible string supporting it and hence

string should always be taut. Therefore,

T>0

m 2

u + gl (3cos 2) 0

u 2 + gl (3cos 2) 0

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40

u 2 gl (2 3cos )

u 2 5gl

at = (topmost position)

u 5 gl

v 2/!

equation (i) gives,

mg

T=0

=

v = gl

and equation (i) gives,

u = 5 gl

T=0

fig. 5.36

is providing the centripetal acceleration. This fact also gives

v2

mg = m

l

v = gl

velocity of the ball when it reaches the lowermost position is

u = 5gl

1

1

mu 2 = mv 2 + mg (2l ) u = 5gl

2

2

If the speed of the ball at the lowermost position, u, is greater than 5gl , then its speed at the topmost position is

also greater than gl and hence more centripetal force is required. In this case both tension and gravity contribute

to the centripetal force and hence T > 0.

CASE B:

BALL OSCILLATES WITH ANGULAR APTITUDE, 0, SMALLER THAN /2:

Rearrange equations (i) and (ii) to get

and

v 2 = (u 2 2 gl ) + 2 gl cos

...(ii)

l

T = (u 2 2 gl ) + 3gl cos

m

...(iv)

For this case we have [0, /2). Therefore from equation (iii) and (iv) it is clear that if u 2 > 2 gl then neither v

nor T becomes zero in this interval of . That is neither the ball stops nor the string becomes slack in this region. We

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41

can also say that if u 2 > 2 gl then string would definitely cross the horizontal position (i.e., = /2 position).

Therefore if u 2 < 2 gl then the ball can not deflect by /2 and it would oscillate about its lower most position with

angular amplitude smaller than /2. In such a case, it is clear from equations (iii) and (iv) that speed of the ball

vanishes before the tension in the string. That is, in such a case tension in the string is never zero and speed of the ball

is zero at the extreme position (the position from where it starts returning back towards lowermost position). These

facts could also be explained in the following way:

(T > mg cos )

v2

!

v

in

cos

s

mg

mg

T

v=0

0

si

(T = mg cos )

and T both vanishe simultaneously at = /2, as shown in figure

5.38. In this case the ball oscillates with angular amplitude /2.

2

T=0

fig. 5.38

(ball just reaches the

horizontal position)

/2

mg

co

s

mg

in figure 5.37(a). If v be the speed of the ball at this position then

it is obvious from the figure that at this moment tension force is

balancing the radially outward component of gravity as well as

providing the required centripetal acceleration to the ball and hence

it is greater than mg cos (radially outward component of gravity).

Here tangential component of gravity, mg sin , is retarding the

upward (along the circle) motion of the ball as shown in figure

5.37(a). When speed of the ball becomes zero at some angle 0 ,

then also tension has to balance the radially outward component of

gravity, mg cos 0 , and hence it can not be zero, as shown in figure

5.37(b). In the same figure you should notice that, at

= 0, mg sin would accelerate the ball towards its lower

most position.

v=0

0

mg

u = 2gl

CASE C:

BALL CROSSES THE HORIZONTAL POSITION BUT DOES NOT COMPLETE THE VERTICAL

CIRCLE.

From the previous two cases it must be clear to you that if u is greater than 2gl but smaller than 5gl

then the ball would deflect more than /2 but it can not complete the vertical circle. Therefore, it would leave the

circular path for an angle greater than /2 but smaller than .

From equations (iii) and (iv) it can be concluded that if

u > 2 gl and > /2 then T vanishes before v (only if

u 2 < 5gl ), i.e., at some angle (as mentioned above) the string

becomes slack but the ball still has some nonzero speed, as shown

in figure 5.39. After this particular position gravity is the only force

acting on the moving ball and it has already left the circular path

(because the slack string means that the distance of the ball from

the point of suspension is smaller than the length of the string),

therefore, motion of the ball would be equivalent to that of a

projectile moving in a parabolic path.

2

v

T=0

mg

fig. 5.39

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ALTERNATE APPROACH:

Vertical line

as shown in figure 5.40. Now, we will analyze the each quadrant

separately.

III

II

IV

Horizontal

line

Quadrant I:

fig. 5.40

v2

!

s

mg

v

in

mg

cos

figure 5.41. From this figure it is clear that the radial component of

the gravity is in the opposite direction of the radial acceleration of

the ball and hence in this quadrant tension has two roles: first is to

balance the radial component of gravity and second is to provide

the necessary centripetal acceleration to the ball, as discussed before.

Hence, in this quadrant tension can never be zero.

fig. 5.41

If the ball just manages to reach the horizontal position then at this moment alongwith the speed of the ball tension

in the thread also becomes zero because at this position the radial acceleration and the radial component of gravity

both are zero, as shown in figure 5.38 and hence there is no requirement of tension in the thread. Using work energy

theorem or conservation of mechanical energy we can prove that for this to happen u should be 2gl .

Quadrant II:

Some arbitrary position of the ball when it is in quadrant II is shown in figure 5.42(a). It is obvious from the figure

that as the ball moves up, its speed decreases and component of gravity along the radially inward direction increases

and hence requirement of tension force becomes less and less as the ball moves up in this quadrant. Eventually at the

highest point of the circle the speed of the ball becomes minimum and the contribution of gravity in centripetal force

becomes maximum and hence at this position requirement of tension is minimum, as shown in figure 5.42(b). Therefore

this position can be defined as the critical position, because if the ball crosses this position successfully, i.e., if the

string is taut in this position, it would always be taut or we can say that the ball would complete the vertical circle.

v

in

m

gs

os

gc

v /!

v

mg

v 2/!

