You are on page 1of 39

Chapter 2

The macroscopic laws of electromagnetism


The subject of laws is organized in like this: firstly there are presented the
laws that rule the macroscopic theory of electromagnetism (in Chapter 2), and
then a few of the conclusions and consequences derived from the laws system
(in Chapter 3). In paragraph 3.5 there are presented the unit measures of the
electric and magnetic quantities, and in Chapter 4 there is presented the use of
these laws for some significant problems computation.
The laws of macroscopic theory of electromagnetism represent a set
of mathematical relations coherent from the point of respecting the truth
criteria, completeness and non-contradiction, relations that connect the
quantities which characterize the electromagnetic field and the
electromagnetic state of the bodies in variable regime, gathering in a
mathematical shape the electromagnetic field phenomenology.
During the presentation of each law, after the statement and the comment
of its mathematical formulation, we follow to mark out its physical significance
and its most important consequences, firstly in variable regime, then in various
particular regimes: quasi-stationary regimes (in which the variations in time of
some of the quantities are sufficiently slow so they can be neglected), steady
state (stationary) regimes (in which the quantities are time-invariant, but there
are energy transformations) and static regimes (which are stationary regimes
without energy transformations).

2.1. Electric flux law (Gausss law on the electric flux)


Statement: Electric flux through any closed surface is equal at
any moment to the electric charge qV form domain V bounded by the
surface :

qV .

(2.1.1)

33

dA dA ext

V
dv

Figure 2.1.1
If the electric charge from domain V has the volume distribution
density a v (see Figure 2.1.1), then relation (2.1.1) can be explicitly written:

D dA D dAext v dv

(2.1.2)

and it represents the integral form of the electric flux law.


Applying Gauss-Ostrogradski relation, one obtains:

D dA div D dv v dv,

(2.1.3)

relation which, being true for any arbitrary considered domain V ,


imposes the equality of the integrands:

div D v ,

(2.1.4)

expression which represents the local form the electric flux law for continuity
domains.
Electric flux law emphasizes one of the causes that generates electric
field, namely charged bodies.
div D 0

div D 0

div D 0

Figure 2.1.2

34

It is well-known that, for any field vector, the points from the space in
which the divergence is nonzero represent end points of field lines (starting
point if the divergence is positive, and, respectively, end points if the divergence
is negative). It results that the lines of the electric field produced by charges
are open curves, starting from the positive charged bodies and ending on the
negative charged bodies (see Figure 2.1.2).

2.2. Magnetic flux law


Statement: Magnetic flux through any closed surface is zero in
any moment:

0.

(2.2.1)

Replacing in equation (2.2.1) the expression of the magnetic flux, one


obtains the integral form of the magnetic flux law:
B dA B dAext div B dv 0.
(2.2.2)

Because this relation is valid for any space domain V , it results the
local form for continuity domains of the magnetic flux law:
(2.2.3)

div B 0.

According to relation (2.2.3), the magnetic flux density field vector is a


solenoidal one (without sources). This fact underlines on one hand the nonexistence of the magnetic charges similar to electric charges and, on the other
hand, the inexistence of some points extremity of magnetic field lines.
Therefore the magnetic field lines are not open curves.
An immediate consequence of the magnetic flux law is that the magnetic
flux through any open surface bounded by the same closed curve is the
same.
In order to prove this statement one will consider an arbitrary closed curve
, and two arbitrary open surfaces S , j and S, k , which rest on curve
- see Figure 2.2.1.

35

dA j dAext

S , j
dA k dAext

S ,k

dl
Figure 2.2.1

By convention we associate the line oriented element dl with each of the


area oriented elements dA k and dA j according to the right corkscrew rule, we
write the relation (2.2.2) for the closed curve , reunion of the open surfaces
S , j and S, k . In these conditions, the integral on will be the sum of the

integral on S , j and S, k :

B dAext B dAext B dAext B dA j B dAk 0.

S , j

S , j

S , k

S , k

(2.2.4)

Therefore

B dA j B dAk B dAk

S , j

S , k

(2.2.5)

for any open surface S which sits on the closed curve , which shows that
the magnetic flux has a unique value through all open surfaces bounded by
the same closed curve.
Moreover, the vector identity

div curl A 0

(2.2.6)

allows the introduction of a new quantity, called magnetic vector potential and
denoted by A with relation:

curl A B .

36

(2.2.7)

As vector A is uniquely determined only if we know its divergence, it is


common that in stationary regime to adopt the calibration condition
(2.2.8)

div A 0
such that the field vector A to be a solenoidal one too.

Applying the Stokes theorem, the magnetic flux which flows through an
arbitrary open surface S , which sits on a closed curve , can be expressed
by the line integral of the of the magnetic potential vector on the curve :

B dA curl A dA A dl .

(2.2.9)

This shows that the magnetic flux through an open surface depends
only on the closed curve that bounds it.

2.3. The magnetic constitutive law


(the relationship law between magnetic flux density, magnetic
field strength and magnetization)
Statement: For any point and for any time moment, between magnetic
flux density vector B , magnetic field strength vector H and magnetization
vector M exists the following relation:

B 0 H M .

(2.3.1)

We mention this law has only local form.


By expressing the magnetization vector M by its two components,
namely temporary component M t and permanent component M p , the
magnetic constitutive law has the following form:

B 0 H 0 M t 0 M p

(2.3.2)

and emphasizes as magnetic field generating cause bodies that have


permanent magnetization.

