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INTRODUCTION:
Any body (or an assembly of bodies) represents, in fact, a system of mass points, or particles. If a system
changes with time, it is said that its state varies. The state of a system is defined by specifying the positions and
velocities of all constituent particles.
Experience shows that if the laws of forces acting on a system and the state of the system at a certain initial
moment are known, the motion equations can help predict the subsequent behaviour of the system.
However, an analysis of a systems behaviour by the use of motion equations requires so much effort (due
to the complexity of the system itself), that a comprehensive solution seems to be practically impossible. Moreover,
such an approach is absolutely out of the question if the laws of acting forces are not known. Besides, there are
some problems in which the accurate consideration of motion of individual particles is meaningless (example: gas).
Under these circumstances the following question naturally comes up: are there any general principles following
from Newtons laws that would help avoid these difficulties by opening up some new approaches to the solution of
the problem.
It appears that such principles exist. They are called conservation laws.
As we have already discussed, the state of a system varies in the course of time as that system moves.
However, there are some quantities, state functions, which possess the very important and remarkable property of
retaining their values constant with time. Among these constant quantities, energy, linear momentum and angular
momentum play the most significant role.
The laws of conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum fall into the category of the most
fundamental principles of physics. These laws have become even more significant since it was discovered that they
go beyond the scope of mechanics and represent universal laws of nature. In any case, no phenomena have been
observed so far which do not obey these laws. They work reliably in all quarters: in the field of elementary particles,
in outer space, in atomic physics and in solid state physics.
Having made possible a new approach to treating various mechanical phenomena, the conservation laws
turned into a powerful and efficient tool of research used by physicists. The importance of the conservation principles
is due to several reasons:
1.

The conservation laws do into depend on either the paths of particles or the nature of acting forces.
Consequently, they allow us to draw some general and essential conclusions about the properties of
various mechanical processes without restoring to their detailed analysis by means of motion equations.

2.

Since the conservation laws do not depend on the nature of the acting forces, they may be applied
even when the forces are not known. In these cases the conservation laws are the only and
indispensable tool of research. This is the present trend in physics of elementary particles.

3.

Even when the forces are known precisely, the conservation laws can help substantially to solve
many problems of motion of particles. Although all these problems can be solved with the use of
motion equations (and the conservation laws provide no additional information in this case), the
utilization of the conservation laws very often allows the solution to be obtained in the most straightforward and elegant fashion, obviating cumbersome and tedious calculations.

We shall begin examining the conservation laws with the energy conservation law, having introduced the
concept of energy and work.

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ENERGY:
It is possible to give a numerical rating, called energy, to the state of a physical system. The total energy is
found by adding up contributions from characteristics of the system such as motion of objects in it, heating of the
objects, and the relative positions of objects that interact via forces. The total energy of a closed system always
remains constant. Energy can not be created or destroyed, but only transferred from one system to another.
Energy comes in a variety of forms, and physicists didnt discover all of them right away. They had to start
somewhere, so they picked one form of energy to use as a standard for creating a numerical energy scale. One
practical approach is to defined an energy unit based on heating of water. The SI unit of energy is the joule, J, named
after the British physicist James Joule. One joule is the amount of energy required in order to heat 0.24 g of water
by 1C.
Note that heat, which is a form of energy, is completely different from temperature. In standard, formal
terminology, there is another, finer distinction. The word heat is used only to indicate an amount of energy that is
transferred, whereas thermal energy indicates an amount of energy contained in an object.
Once a numerical scale of energy bas been established for some form of energy such as heat, it can easily be
extended to other types of energy. For instance, the energy stored in one gallon of gasoline can be determined by
putting some gasoline and some water in an insulated chamber, igniting the gas, and measuring the rise in the waters
temperature. (The fact that the apparatus is known as a bomb calorimeter will give you some idea of how dangerous
these experiments are if you dont take the right safety precautions). Here are some examples of other types of
energy that can be measured using the same units of joules.
Type of energy:

chemical energy released by burning


energy required to break an object
energy required to melt a solid substance
chemical energy released by digesting food
raising a mass against the force of gravity
nuclear energy released in fission, etc.

Textbooks often give the impression that a sophisticated physics concept was created by one person who
had an inspiration one day, but in reality it is more in the nature of science to rough out an idea and then gradually
refine it over many years. The idea of energy was tinkered with from the early 1800s on, and new types of energy
kept getting added to the list.
To establish a new form of energy, a physicist has to
(1)
(2)

show that it could be converted to and from other forms of energy, and
show that it is related to some definite measurable property of the object, for example its temperature,
motion, position relative to another object, or being in a solid or liquid state.

For example, energy is released when a piece of iron is stoked in water, so apparently there is some form of
energy already stored in the iron. The release of this energy can also be related to a definite measurable property of
the chunk of metal: it turns reddish-orange. There has been a chemical change in its physical state, which we call
rusting.
Although the list of types of energy kept getting longer and longer, it was clear that many of the types were
just variations on a theme. There is an obvious similarity between the energy needed to melt ice and to melt butter,
or between rusting of iron and many other chemical reactions. All the types of energy can be reduced to a very small
number by simplifications.

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WORK:
The concept of work : The mass contained in closed sytsem is a conserved quantity, but if the system is not closed,
we also have ways of measuring the amount of mass that goes in or out.
We often have a system that is not closed, and would like to know how much energy comes in or out.
Energy, however, is not a physical substance like water, so energy transfer can not be measured by the same kind of
meter which we used to measure flow of water. How can we tell, for instance, how much useful energy a tractor can
put out on one tank of gas?
The law of conservation of energy guarantees that all the chemical energy in the gasoline will reappear in
some form, but not necessarily in a form that is useful for doing farm work. Tractors, like cars, are extremely
inefficient, and typically 90% of the energy they consume is converted directly into heat, which is carried away by
the exhaust and the air flowing over the radiator. We wish to distinguish energy that comes out directly as heat from
the energy that serves to accelerate a trailer or to plow a filed, so we defined a technical meaning of the ordinary
work to express the distinction.
Definition of work : Work is the amount of energy transferred into or out of a system, not taking into
account energy transferred by heat conduction.
[Based on this definition, is work a vector, or a scalar? What are its units?]
The conduction of heat is to be distinguished from heating by friction. When a hot potato heats up your hands by
conduction, the energy transfer occurs without any force, but when friction heats your cars brake shoes, there is a
force involved. The transfer of energy with and without a force are measured by completely different methods, so
we wish to include heat transfer by frictional heating under the definition of work, but not heat transfer by conduction.
The definition of work could thus be restated as the amount of energy transferred by forces.
Work done by a constant force:
Work done by a constant force is defined as product of the force and the component of the displacement
along the direction of the force.
F
m

fig. 5.1

Consider the situation shown in figure 5.1. A constant force F is applied on a block of mass m along the
horizontal direction. If the block moves by a distance S on the horizontal surface on which it is placed, as shown in
figure, then the work done by the force F is defined as
w = F S

...(1).

F(const.)
S
fig. 5.2

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co
s

If the force and the displacement are not along the same direction, as shown in figure 5.2, then work done
by force F is calculated by multiplying the force and the component of the displacement along the force, as shown
in figure 5.3, therefore, for the given case, work done by force F is

fig. 5.3

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w = F S cos

...(2)

Here you should note that work done by the force F can also be written as
w = ( F cos ) S

is the component of F along the displacement, as shown in figure 5.4.


and we know that Fcos
F(const.)

F cos

work done by F
= force along displacement displacement
fig. 5.4

Hence, work done by a constant force can also be defined as the product of the displacement and
the component of the force along the displacement.

In vector form equations (1) and (2) can be generalized as


! !
w = F S

...(3)

Hence, work done by a constant force is the scalar (dot) product of the force and the displacement. Here
!
!
I would like to emphasize that S is the displacement of the point of application of the force F .
!
Note: For a constant force F , in equation (3) you should notice the following:
! !
*
When F S, i.e., = 90, w f = 0.
*
When (0,90), w f > 0.
*
When (90,180), w f < 0.
*
When = 180, w f = F S
*
When = 0, w f = F S
! !
*
In a closed path work done by a constant force is zero. ( S = 0).

!
( w f denotes work done by the constant force F and S is the magnitude of the displacement S )
!
Equation (3) refers only to the work done on the particle by a particular force F . The work done on the particle
by the other forces must be calculated separately. The total work done on the particle is the sum of the work done
by the separate forces.
!
When is zero, as shown in figure 5.5, the work done by F is
F
m
simply F S, in agreement with equation (1). Thus, when a constant
F S ( = 0)
S
horizontal force draws a body horizontally, or when a constant
fig. 5.5
vertical force lifts a body vertically, the work done by the force is
the product of the magnitude of the force by the distance moved.

When is 90, as shown in figure 5.6, the force has no component


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in the direction of motion. That force then does no work on the


body. For instance, the vertical force holding a body a fixed distance
off the ground does no work on the body, even if the body is
moved horizontally over the ground. Also the centripetal force
acting on a body in motion does no work on that body because
the force is always at right angles to the direction in which the
body is moving.

F
m

( = 90)

S
fig. 5.6

Of course, a force does no work on a body that does not move, for its displacement is then zero.
As I have already mentioned, the work done by a constant force can be calculated in two different ways:
Either we multiply the magnitude of the displacement by the component of the force in the direction of the displacement
or we multiply the magnitude of the force by the component of the displacement in the direction of the force. These
two methods always give the same result.
Work is a scalar, although the two quantities involved in its definition, force and displacement, are vectors. We
define the scalar product of two vectors as the scalar quantity that we find when we multiply the magnitude of one
vector by the component of a second vector along the direction of the first. Equation (3) shows that work is such a
quantity.
Work can be either positive or negative. If the particle on which a
force acts has a component of motion opposite to the direction of
the force, the work done by that force (Fig. 5.7) is negative. This
corresponds to an obtuse angle, between the force and
displacement vectors. For example, when a person lowers an
object to the floor, the work done on the object by the upward
force of his hand holding the object is negative.

( > 90)

S
fig. 5.7

Our special definition of the word work does not correspond to the daily usage of the term. This may be confusing.
A person holding a heavy weight at rest in the air may say that he is doing hard work- and he may work hard in the
physiological sense-but from the point of view of physics we say that he is not doing any work. We say this because
the applied force causes no displacement. The word work is used only in the strict sense of equation (3).
The unit of work is the work done by a unit force in moving a body a unit distance in direction of
the force. In the mks system the unit of work is 1 newton-meter, called 1 joule.
Work done by gravity (near earth surface):
Near the earths surface the gravitational force acting on a body due to attraction of the earth can be assumed to be
constant. Therefore work done by gravity can be calculated using equation (3), whatever be the path of motion of
the body.
1
1

mg

mg

mg

path

mg

path
h

S cos

mg

S cos

2
fig. 5.8

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2
fig. 5.9

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Consider the situation shown in figure 5.8. A particle of mass m is moved on an arbitrary path in a vertical
plane. As the particle is moved from point 1 to point 2, its weight acting on it at different positions during its motion
is also shown in figure. From figure it is clear that work done by gravity can be found by multiplying mg (magnitude
of the force) by the downward displacement h of the body because the component of the displacement of the body
along the force is h only. If you are not satisfied with the discussion above and want to calculate it mathematically,
then you can proceed according to the following way:
Work done by gravity when particle moves from point 1to point 2 as shown in figure 5.9 is
! !
w g = mg s
= mg s cos

!
[ mg is constant]

= mg. h

= weight of the particle downward displacement of the particle

Hence, we have got the same result as we had predicted earlier.


Therefore, when a particle comes down by a distance h through any path, work done by gravity is given as
w g = mgh
(downward motion)

...(4)

You should note that this work done is independent of the path of the particle. You should also note that mgh is
work done by gravity only, not by all forces acting on the particle when it moved from point 1 to point 2.
What would be the work done by gravity when the particle moves from point 2 to point 1? In this case the
displacement of the particle has a component of length h in the vertical direction but this component is in the
!
opposite direction of mg , hence, work done by gravity for this case is
w g = mgh
(upward motion)

...(5)

You should note that this expression is also independent of the path followed by the particle while moving from point
2 to point 1.
Now, let me propose a common equation for the equations (4) and (5). When a particle of mass m moves near
earth surface, work done on it by gravity is given by
w g = mgh

...(6)

where h is the change in height of the particle. If the particle goes up by a height h then h = +h and
wg = mgh , which is in accordance with equation (5). If the particle comes down by a height h then h = h and
work done by gravity, wg = +mgh, which is in accordance with the equation (4). Hence, for all cases we can use
equation (6). The only restriction while using equation (4), (5) or (6) is that mg must be uniform over the path for
which work done is required.
Note that if the particle moves from 1 to 2 and then from 2 to 1, then work done by gravity is zero. Hence,
we can say that work done by gravity in a closed path is zero.