O

(requirement of tension is minimum at this position, i.e.,

chance of slacking of string is maximum at this position)

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If the ball is just completing the vertical circle we can assume zero tension at the critical position (topmost

point) because gravity is there to provide the required centripetal force to the ball. In such a case if v be the speed

of the ball at the highest position, then

mg =

mv 2

l

v 2 = gl

and if u be the speed of the ball when it reaches the lowermost position, then using

k f = ki + loss in P.E.

we get,

1

1

mu 2 = mv 2 + mg (2l )

2

2

u 2 = gl + 4 gl

u = 5gl

Note:

*

To just complete the vertical circle you can not assume zero speed at the highest point. Why so? Try to

answer it on your own.

The only difference between the analysis of the ball in quadrant II and III is that when the ball is moving in

quadrant II, it is speeding down and while it is moving in quadrant III, it is speeding up. Similar argument can

be given for quadrants I and IV.

SUMMARY:

*

When u 2gl

: The ball leaves the vertical circular path at some position (which would

depend upon u) in the IInd quadrant and thereafter moves in a parabolic

path.

When u 5gl

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1.

variable force F is applied on it which brings the string

gradually at angle with the vertical. Find the work done

by the force F. [Solving using potential energy method]

2.

amount of P.E. U, it aquires a velocity v. The mass of the

body is :

3.

(c) 2v/U

(d) U 2/2v.

A particle of mass m is attached to a light string of length l, the other end is fixed. Initially the string is kept

horizontal and the particle is given an upward velocity v. The particle is just able to complete a circle.

(d)

6.

(b) 2v / U 2

(c)

5.

(a) 2U / v

(a)

(b)

4.

44

The string becomes slack when the particle reaches its highest point

The velocity of the particle becomes zero at the highest point

1 2

mv = mgl.

2

The particle again passes through the initial position.

shown in fig. (a) If it starts from rest at P, what is the resultant force acting

on it at Q? (b) At what height above the bottom of the loop should the

block be released so that the force it exerts against the track at the top of

the loop is equal to its weight?

A simple pendulum of length l, the mass of whose bob is m, is

observed to have a speed v0 when the cord makes the angle 0

with the vertical (0 < 0 < /2), as in fig. In terms of g and the

foregoing given quantities, determine (a) the total mechanical energy

of the system; (b) the speed v1 of the bob when it is at its lowest

position; (c) the least value v2 that v0 could have if the cord is to

achieve a horizontal position during the motion; (d) the speed v3

such that if v0 > v2 the pendulum will not oscillate but rather will

continue to move around in a vertical circle.

P

5R

0 l

m

v0

A chain of length l and mass m lies on the surface of a smooth hemisphere of radius R > l with one end tied to

the top of the hemisphere. Find the gravitational potential energy of the chain.

R

ZERO P. E. LEVEL

Work Power Energy

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7.

A smooth sphere of radius R is made to translate in a straight line with a constant acceleration a. A particle

kept on the top of the sphere is released from there at zero speed with respect to the sphere. Find the speed

of the particle with respect to the sphere as a function of the angle it slides. [solve using potential energy

mentod]

8.

A block rests on an inclined plane as shown in figure. A spring to which it is attached via a pulley is being

pulled downward with gradually increasing force. The value of s is known. Find the potential energy U of

the spring at the moment when the block begins to move.

9.

10.

track. There is no friction. When m is at its lowest position, its speed is v0 .

(a) What is the minimum value vm to v0 for which m will go completely

around the circle without losing contact with the track? (b) Suppose v0 is

0.775 vm. The particle will move up the track to some point at P at which

it will lose contact with the track and travel along a path shown roughly by

the dashed line. Find the angular position of point P.

R

v0

m

A chain of length l and mass m lies on the surface of a smooth sphere of radius R > l with one end tied to the

top of the sphere.

(a) Find the gravitational potential energy of the chain with reference level at the centre of the sphere.

(b) Suppose the chain is released and slides down the sphere. Find the kinetic energy of the chain, when

it has slide through an angle .

(c)

11.

dv

of the chain when the chain starts sliding down.

dt

between two fixed, concentric spheres A and B (see figure). The

smaller sphere A has a radius R and the space between the two

spheres has a width d. The ball has a diameter very slightly less

than d. All surfaces are frictionless. The ball is given a gentle push

(towards the right in the figure). The angle made by the radius vector

of the ball with the upward vertical is denoted by (shown in the

figure)

Sphere B

R

Sphere A

(a)

Express the total normal reaction forces exerted by the spheres on the ball as a function of angle .

(b)

Let N A and N B denote the magnitudes of the normal reaction forces on the ball exerted by the

spheres A and B, respectively. Sketch the variations of N A and N B as functions of cos in the range

0 by drawing two separate graphs, taking cos on the horizontal axes. Also sketch the

variations of NA and NB as functions of .

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The interaction of a particle with surrounding bodies can be described in two ways : by means of forces or

through the use of notion of potential energy. In classical mechanics both ways are extensively used. The first

approach, however, is more general because of its applicability to forces in the case of which the potential energy is

impossible to introduce (i.e., nonconservative forces). As to the second method, it can be utilized only in the case of

conservative forces.

Our objective is to establish the relationship between potential energy and the force of the conservative

! !

!

field, or putting it more precisely, to define the conservative field of forces F (r ) from a given potential energy U (r )

as a function of a position of a particle in the field.

We have learnt by now that the work performed by conservative forces on a particle during the displacement

of the particle from one point in the field to another may be described as the decrease of the potential energy of the

particle, that is,

wcon = U .

The same can be said about the elementary displacement dr! as well:

or

dwcon = dU

!

!

F dr = dU

...(37)

! !

!

Recalling that dw = F dr = Ft ds, where ds = dr is the elementary length covered along the path and Ft is the

!

tangential component of F , we shall rewrite equation (37) as

Ft ds = dU .

Hence,

Ft =

U

s

...(38)

!

i.e., the projection of the conservative force at a given point in the direction of the displacement dr equals the

derivative of the potential energy U with respect to a given direction, taken with the opposite sign. The designation

of a partial derivative /s emphasizes the fact of differentiating with respect to a finite direction.