37

2.4. Temporary magnetization law


Statement: For any point and for any time moment, temporary
magnetization M t depends on the magnetic field strength H :

Mt Mt H .

(2.4.1)

Function of magnetic materials nature, relation (2.4.1) has explicit


specific forms.
We remind a material is called isotropic if in any of its points there are
no privileged directions (in other words, its local properties does not depend on
the direction of a certain quantity) and is called linear if in any of its points
there are no privileged values (in other words, its local properties does not
depend on the value of a certain quantity).
Below there will be presented and discussed the various dependences
between the magnetic flux density and the magnetic field strength function of
magnetic materials nature.
For isotropic linear materials, the dependence (2.4.1) has the form

M t m H,

(2.4.2)

where the proportionality coefficient m is a non-dimensional material constant


which is called magnetic susceptibility, and the magnetic constitutive law
becomes

B 0 H 0 M t 0 M p 0 H 0 m H 0 M p
0 1 m H 0 M p .

(2.4.3)

The non-dimensional material parameter

r 1 m

(2.4.4)

is called relative permeability, and the dimensional quantity

o r

(2.4.5)

is called absolute permeability.


Using these, the magnetic constitutive law in magnetic field becomes
B H 0 M
38

H I p,

(2.4.6)

in which the quantity 0 M

Ip

I p is called magnetic polarization.

B H I p

Figure 2.4.1, a

Figure 2.4.1, b

Vectors H , H , B and I p 0 M p are placed from qualitative point


of view as in Figure 2.4.1,a case for which M

0 and, respectively, as in

Figure 2.4.1,b case for which M p 0.

Function of their relative permeability values, the materials are being


classified as follows:
diamagnetic materials (that have a r slightly less than one);
paramagnetic (that have a r slightly more than one);
ferromagnetic materials (with very big r , touch four figures and which,
from certain pair of values, they loose their linear character).
In the table below there are presented values of the relative permeability
for a couple of diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials, observing that for all of
them one can consider r 1.

Name of diamagnetic material

Hydrogen

1-0,06310-6

Copper

1-08,810-6

Water

1-910-6

Zinc

1-1210-6
39

Name of diamagnetic material

Halite

1-12,610-6

Silver

1-1910-6

Mercury

1-2510-6

Bismuth

1-17610-6

Name of the paramagnetic material

Azoth

1+0,01310-6

Air

1+0,410-6

Oxygen

1+1,910-6

Aluminum

1+2310-6

Platinum

1+36010-6

For linear anisotropic materials one notices that, if there is considered


a three-orthogonal coordinate axis system, in each point in the space each scalar
component of temporary magnetization vector depends in principle on all scalar
components of the magnetic field strength vector. In a Cartesian coordinate
system,
for
example,
if
H Hx i Hy j Hz k ,

M t M t x i M t y j M t z k and B Bx i B y j Bz k , then

M t m H x m H y m H z
xx
xy
xz
x

M t y m yx H x m yy H y m yz H z

M t z m zx H x m zy H y m zz H z .

(2.4.7)

Dfining the magnetic susceptibility tensor m by the attached matrix:

40

m
xx
m yx

m
zx

m xy
m yy
m zy

m xz

m yz ,

m zz

(2.4.8)

The law of temporary magnetization can be shortly written as


(2.4.9)

M t m H

and it leads to the following form of the magnetic constitutive law

B 0 H 0 M t 0 M p 0 H 0 m H 0 M p

(2.4.10)

0 1 m H 0 M p 0 r H 0 M p H I p ,
where r 1 m is he relative permeability tensor, and 0 r is the
absolute permeability tensor.

Ip

B H I p

B H
H

H
H
Figure 2.4.2, a

Figure 2.4.2, b

Relation (2.4.10) has the vector interpretation from Figure 2.4.2,a with
the particular case in Figure 2.4.2,b corresponding in which M p 0.
If we explicitly write the relation (2.4.10):

Bx xx

B y yx
B
z zx

xy
yy
zy

xz H x I p x


yz H y I p y ,

zz H z I p
z

(2.4.11)

41

we remark the fact that the matrix corresponding to the tensor is symmetrical
and positive defined. There are three orthogonal directions, called principal
magnetization directions, having the unit vectors u1 , u 2 , u 3 , for which the
scalar
components
of
vectors
B B1 u1 B2 u 2 B3 u 3 ,
H H1 u1 H 2 u 2 H 3 u 3 and I p I p u1 I p u 2 I p u 3 after
1

these three directions satisfy the matrix relation:

B1 1 0 0 H1 I p1
B 0 0 H I .
2
2
2 p2
B3 0 0 3 H 3 I p
3

(2.4.12)

For nonlinear materials the dependence between the magnetic flux


density and magnetic field strength can be expressed (or at least approximated)
analytically (see Figure 2.4.3) by a real, nonlinear function f :

B f H .

(2.4.13)

H
0
Figure 2.4.3
One notices there are nonlinear materials (such as for example some
iron, nickel, cobalt alloys) for which the dependence of the relationship
between the magnetic flux density and the magnetic field strength cannot be
expressed (and not even approximated) analytically. These materials present a
specific phenomena called magnetic hysteresis, which expresses the fact that a
functioning point from the curve which gives the dependence B BH has
coordinates dependent on the succession of states followed to arrive in that
specific point, so it depends on the historical realizations of that state.