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WORK DONE BY A VARIABLE FORCE:

When the force varies over the path of motion of a particle (it can
vary in magnitude or direction or both), then to calculate work
done by the force we divide the path of the particle in many
infinitesimally small intervals and calculate the work done in each
interval and by adding the work done for all these small intervals
we get the work

ds

1
fig. 5.10

!
done over the segment of the path under consideration. In figure 5.10, such an interval, d s , is! shown. As the
interval is very small, we can assume that in this interval force is constant and hence work done by F in this interval
can be written as

! !
dw = F ds

...(7)

!
where ds is the displacement of the particle for this interval. As the particle moves from point 1 to point 2 on the
!
shown path, the net work done by the force F is calculated by adding work done in all subintervals of the path from
!
point 1 to point 2. Therefore, net work done by F is
w = sum of all dw's

dw

w=

! !
w = F d s
2

...(8)

You should note that when you apply equation (8) for a constant force you get the same result as given by equation (3).
!
!
For a one dimensional case equation (8) can be modified by replacing d s with dx and replacing F with F(x).
Therefore, we get,
xf

w=

F ( x) dx

...(9)

xi

For a 3-dimensional case equation (8) can be expanded as follows:


fin

w=

F ds

in

fin

( Fxi + Fy j + Fzk ). (dxi + dyj + dzk )

in

fin

( Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz )

in

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w=

xf

yf

zf

xi

yi

zi

Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz

...(10)
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!
If components of F along x, y and z are constant, then equation (10) reduces to

w = Fx x + Fy y + Fz z

...(11)

There is an alternate way to looking at work done by variable


forces which would prove to be a powerful method
!
as we will proceed with the topic. Suppose we consider F as the sum of its components along the tangent and the
normal to the path of motion of the particle. In that case equation (8) gives
fin

w=

F d s

in

fin

t and n are unit vectors along the tangent

and the normal to the path, respactively,


at the point under consideration

( Ft t + Fn n ) d s!

in

fin

Ft (t d s) + Fn (n d s)

in

fin

w=

Ft ds

in

!
!
n
# d s and t d s = ds

...(12)

Hence, work is done by only tangential component of a force.

WORK DONE BY SPRING FORCE: A light spring of spring constant k is stretched from an initial deformation
xi to a final deformation x f quasistatically (i.e., equilibrium is always maintained). Find the work done by
(a)
spring force
(b)

external agent

Solution: In figure 5.11 the spring is shown at some arbitrary deformation x. As the spring always exerts restoring
force, at the shown moment it is applying a force in the opposite direction of x. Therefore,
natural
length

xi
xf
x

Fsp = kx (always true) where k is the


spring constant of the spring.

dx

Fext

Fsp
fig. 5.11

To increase the deformation the external must exert a force in the direction of x and the force exerted by the external
agent, Fext , must have a magnitude equal to that of Fsp because equilibrium is always maintained. Therefore,
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true only if equilibrium

is maintained

Fext = + kx

If the spring is further deformed by dx from the shown position then work done by the spring force is
dwsp = (kx) dx

and work done by external agent is


dwext = (+kx) dx
While deforming the spring from xi to x f , we get, total work done by the spring,
xf

wsp = dwsp = k x dx
xi

1
1

wsp = kx 2f kxi2
2
2

...(13)

and total work done by external agent


xf

wext = dwext = +k x dx
xi

wext =

1 2 1 2
kx f kxi
2
2

...(14)

Initially if the spring has its natural length then substituting xi = 0, equation (13) and (14) give

and

1
wsp = kx 2f
2

...(15)

1
wext = + kx 2f
2

...(16)

Note : You must notice the following:

Equations (13) and (15) are true for all cases but equations (14) and (16) are true only if equilibrium is
maintained.

Work done by the spring is independent of path, it depends only upon initial and final position.
[See equation (13) and (15)]
F (x )

You should note that F ( x) dx denotes area

xi

under F(x) curve when it is plotted against x.


*

kxi

From figure. 5.12,


wsp = shaded area

xf

A1
A2

Wsp

kxf

= A1 + A2
fig. 5.12
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F(x)= kx
=Fsp

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10

1
= (kxi )( x f xi ) + (kx f + kxi )( x f xi )
2
1
1

= kx 2f kxi2
2
2

If we put xi = x f in equation (13), then we get wsp = 0. Therefore, we can say that work done by spring
force in a closed path is zero.

WORK DONE BY TWO OR MORE THAN TWO FORCES:


! !
!
Suppose there are n forces F1, F2,........., Fn acting on a particle of mass m, as shown in figure 5.13. If the particle
suffers a displacement ds! in the next time interval dt, then the net work done on the particle is the sum of work
done by all the forces acting on it. Hence, we have net work done on the particle
!
!
F3
F2
dw = dw1 + dw2 + dw + ....... + dwn
!
! ! ! ! ! !
! !
F1
m
= F1 ds + F2 ds + F3 ds + ....... + Fn ds

! !
!
where dwi = Fi ds is work done by the force Fi .

Fn

For a finite displacement, net work done on the particle is


w = w1 + w2 + ...... + wn
! !
! !
! !
= F1 ds + F2 ds + .......... + Fn ds

Fig. 5.13

...(17)

! !
!
!
= F1 + F2 + ...... + Fn ds

!
!
w = Fnet ds

...(18)

Therefore, if many forces are acting on a particle, then we have two ways to find out net work done on the particle:
(1)

find work done by each force individually and then find the sum of work done by all forces;

(2)

find the net force, sum of all forces, acting on the particle and then find work done by this net force.

When you are applying the above approach for a particle then no attention is needed but while applying this
concept on a system of particles or on a body you need to be cautious. If points of application of different forces
have different displacements then equation (17) can not be reduced to equation (18). Hence, in such a case you are
left with only one option and that is of using equation (17).

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1.

11

No work is done by a force on an object if


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

the force is always perpendicular to its velocity


the force is always perpendicular to its acceleration
the object is stationary but the point of application of the force moves on the object
the object moves in such a way that the point of application of the force remains fixed.

2.

Find the work a boy of weight 55 kg has to do against gravity when climbing from the bottom to the top of
a 3.0 m high tree.

3.

A body is thrown on a rough surface such that friction force acting on it is linearly varying with distance
travelled by it as f = ax + b. Find the work done by the friction on the box if before coming to rest the box
travels a distance s.

4.

A force is given by F = kx 2 , where x is in meters and k = 10 Nt/m2 . What is the work done by this force
when it acts from x = 0 to x = 0.1 m?

5.

A body is acted upon by a force which is inversely proportional to the distance covered. The work done will
be proportional to :
(a) s
(c)

7.

(b) s
(d) None of these

F(n)

A force F acting on a particle varies with the position x as


shown in figure. Find the work done by this force in
displacing the particle from
(a)

x = 2m to x = 0

(b)

x = 0 to x = 2m.

Two unequal masses of 1 kg and 2 kg are attached at the


two ends of a light inextensible string passing over a smooth
pulley as shown in figure. If the system is released from
rest, find the work done by string on both the blocks in 1 s.
(Take g = 10 m/s)

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10
2
2

x(m)

10

1 kg
2 kg

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12

WORK ENERGY THEOREM:


As we have already discussed that normal component of a force does no work, the work is done only by
the tangential component of a force. The tangential component is related to rate of change of speed of the particle.
dv
, where v is speed of the particle and Ft denotes the sum of tangential
dt
components of all forces acting on the particle. We can now think of speed as a function of the distance s measured
along the curve (as shown in figure 5.14) and apply the chain rule for derivatives:

By the Newtons 2nd law, Ft = m

v = ds
dt
s

dv dv ds
dv
= = v
dt ds dt
ds

Ft = m v

dv
ds

where we have used the fact that


fin

wnet =

or

wnet =

starting
point

fig. 5.14

ds
is just the speed v. The work done by resultant force is thus
dt

Ft ds =

fin

dv

mv ds ds

in

in

fin

fin

in

in

mv dv = m v dv
1 2 1 2
mv f mvi
2
2

...(19)

1
mv 2 has the same unit as that of work and hence it is a form of energy. As it depends upon the speed
2
of the particle, it is defined as the kinetic energy, k, of the particle. Hence equation (19) can be rewritten as

The quantity

wnet = k f ki

wnet = k

...(20)

Therefore, net work done on a particle is equal to the change in kinetic energy of the particle. This theorem
is known as the work energy theorem.
If positive work is done on a particle then kinetic energy of the particle increases. If work done on a particle is
negative then kinetic energy of the particle decreases. If no work is done on a particle then kinetic energy of the
particle remains unchanged and hence speed of the particle remains constant. At this juncture you should recall the
very basic definition of work. We had defined it as energy transferred by forces and here work energy theorem
proves this definition. Now, it is clear that all the work done on a body goes to increase the kinetic energy of the
body.
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13

Using equation (12) and (20), we can get

dw = dk
= Ft ds
Ft =

dk
ds

...(21)

Therefore, the derivative of kinetic energy with respect to distance covered along the path gives the tangential
component of the net force acting on a particle. The normal component of the net force can be found by multiplying
the mass of the particle by the centripetal acceleration of the particle. We have already learnt that to change the
speed we need a tangential component of the force (in circular motion). It is in accordance with equation (21). If
tangential force is zero, then no work is done on a particle and hence its kinetic energy remains unchanged or we can
say that the speed of the particle remains unchanged. Therefore to change the speed there must be a component of
the net force along the tangent to the path and this is exactly what we discussed while covering nonuniform circular
motion.

A small ball released from rest from a height h on a smooth surface of varying inclination, as shown in figure 5.15.
Find the speed of the ball when it reaches the horizontal part of the surface.

smooth

fig. 5.15

Solution: Let the speed of the ball when it reaches the horizontal part of the surface be v0 , as shown in figure 5.16(b).

N
m
v0

v
mg

(a)

(b)
fig. 5.16

The position of the ball at some arbitrary point of the inclined part of the surface is shown in figure 5.16(a). During
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14

the entire journey there are only two forces acting on the ball:
(1) Its weight; (2) Normal contact force from the surface. Applying the work energy theorem between the
moments when it was released from the rest and when it reaches the horizontal surface, we get.
wnet = k

wg + w
N

mgh + 0 =

= kf k
i

wg work done by gravity;

wN work done by normal contact force

from equation (6),


w = mgh

1 2
mv0 0
2

v0 = 2 gh

...(22)

As the normal contact force is always perpendicular to the direction of motion, work done by it is zero.
When a ball falls freely from rest by a distance h, its speed is the same as obtained in equation (22). During
free fall the only force doing work is gravity.

In the previous problem suppose that an uncompressed spring is fixed on the horizontal part of the surface, as
shown in figure 5.17. Now, if the particle is released from rest from the position shown in the figure, find the
maximum compression in the spring if its spring constant is k.
m

h
k

fig. 5.17

Solution: When compression in the spring is maximum, speed of the ball must be zero at that moment, as shown in
figure 5.18 (c). If x0 be the maximum compression in the spring then applying work energy theorem on the ball
between the instants when it was released from rest and when the compression in the spring is maximum, we get

N
m

N
v

x0
v0
v =0

mg

(a)

mg
(b)

(c)

fig. 5.18
Work Power Energy

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PHYSICS

15

wnet = k

wg + w + wsp = k f
N

1
+mgh kx02 = 0
2

x0 =

k
i

wsp is work done by spring

2mgh
k

You should try to prove that the ball would bounce back to the same point from which it was released.

In the previous example suppose the spring is removed from the horizontal part of the surface and this part is made
rough. If friction coefficient between the rough part of the surface and the ball be , find the distance covered by the
ball on the horizontal part of the surface before it comes to rest.
Solution: Let the ball comes to rest having covered a distance s on the horizontal part of the surface. During the
motion of the ball only three forces act on the ball: (1) Gravity; (2) Normal contact force; (3) Frictional force.
Applying work energy theorem between the instants when the ball was released from rest and the ball comes to rest
on the horizontal part, we get,
N
N
sm
oo
th

mg

v
rough

mg

mg
(a)

(b)
Fig. 5.19

wnet = k

wg + wN + w fr = k f ki

+mgh + 0 mg s = 0 0

Work Power Energy

s=

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LOCUS

PHYSICS

16

A block of mass m suspended vertically by a light spring of spring


constant k is released from rest when the spring is in its natural
length state, as shown in figure 5.20. Find the maximum elongation
in the spring.

natural
length

m
released from rest
fig. 5.20

Solution: As the block is released from rest it falls downwards due to its own weight but as it moves downwards its
downward acceleration decreases due to the upward force exerted by the spring. Initially the spring force is zero,
hence the downward acceleration is maximum (=g). But as the spring elongates the net downward force decreases
and hence the downward acceleration also decreases. After some time the upward spring force becomes equal to
the weight of the block. This position is known as equilibrium position because net force in this position is zero. You
should note that at this position speed of the block is not zero. In fact, at this position speed of the block is maximum,
because before arriving to this position spring force is smaller than the weight of the block and hence the speed of
the block is increasing in the downward direction.
When the block reaches the equilibrium position, the net force on it becomes zero and hence its acceleration
also becomes zero. Therefore, speed becomes maximum because it can not increase further. Although acceleration
of the block is zero in this position, it will continue moving in the downward direction due to its downward velocity.

natural length
position

v=0
kx
a=g

mg
a

x
v(increasing kx0

x0

mg
k

2mg
2x0= k
=xmax

speed)

a=0
mg

kx

vmax

equilibrium
position
v (decreasing
speed)

mg

2kx0=2mg
a=g
v=0

fig. 5.21

mg

maximum
elongation
position

As the block passes the equilibrium position, the spring force exceeds the weight of the block and hence the
block starts decelerating and then after moving some distance with decreasing speed, it momentarily comes to rest.
Obviously when the ball comes to rest, elongation in the spring is maximum. If xmax be the maximum elongation in
the spring then applying work energy theorem on the block between the moment when it was released and when the
elongation is maximum, we get

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17

wnet = k

wg + wsp = k f ki

1 2
+mg xmax kxmax
= 00 = 0
2

xmax =

xmax = 2 x0

2mg
k

where x0 is the elongation in the spring in the equilibrium position.