!

The displacement dr can be resolved along any direction and, specifically, along the x, y, z coordinate axes. For

!

!

example, if displacement dr is parallel to the x axis, it may be described as dr = dxi. The work performed by the

!

!

conservative force F over the displacement dr parallel to the x axis is

! ! !

F dr = F (dxi) = Fx dx,

!

where Fx is the x-component of the force F . Substituting the last expression into equation (38), we get

Fx =

U

x

...(39)

where the partial derivative symbol implies that in the process of differentiating U ( x, y, z) should be considered as

a function of only one variable, x, while all other variables are assumed constant. It is obvious that the equations for

Fy and Fz are similar to that for Fx. So, having reversed the sign of the partial derivatives of the function U with

!

respect to x, y, z, we obtain the components Fx , Fy and Fz of the conservative force F .

Work Power Energy

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Hence, we have

!

F = Fxi + Fy j + F2k

!

U U U

F =

i+

j+

k

y

z

x

...(40)

The quantity in parentheses is referred to as the scalar gradient of the function U and is denoted by grad U or

U. Generally the second, more convenient, designation where (nabla) signifies the operator

= i

+

j+ k

x y

z

!

F = U

..(41)

!

i.e., the conservative! force F is equal to the potential energy gradient, taken with the minus sign. Put simply, the

conservative force F is equal to the antigradient of potential energy.

The potential energy of a particle in certain conservative field has the following form:

(a)

(b)

! !

!

!

!

U (r ) = a r , where a is a constant vector and r is the position vector of the particle in the field.

Solution: (a) We have,

!

U U

F =

i+

y

x

=

( xy) ( xy)

i+

j

x

y

= y

x

y

i + x

j

x

y

= ( yi + xj)

(b) We have,

!

a = axi + a y j + az k and

!

r = xi + yj + zk

Therefore,

! !

U = ar

Work Power Energy

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= a x x + a y y + a z z; then

!

U U U

F =

i+

j+

y

y

x

= (a xi + a y j + az k)

!

= a

A conservative force F(x) acts on a 1.0 kg particle that moves along the x-axis. The potential energy U(x) is given

as U ( x) = a + ( x b) 2 where a = 20 J, b = 2 m. and x is in meters. At x = 5.0 m the particle has a kinetic energy

of 20 J. It is known that there is no other force acting on the system. Based upon this information, answer the

following questions:

(a)

(b)

(c)

What is the maximum kinetic energy of the particle and the position where it occurs?

(d)

Solution: We have,

U ( x) = a + ( x b) 2

= 20 + ( x 2) 2

E = Potential energy, U + kinetic energy, k

= U (at x = 5) + k (at x = 5)

= 20 + (5 2) 2 + 20

= 49 J .

acting on the particle, its mechanical

energy is conserved, i.e.,

[Ans.(a)]

We know that,

E =U + k

k = E U

= 49 20 + ( x 2) 2

= 29 ( x 2) 2

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As the particle moves on the x-axis, its kinetic energy can never be negative, therefore, we have,

k 0

29 ( x 2) 2 0

( x 2) 2 29

x 2 4 x + 4 29 0

x 2 4x 25 0

x [3.38, 7.38]

[Ans (b)]

dk

=0

dx

d 29 ( x 2)2

0 2 ( x 2) (1) = 0

x=2

dx

=0

i.e., at x = 2 , the particle has maximum kinetic energy which is equal to 29 J. [Ans. (c)]

As the conservative force is antigradient of potential energy, we have,

F ( x) =

dU

dx

d 20 + ( x 2)2

dx

= [0 + 2 ( x 2) (1)]

= 4 2x .

When the particle is in equilibrium, net force on it must be zero. As the only force acting on the particle is F(x), in

equilibrium position

F ( x) = 0

4 2x = 0

x = 2m.

[Ans.(d)]

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ALTERNATE METHOD:

Let us solve this problem graphically. For that first calculate mechanical energy, E. Following the same procedure as

we did in the last method, we get

E = 49J.

and we already have,

U ( x) = 20 + ( x 2) 2.

U (J )

The plots of E and U(x) are shown in figure 5.43. From the graph

it is clear that at x = 7.38 and x = 3.38 U becomes equal to E,

hence, at these positions k = 0 (because E = k + U). For x > 7.38

and x < 3.38, U become greater than E and hence k would acquire

ve value, which is never possible. Therefore, particle can move

only for x greater than 3.38 and smaller than 7.38.

49

is minimum. Therefore, at x =2, k is maximum and is equal to

49 U = 49 20 = 29 J.

3.38 O

E =49J

20

7.38

X(m)

fig. 5.43

negative of slope of U, is also zero. Therefore, x = 2 is equilibrium

position of the particle.

NATURE OF EQUILIBRIUM

Whenever a conservative force is the only force acting on a particle, equilibrium positions of the particle can be

determined from the graph of U when plotted against the position of the particle.

Consider the case shown in figure 5.44. In this figure potential

energy, U, of a particle under the action of a conservative force

F(x) is plotted against the position of the particle, x.

It is obvious from the graph of U that at x = x1 it has a maxima and

at x = x2 it has a minima. Therefore, at both x1 and x2 derivative

of U is zero and hence F(x) is zero. Consequently x1 and x2 are

equilibrium positions of the particle. Therefore, we can say that

extrema of U occur at equilibrium positions of the particle.

x1

Now, let us analyze the force on the particle when it is in the vicinity

of one of its equilibrium positions or it is in the vicinity of an extrema

of its potential energy.