42

Below we present, from the qualitative point of view, this phenomena (see
Figure 2.4.4). Starting from an initial state in which the material is not
magnetized, state corresponding to point O0;0 in the plane H; B and
applying a magnetic field with increasing magnetic field strength, one notices
first a nonlinear increase of the magnetic flux density followed by a
saturation plateau until point A1 H max ; Bmax . On this plateau, an increase of
the magnetic field strength does not lead to significant increases of the magnetic
flux density. OA1 curve is called the first magnetization curve.

Figure 2.4.4
When the magnetic field strength is decreased, the values of the magnetic
flux density do not coincide to those corresponding to the first magnetization
curve for the same values of H . The decrease of the magnetic flux density is
realized by applying an increasing magnetic field but opposite as direction to the
initial one. To magnetic field cancellation it corresponds a nonzero remanent
magnetic flux density the functioning point A2 0; Br . The magnetic field that
cancels the magnetic flux density is called coercive magnetic field
functioning point A3 H c ;0 .
43

The continuation of decreasing the magnetic field strength until value


H max is reached, brings the functioning point A4 H max ; B max in a point
A1 symmetric with respect to the origin of the coordinate system axis. Then, if
the magnetic field is increased, the functioning points are being placed on the
curve A4 A5 A6 A1 which is symmetric to curve A1 A2 A3 A4 with respect to the
origin. In this way the hysteresis cycle closes.
Ferromagnetic materials magnetize following irreversible evolutions,
which for a given value of H corresponding in principle to three possible values
for B , corresponding to the first magnetization curve OA1 , to the descending
part A1 A2 A3 A4 or to ascending part A4 A5 A6 A1 of the hysteresis cycle.
We also mention that, once we arrive in point A , for example H ; B
coordinate, we decrease the value of the magnetic field by value H , after
which we come back to the starting value point, describing in this way a
secondary cycle. This cycle is very flat, it can be approximated by its median
and, the transformation that took place can be considered as being quasireversible.
In point P there are defined the following three relative permeabilities
(see Figure 2.4.4):
static relative permeability r, s , equal to the to the trigonometric tangent of
the angle between AO chord and OH axis:

r,s

B
0 H

tg ;

(2.4.14)

dynamic relative permeability r, d , equal to the to the trigonometric tangent


of the angle between the trigonometric tangent in point A and the OH axis:

B
H 0 0 H

r , d lim

H 0

tg ;

(2.4.15)

reversible relative permeability r, rev , equal to the to the trigonometric


tangent between the median of the secondary cycle and the OH axis:

B
H 0 0 H

r , rev lim

H 0

with Max ; .

44

tg ,
A

(2.4.16)

According to the width of the hysteresis cycle, the ferromagnetic materials


can be divided into two big categories:
o soft magnetic materials, characterized by narrow cycles, respectively small
coercive fields (see dependence (a) from Figure 2.4.5);
o hard magnetic materials, characterized by wide cycles, respectively big
coercive fields (see dependence (b) from Figure 2.4.5).
B

Figure 2.4.5
The curves from Figure 2.4.5 gives us only a qualitative information, that
do not make out the real magnitude order of the ratio between the widths of the
hysteresis cycles. For comparison, we present below the values of the remanent
flux density Br and of the coercive field H c for a few of the soft
ferromagnetic materials, respectively for hard magnetic materials.

Br

H c

A / m

Super Malloy (79% Ni; 15% Fe; 5% Mo; 0,5% Mn)

0,6

0,4

Perm alloy (78,5% Ni; 21,5% Fe)

0,6

Pure Iron

1,4

Nickel Zinc Ferrite

0,13

10

Name of the soft ferromagnetic material

45

Br

H c

A / m

Electrotechnical Steel (with 4% Si)

1,8

40

Manganese Zinc Ferrite

0,15

20

Steel (cu 1% C)

0,7

5103

Chrome Steel, Wolfram Steel

1,1

5103

Alnico (12% Al; 20% Ni; 5% Co; 63% Fe)

0,73

34103

Oerstit (20% Ni; 30% Co; 20% Ti; 30% Fe)

0,55

65103

Cobalt Ferrite

0,16

90103

Barium Ferrite

0,35

200103

Cobalt Platinum Alloy (77% Pt; 23% Co)

0,45

260103

Name of the hard ferromagnetic material

One can notice that, for both categories, the magnitude order of the
remanent flux densities is the same, while the values of coercive fields are
slightly different. For example, taking into consideration two materials with the
same value of the remanent flux density, manganese zinc ferrite from the soft
materials category and cobalt ferrite from the hard materials category, one can
notice a ratio between the widths of the hysteresis cycles, expressed by the ratio
of their coercive fields, of 1/4.500.
Finally, its important to mention that the completion of a hysteresis
cycle is accompanied by energy transfer from the magnetic field to the
ferromagnetic body, the volume density of this energy being proportional to
the cycles area (as Warburg theorem proves, theorem that will be presented in a
following chapter of this book).
We also remember that the properties of the ferromagnetic material
are greatly influenced by temperature, these properties even disappearing
for certain limit values of temperature, proper for each material, called
Curie points. Curie point for cobalt is 1.1370 C , for iron is 7530 C , and for
0
nickel is 376 C . Increasing the temperature over the Curie point value
leads to the transformation of ferromagnetic materials into paramagnetic
materials.