Note:
*

At x = xmax block momentarily comes to rest.

At this position velocity of the block is zero but acceleration is not zero. It has an upward acceleration of
magnitude g, as shown in figure 5.21.

When elongation is maximum in the spring its speed is zero which can be proved very easily if you proceed
mathematically rather than analyzing exactly whats happening there. When elongation in the spring is maximum,
distance of block from natural length state, x, as shown in figure 5.21, is also maximum. Hence, we have
dx
=0
dt

v = 0.

A small ball of mass m is suspended by means of a light thread of


length l. When the ball is hanging vertically it is given a horizontal
speed u, as shown in figure 5.22. Find the speed of the ball and
tension in the thread supporting the ball when the thread makes an
angle with the vertical.

m
fig. 5.22

Solution: At some angular displacement , the situation is shown


in figure 5.23. Applying work energy theorem on the ball, we get,

wall = k

v
l

wT + wg = k f ki
1 2 1
mv mu 2
2
2

0 + wg =

mg h =

mg.x =

Work Power Energy

1 2 1
mv mu 2
2
2

1 2 1
mv mu 2
2
2

T
# V

mg

x = l l cos
= l (1 cos )
fig. 5.23
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v 2 = u 2 2gx

v 2 = u 2 2 gl(1 cos )

18

(i)

v = u 2 2 gl (1 cos )

At the position shown in figure 5.23, the ball is moving in a vertical circle of radius l and has a speed v, therefore, its
radial acceleration is v 2 /l. Applying Newtons 2nd law along the radial direction at this moment, we get
Fnet = ma
T mg cos = m

T = mg cos +

u2
T = 3mg cos 2mg + m
l

mu 2
2mg (1 cos )
l

[using equation (i)]

You should notice that we had done this problem in the previous chapter also (CIRCULAR MOTION).
That time we solved this problem by analyzing the varying tangential acceleration of the ball.

A small ball is released from the top of a smooth


hemispherical surface fixed on a horizontal plane as shown
in figure 5.24. If m be the mass of the ball and R be the
radius of the hemispherical surface, find the speed of the
ball and normal contact force between the ball and the
hemispherical surface as a function of , where is the
angle between radial position of the ball with respect to the
centre of the hemisphere and the vertical direction.

sm
o

v2
l

h
ot
R

fig. 5.24

Solution: The position of the ball when it moves through an angle is shown in figure 5.25. As the ball is moving on
a circular path of radius R, at the shown position it has a centripetal acceleration of magnitude v 2/R. Although, I am
not discussing about the tangential acceleration of the ball at the shown moment, you should not forget that it is also
present.
s

Applying Work Energy Theorem, we get,

Work Power Energy

sm
o

wall = k
wN + wg = k f kki
0 mg h =

1 2
mv 0
2

h
ot

x
m

mg

fig. 5.25

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LOCUS

PHYSICS

mg ( x) =

v 2 = 2 gx

1 2
mv
2

...(i)
[ x = l (1 cos )]

v = 2 gx

19

Applying Newtons 2nd law along the radial direction, we get.


Fnet = ma

mv 2
= 2mg (1 cos )
l

mg cos N =

N = 3mg cos 2mg

[using (i)]

Notice that at = cos 1(2/3), N becomes zero. What is the physical significance of this ? What would
happen when the ball passes this position?

The kinetic energy of a particle moving along a circle of radius R depends upon the distance covered as k = s 2 ,
where is a constant. Find the magnitude of the force acting on the particle as a function of s.
Solution: Let us first find the tangential and normal components of the net force acting upon the particle, then we
can find the net force by adding these two components. If Ft be the tangential component of the net force, then
Ft =

dk d ( s 2 )
=
ds
ds

= 2 s

If Fn be the normal component of the net force, then


v2
Fn = m
R
2 1

= mv 2
R 2

Work Power Energy

2
( s 2 )
R

2 s 2
R

[ k = s 2 ]

Fnet = Ft 2 + Fn2
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PHYSICS

2 s 2
(
)
= 2 s +

20

s
= 2 s 1 +
R
=

2 s
R2 + s2
R

A particle of mass m starts moving so that its speed varies according to the law v = s , where is a positive
constant, and s is the distance covered. Find the total work performed by all the forces which are acting on the
particle during the first t seconds after the beginning of motion.
Solution: Using work energy theorem, we have, work done by all forces
wall = k (change in K.E.)
= k f ki
=

1 2
mv 0
2

1 2
mv
2

1
m 2 s
2

[ initially s = 0 v = 0 k = 0]

...(i)

So, now we have to find s as a function of t. We have


ds
=v
dt

ds
= dt
s
0
s

2 s = t 0

2 s = t

s=

Work Power Energy

ds
= s
dt

ds
= dt
s
s

2t 2
4

...(ii)

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PHYSICS

m 2s
wall =
2

[Using (i)]

m 4t 2
8

[Using (ii)]

21

A particle of mass m moves along a circle of radius R with a normal acceleration varying with time as an = t 2,
where is a positive constant. Find the time dependence of the work done by all the forces.
Solution: We have,

an = t 2

v2
= t2
R

v 2 = Rt 2

...(i)

Work done by all forces,


wall = k
= k f ki

1 2
mv 0
2

1 2
mv
2

m Rt 2
wall =
2

[Using equation (i)]

A chain of mass m and length l rests on a rough surfaced table so that one of its ends hangs over the edge.
The chain starts sliding off the table all by itself provided the overhanging part equals 1/3 of the chain length. What
will be the total work performed by the friction forces acting on the chain by the moment it slides completely off the
table?
Solution: When the chain has fallen by a distance x its position on the table is shown in figure 5.26. At this instant
friction is opposing the motion of the chain and is acting towards the left. If be the friction coefficient between the
chain and the table and m be the mass of the part of the chain on the surface of the table, then friction force is

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22

f = m ' g

2l/3
x

m 2l

= x g

l 3
=

l/3

mg 2l

x
l 3

fig 5.26

In the next infinitesimally small time interval dt if the chain slides further by dx, then work done by the frictional force
can be given as
dw = f dx

mg 2l

x dx
l 3

Therefore, till the moment when the chain leaves the table surface completely (i.e., value of x becomes 2l/3), net
work done by friction forces is
w = dw

mg
l

x = 2l/3

2l

x dx
3

2
mg 2l 2l ( 2l/3)
=

l 3 3
2

mg (2l/3)2
l
2

2
= mgl
9

You should note that was not given in the question. You have to find it on your own. (Of course you can
find it from the statement of the question).
[Suppose you have to find out the speed of the chain at the moment it just leaves the table, then that can be
found by using the result above in the work energy theorem. In this case there are only three forces acting on
the chain: gravity, friction and normal contact force from the table. Normal contact force is not doing work
so you need work done by friction and gravity only to find the change in K.E. of the chain, which would lead
you to the final speed of the chain. And hence in this way you can avoid complicated equations and their
solutions which youd have encounteredif you would have chosen methods learnt in chapter NEWTONS
LAWS OF MOTION.]

In the previous example find the work done by gravity (on the chain) for the same duration.
Solution: For the same time interval dt which we considered in the previous example, work done by gravity on the
chain is
ml

dwg = + x g dx

l 3
Work Power Energy

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PHYSICS

23

mg l

+ x dx
l 3

Hence, net work done on the chain by gravity till the moment it leaves the table completely is
wg = dwg

mg
=
l
=

mg
l

x = 2l/3

+ x dx
3

2l/3
x

l 2l (2l/3) 2
+

2
3 3

mg 2l 2 2l 2
+

l 9
9

4
mgl
9

l/3

fig 5.27

x
dx

Note:
*

In the next topic we would study the concept of CENTRE OF MASS. When you are familiar with that
concept, you can find work done by gravity in a much easier way, although the method discussed here is
also simple and easy.

If v be the speed of the chain when it just leaves the horizontal surface, then applying work energy theorem
on the chain between the moments when it started sliding over the horizontal surface and when it just left the
surface, we get
wall = k

wg + w f + wN = k f ki

1 2
4
2

mgl + mgl + (0) = mv 0


2
9
9

4
2
1
mgl mgl = mv 2
9
9
2

Put the value of and then solve the above equation to get v.

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24

POWER :
The rate of doing work by a force with respect to time is defined as power developed by that force. We know that
when a force does work on a body it transfers energy to that body, therefore, power developed by a force is the
rate of energy transfer by that force. Therefore, for power, P, we can write
P=

dw
dt

...(23)

! ds! ! !
P =F
= F v
dt

! !
P = F v

! !
dw = F d s ]

...(24)

Therefore, power developed by a force is the scalar product of the force and the velocity of point of application of
the force.
The unit of power is Joule/sec which is defined as watt.
It is obvious that when force is perpendicular to the velocity, the power developed by the force is zero.
If power developed by a force is known it can be used to calculate the work done by that force. We have,

P = dw/dt

dw = P dt
t2

w = dw = P.dt

...(25)

t1

Here w is the work done by the force which is developing the power P for the time interval [t1, t2 ].
Note: A common unit of power is horsepower.
1 horsepower = 746 watt

A body of mass m is thrown at an angle to the horizontal with an initial velocity v0 . Find the mean power
developed by gravity over the whole time of motion of the body, and the instantaneous power of gravity as a
function of time. Assume that the body is thrown at t = 0.
Solution: The average power developed can be defined as the average rate of doing work. Therefore, the average
power developed by gravity for the time interval [0, t] is .

P =
=

wg
t
!
!
Fg r
t

! !
= mg v
Work Power Energy

!
r
!

using t = v
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PHYSICS

= mg v y
= mg

y
t

= mg

y(t ) y(0)
t 0

= mg

y(t )
t

25

!
v y is vertically upward component of v

y is displacement in the
vertical direction

1 2

v0 sin t gt
2

= mg
t
gt

= mg v0 sin
2

The average power developed for the entire duration of flight is zero, because for this duration y is zero.
!
Alternatively this could be explained in the following way: as the displacement, r , is horizontal for this interval its
scalar product with gravity is zero.
The instantaneous power developed by gravity is
! !
! !
P = Fg v = mg v
!
v y is vertically upward component of v

= mg v y

= mg (v0 sin gt )
From the equation above it is clear that while rising, the power developed by gravity is negative and while falling, the
power developed by gravity is positive. (while rising v y is +ve and while falling v y is ve.)
Alternate Method: We have
wg = mg h

Pg =

wg
t

mg h
t

= mg

h
t

Now, this result can be used to obtaine the desired result.

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26

For the situation given in example-10 find the dependence of the power developed by all forces on t and find the
average value of this power for the first t seconds of motion.
Solution:

We have,

an = t 2

v2
= t2
R

v = R t

tangential acceleration, at =

dv
dt

at = R

Normal component of net force,

Fn = man = m t 2
and tangential component of the net force,

Ft = mat = m R.
As we know that work is done by tangential component of the force, power is developed by this component only.
We have,

! !
Pall = Fnet v
! ! !
= (Ft + Fn ) v

( F || v! and F # v! )

Pall = Ft v

...(26)

= m R R t
= m Rt

Again, work done by all forces for the first t seconds of motion can be obtained by either finding the increment in
kinetic energy of the particle or by integrating the power with respect to time. Therefore, for the time interval [0, t],
work done by all forces is
t

wall = Pall dt = m R t dt
=

Work Power Energy

m Rt 2
2

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27

Therefore, average power developed by all forces for the same interval is

m Rt 2 /2
work done
=
Pav =
length of time interval
(t )
=

m Rt
2

Alternate-I:
We have, Pall = m Rt , which is a linear function in t, therefore, the average value of Pall

Pav =

final value + initial value


2

Pav =

Pall (t ) + 0
2

m Rt
2

Alternate-II:
Using work energy theorem for the time interval [0, t] we get,
wall = k = k f ki = k f
0

wall =

1 2 m Rt 2
mv =
2
2

Average power developed by all forces


=

work done by all forces


lenth of time interval

(m Rt 2 / 2) m Rt
=
(t )
2

Alternate-III:
Average value of f ( x) over the interval [ x1, x2 ] is given as
x2

f av =

f (x) dx

x1

[ x2 x1]

pav =
=

Work Power Energy

p(t) dt
0

(t 0)

m R t dt
0

m Rt
2
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28

Alternate-IV:
We have tangential acceleration, at = R , which is constant with time and we also have vinitial = 0,
therefore, distance traveled by the particle along the path for the first t seconds is
s=

1
1
at t 2 =
R t2
2
2

As the tangential force is constant and work done by normal force is always zero, work done by all forces for the
same time interval can be written as

wall = Ft s = m R R t 2
2

m Rt 2
2

(m Rt / 2)
=
2

Therefore,

Pall

(t )

m Rt
2

You should try to understand the physical significance of the equation wall = Ft s used here. Just give it a
thought, and you are sure to get it.