For values of x very close to x1 but smaller than x1 derivative of

U is positive because its tangent makes an acute angle with the +ve

direction of the x-axis. Therefore, in this region the force on the

particle is along negative x direction (or we can say that it is away

from x1 ), as shown in figure 5.45. Similarly, it can be justified that

for values of x very close to x1 but greater than x1 force, F(x), is

positive, i.e., it acts away from x1 , as shown in figure 5.45. Now,

suppose a particle in equilibrium at x = x1 is slightly displaced from

this position the either side and released under the action of

conservative force, F(x), only. What would happen now? The force

x2

fig. 5.44

F (x )

x1

x

F (x )

fig 5.45

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x = x1 and the particle would never come back to this equilibrium

position. Such an equilibrium position is defined as unstable

equilibrium position.

Now, let us analyze the behaviour of F(x) in the vicinity of a minima

of U. In figure 5.46 x = x2 is a minima of U. Arguments similar to

what I provided in the previous paragraph lead to the fact that in

the vicinity of x2 (a minima of potential energy) conservative force,

F(x), acts always towards x2 . Therefore, if a particle is displaced

from x2 on either side and released from rest and thereafter only

conservative force, F(x), acts upon it, it will return back to its

equilibrium position ( x = x2 ) . (A little more thought would give an

idea of oscillation about equilibrium position, which I dont want to

discuss here.) Such an equilibrium position is defined as a stable

equilibrium position.

F (x )

x2

x

F (x )

fig 5.46

Therefore, the position where potential energy, U, Posesses a maxima (first derivative of U is zero and second

derivative is negative) is an unstable equilibrium position and the position where potential energy posesses a minima

(first derivative of U is zero and second derivative is positive) is a stable equilibrium position. Therefore, in example

20, x = 2, was a stable equilibrium position.

The potential energy of a particle in a certain field has the form U = a/r 2 b/r, where a and b are positive constants,

r is the distance from the centre of the field. Find:

(a)

the value of r0 corresponding to the equilibrium position of the particle, examine whether this

positionis stable;

(b)

Solution: (a)

At equilibrium position:

dU

=0

dr

d (a/r 2 b/ r )

=0

dr

2a b

+ =0

r3 r2

b=

2a

r

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2a

b

r=

r0 = 2a/b

Now,

2a b

d 3 + 2

d U d ( dU dr )

r

r

=

=

2

dr

dr

dr

2

At r = r0 ,

6a 2b

dr 4 r 3

d 2U 6a 2b

=

dr 2 r04 r03

=

6a b 4 2b b3

16a 4

8a3

3 b4 1 b4

=

8 a3 4 a3

=

Therefore, at r = r0 ,

(b)

1 b4

8 a3

d 2U

is positive and hence this is an unstable equilibrium position.

dr 2

Fr (r ) =

=

dU

dr

2a b

r3 r2

When this force is attractive, it must be along radically inward direction and hence it should be negative. That is,

Fr (r ) < 0

2a b

<0

r3 r3

2a

b < 0

r

r>

2a

<b

r

2a

b

2a

2a

, Fr (r ) is repulsive, at r =

, Fr (r ) vanishes and for r > 2a/b, Fr (r ) is attractive.

b

b

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One of the great conservation laws of science has been the law of conservation of matter. From a philosophical

point of view an early statement of this general principle was given by the Roman poet Lucretius, a contemporary

of Julius Caesar, in his celebrated work De Rerum Natura. Lucretius wrote Things cannot be born from nothing,

cannot when begotten be brought back to nothing. It was a long time before this concept was established as a firm

scientific principle. The principal experimental contribution was made by Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794), regarded

by many as the father of modern chemistry. He wrote in 1789 We must lay it down as in incontestable axiom, that

in all the operations of art and nature, nothing is created; and equal quantity of matter exists both before and after

the experiment .... and nothing takes place beyond changes and modifications in the combinations of these elements.:

This principle, subsequently called the conservation of mass, proved extremely fruitful in chemistry and physics.

Serious doubts as to the general validity of this principle were raised by Albert Einstein in his papers introducing the

theory of relativity. Subsequent experiments on fast moving electrons and on nuclear matter confirmed his conclusions.

Einsteins findings suggested that, if certain physical laws were to be retained, the mass of a particle had to be

redefined as

m=

m0

1 v 2 /c 2

...(42)

Here m0 is the mass of the particle when at rest with respect to the observer, called the rest mass; m is the mass of

the particle measured as it moves at a speed v relative to the observer; and c is the speed of light, having a constant

value of approximately 3 108 meters/sec. Experimental checks of this equation can be made, for example, by

deflecting high-speed electrons in magnetic fields and measuring the radii of

31

1810

31

1610

relative to the observer increases. The solid line is a plot

m, kg

31

1410

fig 5.47

31

1210

as v c. ]

31

1010

0.2

0.4

0.6

v/c

0.8

1.0

curvature of their path. The paths are circular and the magnetic force a centripetal one

( F = mv 2 /r, F and v being known). At ordinary speeds the difference between m and m0 is too small to be

detectable. Electrons, however, can be emitted from radioactive nuclei with speeds greater than nine-tenths that of

light. In such cases the results (figure) confirm Equation (42)

It is convenient to let the ratio v/c be represented by . The equation (42) becomes

m = m0 (1 2 )1/2.

To find the kinetic energy of a body, we compute the work done by the resultant force in setting the body in motion.

We have,

v !

! 1

K = F dr = m0v 2

0

2

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54

for kinetic energy, when we assumed a constant mass m0. Suppose now instead we take into account the variation

of mass with speed and use m = m0 (1 2 )1/2 in our previous equation. We find that the kinetic energy is no longer

1

K = mc 2 m0c 2 = (m m0 )c 2 = mc 2.

...(43)

2

The kinetic energy of a particle is, therefore, the product of c and the increase in mass m resulting from the

motion.

Now, at small speeds we expect the relativistic result to agree with the classical result. By the binomial theorem we

can expand (1 2 ) 1/2 as

(1 2 ) 1/2 = 1 + 2 + 4 +

1

2

3

8

5

16

6 + ........ .

K = (m m0 )c 2 = m0c 2 (1 2 )1/2 1

1

2

1

2

1

2

which is the classical result. Notice also that when K equals zero, m = m0 as expected.