46

2.5. The electric constitutive law


(the relationship between electric displacement, electric field
strength and electric polarization)
Statement: For any point and for any time moment, between electric
displacement vector, D electric field strength vector E and polarization
vector P exists the following relation:

D 0 E P.

(2.5.1)

As for the magnetic constitutive law, this law has only local form.
Expressing the electric polarization vector P by its two components,
namely the temporary P t and the permanent component P p , the electric
constitutive law has the following form:

D 0 E Pt Pp

(2.5.2)

and emphasizes as electric field generating cause bodies that have


permanent electric polarization.

2.6. The law of temporary polarization


Statement: For any point and for any time moment, temporary
electric polarization P t depends on electric field strength E :

Pt Pt E .

(2.6.1)

Depending on the electric material nature, relation (2.6.1) has explicit


particular forms.
As follows we present and comment various types of dependences
between electric displacement and electric field strength as a function of
magnetic materials nature.
For linear and isotropic materials, the dependence (2.6.1) has the form
P t 0 e E,

(2.6.2)

47

where the proportionality coefficient e is a material numeric (nondimensional) constant called electric susceptibility, and the electric constitutive
law becomes

D 0 E Pt Pp 0 E 0 e E Pp 0 1 e E Pp .
The numeric quantity

(2.6.3)

r 1 e
is called relative permittivity, and the numeric quantity

(2.6.4)

0 r
is called the absolute permittivity or electric constant.

(2.6.5)

Using these notations, the electric constitutive law has the form

D E P p.

Pp

(2.6.6)

D E Pp
E
E

D E

Figure 2.6.1, a

Figure 2.6.1, b

Vectors E , E , D and P p are qualitative placed as in Figure 2.6.1,a for


the case in which P p 0 and, respectively, as in Figure 2.6.1,b for the case in
which P p 0.
Depending on their relative permittivities, materials can be classified as
follows:

diaelectric materials (which have r closed to 1);

paraelectric materials (which have unit order r );

ferroelectric materials (which have very big r , thousands order and


which, if bigger than certain pair of values, they loose their linear
characteristics).
In the table below e present the values of the relative permeabilities for
some of the diaelectric and paraelectric materials.

48

Name of the material

Aggregation state

H2

1,0003

Air

1,0006

O2

1,0006
Gaseous

CO

1,0007

CO2

1,001

CH4

1,001

C2H6

1,0015

Air ( 1910 C )

1,43

Transformer oil ( 200 C )

2,2

Acetone ( 200 C )

21,2

Ethyl alcohol ( 15 0 C )

26
Liquid

32,5

Methyl alcohol (15 C )


Nitrobenzene (18 0 C )

36

Distilled water ( 200 C )

81,1

Hydrocyanic acid (15 0 C )

95

Paraffin

2,2

Polyethylene

2,3

Polyamide

Solid

2,4

Insulant paper

2,4

Bakelite

2,8

Plexiglas
Pressboard

Solid

3,03,6
3,44,3

49

Aggregation state

Name of the material


Ebonite

2,55,0

Rubber

3,06,0

Quartz glass

4,04,2

Porcelain

5,06,5
Solid

ClNa

5,5

Mica

5,07,0

Glass

5,58,0

SO4K2

8,35

Diamond

16,5

For linear and anisotropic materials, one can notice that, if a threeorthogonal coordinate system is taken into consideration, in each point from the
space, each scalar component of temporary electric polarization vector depends,
in principle on all scalar components of electric field strength vector. In a
Cartesian coordinate system, for example, if E E x i E y j E z k ,

P t Pt x i Pt y j Pt z k and

D Dx i D y j D z k , then
Pt 0 e E x 0 e E y 0 e E z
xx
xy
xz
x

Pt y 0 e yx E x 0 e yy E y 0 e yz E z

Pt z 0 e zx E x 0 e zy E y 0 e zz E z .

(2.6.7)

Defining the electric susceptibility e by the attached matrix:

e
xx
e e yx

e
zx

e xy
e yy
e zy

e xz

e yz ,

e zz

the temporary electric polarization law can be shortly written


50

(2.6.8)

(2.6.9)

Pt 0 e E

and it leads to the following magnetic constitutive

D 0 E Pt P p 0 E 0 e E P p
0

1 E P
e

(2.6.10)

0 r E P p E P p ,

where r 1 e is the relative permittivity tensor, and 0 r is the


absolute permittivity tensor.

Pp

D E Pp

D E
E
E

Figure 2.6.2, a

Figure 2.6.2, b

Relation (2.6.10) has the qualitative vector interpretation from Figure


2.6.2,a with the particularization from Figure 2.6.2,b corresponding to situation
for which P p 0.
If relation (2.6.10) is written explicitly:

D x xx xy xz E x Pp x

P
yy
yz y
py ,
y yx


D
z zx zy zz E z Pp z

(2.6.11)

and it can be noticed that the matrix corresponding got tensor is symmetrical
and positive defined. So, there are three orthogonal directions (called
electrization principal directions), having the unit vectors u1 , u 2 , u 3 for
which the scalar components of the vectors D D1 u1 D2 u 2 D3 u 3 ,
E E1 u1 E2 u 2 E3 u 3 and P p P p u1 P p u 2 P p u 3 with
1

respect to these three directions, satisfy the matrix relation:

51

D x 1

D y 0
D 0
z

2
0

0 E x Pp x

0 E y Pp y .

3 E z P
pz

(2.6.12)

2.7. Electromagnetic induction law (Faradays law)


Statement: The electromotive force (emf) u along a closed curve
is equal to the rate of decrease (in time) of the magnetic flux S across any
surface S bordered by the closed curve :

d S
dt

(2.7.1)

Considering the definition relations of emf and of the magnetic flux it


results the integral form of the law:

E dl dt B dA.