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PHYSICS

1.

A heavy stone is thrown from a cliff of height h with a speed v. The stone will hit the ground with maximum
speed if it is thrown
(a) vertically downward
(c) horizontally

2.

29

(b) vertically upward


(d) the speed does not depend on the initial direction.

Total work done on a particle is equal to the change in its kinetic energy
(a) always
(c) only if gravitational force alone acts on it

(b) only if the forces acting on it are conservative


(d) only if elastic force alone acts on it.

3.

The kinetic energy of a particle continuously increases with time.


(a) The resultant force on the particle must be parallel to the velocity at all instants
(b) The resultant force on the particle must be at an angle less than 90 all the time
(c) Its height above the ground level must continuously decrease
(d) The magnitude of its normal acceleration is increasing continuously.

4.

Under the action of a force, a 2 kg body moves such that its position x as a function of time t is given by
t3
x = , x is in metre and t in second. Calculate the work done by the force in the first 2 second.
3

5.

A block shown in figure slides on a semicircular frictionless


track. If starts from rest at position A, what is its speed at
the point marked B?

A
45

1.0m

6.

An object of mass m is tied to a string of length l and a


variable force F is applied on it which brings the string
gradually at angle with the vertical. Find the work done
by the force F.

7.

A body of mass m accelerates uniformly from rest to v in time t. As a function of t, the instaneous power
delivered to the body is :
(a) m v / t
(c) mvt 2 /t

8.

(b) mv 2 /t
(d) mv 2 /t 2 .

Figure shows a rough horizontal plane which ends in a vertical wall, to which a spring is connected, having a
force constant k. Initially spring is in its relaxed state. A block of mass m starts with an initial velocity u
towards the spring from a distance l0 from the end of spring, as shown. When block strikes at the end of the
spring , it compresses the spring and comes to rest. Find the maximum compression in the spring. The friction
coefficient between the block and the floor is .
u
k
m

l0

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9.

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30

A point mass m starts from rest and slides down the surface of a frictionless
solid sphere of radius r as in figure. Measure angles from the vertical and
potential energy from the top. Find (a) the change in potential energy of the
mass with angle; (b) the kinetic energy as a function of angle; (c) the radial
and tangential accelerations as a functions of angle (d) the angle at which the
mass flies off the sphere. (e) If there is friction between the mass and the
sphere, does the mass fly off at a greater or lesser angle than in part (d)?

10.

Two disks are connected by a stiff spring. Can one press


the upper disk down enough so that when it is released it
will spring back and raise the lower disk off the table (see
figure)? Can mechanical energy be conserved in such a
case?

11.

A smooth sphere of radius R is made to translate in a straight line with a constant acceleration a. A particle
kept on the top of the sphere is releases from there at zero speed with respect to the sphere. Find the speed
of the particle with respect to the sphere as a function of the angle it slides.

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31

While calculating work done by gravity and an ideal spring, you must have noticed that these were independent
of the path of motion of the body. Work done by these forces depends only upon initial and final positions. The same
idea leads to the fact that work done by these forces in a closed path is zero. In later chapters you would see that
coulombs forces exhibit similar behaviour. This feature of these forces allow us to group them together in a different
class of forces which are called conservative forces . Therefore a conservative force can be defined as a force
whose work done is always independent of path. Alternatively, we can say that work done by a conservative force
depends only upon initial and final positions or we can say that work done by a conservative force in a closed path
is always zero. You can define a conservative force by any of the three statements. All these three statements have
the same physical significance. Therefore if any force behaves like this, that force can be defined as a conservative
force. Forces which do not satisfy these conditions can be defined as nonconservative forces.
For a while you are urged not to go into conceptual details of this new topic. We will first develop some
methods based on the concept of conservative forces. Learn the method and its application initially, and then we will
go into the conceptual details of conservative forces.
The region in which a conservative force is acting is defined as the conservative force field of that force. For
conservative force fields we associate potential energy with them. Why do we do so? This will be clear to you as
you will proceed with this section. In a conservative force field work done by a conservative force is defined as
negative of change in potential energy of the system. If potential energy is denoted by U, then, we define
wcons = U or U = wcon

...(27)

Therefore, for gravitational field near the earths surface, the change in gravitational potential energy,
U g = wg = (mg h)

U g = +mgh

[using (6)]

...(28)

and for a spring and block system,


1
1

U sp = wsp = kx 2f kxi2
2

U sp =

1 2 1 2
kx f kxi
2
2

[using (13)]

...(29)

Now, let us use the definition of change in potential energy in the work energy theorem. We have,
wall = k

wcon + wnoncon = k

wnoncon = k wnoncon

wnoncon = k + U

..(30)

Sum of kinetic and potential energies is defined as mechanical energy, E. Therefore,


wnoncon = E

...(31)

i.e., work done by nonconservative forces is equal to the change in mechanical energy of the
system.

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32

Now, it should be clear that equations (30) or (31) are equivalent to work energy theorem. Instead of using
work energy theorem we can use either of the two equations (30 or 31). So, whats the advantage if we do this?
The advantage is that if we proceed by this method we are not supposed to calculate the work done by the
conservative forces. U on the right side of the equation compensates for that. For any conservative force field
generally we obtain a general expression for potential energy or change in potential energy. Once this result is
available, we can use equation (30) for all motions in that field. We need not calculate the work done by conservative
forces for all these motions separately. Equation (30) saves us from calculating work done by conservative forces
which is a must if we follow the work energy theorem method. This is the basic idea behind the development of this
concept. At this level you may not enjoy or realize the importance of this method because in problems at this level
you can calculate both work done by conservative forces and change in potential energy very easily. But in the next
level of study of science, in most of the cases you would find the potential energy method much simpler and easier
than work energy theorem method, because calculating conservative forces and then their work done will be really
cumbersome and more time consuming. You can consider the example of planetary motions and forces on molecular/
atomic levels.
CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY:
If there are no nonconservative forces present in a conservative force field or work done by nonconservative forces
is zero, then from equation (30) or (31), we have,
k + U = 0

or

[when wnoncon = 0]

E = 0

...(32)
...(33)

i.e., change in mechanical energy of the system is zero. This is known as conservation of mechanical energy.
From equation (32) it is clear that if k is +ve then U must be ve and if k is ve then U +ve, i.e., increase
in kinetic energy is equal to decrease in potential energy and decrease in kinetic energy is equal to
increase in potential energy. The total energy remains the same. If you want a change in the mechanical
energy of a system, nonconservative forces must do work on the system.
Let us further extend equation (32). We have

k + U = 0

[when wnoncon = 0]

(k f ki ) + (U f U i ) = 0

k f + U f = ki + U i

E f = Ei

NOTE:
While using change in potential energy or mechanical energy in work energy principle you must not consider
work done by conservative forces.
Now, let us consider the equation (28) once again. We have,
U g = +mg h

U f U i = mg (h f hi )

U f U i = mgh f mghi

Work Power Energy

...(34)
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From the equation above we may infer that gravitational potential energy as a function of height (near earth surface)
can be given as
U (h) = mgh

...(35)

But for the assumption above we need to clarify the following issues:
1.

If you assume U (h) = mgh + C , where C is a constant, then also equation (34) holds true;

2.

The height h is measured from where, i.e.,

What is the reference level to measure the height h?


The solution of both the problems lies in the fact that the potential energy is not defined absolutely. There is no
absolute value of potential energy. We always define change in potential energy. If we insist to define potential
energy then any reference position can be defined as the zero potential energy configuration of the system.
Consider equation (34) once again, we have,
U f U i = mgh f mghi

U f U ref = mgh f mghref

If at h = href we define U = U ref = 0, then

Reference level from which height is measured


is assigned zero value, i.e., h = 0

ref

U f = mgh f

U (h) = mgh

Similarly zero deformation (i.e., x = 0) is defined zero potential energy configuration for the spring and block
system. In this case, we get
U ( x) =

1 2
kx
2

...(36)

[using equation (29)]

Solve example 2 using potential energy method.


Solution: While the ball slides on the given surface only two forces act on it: (1)gravitational force; (2) normal
contact force from the surface. As the gravitational force acting on the ball is conservative in nature, we will not
consider the work done by it. Normal contact force acting on the ball is the only nonconservative force acting on the
ball. Therefore, from equation (30), we have
N
h
v
smooth
mg

Work Power Energy

fig. 5.28

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wnoncon = U + k

wN 0 = U g + k

U g + k = 0

(mg h) + mv02 0 = 0
2

1
mg (h) + mv02 = 0
2

v0 = 2 gh

[ N is always perpendicular to the direction of motion]

v0 is the speed of the ball when it arrives


on the horizontal part of the surface

Alternate-I:
Normal contact force acting the ball is the only nonconservative force acting on it and work done by it
zero, therefore,

U + k = 0

k = U
i.e., gain in kinetic energy = loss in gravitational potential energy

1 2
mv0 = mgh
2

v0 = 2 gh

Alternate-II:
As the work done by nonconservative forces is zero in this case, mechanical energy must be conserved.
Therefore
E f = Ei

U f + k f = U i + ki

mgh f +

1
0 + mv02 = mgh + 0
2

v0 = 2 gh

1 2
1
mv f = mghi + mvi2
2
2

v=0

h
v0

smooth

mg
initial
position

final
position

O P.E. level
or
O height level

fig. 5.29

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Solve example 3 using potential energy method.


Solution: Again this example can also be solved in various ways involving the concept of potential energy, as we did
in the last example. As the ball slides down the curved part of the surface, its speed increases with distance. When
the ball arrives on the horizontal part of the surface its speed becomes maximum. When the ball reaches the free end
of the spring it begins to compress the spring and its speed decreases due to the force of the spring acting on it.
When speed of the ball falls to zero, it can not compress the spring further. Hence when compression in spring is
maximum, speed of the ball is zero. You should try to analyze the motion of the ball after this moment too.
Therefore from the instant when the ball is released from rest to the moment when compression in the spring is
maximum, there are three forces which acted on the ball: (1) weight of the ball, mg; (2) normal contact force, N; (3)
spring force. Gravity and spring forces are conservative forces and normal contact force is the only non conservative
force acting on the ball. As the normal contact force is always perpendicular to the movement of the ball, work done
by it is zero.
Method-I:
According to equation (30), we have
wnoncon = U + k

wN = U sp + U g + k

U sp + U g + k = 0

1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
kx f kxi + [mg h ] + mv f mvi = 0
2
2
2

1 2
kxmax mgh + 0 = 0
2

xmax =

wN = 0]

x f = xmax , xi = 0

h = h, vi = v f = 0

2mgh
.
k

Method-II:
Here work done by nonconservative forces is zero, therefore, total mechanical energy of the system remains
the same. Hence,

U + k = 0

U sp + U g + k = 0

U sp + U g = 0

U sp = U g

gain in spring potential energy = loss in gravitational potential energy

Work Power Energy

k f = ki = 0

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1 2
kxmax = mgh
2

xmax =

36

2mgh
k

Method-III:
As the total mechanical energy is conserved in this case,
Ei = E f

U sp,i + U g ,i + ki = U sp, f + U g , f + k f

0 + mgh + 0 =

xmax =
REST
m

1 2
kxmax + 0 + 0
2

k f = ki = 0

2mgh
k

h
xmax

k
zero
gravitational
P.E. level

final position
(b)

initial position
(a)
fig. 5.30

1 m.

A string with one end fixed on a rigid wall passing over a fixed
frictionless pulley at a distance of 2m from the wall has a mass
M = 2 kg attached to it at a distance of 1 m from the wall. A mass
m = 0.5 kg attached on the free end is held at rest so that the
string is horizontal between the wall and the pulley and vertical
beyond the pulley. What will be the speed with which the mass M
will hit the wall when mass m is released? (g = 9.8 m/s)

1 m.
M
C

A
B

m
fig. 5.31

Solution: Here you should notice the following:

Block B moves in a vertical circle with the centre at A


when released from rest, as shown in figure 5.32.

1 m.

If block M hits the wall horizontally with speed v, at that


instant upward speed of block m is u = v cos .