The basic idea that energy is equivalent to mass can be extended to include energies other than kinetic. For example,

when we compress a spring and give it elastic potential energy U, its mass increases from m0 to m0 + U/c 2. When

we add heat in amount Q to an object, its mass increases by an amount m, where m is Q/c 2. We arrive at a

principle of equivalence of mass and energy: For every unit of energy E of any kind supplied to a material

object, the mass of the object increases by an amount

m = E/c 2

This is the famous Einstein formula

E = mc 2 .

...(44)

In fact, since mass itself is just one form of energy, we can now assert that a body at rest has an energy m0c 2 by

virtue of its rest mass. This is called its rest energy. If we now consider a closed system, the principle of the

conservation of energy, as generalized by Einstein, becomes

(m0c 2 + ) = constant

or

( m0c 2 + ) = 0,

2

where m0c is the total rest energy and is the total energy of all other kinds. As Einstein wrote, Prerelativity physics contains two conservation laws of fundamental importance, namely the law of conservation of

energy and the law of conservation of mass; these two appear there as completely independent of each other.

Through relativity theory they melt together into one principle.

Because the factor c 2 is so large, we would not expect to be able to detect changes in mass in ordinary

mechanical experiments. A change in mass of 1 gm would require an energy of 9 1013 joules. But when the mass

of a particle is quite small to begin with and high energies can be imparted to it, the relative change in mass may be

Work Power Energy

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55

readily noticable. This is true in nuclear phenomena, and it is in this realm that classical mechanics breaks down and

relativistic mechanics receives its most striking verification.

A beautiful example of exchange of energy between mass and other forms is given by the phenomenon of

pair annihilation or pair production. In this phenomenon an electron and a positron, elementary material particles

differing only in the sign of their electric charge, can combine to literally disappear. In their place we find high-energy

radiation, called -radiation, whose radiant energy is exactly equal to the rest mass plus kinetic energies of the

disappearing particles. The process is reversible, so that a materialization of mass from radiant energy can occur

when a high enough energy -ray, under proper conditions, disappears; in its place appears a positron-electron pair

whose total energy (rest mass + kinetic) is equal to the radiant energy lost.

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1.

The potential energy of a conservative system is given by U = ax 2 bx where a and b are positive constants.

find the equilibrium position and discuss whether the equilibrium is stable or unstable.

2.

(a)

(b)

3.

positive, negative or zero at the five points A, B, C,

D and E.

Indicate points of stable and unstable equilibrium.

plotted against its position x from origin. Then which of

the following statement is correct. A particle at :

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

4.

x1 is in stable equilibrium

x2 is in stable equilibrium

x3 is in stable equilibrium

none of these

x(m)

4

D

x1

x2

x3

The given plot shows the variation of U, the potential energy of interaction between two particles with the

distance separating them, r :

U

A

E

F

B

C

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

C is a point of stable equilibrium

The force of interaction between the two particles is attractive between points C and D and repulsive

between points D and E on the curve.

(iv) The force of interaction between the principles is repulsive between point E on the curve.

Which of the above statements are correct.

(a) (i) and (iii)

(c) (ii) and (iv)

5.

(b)

(d)

(ii) and (iii)

A certain peculiar spring is found not to confirm to Hookes law. The force (in newtons) it exerts when

stretched a distance x (in meters) is found to have magnitude 52.8x + 38.4x 2 in the direction opposing the

stretch. (a) Compute the total work required to stretch the spring from x = 0.50 to x = 1.00 meter. (b) With

one end of the spring fixed, a particle of mass 2.17 kg is attached to the other end of the spring when it is

extended by an amount x = 1.00 meter. If the particle is then released from rest, compute its speed at the

instant the spring has returned to the configuration in which the extension is x = 0.50 meter. (c) Is the force

exerted by the spring conservative or nonconservative? Explain.

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6.

If the magnitude of the force of attraction between a particle of mass m1 and a mass m2 is given by

mm

F = k 1 2 2 where k is a constant and x is the distance between the particles, find (a) the potential energy

x

function and (b) the external work required to increase the separation of the masses from x = x1 to x = x1 + d.

7.

The magnitude of the force of attraction between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged

e2

F

=

k

electron in the hydrogen atom is given by

where e is the charge of the electron, k is a constant,

r2

and r is the separation between electron and nucleus. Assume that the nucleus is fixed. The electron, initially

moving in a circle of radius R1 about the nucleus, jumps suddenly into a circular orbit of smaller radius R2.

(a)

(b)

Calculate the change in kinetic energy of the electron, using Newtons second law.

Using the relation between force and potential energy, calculate the change in potential energy of the

atom.

Show by how much the total energy of the atom has changed in this process. (The total energy will

prove to have decreased; this energy is given off in the form of radiation.)

(c)

8.

Given below (figure) are examples of some potential energy functions in one dimension. The total energy of

the particle is indicated by a cross on the ordinate axis. In each case, specify the regions, if any, in which the

particle cannot be found for the given energy. Also, indicate the minimum total energy the particle must have

in each case. Think of simple physical contexts for which these potential energy shapes are relevant.

U (x )

U (x )

(a) U0

(b)

U0

E

U3

U2

U1

a b

U (x )

U (x )

U0

U0

E

(c)

O

U1

E

a

(d)

a/2 -b/2

-b/2 -a/2

x .

U1

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A block of mass 2.0 kg is moved from rest on a rough horizontal surface by applying a force F ( x) = 15 + x x 2

from x = 0 0 to x = 1 0. If friction coefficient between the block and horizontal surface be 0 2 , find the gain in

kinetic energy of the block. [Take g = 10 m/s]

Solution: According to the work energy theorem,

= work done by F ( x) + work done by friction

as the block is moving on a horizontal surface,

work done by gravity and normal contact

x2

F ( x) dx mg d

[d = 1 0 m.]

x1

1

= (15 + x x 2 ) dx 0 2 2 0 10 1 0

0

= 15

1

x0

x2

x3

+

4

2 0 3 0

1 1

= 15 + 4

2 3

= 11.17 J.