(2.7.2)

dA

dl

Figure 2.7.1
The electromagnetic induction law has the above form only with the
condition that the reference direction of the closed curve (the reference
direction of the oriented line element dl ) and the direction of the normal to
the surface S (the oriented area element dA ) are associated according to
right corkscrew rule (see Figure 2.7.1).
52

For moving media, the integration domains follows the bodies in their
movement, and the derivative with respect to time of the magnetic flux is a
substantial derivative and it is computed using the following relation:

d
B

dA

div
B

curl
B

w
dA,
t
dt S

(2.7.3)

where w is the local speed vector of the medium.


Using Stokes relation, it results that

E dl curl E dA

(2.7.4)

rot B w dA B w dl .

(2.7.5)

and
S

Taking into account the local form (2.2.3) of the magnetic flux law, one
obtains a new integral form of the electromagnetic induction law:

E dl

B
dA B w dl.

(2.7.6)

Relation (2.7.6) emphasizes the physical significance of the law: the time
variable magnetic field produces (induces) an electric field by the
electromagnetic induction phenomena. Therefore, the electromagnetic
induction is a physical phenomena, unlike electric displacement D and
magnetic induction B which are physical quantities.
Moreover, relation (2.7.6) allows the decomposition of the emf into two
components:
u ut um ,

(2.7.7)

with

ut

B

dA

B
dA

(2.7.8)

53

called emf induced by transformation and, respectively,

u m B w dl

w B dl

(2.7.9)

called emf induced by movement.


The two components correspond to the two ways of electromagnetic
induction phenomena production: the time variation of the magnetic
induction B at rest (no movement) ( u t is on zero in this case), respectively,
the movement of at least a portion of a closed curve in a magnetic field
in such a way that the field lines are cut away by the field (only in this case
um is non zero).
We remark that the sum from relation (2.7.7) does not depend on the
reference system chosen for the movement, while the separation into two
components depends in general o the adopted reference system.
The reference system of the emf can be arbitrary chosen. To determine
the real sense of the induced emf, Lenz formulated his famous rule: the real
direction of emf is such that its effects oppose the generating causes.
Therefore, the minus sign from relation (2.7.1) does not have to be
assimilated from mathematical point of view with Lenzs law, this coming from
the adopted convention when we associate the direction for dl with the direction
of dA according to the corkscrew rule.
For continuity domains the equality:

curl
w

B
t
dA

curl E dA

(2.7.10)

is valid for any surface S and it imposes the equality of the integrands:
curl E

B
curl w B .
t

(2.7.11)

Relation (2.7.11) represents the local form for continuity domains of the
electromagnetic induction law.

For media at rest w 0 it results the local form

54

B
t

(2.7.12)

B
dA.

(2.7.13)

curl E

and respectively, the integral form

Relation (2.7.12) shows that E is a rotational field and it underlines that


the lines of the electric field produced by electromagnetic induction
phenomena are closed curves which surrounds the lines of the time varying
magnetic field which generated them.
In stationary regime, the electromagnetic induction law becomes the
theorem of the stationary electric potential, which ha the local form

curl E 0

(2.7.14)

and, respectively, the integral form

E dl 0.

(2.7.15)

The local form (2.7.14) of electromagnetic induction law in stationary


regime shows that, in this regime, the vector field E is non-rotational and,
according to the vector identity which states that the curl of the gradient for any
scalar field is zero, it can be introduced the scalar quantity V , called electric
potential, with relation:

E grad V .

(2.7.16)

Figure 2.7.2
55

The integral form of the electromagnetic induction law in stationary


regime allows the demonstration of the following theorem: the voltage drop
between two points M k and M j from space (arbitrary point) does not
depend on the paths (integration curve) between them.
Indeed (see Figure 2.7.2), let consider two paths (arbitrary) between M k
and M j , represented by the open curves C1 and C 2 , whose reunion is the
closed curve .
According to relation (2.7.15) it results that
Mj

Mj

Mk

Mj

E dl E dl E dl E dl E dl 0

Mk
C1

Mj
C 2

Mj

Mj

Mk
C1

Mk
C 2

(2.7.17)

that is

E dl E dl u M k M j .
Mk
C1

(2.7.18)

Mk
C 2

The electric voltage is therefore a scalar physical quantity referring


to an ordered pair consisting of two points from the space, while the electric
potential is a physical scalar quantity associated to each point in the space.
As relation (2.7.16) is a differential type relation, it means that electric
potential is defined up to an arbitrary additive constant. This constant represents
the value V M 0 VM 0 , arbitrary, of potential M 0 from the space, arbitrary,
considered to be reference value for all potentials. Then, the potential of any
point from the space, for example M j , is

V M j VM j VM 0

Mj

E dl.