Gravity (a conservative force) is the only force doing net


work on the system block M + block m, because work done
by the part of the string between the block m and the vertical wall
one the block m is zero ( tension force exerted by this part of
the string is always perpendicular to the movement of the block)
and the net work done by the remaining part of the string on the
Work Power Energy

1 m.
M

1 m.
u
v

m
h
fig. 5.32

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37

two blocks is also zero (although work done by it on a single


block is nonzero) which can be proved as follows:
At any moment power delivered by the part of the string
between the blocks to the block M is negative of power
delivered by it to the block m. You can take the example
of the moment just before block M hits the vertical wall,
as shown in figure 5.33. At this moment if v be the speed
of the block M and u be the speed of the block m, as
shown in figure, and T be the tension in the thread, then
power delivered to block m is

D
v

s
v co

Pm = +T u
and that delivered to the block of mass M is
Pm = T v cos

T
M

only tension forces on the


blocks from the part of the
string between the blocks are shown
fig. 5.33

Using constraint equation, we have,

u = v cos

Pm = PM

or we can say that the net power delivered to the system block m and block M by the string at this
moment is zero. Similarly we can prove this fact for any moment. Hence net work done by the string on the
two blocks during any time interval is zero.
Alternate Way:
As the string is massless, gain in its kinetic energy must be zero, therefore, net work done on it by the two
blocks must be zero. Hence, net work done by the string on the two blocks is also zero.
Now, let us solve for the required unknown v:
Method-I:
Let us apply work energy theorem on the system block m + block M for the interval starting at the
moment when the system was released from rest and ending at the moment when the block M is just about
to hit the vertical wall. We have,
wall = k = k f ki

1
1

wg + wT = mu 2 + MV 2 (0 + 0)
2
2

(+ Mg AD mg h) + 0 =

1
1
m(v cos ) 2 + MV 2
2
2

...(i)

From figure 5.32, we have


tan =

Work Power Energy

AD 1m 1
=
=
AC 2m 2

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2
;
5

cos =

and

h = increase in the length of the string on the left side of the pulley
= DC BC

) (

22 + 12 1 =

5 1

Putting these values in the equation (i), we get,


2 9 8 1 0 5 9 8

1
4 1
5 1 = 0 5 V 2 + 2 V 2
2
2 2

[it is given that m = 0.5 kg and M = 2.0 kg]


Solving the above equation we can find the value of v.
Method-II:
We have,

wnoncon = U + k

wT = U + k

U + k = 0

[ wT = 0]

i.e., mechanical energy of the system is conserved.

Therefore, we could also use E = E U + k = U + k


i
f
i
i
f
f

U m + U M + km + k M = 0

1
1

(+mgh) + (Mg.AD) + mu 2 0 + Mv 2 0 = 0
2
2

Now, putting the appropriate values as we did in the last method, we can solve for v.

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39

In example 6 we have already calculated the speed of the ball and tension in the
thread at some arbitrary angular position with respect to the lowermost position
of the ball if the ball has a speed u at its lowermost position. But at that time you
might have thought that whats the possibility that the ball would complete the vertical
circle at all? If the ball is given a horizontal speed u when it is at its lowermost
position, as shown in figure 5.34, the following three cases are possible:

fig. 5.34

(a)
(b)

The ball completes the vertical circle.


The ball does not reach the horizontal position and oscillates about its initial position, as shown in figure 5.35.

Ball never reaches the horizontal


position. It oscillates with angular
amplitude about its vertical
position.

fig. 5.35

(c)

The ball succeeds in crossing the horizontal position but fails to complete the vertical circle. In this case we will
also discuss whether, when the ball leaves the circle it has zero speed or zero tension in the string supporting
it.

Out of these three possible cases, what actually happens would depend upon the value of u. You must have an
intuition that if u is very small then the ball would oscillate and if u is large than the ball would complete the vertical
circle.
Now, consider the results obtained in example 6.
At some arbitrary angular position speed of the ball, v, is given as
v = u 2 2 gl (1 cos )

v 2 = u 2 2 gl (1 cos )

...(i)

and tension in the thread, T, is given as


T = mg (3cos 2) +

T=

mu 2
l

m 2
u + gl (3cos 2)

...(ii)

CASE A:
BALL COMPLETES THE VERTICAL CIRCLE: If the ball moves in a complete vertical circle, its distance
from the point of suspension should be always equal to the length of the inextensible string supporting it and hence
string should always be taut. Therefore,
T>0

m 2
u + gl (3cos 2) 0

u 2 + gl (3cos 2) 0

Work Power Energy

[Using equation (ii)]

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u 2 gl (2 3cos )

u 2 maximum value of gl (2 3cos )

u 2 5gl

at = (topmost position)

'2-3cos ' has its maximum value

u 5 gl

You should not that if u = 5gl , then at the topmost position T

v 2/!

becomes zero but v is nonzero. For u = 5gl at = ,


equation (i) gives,

mg

T=0
=

v = gl
and equation (i) gives,

u = 5 gl

T=0
fig. 5.36

Therefore, for u = 5gl , at the topmost position gravity alone


is providing the centripetal acceleration. This fact also gives
v2
mg = m
l

v = gl
velocity of the ball when it reaches the lowermost position is

u = 5gl

using Ei = E f k f = ki + loss in P.E.

1
1

mu 2 = mv 2 + mg (2l ) u = 5gl

2
2

If the speed of the ball at the lowermost position, u, is greater than 5gl , then its speed at the topmost position is
also greater than gl and hence more centripetal force is required. In this case both tension and gravity contribute
to the centripetal force and hence T > 0.
CASE B:
BALL OSCILLATES WITH ANGULAR APTITUDE, 0, SMALLER THAN /2:
Rearrange equations (i) and (ii) to get

and

v 2 = (u 2 2 gl ) + 2 gl cos

...(ii)

l
T = (u 2 2 gl ) + 3gl cos
m

...(iv)

For this case we have [0, /2). Therefore from equation (iii) and (iv) it is clear that if u 2 > 2 gl then neither v
nor T becomes zero in this interval of . That is neither the ball stops nor the string becomes slack in this region. We

Work Power Energy

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can also say that if u 2 > 2 gl then string would definitely cross the horizontal position (i.e., = /2 position).
Therefore if u 2 < 2 gl then the ball can not deflect by /2 and it would oscillate about its lower most position with
angular amplitude smaller than /2. In such a case, it is clear from equations (iii) and (iv) that speed of the ball
vanishes before the tension in the string. That is, in such a case tension in the string is never zero and speed of the ball
is zero at the extreme position (the position from where it starts returning back towards lowermost position). These
facts could also be explained in the following way:

fig. 5.37 (a)


(T > mg cos )

v2
!

v
in

cos

s
mg

mg

T
v=0
0

si

fig. 5.37 (b)


(T = mg cos )

If u = 2 gl then according to equations (iii) and (iv), v


and T both vanishe simultaneously at = /2, as shown in figure
5.38. In this case the ball oscillates with angular amplitude /2.
2

T=0
fig. 5.38
(ball just reaches the
horizontal position)

/2

mg
co
s

mg

The position of the ball is shown at some arbitrary angular position


in figure 5.37(a). If v be the speed of the ball at this position then
it is obvious from the figure that at this moment tension force is
balancing the radially outward component of gravity as well as
providing the required centripetal acceleration to the ball and hence
it is greater than mg cos (radially outward component of gravity).
Here tangential component of gravity, mg sin , is retarding the
upward (along the circle) motion of the ball as shown in figure
5.37(a). When speed of the ball becomes zero at some angle 0 ,
then also tension has to balance the radially outward component of
gravity, mg cos 0 , and hence it can not be zero, as shown in figure
5.37(b). In the same figure you should notice that, at
= 0, mg sin would accelerate the ball towards its lower
most position.

v=0
0

mg
u = 2gl

CASE C:
BALL CROSSES THE HORIZONTAL POSITION BUT DOES NOT COMPLETE THE VERTICAL
CIRCLE.
From the previous two cases it must be clear to you that if u is greater than 2gl but smaller than 5gl
then the ball would deflect more than /2 but it can not complete the vertical circle. Therefore, it would leave the
circular path for an angle greater than /2 but smaller than .
From equations (iii) and (iv) it can be concluded that if
u > 2 gl and > /2 then T vanishes before v (only if
u 2 < 5gl ), i.e., at some angle (as mentioned above) the string
becomes slack but the ball still has some nonzero speed, as shown
in figure 5.39. After this particular position gravity is the only force
acting on the moving ball and it has already left the circular path
(because the slack string means that the distance of the ball from
the point of suspension is smaller than the length of the string),
therefore, motion of the ball would be equivalent to that of a
projectile moving in a parabolic path.
2

v
T=0

mg

fig. 5.39

Work Power Energy

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ALTERNATE APPROACH:

Vertical line

Let us divide the vertical circle under consideration in four quadrants,


as shown in figure 5.40. Now, we will analyze the each quadrant
separately.

III

II

IV

Horizontal
line

Quadrant I:
fig. 5.40

v2
!

s
mg

v
in

mg
cos

Some arbitrary position of the ball in this quadrant is shown in


figure 5.41. From this figure it is clear that the radial component of
the gravity is in the opposite direction of the radial acceleration of
the ball and hence in this quadrant tension has two roles: first is to
balance the radial component of gravity and second is to provide
the necessary centripetal acceleration to the ball, as discussed before.
Hence, in this quadrant tension can never be zero.

fig. 5.41

If the ball just manages to reach the horizontal position then at this moment alongwith the speed of the ball tension
in the thread also becomes zero because at this position the radial acceleration and the radial component of gravity
both are zero, as shown in figure 5.38 and hence there is no requirement of tension in the thread. Using work energy
theorem or conservation of mechanical energy we can prove that for this to happen u should be 2gl .

Quadrant II:
Some arbitrary position of the ball when it is in quadrant II is shown in figure 5.42(a). It is obvious from the figure
that as the ball moves up, its speed decreases and component of gravity along the radially inward direction increases
and hence requirement of tension force becomes less and less as the ball moves up in this quadrant. Eventually at the
highest point of the circle the speed of the ball becomes minimum and the contribution of gravity in centripetal force
becomes maximum and hence at this position requirement of tension is minimum, as shown in figure 5.42(b). Therefore
this position can be defined as the critical position, because if the ball crosses this position successfully, i.e., if the
string is taut in this position, it would always be taut or we can say that the ball would complete the vertical circle.
v

in

m
gs

fig. 5.42 (a)

Work Power Energy

os
gc

v /!

v
mg
v 2/!
O

fig. 5.42 (b)


(requirement of tension is minimum at this position, i.e.,
chance of slacking of string is maximum at this position)

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If the ball is just completing the vertical circle we can assume zero tension at the critical position (topmost
point) because gravity is there to provide the required centripetal force to the ball. In such a case if v be the speed
of the ball at the highest position, then
mg =

mv 2
l

v 2 = gl

and if u be the speed of the ball when it reaches the lowermost position, then using
k f = ki + loss in P.E.

we get,

1
1
mu 2 = mv 2 + mg (2l )
2
2

u 2 = gl + 4 gl

u = 5gl

Hence, to complete the vertical circle, u 5 gl .


Note:
*

To just complete the vertical circle you can not assume zero speed at the highest point. Why so? Try to
answer it on your own.

The only difference between the analysis of the ball in quadrant II and III is that when the ball is moving in
quadrant II, it is speeding down and while it is moving in quadrant III, it is speeding up. Similar argument can
be given for quadrants I and IV.

SUMMARY:
*

When u 2gl

: The ball oscillates with angular amplitude, 0 /2.

When 2gl < u < 5gl

: The ball leaves the vertical circular path at some position (which would
depend upon u) in the IInd quadrant and thereafter moves in a parabolic
path.

When u 5gl

Work Power Energy

: The ball moves in a complete vertical circular path.

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1.

An object of mass m is tied to a string of length l and a


variable force F is applied on it which brings the string
gradually at angle with the vertical. Find the work done
by the force F. [Solving using potential energy method]

2.

A body is dropped from a certain height. When it lost an


amount of P.E. U, it aquires a velocity v. The mass of the
body is :

3.

(c) 2v/U

(d) U 2/2v.

A particle of mass m is attached to a light string of length l, the other end is fixed. Initially the string is kept
horizontal and the particle is given an upward velocity v. The particle is just able to complete a circle.

(d)

6.

(b) 2v / U 2

(c)

5.

(a) 2U / v

(a)
(b)

4.

44

The string becomes slack when the particle reaches its highest point
The velocity of the particle becomes zero at the highest point
1 2
mv = mgl.
2
The particle again passes through the initial position.

The kinetic energy of the ball in initial position was

A small block of mass m slides along the frictionless loop-the-loop track


shown in fig. (a) If it starts from rest at P, what is the resultant force acting
on it at Q? (b) At what height above the bottom of the loop should the
block be released so that the force it exerts against the track at the top of
the loop is equal to its weight?
A simple pendulum of length l, the mass of whose bob is m, is
observed to have a speed v0 when the cord makes the angle 0
with the vertical (0 < 0 < /2), as in fig. In terms of g and the
foregoing given quantities, determine (a) the total mechanical energy
of the system; (b) the speed v1 of the bob when it is at its lowest
position; (c) the least value v2 that v0 could have if the cord is to
achieve a horizontal position during the motion; (d) the speed v3
such that if v0 > v2 the pendulum will not oscillate but rather will
continue to move around in a vertical circle.

P
5R

0 l

m
v0

A chain of length l and mass m lies on the surface of a smooth hemisphere of radius R > l with one end tied to
the top of the hemisphere. Find the gravitational potential energy of the chain.

R
ZERO P. E. LEVEL
Work Power Energy

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45

7.

A smooth sphere of radius R is made to translate in a straight line with a constant acceleration a. A particle
kept on the top of the sphere is released from there at zero speed with respect to the sphere. Find the speed
of the particle with respect to the sphere as a function of the angle it slides. [solve using potential energy
mentod]

8.

A block rests on an inclined plane as shown in figure. A spring to which it is attached via a pulley is being
pulled downward with gradually increasing force. The value of s is known. Find the potential energy U of
the spring at the moment when the block begins to move.

9.

10.

The particle m in figure is moving in a vertical circle of radius R inside a


track. There is no friction. When m is at its lowest position, its speed is v0 .
(a) What is the minimum value vm to v0 for which m will go completely
around the circle without losing contact with the track? (b) Suppose v0 is
0.775 vm. The particle will move up the track to some point at P at which
it will lose contact with the track and travel along a path shown roughly by
the dashed line. Find the angular position of point P.