5.48 by a face F which at each point was directed along a tangent

to the trajectory. Find the work performed by this force, if the

height of the hill is h, the length of its base l, and the coefficient of

friction .

!

F

m

h

l

fig. 4.48

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Solution: An elementary part, of length ds, of the path of the body and forces acting upon the body when it was on

that part of the path are shown in figure 5.49. The applied external force F is acting tangentially up the surface,

friction force f is acting tangentially down the surface, normal contact force N is perpendicular to the surface (and

hence is perpendicular to the direction of motion of the body) and weight, mg , of the body is acting vertically

downwards.

F

N

ds

ds

m

f

mgsin

mg cos

mg

fig. 4.9

As the body is being moved slowly, net force on the body should be zero and friction would be kinetic in nature.

Therefore,

F = N = mg cos

and

As the body is moved over this elementary part of the path, from figure 4.9, work done by F is

dw = F ds

[ ds is along F ]

= [ mg cos + mg sin ] ds

Now, if we define the horizontal direction as the x-direction and vertically upward direction as the y-direction, as

shown in figure 5.50, then we have

ds cos = dx

and

ds sin = dy

ds dy

dx

Therefore,

dw = mg dx + mg dy

fig. 5.50

w = dw =

fin

mg dx +

in

fin

mg.dy

in

w = mg l + mg h

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Note : As the body is moved slowly or we can say as the equilibrium is always maintained, gain in K.E.

of the body must be zero. Therefore, using work energy theorem, we get,

wall = k = 0

wF + wN + w f + wg = 0

w f = mgl

Now, notice the result obtained above for the work done by the friction force. This work done is equivalent to the

work friction would have done if the body was given the same horizontal displacement on a horizontal surface with

the same roughness.

AB is a quarter of a smooth circular track of radius r = 4m., as shown in figure 5.51. A particle P of mass m = 5 kg

moves along the track from A to B under the action of the following forces:

(i)

magnitude is constant and is equal to 4 newton.

(ii)

tangent to the circular track, its magnitude is

(20 s) newton, where s is the distance traveled.

(iii)

newton.

at B?

B

F1

F2

F3

A

fig. 5.51

Solution: First of all let us calculate work done by each of the three forces.

Work done by F1 and F2 : When the particle has already moved a distance s away from A its position is shown

in figure 5.52. If the particle has rotated about the centre of the circular path, point O, by an angle and be the

!

angle between OB and direction of F1, then in OPB, we have,

+ ( ) + ( ) =

2

2 =

+

2

+

4 2

r

2

B

!

F1

!

dl

P

A

s

fig. 5.52

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!

!

Now, if the particle is displaced by dl in next time interval dt, work done by F1 is

! !

dw1 = F1 d l

= F1 dl cos

2

= F1 dl sin

!

for infinitesimally small displacement dl ,

!

= F1 ds sin

= F1 sin + r d

4 2

we have,

= s/r

s = r

ds = r d

= 16 sin + d

4 2

!

In the same time interval dt, work done by F2 is given as

! !

dw2 = F2 dl

= F2 dl

!

!

F2 % dl

= F2 ds

= (20 s) ds

!

Net work done by F1 is

w1 = dw1

/2

= 16

sin 4 + 2 d

0

/2

16

=

cos +

4 20

(1/2)

= 16 2 J

= 22.63 J

!

and net work done by F2 is

w2 = dw2

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r/2

62

(20 s) ds

= 20

r/2

s0

= 20

s2

r/2

0

r 2r 2

2

8

= 105.8 J

!

!

Work done by F3 : As F3 is a constant force, work done by F3 ,

w3 = F3 displacement along F3

= F3 r = 25 4 J = 100 J

k = wall

k f ki = w1 + w2 + w3

1 2 1 2

mvB mv A = ( 22.63 + 105 8 + 100 ) J

2

2

vB =

2 228 43

+ 100

5

= 13 83 m/s.

h = 25 m above a lake. One end of an elastic rope is attached to his foot and the

other end is fixed to the platform. He starts falling from rest in a vertical position.

The length and elastic properties of the rope are chosen so that his speed will have

been reduced to zero at the instant when his head reaches the surface of the water.

Ultimately the jumper is hanging from the rope, with his head 8 m above the water.

(i) find the unstretched length of the rope.

(ii) find the maximum speed and acceleration achieved during the jump.

fig. 5.53

Solution: (i) Let us denote the elastic constant (spring constant) of the rope by k and its unstretched length by l0.

The maximum length of the rope is l1 = h h0 = 23 m, whilst in equilibrium it is l2 = (23 8)m = 15 m. Initially, and

at the jumpers lowest position, the kinetic energy is zero. If we ignore the mass of the rope and assume that the

jumpers centre of mass is half-way up his body, we can use conservation of energy to write

Work Power Energy

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mgh =

63

1

k (l1 l0 ) 2.

2

In addition, in equilibrium,

mg = k (l2 l0 ).

Dividing the two equations by each other we obtain a quadratic equation for l0 ,

which gives l0 = 13 m.

(ii)

When the falling jumper attains his highest speed, his acceleration must be zero, and so this must occur at the

same level as the final equilibrium position (l = l2 ).

1 2 1

mv + k (l2 l0 ) 2 = mg (l2 + h0 ),

2

2

where the ratio m/k is the same as that obtained from the equilibrium condition, namely,

m l2 l0

=

.

k

g

Substituting this into the energy equation, shows that the maximum speed of the jumper is

v = 18 ms 1 65 km h 1. It is easy to see that his maximum acceleration occurs at the lowest point of the jump.