(2.7.19)

M0

This relation is immediately computed if it is computed the electric


voltage between points M j and M 0 . For easiness, we use Cartesian coordinate
system:

56

M0

u P j P0

M0

E dl grad V dl
Mj

Mj

M0

V
V
V

k dx i dy j dz k
x y

Mj

M0

0
V

V
V

dx
dy
dz dV V

Mj
Mj

Mj
M0

(2.7.20)

V M j VM 0 ,

which represents exactly relation (2.7.19).


Computing electric voltage between two points M k and M j from the
space following a path
2.7.2), one obtains:
Mj

uMk M j

C3 , arbitrary, but crossing the point

M0

Mj

E dl E dl E dl VM 0

Mk

C3

Mk

M 0 (see Figure

VM0

M0

(2.7.21)
Mj

V M 0 E dl V M 0 E dl V M k V M j ,


M0
M0

Mk

relation which represents the expression of the voltage between any two
points function of their potentials.
If one considers VM 0 0 , it is said that point M 0 is grounded or
earthed and in an electric circuit it has a specific symbol (see Figure 2.7.2).
In these conditions

V M j VM j

M0

E dl.

(2.7.22)

Mj

57

2.8. The magnetic circuit law (Ampre Law)


Statement: The magnetomotive force (mmf) um along any closed
curve is equal to the sum between the conduction electric current iS
through an open surface S , arbitrary, bordered by the closed curve
and the time derivative of the electric flux over the same surface S :

um iS

dS
dt

(2.8.1)

The term iS is also called solenaie and it is denoted by S .


By rewriting relation (2.8.1) one obtains the integral form of the law:

H dl

J dA

d
D dA
dt S

(2.8.2)

which has the above presented form only if the association between the
reference direction of the orientation the oriented line element dl and the
oriented area element dA is according to the corkscrew rule (as for the
electromagnetic induction law).
For moving media, the integration domains follows the bodies in their
movement, following a similar path as the one described for the electromagnetic
induction law, and the integral developed form of magnetic circuit law is
obtained:

H dl curl H dA J dA

div
D

curl
D

w
dA
t

J dA

D
dA

w divD dA curlD w dA ,

58

(2.8.3)

respectively,

u m iS id S

iv S

iR S .

(2.8.4)

On the right side of equality (2.8.4) we have four terms:


-the conduction current:

iS

J dA;

(2.8.5)

D
dA ,

t
S

(2.8.6)

- the displacement current:

idS

where

D
Jd
t

(2.8.7)

is the displacement current density;


- the convection current:

ivS

w div D dA w v dA,

(2.8.8)

where

w v J v

(2.8.9)

Is the convection current density;


- Roentgen current

iR S

curlD w dA D w dl .

(2.8.10)

The magnetic circuit law emphasizes two causes that can generate the
magnetic field: conducting bodies transited by conduction currents and/or
time variable electric fields (by displacement currents, convection and
Roentgen currents).

59

For continuity domains, the equality (2.8.3), true for any surface S ,
leads to:
curl H J

D
w v curl D w ,
t

(2.8.11)

relation that represents the local form of the magnetic circuit law.

For stationary media w 0 the local form becomes:

rot H J

D
t

(2.8.12)

and it shows that the closed lines of the magnetic field surrounds the
conductors transited by conduction currents, respectively the lines of the
time variable electric field that generate them.
In steady state regime the magnetic circuit law becomes the Ampre
theorem, and it has the local form:

curl H J

(2.8.13)

and, respectively, the global form

u m is .

(2.8.14)

In the particular cases of the point from the space for which the vector
field H is non-rotational ( curl H 0 ), according to the vector identity which
states that the curl of the gradient of any scalar field is zero, the scalar quantity
Vm , can be introduced, called scalar magnetic potential, using the relation:

H grad Vm .

(2.8.15)

2.9. The electric charge conservation law


Statement: The conduction current i which exists from a closed
surface , arbitrary, is equal to the rate of decrease (in time) of the
electric charge qV contained in a domain V bordered by the closed
surface :

60

dqV
dt

(2.9.1)

By rewriting the relation (2.9.1) one obtains the integral form of the law:

J dA

J dAext

d
v dv
dt V

(2.9.2)

According to the adopted convention referring to the orientation of the


unit normal to a closed surface (towards its exterior as in Figure 2.9.1), it
results that the reference direction of the current i is towards the exterior
of the space domain V .
dA dAext

dv

V
Figure 2.9.1
For moving media, the time derivative from relation (2.9.2) is a
substantial derivative, which is computed using the relation:

d

v dv v div w v

dt V
V t

dv,

(2.9.3)

such that the developed integral form of the electric charge conservation law
becomes:

J dA

v
t div w v
V

dv,

(2.9.4)

or, using Gauss-Ostrogradski relation:

61

v
t div w v
V

div J dv

dv ,

(2.9.5)

in which

w v J v

(2.9.6)

is the convection current density.


As relation (2.9.5) is true for any domain V , from the integrands
equality one obtains the local form of the electric charge conservation law for
continuity domains:

div J

v
div J v
t

(2.9.7)

v
.
t

(2.9.8)

or

div J J v

For stationary media w 0 the local form of the law is:

div J

v
.
t

(2.9.9)

In steady state regime the local form becomes:

div J 0 ,

(2.9.10)

And the global form has the expression


i 0

(2.9.11)

and it shows that, in this regime, for any closed surface the electric
conduction current is preserved.
The electric charge conservation law underlines from macroscopic point
of view that the electric convection current is generated by moving bodies.