R
v0
m

A chain of length l and mass m lies on the surface of a smooth sphere of radius R > l with one end tied to the
top of the sphere.
(a) Find the gravitational potential energy of the chain with reference level at the centre of the sphere.
(b) Suppose the chain is released and slides down the sphere. Find the kinetic energy of the chain, when
it has slide through an angle .
(c)

11.

Find the tangential acceleration

dv
of the chain when the chain starts sliding down.
dt

A spherical ball of mass m is kept at the highest point in the space


between two fixed, concentric spheres A and B (see figure). The
smaller sphere A has a radius R and the space between the two
spheres has a width d. The ball has a diameter very slightly less
than d. All surfaces are frictionless. The ball is given a gentle push
(towards the right in the figure). The angle made by the radius vector
of the ball with the upward vertical is denoted by (shown in the
figure)

Sphere B

R
Sphere A

(a)

Express the total normal reaction forces exerted by the spheres on the ball as a function of angle .

(b)

Let N A and N B denote the magnitudes of the normal reaction forces on the ball exerted by the
spheres A and B, respectively. Sketch the variations of N A and N B as functions of cos in the range
0 by drawing two separate graphs, taking cos on the horizontal axes. Also sketch the
variations of NA and NB as functions of .

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46

CONSERVATIVE FORCES AND POTENTIAL ENERGY AGAIN:


The interaction of a particle with surrounding bodies can be described in two ways : by means of forces or
through the use of notion of potential energy. In classical mechanics both ways are extensively used. The first
approach, however, is more general because of its applicability to forces in the case of which the potential energy is
impossible to introduce (i.e., nonconservative forces). As to the second method, it can be utilized only in the case of
conservative forces.
Our objective is to establish the relationship between potential energy and the force of the conservative
! !
!
field, or putting it more precisely, to define the conservative field of forces F (r ) from a given potential energy U (r )
as a function of a position of a particle in the field.
We have learnt by now that the work performed by conservative forces on a particle during the displacement
of the particle from one point in the field to another may be described as the decrease of the potential energy of the
particle, that is,
wcon = U .
The same can be said about the elementary displacement dr! as well:

or

dwcon = dU
!
!
F dr = dU

...(37)

! !
!
Recalling that dw = F dr = Ft ds, where ds = dr is the elementary length covered along the path and Ft is the
!
tangential component of F , we shall rewrite equation (37) as
Ft ds = dU .

Hence,

Ft =

U
s

...(38)

!
i.e., the projection of the conservative force at a given point in the direction of the displacement dr equals the
derivative of the potential energy U with respect to a given direction, taken with the opposite sign. The designation
of a partial derivative /s emphasizes the fact of differentiating with respect to a finite direction.
!
The displacement dr can be resolved along any direction and, specifically, along the x, y, z coordinate axes. For
!
!
example, if displacement dr is parallel to the x axis, it may be described as dr = dxi. The work performed by the
!
!
conservative force F over the displacement dr parallel to the x axis is
! ! !
F dr = F (dxi) = Fx dx,
!
where Fx is the x-component of the force F . Substituting the last expression into equation (38), we get
Fx =

U
x

...(39)

where the partial derivative symbol implies that in the process of differentiating U ( x, y, z) should be considered as
a function of only one variable, x, while all other variables are assumed constant. It is obvious that the equations for
Fy and Fz are similar to that for Fx. So, having reversed the sign of the partial derivatives of the function U with
!
respect to x, y, z, we obtain the components Fx , Fy and Fz of the conservative force F .
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47

Hence, we have
!
F = Fxi + Fy j + F2k
!
U U U
F =
i+
j+
k
y
z
x

...(40)

The quantity in parentheses is referred to as the scalar gradient of the function U and is denoted by grad U or
U. Generally the second, more convenient, designation where (nabla) signifies the operator
= i


+
j+ k
x y
z

is used. Consequently, we can write,

!
F = U

..(41)

!
i.e., the conservative! force F is equal to the potential energy gradient, taken with the minus sign. Put simply, the
conservative force F is equal to the antigradient of potential energy.

The potential energy of a particle in certain conservative field has the following form:
(a)
(b)

U(x, y) = xy, where is a constant;


! !
!
!
!
U (r ) = a r , where a is a constant vector and r is the position vector of the particle in the field.

Find the conservative field force corresponding to each of these cases.


Solution: (a) We have,
!
U U
F =
i+
y
x
=

( xy) ( xy)
i+
j
x
y

= y

x
y
i + x
j
x
y

= ( yi + xj)

(b) We have,

!
a = axi + a y j + az k and
!
r = xi + yj + zk

Therefore,

! !
U = ar
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48

= a x x + a y y + a z z; then

!
U U U
F =
i+
j+
y
y
x

= (a xi + a y j + az k)
!
= a

A conservative force F(x) acts on a 1.0 kg particle that moves along the x-axis. The potential energy U(x) is given
as U ( x) = a + ( x b) 2 where a = 20 J, b = 2 m. and x is in meters. At x = 5.0 m the particle has a kinetic energy
of 20 J. It is known that there is no other force acting on the system. Based upon this information, answer the
following questions:
(a)

What is the mechanical energy of the system?

(b)

What is the range of x in which the particle can move?

(c)

What is the maximum kinetic energy of the particle and the position where it occurs?

(d)

What is the equilibrium position of the particle?

Solution: We have,
U ( x) = a + ( x b) 2
= 20 + ( x 2) 2

We know that at x = 5.0, K.E. = 20 J, therefore, mechanical energy of the particle,


E = Potential energy, U + kinetic energy, k
= U (at x = 5) + k (at x = 5)

= 20 + (5 2) 2 + 20
= 49 J .

As there is no nonconservative force


acting on the particle, its mechanical
energy is conserved, i.e.,

E at x = 5 is equal to the E at any x.

[Ans.(a)]

We know that,
E =U + k

k = E U

= 49 20 + ( x 2) 2
= 29 ( x 2) 2

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As the particle moves on the x-axis, its kinetic energy can never be negative, therefore, we have,

k 0

29 ( x 2) 2 0

( x 2) 2 29

x 2 4 x + 4 29 0

x 2 4x 25 0

x [3.38, 7.38]

[Ans (b)]

When the particle has maximum kinetic energy, we have,


dk
=0
dx

d 29 ( x 2)2

0 2 ( x 2) (1) = 0

x=2

dx

=0

i.e., at x = 2 , the particle has maximum kinetic energy which is equal to 29 J. [Ans. (c)]
As the conservative force is antigradient of potential energy, we have,
F ( x) =

dU
dx

d 20 + ( x 2)2
dx

= [0 + 2 ( x 2) (1)]
= 4 2x .

When the particle is in equilibrium, net force on it must be zero. As the only force acting on the particle is F(x), in
equilibrium position
F ( x) = 0

4 2x = 0

x = 2m.

Work Power Energy

[Ans.(d)]

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ALTERNATE METHOD:
Let us solve this problem graphically. For that first calculate mechanical energy, E. Following the same procedure as
we did in the last method, we get
E = 49J.
and we already have,
U ( x) = 20 + ( x 2) 2.

U (J )

The plots of E and U(x) are shown in figure 5.43. From the graph
it is clear that at x = 7.38 and x = 3.38 U becomes equal to E,
hence, at these positions k = 0 (because E = k + U). For x > 7.38
and x < 3.38, U become greater than E and hence k would acquire
ve value, which is never possible. Therefore, particle can move
only for x greater than 3.38 and smaller than 7.38.

49

As the sum of k and U is constant, k would be maximum when U


is minimum. Therefore, at x =2, k is maximum and is equal to
49 U = 49 20 = 29 J.

3.38 O

E =49J

20

7.38

X(m)

fig. 5.43

At x = 2, slope of U is zero, therefore, at x = 2, F(x), which


negative of slope of U, is also zero. Therefore, x = 2 is equilibrium
position of the particle.

NATURE OF EQUILIBRIUM
Whenever a conservative force is the only force acting on a particle, equilibrium positions of the particle can be
determined from the graph of U when plotted against the position of the particle.
Consider the case shown in figure 5.44. In this figure potential
energy, U, of a particle under the action of a conservative force
F(x) is plotted against the position of the particle, x.
It is obvious from the graph of U that at x = x1 it has a maxima and
at x = x2 it has a minima. Therefore, at both x1 and x2 derivative
of U is zero and hence F(x) is zero. Consequently x1 and x2 are
equilibrium positions of the particle. Therefore, we can say that
extrema of U occur at equilibrium positions of the particle.

x1

Now, let us analyze the force on the particle when it is in the vicinity
of one of its equilibrium positions or it is in the vicinity of an extrema
of its potential energy.
For values of x very close to x1 but smaller than x1 derivative of
U is positive because its tangent makes an acute angle with the +ve
direction of the x-axis. Therefore, in this region the force on the
particle is along negative x direction (or we can say that it is away
from x1 ), as shown in figure 5.45. Similarly, it can be justified that
for values of x very close to x1 but greater than x1 force, F(x), is
positive, i.e., it acts away from x1 , as shown in figure 5.45. Now,
suppose a particle in equilibrium at x = x1 is slightly displaced from
this position the either side and released under the action of
conservative force, F(x), only. What would happen now? The force

x2

fig. 5.44

F (x )

x1

x
F (x )

fig 5.45
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on the particle would act away from the equilibrium position


x = x1 and the particle would never come back to this equilibrium
position. Such an equilibrium position is defined as unstable
equilibrium position.
Now, let us analyze the behaviour of F(x) in the vicinity of a minima
of U. In figure 5.46 x = x2 is a minima of U. Arguments similar to
what I provided in the previous paragraph lead to the fact that in
the vicinity of x2 (a minima of potential energy) conservative force,
F(x), acts always towards x2 . Therefore, if a particle is displaced
from x2 on either side and released from rest and thereafter only
conservative force, F(x), acts upon it, it will return back to its
equilibrium position ( x = x2 ) . (A little more thought would give an
idea of oscillation about equilibrium position, which I dont want to
discuss here.) Such an equilibrium position is defined as a stable
equilibrium position.

F (x )

x2

x
F (x )

fig 5.46

Therefore, the position where potential energy, U, Posesses a maxima (first derivative of U is zero and second
derivative is negative) is an unstable equilibrium position and the position where potential energy posesses a minima
(first derivative of U is zero and second derivative is positive) is a stable equilibrium position. Therefore, in example
20, x = 2, was a stable equilibrium position.

The potential energy of a particle in a certain field has the form U = a/r 2 b/r, where a and b are positive constants,
r is the distance from the centre of the field. Find:
(a)

the value of r0 corresponding to the equilibrium position of the particle, examine whether this
positionis stable;

(b)

the range of the attraction force.

Solution: (a)

At equilibrium position:
dU
=0
dr

d (a/r 2 b/ r )
=0
dr

2a b
+ =0
r3 r2

b=

Work Power Energy

2a
r

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52

2a
b

r=

r0 = 2a/b

Now,

2a b
d 3 + 2
d U d ( dU dr )
r
r
=
=
2
dr
dr
dr
2

At r = r0 ,

6a 2b

dr 4 r 3

d 2U 6a 2b
=

dr 2 r04 r03
=

6a b 4 2b b3

16a 4
8a3

3 b4 1 b4
=

8 a3 4 a3
=

Therefore, at r = r0 ,
(b)

1 b4
8 a3

d 2U
is positive and hence this is an unstable equilibrium position.
dr 2

Radial component of force, Fr (r ), is antigradient of U with respect to r. therefore,


Fr (r ) =
=

dU
dr

2a b

r3 r2

When this force is attractive, it must be along radically inward direction and hence it should be negative. That is,

Fr (r ) < 0

2a b
<0
r3 r3

2a
b < 0
r

r>

Therefore, for r <

Work Power Energy

2a
<b
r

2a
b

2a
2a
, Fr (r ) is repulsive, at r =
, Fr (r ) vanishes and for r > 2a/b, Fr (r ) is attractive.
b
b
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MASS AND ENERGY


One of the great conservation laws of science has been the law of conservation of matter. From a philosophical
point of view an early statement of this general principle was given by the Roman poet Lucretius, a contemporary
of Julius Caesar, in his celebrated work De Rerum Natura. Lucretius wrote Things cannot be born from nothing,
cannot when begotten be brought back to nothing. It was a long time before this concept was established as a firm
scientific principle. The principal experimental contribution was made by Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794), regarded
by many as the father of modern chemistry. He wrote in 1789 We must lay it down as in incontestable axiom, that
in all the operations of art and nature, nothing is created; and equal quantity of matter exists both before and after
the experiment .... and nothing takes place beyond changes and modifications in the combinations of these elements.:
This principle, subsequently called the conservation of mass, proved extremely fruitful in chemistry and physics.
Serious doubts as to the general validity of this principle were raised by Albert Einstein in his papers introducing the
theory of relativity. Subsequent experiments on fast moving electrons and on nuclear matter confirmed his conclusions.
Einsteins findings suggested that, if certain physical laws were to be retained, the mass of a particle had to be
redefined as
m=

m0
1 v 2 /c 2

...(42)

Here m0 is the mass of the particle when at rest with respect to the observer, called the rest mass; m is the mass of
the particle measured as it moves at a speed v relative to the observer; and c is the speed of light, having a constant
value of approximately 3 108 meters/sec. Experimental checks of this equation can be made, for example, by
deflecting high-speed electrons in magnetic fields and measuring the radii of
31

1810

31

1610

[ The way an electrons mass increases as its speed


relative to the observer increases. The solid line is a plot

m, kg

31

1410

fig 5.47

31

1210

from experimental values. The curve tends toward infinity


as v c. ]

31

1010

of m= m0 (1 v 2/c 2 ) 1/2, and the circles are adapted

0.2

0.4

0.6
v/c

0.8

1.0

curvature of their path. The paths are circular and the magnetic force a centripetal one
( F = mv 2 /r, F and v being known). At ordinary speeds the difference between m and m0 is too small to be
detectable. Electrons, however, can be emitted from radioactive nuclei with speeds greater than nine-tenths that of
light. In such cases the results (figure) confirm Equation (42)
It is convenient to let the ratio v/c be represented by . The equation (42) becomes

m = m0 (1 2 )1/2.
To find the kinetic energy of a body, we compute the work done by the resultant force in setting the body in motion.
We have,
v !
! 1
K = F dr = m0v 2
0
2

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for kinetic energy, when we assumed a constant mass m0. Suppose now instead we take into account the variation
of mass with speed and use m = m0 (1 2 )1/2 in our previous equation. We find that the kinetic energy is no longer
1

given by 2 m0v 2 but instead is

K = mc 2 m0c 2 = (m m0 )c 2 = mc 2.