Since the largest extension of the rope (10 m) is five times that at the equilibrium position (2 m), the greatest tension

in the rope is 5 mg. So the highest net force exerted on the jumper is 4mg, and his maximum acceleration is 4g.

!

(i)

(ii)

F = ayi;

!

F = axi + byj.

Solution: Let us find the work performed by each force over the path from a certain point 1( x1, y1) to a certain

point 2( x2, y2 ) :

(i)

! !

dw = F dl = (ayi) ( dxi + dyj )

= ay dx

x2

w = dw = a y dx ;

x1

(ii)

Work Power Energy

! !

dw = F dl = ( axi + byj ) ( dxi + dyj )

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64

= ax dx + dy dy

x2

y2

x1

y1

w = dw = a x dx + b y.dy

In the first case the integral depends on the type of y(x) function, that is, on the shape of the path. Consequently, the

first field of force is not a conservative field. In the second case both integrals do not depend on the shape of the

path: they are defined only by the coordinates of the initial and final points of the path: the second field of force is a

conservative field.

!

In a certain conservative field a particle experiences the force F = a( yi + xj) , where a is a constant, and i and j

are unit vectors of the x and y axes respectively. Find the potential energy U ( x, y) of the particle in this field.

!

Solution: Let us calculate the work performed by the force F over the distance from the point O (Fig.) to an

arbitrary point P( x, y). Taking advantage of this work being independent of the shape of the path, we choose one

passing through the points OMP and consisting of two rectilinear sections, then

y

p(x, y)

wOP =

! !

Fdr +

! !

Fdr .

j

0

M(x, 0)

i

fig. 5.54

!

!

The first integral is equal to zero since at all points of the OM section y = 0 and F dr . Along the section MP x

! ! !

is constant, therefore, F dr = F jdy = Fy dy = axdy and therefore,

P

wOP = 0 + ax dy = axy.

M

We know that this work must be equal to the decreases in the potential energy, i.e., wOP = U O U P. Assuming

U O = 0, we obtain U P wOP , or

U ( x, y) = axy.

U

dU =

x

U

dx +

dy.

dU = a( ydx + xdy) = d (axy).

Work Power Energy

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1.

2.

3.

65

(a) kinetic energy

(c) mechanical energy

(b)

(d)

potential energy

energy.

(a) can be zero

(c) can be positive

(b)

(d)

can be negative

any of the above.

(a) speed is constant

(c) work done is zero

(b)

(d)

velocity is constant

K.E. remains constant.

4.

A block of mass m slides down a smooth vertical circular track. During the motion, the block is in

(a) vertical equilibrium

(b) horizontal equilibrium

(c) radial equilibrium

(d) none of these.

5.

Two equal masses are attached to the two ends of a spring of spring constant k. The masses are pulled out

symmetrically to stretch the spring by a length x over its natural length. The work done by the spring on

each mass is

1 2

1 2

kx

(a)

(b) kx

2

2

1 2

1 2

kx

(c)

(d) kx .

4

4

6.

A small block of mass m is kept on a rough inclined surface of inclination fixed in an elevator. The elevator

goes up with a uniform velocity v and the block does not slide on the wedge. The work done by the force

of friction on the block in time t will be

(a) zero

(b) mgvt cos.

(c) mgvt sin

(d) mgvt sin2.

7.

An elevator is moving upward with an acceleration a (and velocity v) when a man inside the elevator lifts a

body of mass m through a height h (in time t). The average power developed by the man is

8.

9.

(a)

m( g + a) h

t

(b)

1

m( g + a)(v + at )

2

(c)

mgh

t

(d)

1

mg (v + at ) .

2

A particle is rotated in a vertical circle by connecting it to a string of length l and keeping the other end of the

string fixed. The minimum speed of the particle when the string is horizontal for which the particle will

complete the circle is

(a)

gl

(b)

2gl

(c)

3gl

(d)

5gl

A block of mass m is moving with a constant acceleration a on a rough horizontal plane. If the coefficient of

friction between the block and ground is , the power delivered by the external agent after a time t from the

beginning is equal to :

(a) mat

(b) mgat

(c) (a + g)gt

(d) m(a + g)at.

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10.

11.

12.

13.

The block of mass m is pulling, vertically up with constant speed, by applying force P. The free end of the

string is pulled by l meter, the increase in potential energy of the block is :

(a)

mgl

2

(b)

mgl

(c)

2 mgl

(d)

mgl

.

4

P

m

A block of mass M is pulled along a horizontal surface by applying a force at an angle with the horizontal.

The friction coefficient between the block and the surface is . If the block travels at a uniform velocity, the

work done by this applied force during a displacement d of the block is

(a)

Mgd cos

cos + sin

(b)

Mgd

cos

(c)

Mgd sin

cos + sin

(d)

Mgd cos

sin

A spring placed horizontally on a rough horizontal surface is compressed against a block of mass m placed

on the surface so as to store maximum energy in the spring. If the coefficient of friction between the block

and the surface is , the potential energy stored in the spring is

(a)

m g

2k

(b)

2m 2 g 2

k

(c)

2 m 2 g

2k

(d)

32 mg 2

.

k

Work done in time t on a body of mass m which is accelerated from rest to a speed v in time t1 as a function

of time t is given by

1 v 2

v 2

(a) 2 m t t

(b) m t t

1

1

2

(c)

14.

66

1 mv 2

t

2 t1

(d)

1 v2 2

m t .

2 t12

A block of mass m moving with a velocity v0 on a smooth horizontal floor collides with a light spring of

stiffness k that is rigidly fixed horizontally with a vertical wall. If the maximum force imparted by the spring

on the block is F, then:

vo

(a)

F m

(b)

(c)

F v0

(d)

None of these.

B

m

x

Web: http://www.locuseducation.org

LOCUS

PHYSICS

15.

16.