62

2.10. The constitutive law of electric conduction

Statement: In any point and at any moment of time, the electric


conduction current density J depends on the electric field strength E :

(2.10.1)

JJ E .

Function of the nature of the various conducting materials, relation


(2.10.1) has explicit forms. As follows, there will be studied only the conducting
linear and isotropic materials. In this case the dependence (2.10.1) becomes:

J E Ei ,

(2.10.2)

in which is a dimensional material quantity called electric conductivity, and


E i represents impressed electric field strength.
Despite it has the attribute electric, the impressed electric field in not an
electric field in the accepted notion as it was presented up to now.
For it understanding it is very useful to call the microscopic configuration
of the conductors, noticing that upon the free charge carriers, in certain
conditions (if, for example, the conductors are heterogeneous, or they are
accelerated, or they are not isotherms), beside the electric nature forces, there
are also acting non-electric forces.
Admitting as a simplified model of the microscopic structure of a
homogenous, not-accelerated and isotherm conductor, a ionic network positive
charged, placed in an electronic fluid negatively charged and without ordered
component for its constitutive particles movement, the volume electric charge
density of the conductors is zero.
Supposing that upon this conductor there is applied a non electric
perturbation, it has a new regime: due to non electric forces, the electrons will
migrate and they will generate in this way a separation of opposite signs
charges, showing an electric field strength E , oriented from the region with
excess positive charges towards the region with excess of negative charges.
Upon each electron (having the charge q0 ) act two types of forces: an electric
nature one:

F el q0 E

(2.10.3)

63

opposite direction to the electric field strength E (because q0 0 ) and a non


electric nature one F neel having the direction of the field. The electron will
move under the action of the non zero resulting force

F neel
0.
F el F neel q0 E F neel q0 E
q
0

(2.10.4)

The term

F neel
Ei
q0

(2.10.5)

has the dimension of an electric field strength and it is called impressed electric
field strength. Impressed electric field is a quantity that capture from the
electric point of view the non electric nature actions upon the charge
carriers from the conductors, in heterogeneous areas of the chemicalphysical properties.
Function on the cause nature that generates them, the impressed electric
fields can be of mechanical, thermal, chemical, etc nature, and function of
space repartition of heterogeneities, the impressed electric field can be
surface or interface (contact) ones.
Relation (2.10.2) can be also written under the form:
E Ei J,

(2.10.6)

in which is emphasized the dimensional material quantity called electric


resistivity

1.

(2.10.7)

The temperature dependence of the resistivity is well approximated by the


linear relation:

0 1 0 ,

(2.10.8)

where 0 is a reference temperature, and represents the resistivity


temperature variation coefficient.
For the majority of the metals 0 (resistivity increases with
temperature), but there are other conducting materials such as coal for example,
for which 0 (their resistivity decreases while the temperature increases).

64

In the table below there are presented the values of the resistivity and
of the resistivity temperature variation coefficient for a few of conducting
materials.

at 200 C

103 between

[ mm2 / m ]

00 C and 1000 C

Silver

0,0161

Technical Cooper

0,0175

4,45

Electrolytic Cooper

0,0175

4,4

Gold

0,0237

3,77

Aluminum

0,0278

4,23

0,08

1,5

Platinum

0,0866

2,47

Iron

0,0918

6,25

Nickel

0,138

6,21

Plumb

0,221

4,11

Cooper Nickel

0,4

0,2

Manganin

0,43

0,6

Constantan

0,45

0,4

Retort carbon

7,25

-0,3

Carbon

40 100

-0,2

Uranium Oxide

50 1000

-1,5

0,05 1000

-2,6

Name of the material

Yellow Cooper

Copper Oxide

Function of the values for resistivity, respectively of conductivity, the


materials can be classified into three big categories, namely:
insulators, having big values for resistivity (respectively vary small values
for conductivity); a perfect insulator is the material for which 0 ;

65

semiconductors, with average values for resistivity (respectively for


conductivity) and with exponential shape for their temperature function
variation;
conductors, with very small values for resistivity (respectively very big
values for conductivity); a perfect conductor is the material for which
0.
The physical significance of the electric conduction law is to underline as
a cause for the apparition of the electric field the bodies that possess
impressed electric field.
For all constitutive laws, the local forms are those that give the consistent
information. The constitutive law of electric conduction is not an exception from
this rule. The integral form of this law is very useful for electric circuits study
and it will be presented for the particular case of the conductors having
transverse sections sufficiently small in order to consider that the repartitions
of the conduction electric currents through the conductors sections are
uniform. These conductors are called filiform.

uf

M2
ub

i
M1
Figure 2.10.1, a

Figure 2.10.1, b

Let consider a section from such a filiform conductor, having the area of
the section constant A (see Figure 2.10.1, a), through which flows a current i .
The module of the current density J will be then

66

i
.
A

(2.10.9)

Integrating the local form of the constitutive law of the electric conduction
along the axis C of the conducting section, between the extremities M1 and
M 2 of this section, one obtains:
M2

M2

M2

M2

E E i dl E dl E i dl J dl

M1

M1

M1

C
M2

M1

C
M2

J dl

M1

M1

2
i
dl
dl i
A
A
M

(2.10.10)

because the vectors J and dl are omo-parallel, and the electric conduction
current is along the conductor. In this relation appear the following quantities:
electric voltage along the line:
M2

uf

E dl ;
M1
C

(2.10.11)

impressed electromotive force


M2

uei ei e

E i dl ;
M1
C

(2.10.12)

electric resistance of the conducting section


M2

dl

A.