...(43)

2
The kinetic energy of a particle is, therefore, the product of c and the increase in mass m resulting from the
motion.

Now, at small speeds we expect the relativistic result to agree with the classical result. By the binomial theorem we
can expand (1 2 ) 1/2 as
(1 2 ) 1/2 = 1 + 2 + 4 +
1
2

3
8

5
16

6 + ........ .

At small speeds = v / c $ 1 so that all terms beyond 2 are negligible. Then


K = (m m0 )c 2 = m0c 2 (1 2 )1/2 1

1
2

1
2

1
2

= m0c 2 1 + 2 + ....... 1 m0c 2 2 = m0v 2 ,

which is the classical result. Notice also that when K equals zero, m = m0 as expected.
The basic idea that energy is equivalent to mass can be extended to include energies other than kinetic. For example,
when we compress a spring and give it elastic potential energy U, its mass increases from m0 to m0 + U/c 2. When
we add heat in amount Q to an object, its mass increases by an amount m, where m is Q/c 2. We arrive at a
principle of equivalence of mass and energy: For every unit of energy E of any kind supplied to a material
object, the mass of the object increases by an amount

m = E/c 2
This is the famous Einstein formula

E = mc 2 .

...(44)

In fact, since mass itself is just one form of energy, we can now assert that a body at rest has an energy m0c 2 by
virtue of its rest mass. This is called its rest energy. If we now consider a closed system, the principle of the
conservation of energy, as generalized by Einstein, becomes

(m0c 2 + ) = constant
or

( m0c 2 + ) = 0,

2
where m0c is the total rest energy and is the total energy of all other kinds. As Einstein wrote, Prerelativity physics contains two conservation laws of fundamental importance, namely the law of conservation of
energy and the law of conservation of mass; these two appear there as completely independent of each other.
Through relativity theory they melt together into one principle.

Because the factor c 2 is so large, we would not expect to be able to detect changes in mass in ordinary
mechanical experiments. A change in mass of 1 gm would require an energy of 9 1013 joules. But when the mass
of a particle is quite small to begin with and high energies can be imparted to it, the relative change in mass may be
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55

readily noticable. This is true in nuclear phenomena, and it is in this realm that classical mechanics breaks down and
relativistic mechanics receives its most striking verification.
A beautiful example of exchange of energy between mass and other forms is given by the phenomenon of
pair annihilation or pair production. In this phenomenon an electron and a positron, elementary material particles
differing only in the sign of their electric charge, can combine to literally disappear. In their place we find high-energy
radiation, called -radiation, whose radiant energy is exactly equal to the rest mass plus kinetic energies of the
disappearing particles. The process is reversible, so that a materialization of mass from radiant energy can occur
when a high enough energy -ray, under proper conditions, disappears; in its place appears a positron-electron pair
whose total energy (rest mass + kinetic) is equal to the radiant energy lost.

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1.

The potential energy of a conservative system is given by U = ax 2 bx where a and b are positive constants.
find the equilibrium position and discuss whether the equilibrium is stable or unstable.

2.

For the potential energy curve shown in figure


(a)

(b)
3.

Determine whether the conservative force F is


positive, negative or zero at the five points A, B, C,
D and E.
Indicate points of stable and unstable equilibrium.

In the figure shown the potential energy U of a particle is


plotted against its position x from origin. Then which of
the following statement is correct. A particle at :
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

4.

x1 is in stable equilibrium
x2 is in stable equilibrium
x3 is in stable equilibrium
none of these

x(m)

4
D

x1

x2

x3

The given plot shows the variation of U, the potential energy of interaction between two particles with the
distance separating them, r :
U
A

E
F

B
C

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

B and D are equilibrium points


C is a point of stable equilibrium
The force of interaction between the two particles is attractive between points C and D and repulsive
between points D and E on the curve.
(iv) The force of interaction between the principles is repulsive between point E on the curve.
Which of the above statements are correct.
(a) (i) and (iii)
(c) (ii) and (iv)

5.

(b)
(d)

(i) and (iv)


(ii) and (iii)

A certain peculiar spring is found not to confirm to Hookes law. The force (in newtons) it exerts when
stretched a distance x (in meters) is found to have magnitude 52.8x + 38.4x 2 in the direction opposing the
stretch. (a) Compute the total work required to stretch the spring from x = 0.50 to x = 1.00 meter. (b) With
one end of the spring fixed, a particle of mass 2.17 kg is attached to the other end of the spring when it is
extended by an amount x = 1.00 meter. If the particle is then released from rest, compute its speed at the
instant the spring has returned to the configuration in which the extension is x = 0.50 meter. (c) Is the force
exerted by the spring conservative or nonconservative? Explain.

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6.

If the magnitude of the force of attraction between a particle of mass m1 and a mass m2 is given by
mm
F = k 1 2 2 where k is a constant and x is the distance between the particles, find (a) the potential energy
x
function and (b) the external work required to increase the separation of the masses from x = x1 to x = x1 + d.

7.

The magnitude of the force of attraction between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged
e2
F
=
k
electron in the hydrogen atom is given by
where e is the charge of the electron, k is a constant,
r2
and r is the separation between electron and nucleus. Assume that the nucleus is fixed. The electron, initially
moving in a circle of radius R1 about the nucleus, jumps suddenly into a circular orbit of smaller radius R2.
(a)
(b)

Calculate the change in kinetic energy of the electron, using Newtons second law.
Using the relation between force and potential energy, calculate the change in potential energy of the
atom.
Show by how much the total energy of the atom has changed in this process. (The total energy will
prove to have decreased; this energy is given off in the form of radiation.)

(c)
8.

Given below (figure) are examples of some potential energy functions in one dimension. The total energy of
the particle is indicated by a cross on the ordinate axis. In each case, specify the regions, if any, in which the
particle cannot be found for the given energy. Also, indicate the minimum total energy the particle must have
in each case. Think of simple physical contexts for which these potential energy shapes are relevant.
U (x )

U (x )

(a) U0

(b)

U0
E

U3
U2
U1

a b

U (x )

U (x )

U0
U0
E

(c)

O
U1

Work Power Energy

E
a

(d)

a/2 -b/2

-b/2 -a/2

x .

U1

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A block of mass 2.0 kg is moved from rest on a rough horizontal surface by applying a force F ( x) = 15 + x x 2
from x = 0 0 to x = 1 0. If friction coefficient between the block and horizontal surface be 0 2 , find the gain in
kinetic energy of the block. [Take g = 10 m/s]
Solution: According to the work energy theorem,

k = work done by all forces


= work done by F ( x) + work done by friction
as the block is moving on a horizontal surface,
work done by gravity and normal contact

force from the surface is zero

x2

F ( x) dx mg d

[d = 1 0 m.]

x1
1

= (15 + x x 2 ) dx 0 2 2 0 10 1 0
0

= 15

1
x0

x2
x3
+

4
2 0 3 0

1 1

= 15 + 4
2 3

= 11.17 J.

A body of mass! m was slowly hauled up the hill shown in figure


5.48 by a face F which at each point was directed along a tangent
to the trajectory. Find the work performed by this force, if the
height of the hill is h, the length of its base l, and the coefficient of
friction .

!
F
m
h

l
fig. 4.48
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Solution: An elementary part, of length ds, of the path of the body and forces acting upon the body when it was on
that part of the path are shown in figure 5.49. The applied external force F is acting tangentially up the surface,
friction force f is acting tangentially down the surface, normal contact force N is perpendicular to the surface (and
hence is perpendicular to the direction of motion of the body) and weight, mg , of the body is acting vertically
downwards.
F
N

ds

ds
m

f
mgsin

mg cos

mg

fig. 4.9

As the body is being moved slowly, net force on the body should be zero and friction would be kinetic in nature.
Therefore,
F = N = mg cos

and

F = f + mg sin = mg cos + mg sin

As the body is moved over this elementary part of the path, from figure 4.9, work done by F is
dw = F ds

[ ds is along F ]

= [ mg cos + mg sin ] ds

= mg[ ds cos + ds sin ]

Now, if we define the horizontal direction as the x-direction and vertically upward direction as the y-direction, as
shown in figure 5.50, then we have

ds cos = dx
and

ds sin = dy

ds dy

dx

Therefore,

dw = mg dx + mg dy

fig. 5.50

Hence, net work done by force F is


w = dw =

Work Power Energy

fin

mg dx +

in

fin

mg.dy

in

w = mg l + mg h

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Note : As the body is moved slowly or we can say as the equilibrium is always maintained, gain in K.E.
of the body must be zero. Therefore, using work energy theorem, we get,
wall = k = 0

wF + wN + w f + wg = 0

( mgl + mgh) + 0 + w f mgh = 0

w f = mgl

work done by friction force = mg l

Now, notice the result obtained above for the work done by the friction force. This work done is equivalent to the
work friction would have done if the body was given the same horizontal displacement on a horizontal surface with
the same roughness.

AB is a quarter of a smooth circular track of radius r = 4m., as shown in figure 5.51. A particle P of mass m = 5 kg
moves along the track from A to B under the action of the following forces:
(i)

A force F1, always directed towards B, its


magnitude is constant and is equal to 4 newton.

(ii)

A force F2 , which always directed along the


tangent to the circular track, its magnitude is
(20 s) newton, where s is the distance traveled.

(iii)

A constant horizontal force F3 of magnitude 25


newton.

If the particle starts at A with a speed of 10 m/s, what is the speed


at B?

B
F1

F2
F3

A
fig. 5.51

Solution: First of all let us calculate work done by each of the three forces.

Work done by F1 and F2 : When the particle has already moved a distance s away from A its position is shown
in figure 5.52. If the particle has rotated about the centre of the circular path, point O, by an angle and be the
!
angle between OB and direction of F1, then in OPB, we have,

+ ( ) + ( ) =
2

Work Power Energy

2 =

+
2

+
4 2

r
2

B
!
F1

!
dl

P
A

s
fig. 5.52

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!
!
Now, if the particle is displaced by dl in next time interval dt, work done by F1 is
! !
dw1 = F1 d l

= F1 dl cos
2

= F1 dl sin
!
for infinitesimally small displacement dl ,
!

dl = ds(distance moved along path)

= F1 ds sin


= F1 sin + r d
4 2

we have,

= s/r
s = r

ds = r d


= 16 sin + d
4 2
!
In the same time interval dt, work done by F2 is given as
! !
dw2 = F2 dl

= F2 dl

!
!
F2 % dl

= F2 ds
= (20 s) ds

!
Net work done by F1 is
w1 = dw1
/2

= 16

sin 4 + 2 d
0

/2

16

=
cos +
4 20
(1/2)

= 32 {cos( /2) cos( /4)}


= 16 2 J
= 22.63 J

!
and net work done by F2 is

Work Power Energy

w2 = dw2
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r/2

62

(20 s) ds

= 20

r/2
s0

= 20

s2

r/2
0

r 2r 2

2
8

= 105.8 J
!
!
Work done by F3 : As F3 is a constant force, work done by F3 ,

w3 = F3 displacement along F3
= F3 r = 25 4 J = 100 J

Change in K.E. of particle,


k = wall

k f ki = w1 + w2 + w3

1 2 1 2
mvB mv A = ( 22.63 + 105 8 + 100 ) J
2
2

vB =

2 228 43
+ 100
5

= 13 83 m/s.