The kinetic energy acquired by a mass m in travelling a certain distance d, starting from rest, under the

action of a constant force is directly proportional to

(a)

(b)

independent of m

(c)

1/ m

(d)

m.

A body is moved along a straight line by a machine delivering constant power. The distance moved by the

body in time t is proportional to

(b) t 3/ 4

(a) t 1/ 2

(c)

17.

(d)

t 3/ 2

Kr

Kr

(b)

(d)

(a)

(b) P

P

O

(c) P

(d) P

A particle at rest on a frictionless table is acted on by a horizontal force which is constant in size and

direction. A graph is plotted of the work done on the particle W, against the speed of the particle v. If there

are no frictional forces acting on the particle, how graph will look like.

Y

(a)

(b) W

W

O

20.

K/r

K/r.

A motor drives a body along a straight line with a constant force. The power P developed by the motor must

vary with time t as figure.

Y

19.

t2 .

Potential energy function U(r) corresponding to the central force F= K/r would be

(a)

(c)

18.

67

(c) W

v

(d) W

v

.

v

!

A particle is acted upon by a conservative force F = 7i 6 j N (no other force is acting on the particle).

Under the influence of this force particle moves from (0, 0) to (3m, 4m), then

(a)

(c)

(b)

at (0, 0) speed of the particle must be zero (d)

at (0, 0) speed of the particle must not be zero

Web: http://www.locuseducation.org

LOCUS

PHYSICS

1.

The potential energy of a particle varies with position x according to the relation U ( x ) = x 3 4 x. The point

x = 2 is a point of

(a)

(c)

2.

68

stable equilibrium

neutral equilibrium

(b)

(d)

unstable equilibrium

none of the above

The K.E. of a body moving along a straight line varies with time as shown in the figure. The force acting on

the body is

KE

3.

(a)

(b)

zero

constant

(c)

(d)

inversely proportional to velocity

A ball is projected vertically upwards with an initial velocity. Which of the following graphs best represents

the K.E. of the ball as a function of time from the instant of projection till it reaches the point of projection?

Y

(a) K.E.

(b) K.E.

(c) K.E.

( d) K.E.

4.

(c)

6.

.

t

A small spherical ball is suspended through a string of length l. The whole arrangement is placed in a vehicle

which is moving with velocity v. Now suddenly the vehicle stops and ball starts moving along a circular path.

If tension in the string at the highest point is twice the weight of the ball then

(a)

5.

= 5gl

velocity of the ball at highest point is gl

(b)

(d)

= 7gl

velocity of the ball at the highest point is 3gl

A particle with total energy E moves in one dimension in a region where the potential energy is U(x). The

acceleration of the particle is zero where(a)

U ( x) = E

(b)

U ( x) = 0

(c)

dU ( x )

=0

dx

(d)

d 2U ( x )

=0

dx 2

A block of mass 1 kg slides down a curved track that is one quadrant of a circle of radius 1 m. Its speed at

the bottom is 2 m/s. The work done by the frictional force is (g = 10 m/s2)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

8 J

+8J

9J

9J.

R =1m

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LOCUS

PHYSICS

7.

8.

9.

A mass of M kg is suspended by a weightless string. The minimum horizontal force that is required to

displace it until the string makes an angle of 45 with the initial vertical direction is :

(a)

Mg ( 2 1)

(b)

Mg ( 2 + 1)

(c)

mg 2

(d)

Mg

.

2

A ring of mass m can slide over a smooth vertical rod as shown in figure. The ring is connected to a spring

of force constant k = 4 mg/R, where 2R is the natural length of the spring. The other end of spring is fixed

to the ground at a horizontal distance 2R from the base of the rod. If the mass if released at a height 1.5 R,

then the velocity of the ring as it reaches the round is :

(a)

gR

(b)

2 gR

(c)

2gR

(d)

3gR .

1.5 R

2.0 R

A particle which is constrained to move along the X-axis is subjected to a force in the same direction which

varies with the distance x of the particle from the origin as f(x) = kx + ax. Here k and a are positive

constants. For x > 0, the functional form of the potential energy U(x) of the particle is

[JEE]

U(x)

U(x)

(a)

10.

11.

69

(b)

U(x)

U(x)

(c)

(d)

x.

!

The potential energy function associated with the force F = 4 xyi + 2 x 2 j is :

(a)

U = 2 x 2 y

(b)

U = 2 x 2 y + constant

(c)

U = 2 x 2 y + constant

(d)

not defined

An automobile engine of mass M accelerates and a constant power P is applied by the engine. The distance

x covered in time t is given by

1/ 2

(a)

8 Pt 3

x=

9M

(c)

Pt 3

x=

9M

1/ 2

(b)

8 Pt 3

x=

(d)

Pt 3

x=

1/ 2

1/ 2

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LOCUS

PHYSICS

12.

70

In the system shown in the figure the mass m moves in a circular arc of angular amplitude 60 and radius 4

m is stationary. Then

4m

60

m

A

m

B

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

13.

the minimum value of coefficient of friction between the mass 4 m and the surface of the table is 0.50

the work done by gravitational force on the block m is positive when it moves from A to B

the power delivered by the tension when m moves from A to B is zero.

the kinetic energy of m in position B equals the work done by gravitational force on the block when it

moves from position A to position B.

A particle of mass m moves on the x-axis under the influence of a force of attraction towards the origin O

given by F = k/x i . If the particle starts from rest at a distance a from the origin the speed it will attain to

reach the origin will be :

(a)

2k a x

m ax

(c)

k ax

m a x

(b)

2k a + x

m ax

(d)

m a x

.

2k ax

12

12

12

14.

12

!

The potential energy for a force field F is given by U ( x, y ) = cos ( x + y ) . The force acting on a particle at

a position given by coordinates 0, is 4

(a)

(b)

(c)

1

3

j

i +

2

2

(d)

1

i+j

2

1

i+ j

2

1

3

j

i

2

2

Web: http://www.locuseducation.org

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