M1
C

(2.10.13)

So, the integral form of the constitutive law of electric conduction for
filiform conductors is:

u f e R i

(2.10.14)

and it has the following remarks.

67

The reference directions for global quantities u f , e and i that appear


in relation (2.10.14) are associated using the convention depicted in the
graphical representation from Figure 2.10.1,b. Because in general the
reference directions are arbitrary chosen, they can be optionally chosen; if one
uses other reference directions that the ones presented in Figure 2.10.1,b, the
integral form of the constitutive law of electric conduction changes by changing
the corresponding signs of the terms with changed reference directions.
In the particular case of the steady state regime, one proved that the voltage
does not depend on the path and, as a consequence, the voltage along the path
u f is equal to the voltage ub computed along any open curve Cb having as
extremities the point M1 and M 2 (called terminals in the electric circuit
theory); the electric voltage
M2

ub

E dl
M1
Cb

(2.10.15)

is called the terminals voltage, and the integral form of the constitutive law of
electric conduction becomes

ub e R i .

(2.10.16)

2.11. The law of power transfer associated to electric conduction


Statement: The power volume density p of the power transferred
from electromagnetic field to substance in the electric conduction process is
equal, at any moment of time, to the dot product between the electric field
strength E and the conduction electric current density J :
p E J.

(2.11.1)

We remark that the sign of the dot product shows the real direction of
the transferred power: from the field towards the conducting body if p 0 ,
respectively from the conducting body towards the field if p 0 .
68

From relation (2.10.6) and (2.11.1) one can obtain a new expression of the
local form of the law, for linear and isotropic conductors:

p J Ei J J E i J .

(2.11.2)

The two terms from the right side of equation (2.11.2) have the following
interpretation:
2

Term J is positive and it represents the power volume density


irreversibly transferred by the electromagnetic field of the conductor.
Term E i J has the direction imposed by the orientation of the two vectors

E i and J ; if is the smallest angle between the two vectors, then we can
have the following situations: 0; 2 , so E i J 0 and the power is
transferred from the impressed electric field sources (of the conductor) to
the electromagnetic field or ; , so E i J 0 and the power is
2
transferred from the electromagnetic field to impressed electric field
sources (of the conductor) or 2 and there is no power transfer

between the electromagnetic field and the conductor.


The integral form of the law is obtained by first integrating the local form
(2.11.1) on domain V in which the electric conduction process takes place.
The total power transferred by the electromagnetic field to the carrying current
conductors from V

p dv E J dv,

(2.11.3)

and the corresponding energy to this phenomena between two time moments t1
and t 2 is
t2

t2

W P dt E J dv dt .

t1
t1
V

(2.11.4)

The measure units S.I. for the quantities p , P and W are, respectively,
watt per cubic meter ( W / m 3 ), watt ( W ) and watt multiplied by second ( W s ).
For a filiform conductor in steady state regime (see Figure 2.10.1,a),
taking into account that dv A dl , it results that the integral relation (2.11.3)
takes the particular form
69

E J dv E J dv E J A dl

E dl u f i ub i Pb ,

(2.11.5)

that shows that the power transferred by the electromagnetic field to the
conducting section in the electric conduction process is equal to the power Pb
called received power at its terminals.
Regarding the physical significance, the law characterizes the thermal
effect of the electromagnetic field, referring to heat producing phenomena
(Joule-Lenz effect) which is associated to the electric conduction current
flow through the conductors, that corresponds to the transformation of
electromagnetic energy into caloric energy.

2.12. The electrolysis law


Statement: The substance mass m deposited at one of the electrodes of
an electrolytic bath in a time interval t1 ;t 2 depends on the electric current
it flowing through the bath as in relation:
t

1 A 2
m
i t dt ,
F0 v t

(2.12.1)

where F0 is a universal constant called Faradays constant, that has the value
F0 96 .484 ,6

C
,
ech.gram

(2.12.2)

A is the mols mass of the deposited substance, and v is the valence of a ion
from the deposited substance.

The ratio A / v is called the chemical equivalent, and its value are
presented in the table below.

70

Atomic mass

Valence

Ag

Chemical
equivalent A / v g

Aluminum

Oxygen

16

Aluminum

27

Magnesium

24

12

Iron 3

55,9

18,6

Nickel

58,6

29,3

Cooper 2

63,2

31,6

Zinc

68,8

34,4

39

39

tin

117,4

58,7

Cooper 1

63,2

63,2

Gold

196,1

65,4

Platinum

194,4

97,2

Mercury

199,8

99,9

Plumb

206,4

103,2

Silver

107,7

107,7

Substance

Potassium

The physical significance of the electrolysis law is that it shows the mass
transport phenomena associated to electric current flow through certain
substances.
The electrolysis process has many practical applications such that electrometallurgy (metal extraction from ore, metal refining, substance preparation
etc.) and galvanotechnics (galvanostegy the coating of some object by nickel
plating, chrome plating, cadmium plating a.s.o and galvanoplasty object
shape reproduction).

71