A man of height h0 = 2 m is bungee jumping from a platform situated a height


h = 25 m above a lake. One end of an elastic rope is attached to his foot and the
other end is fixed to the platform. He starts falling from rest in a vertical position.
The length and elastic properties of the rope are chosen so that his speed will have
been reduced to zero at the instant when his head reaches the surface of the water.
Ultimately the jumper is hanging from the rope, with his head 8 m above the water.
(i) find the unstretched length of the rope.
(ii) find the maximum speed and acceleration achieved during the jump.
fig. 5.53

Solution: (i) Let us denote the elastic constant (spring constant) of the rope by k and its unstretched length by l0.
The maximum length of the rope is l1 = h h0 = 23 m, whilst in equilibrium it is l2 = (23 8)m = 15 m. Initially, and
at the jumpers lowest position, the kinetic energy is zero. If we ignore the mass of the rope and assume that the
jumpers centre of mass is half-way up his body, we can use conservation of energy to write
Work Power Energy

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mgh =

63

1
k (l1 l0 ) 2.
2

In addition, in equilibrium,
mg = k (l2 l0 ).
Dividing the two equations by each other we obtain a quadratic equation for l0 ,

l02 + 2(h l1)l0 + (l12 2hl2 ) = l02 + 4l0 221 = 0,


which gives l0 = 13 m.
(ii)

When the falling jumper attains his highest speed, his acceleration must be zero, and so this must occur at the
same level as the final equilibrium position (l = l2 ).

Again applying the law of conservation of energy,


1 2 1
mv + k (l2 l0 ) 2 = mg (l2 + h0 ),
2
2

where the ratio m/k is the same as that obtained from the equilibrium condition, namely,
m l2 l0
=
.
k
g
Substituting this into the energy equation, shows that the maximum speed of the jumper is
v = 18 ms 1 65 km h 1. It is easy to see that his maximum acceleration occurs at the lowest point of the jump.
Since the largest extension of the rope (10 m) is five times that at the equilibrium position (2 m), the greatest tension
in the rope is 5 mg. So the highest net force exerted on the jumper is 4mg, and his maximum acceleration is 4g.

There are two conservative fields of forces:


!
(i)
(ii)
F = ayi;

!
F = axi + byj.

Are these forces conservative?


Solution: Let us find the work performed by each force over the path from a certain point 1( x1, y1) to a certain
point 2( x2, y2 ) :
(i)

! !
dw = F dl = (ayi) ( dxi + dyj )
= ay dx
x2

w = dw = a y dx ;
x1

(ii)
Work Power Energy

! !
dw = F dl = ( axi + byj ) ( dxi + dyj )
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64

= ax dx + dy dy

x2

y2

x1

y1

w = dw = a x dx + b y.dy

In the first case the integral depends on the type of y(x) function, that is, on the shape of the path. Consequently, the
first field of force is not a conservative field. In the second case both integrals do not depend on the shape of the
path: they are defined only by the coordinates of the initial and final points of the path: the second field of force is a
conservative field.

!
In a certain conservative field a particle experiences the force F = a( yi + xj) , where a is a constant, and i and j
are unit vectors of the x and y axes respectively. Find the potential energy U ( x, y) of the particle in this field.
!
Solution: Let us calculate the work performed by the force F over the distance from the point O (Fig.) to an
arbitrary point P( x, y). Taking advantage of this work being independent of the shape of the path, we choose one
passing through the points OMP and consisting of two rectilinear sections, then
y
p(x, y)

wOP =

! !
Fdr +

! !
Fdr .

j
0

M(x, 0)

i
fig. 5.54

!
!
The first integral is equal to zero since at all points of the OM section y = 0 and F dr . Along the section MP x
! ! !
is constant, therefore, F dr = F jdy = Fy dy = axdy and therefore,
P

wOP = 0 + ax dy = axy.
M

We know that this work must be equal to the decreases in the potential energy, i.e., wOP = U O U P. Assuming
U O = 0, we obtain U P wOP , or
U ( x, y) = axy.

Another way of finding U ( x , y ) is to resort to the total differential of that function:

U
dU =
x

U
dx +
dy.

Taking into account that U/x = Fx = ay and U/y = Fy = ax, we get


dU = a( ydx + xdy) = d (axy).

hence U(x, y) = axy.


Work Power Energy

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1.

2.

3.

65

Which of the following can be negative


(a) kinetic energy
(c) mechanical energy

(b)
(d)

potential energy
energy.

Work done by force of friction


(a) can be zero
(c) can be positive

(b)
(d)

can be negative
any of the above.

If force is always perpendicular to motion:


(a) speed is constant
(c) work done is zero

(b)
(d)

velocity is constant
K.E. remains constant.

4.

A block of mass m slides down a smooth vertical circular track. During the motion, the block is in
(a) vertical equilibrium
(b) horizontal equilibrium
(c) radial equilibrium
(d) none of these.

5.

Two equal masses are attached to the two ends of a spring of spring constant k. The masses are pulled out
symmetrically to stretch the spring by a length x over its natural length. The work done by the spring on
each mass is
1 2
1 2
kx
(a)
(b) kx
2
2
1 2
1 2
kx
(c)
(d) kx .
4
4

6.

A small block of mass m is kept on a rough inclined surface of inclination fixed in an elevator. The elevator
goes up with a uniform velocity v and the block does not slide on the wedge. The work done by the force
of friction on the block in time t will be
(a) zero
(b) mgvt cos.
(c) mgvt sin
(d) mgvt sin2.

7.

An elevator is moving upward with an acceleration a (and velocity v) when a man inside the elevator lifts a
body of mass m through a height h (in time t). The average power developed by the man is

8.

9.

(a)

m( g + a) h
t

(b)

1
m( g + a)(v + at )
2

(c)

mgh
t

(d)

1
mg (v + at ) .
2

A particle is rotated in a vertical circle by connecting it to a string of length l and keeping the other end of the
string fixed. The minimum speed of the particle when the string is horizontal for which the particle will
complete the circle is
(a)

gl

(b)

2gl

(c)

3gl

(d)

5gl

A block of mass m is moving with a constant acceleration a on a rough horizontal plane. If the coefficient of
friction between the block and ground is , the power delivered by the external agent after a time t from the
beginning is equal to :
(a) mat
(b) mgat
(c) (a + g)gt
(d) m(a + g)at.

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10.

11.

12.

13.

The block of mass m is pulling, vertically up with constant speed, by applying force P. The free end of the
string is pulled by l meter, the increase in potential energy of the block is :
(a)

mgl
2

(b)

mgl

(c)

2 mgl

(d)

mgl
.
4

P
m

A block of mass M is pulled along a horizontal surface by applying a force at an angle with the horizontal.
The friction coefficient between the block and the surface is . If the block travels at a uniform velocity, the
work done by this applied force during a displacement d of the block is
(a)

Mgd cos
cos + sin

(b)

Mgd
cos

(c)

Mgd sin
cos + sin

(d)

Mgd cos
sin

A spring placed horizontally on a rough horizontal surface is compressed against a block of mass m placed
on the surface so as to store maximum energy in the spring. If the coefficient of friction between the block
and the surface is , the potential energy stored in the spring is
(a)

m g
2k

(b)

2m 2 g 2
k

(c)

2 m 2 g
2k

(d)

32 mg 2
.
k

Work done in time t on a body of mass m which is accelerated from rest to a speed v in time t1 as a function
of time t is given by
1 v 2
v 2
(a) 2 m t t
(b) m t t
1
1
2

(c)
14.

66

1 mv 2

t
2 t1

(d)

1 v2 2
m t .
2 t12

A block of mass m moving with a velocity v0 on a smooth horizontal floor collides with a light spring of
stiffness k that is rigidly fixed horizontally with a vertical wall. If the maximum force imparted by the spring
on the block is F, then:
vo

(a)

F m

(b)

(c)

F v0

(d)

None of these.

Work Power Energy

B
m
x

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15.

16.

The kinetic energy acquired by a mass m in travelling a certain distance d, starting from rest, under the
action of a constant force is directly proportional to
(a)

(b)

independent of m

(c)

1/ m

(d)

m.

A body is moved along a straight line by a machine delivering constant power. The distance moved by the
body in time t is proportional to
(b) t 3/ 4
(a) t 1/ 2
(c)

17.

(d)

t 3/ 2

Kr
Kr

(b)
(d)

(a)

(b) P

P
O

(c) P

(d) P

A particle at rest on a frictionless table is acted on by a horizontal force which is constant in size and
direction. A graph is plotted of the work done on the particle W, against the speed of the particle v. If there
are no frictional forces acting on the particle, how graph will look like.
Y

(a)

(b) W

W
O

20.

K/r
K/r.

A motor drives a body along a straight line with a constant force. The power P developed by the motor must
vary with time t as figure.
Y

19.

t2 .

Potential energy function U(r) corresponding to the central force F= K/r would be
(a)
(c)

18.

67

(c) W
v

(d) W
v

.
v

!
A particle is acted upon by a conservative force F = 7i 6 j N (no other force is acting on the particle).

Under the influence of this force particle moves from (0, 0) to (3m, 4m), then
(a)
(c)

work done by the force is 3 J


(b)
at (0, 0) speed of the particle must be zero (d)

Work Power Energy

work done by the force is 45 J


at (0, 0) speed of the particle must not be zero

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1.

The potential energy of a particle varies with position x according to the relation U ( x ) = x 3 4 x. The point
x = 2 is a point of
(a)
(c)

2.

68

stable equilibrium
neutral equilibrium

(b)
(d)

unstable equilibrium
none of the above

The K.E. of a body moving along a straight line varies with time as shown in the figure. The force acting on
the body is
KE

3.

(a)
(b)

zero
constant

(c)
(d)

directly proportional to velocity


inversely proportional to velocity

A ball is projected vertically upwards with an initial velocity. Which of the following graphs best represents
the K.E. of the ball as a function of time from the instant of projection till it reaches the point of projection?
Y

(a) K.E.

(b) K.E.

(c) K.E.

( d) K.E.

4.

(c)

6.

.
t

A small spherical ball is suspended through a string of length l. The whole arrangement is placed in a vehicle
which is moving with velocity v. Now suddenly the vehicle stops and ball starts moving along a circular path.
If tension in the string at the highest point is twice the weight of the ball then
(a)

5.

= 5gl
velocity of the ball at highest point is gl

(b)
(d)

= 7gl
velocity of the ball at the highest point is 3gl

A particle with total energy E moves in one dimension in a region where the potential energy is U(x). The
acceleration of the particle is zero where(a)

U ( x) = E

(b)

U ( x) = 0

(c)

dU ( x )
=0
dx

(d)

d 2U ( x )
=0
dx 2

A block of mass 1 kg slides down a curved track that is one quadrant of a circle of radius 1 m. Its speed at
the bottom is 2 m/s. The work done by the frictional force is (g = 10 m/s2)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

8 J
+8J
9J
9J.

Work Power Energy

R =1m

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7.

8.

9.

A mass of M kg is suspended by a weightless string. The minimum horizontal force that is required to
displace it until the string makes an angle of 45 with the initial vertical direction is :
(a)

Mg ( 2 1)

(b)

Mg ( 2 + 1)

(c)

mg 2

(d)

Mg
.
2

A ring of mass m can slide over a smooth vertical rod as shown in figure. The ring is connected to a spring
of force constant k = 4 mg/R, where 2R is the natural length of the spring. The other end of spring is fixed
to the ground at a horizontal distance 2R from the base of the rod. If the mass if released at a height 1.5 R,
then the velocity of the ring as it reaches the round is :
(a)

gR

(b)

2 gR

(c)

2gR

(d)

3gR .

1.5 R

2.0 R

A particle which is constrained to move along the X-axis is subjected to a force in the same direction which
varies with the distance x of the particle from the origin as f(x) = kx + ax. Here k and a are positive
constants. For x > 0, the functional form of the potential energy U(x) of the particle is
[JEE]
U(x)

U(x)

(a)

10.

11.

69

(b)

U(x)

U(x)

(c)

(d)

x.

!
The potential energy function associated with the force F = 4 xyi + 2 x 2 j is :

(a)

U = 2 x 2 y

(b)

U = 2 x 2 y + constant

(c)

U = 2 x 2 y + constant

(d)

not defined

An automobile engine of mass M accelerates and a constant power P is applied by the engine. The distance
x covered in time t is given by
1/ 2

(a)

8 Pt 3
x=

9M

(c)

Pt 3
x=

9M

1/ 2

(b)

8 Pt 3
x=

(d)

Pt 3
x=

1/ 2

Work Power Energy

1/ 2

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12.

70

In the system shown in the figure the mass m moves in a circular arc of angular amplitude 60 and radius 4
m is stationary. Then
4m
60
m
A

m
B

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
13.

the minimum value of coefficient of friction between the mass 4 m and the surface of the table is 0.50
the work done by gravitational force on the block m is positive when it moves from A to B
the power delivered by the tension when m moves from A to B is zero.
the kinetic energy of m in position B equals the work done by gravitational force on the block when it
moves from position A to position B.

A particle of mass m moves on the x-axis under the influence of a force of attraction towards the origin O
given by F = k/x i . If the particle starts from rest at a distance a from the origin the speed it will attain to
reach the origin will be :
(a)

2k a x
m ax

(c)

k ax
m a x

(b)

2k a + x
m ax

(d)

m a x
.
2k ax

12

12

12

14.

12

!
The potential energy for a force field F is given by U ( x, y ) = cos ( x + y ) . The force acting on a particle at

a position given by coordinates 0, is 4

(a)

(b)

(c)

1
3
j
i +
2
2

(d)

Work Power Energy

1
i+j
2

1
i+ j
2

1
3
j
i
2
2

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