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You are on page 1of 39

The subject of laws is organized in like this: firstly there are presented the

laws that rule the macroscopic theory of electromagnetism (in Chapter 2), and

then a few of the conclusions and consequences derived from the laws system

(in Chapter 3). In paragraph 3.5 there are presented the unit measures of the

electric and magnetic quantities, and in Chapter 4 there is presented the use of

these laws for some significant problems computation.

The laws of macroscopic theory of electromagnetism represent a set

of mathematical relations coherent from the point of respecting the truth

criteria, completeness and non-contradiction, relations that connect the

quantities which characterize the electromagnetic field and the

electromagnetic state of the bodies in variable regime, gathering in a

mathematical shape the electromagnetic field phenomenology.

During the presentation of each law, after the statement and the comment

of its mathematical formulation, we follow to mark out its physical significance

and its most important consequences, firstly in variable regime, then in various

particular regimes: quasi-stationary regimes (in which the variations in time of

some of the quantities are sufficiently slow so they can be neglected), steady

state (stationary) regimes (in which the quantities are time-invariant, but there

are energy transformations) and static regimes (which are stationary regimes

without energy transformations).

Statement: Electric flux through any closed surface is equal at

any moment to the electric charge qV form domain V bounded by the

surface :

qV .

(2.1.1)

33

dA dA ext

V

dv

Figure 2.1.1

If the electric charge from domain V has the volume distribution

density a v (see Figure 2.1.1), then relation (2.1.1) can be explicitly written:

D dA D dAext v dv

(2.1.2)

Applying Gauss-Ostrogradski relation, one obtains:

D dA div D dv v dv,

(2.1.3)

imposes the equality of the integrands:

div D v ,

(2.1.4)

expression which represents the local form the electric flux law for continuity

domains.

Electric flux law emphasizes one of the causes that generates electric

field, namely charged bodies.

div D 0

div D 0

div D 0

Figure 2.1.2

34

It is well-known that, for any field vector, the points from the space in

which the divergence is nonzero represent end points of field lines (starting

point if the divergence is positive, and, respectively, end points if the divergence

is negative). It results that the lines of the electric field produced by charges

are open curves, starting from the positive charged bodies and ending on the

negative charged bodies (see Figure 2.1.2).

Statement: Magnetic flux through any closed surface is zero in

any moment:

0.

(2.2.1)

obtains the integral form of the magnetic flux law:

B dA B dAext div B dv 0.

(2.2.2)

Because this relation is valid for any space domain V , it results the

local form for continuity domains of the magnetic flux law:

(2.2.3)

div B 0.

solenoidal one (without sources). This fact underlines on one hand the nonexistence of the magnetic charges similar to electric charges and, on the other

hand, the inexistence of some points extremity of magnetic field lines.

Therefore the magnetic field lines are not open curves.

An immediate consequence of the magnetic flux law is that the magnetic

flux through any open surface bounded by the same closed curve is the

same.

In order to prove this statement one will consider an arbitrary closed curve

, and two arbitrary open surfaces S , j and S, k , which rest on curve

- see Figure 2.2.1.

35

dA j dAext

S , j

dA k dAext

S ,k

dl

Figure 2.2.1

area oriented elements dA k and dA j according to the right corkscrew rule, we

write the relation (2.2.2) for the closed curve , reunion of the open surfaces

S , j and S, k . In these conditions, the integral on will be the sum of the

integral on S , j and S, k :

S , j

S , j

S , k

S , k

(2.2.4)

Therefore

B dA j B dAk B dAk

S , j

S , k

(2.2.5)

for any open surface S which sits on the closed curve , which shows that

the magnetic flux has a unique value through all open surfaces bounded by

the same closed curve.

Moreover, the vector identity

div curl A 0

(2.2.6)

allows the introduction of a new quantity, called magnetic vector potential and

denoted by A with relation:

curl A B .

36

(2.2.7)

common that in stationary regime to adopt the calibration condition

(2.2.8)

div A 0

such that the field vector A to be a solenoidal one too.

Applying the Stokes theorem, the magnetic flux which flows through an

arbitrary open surface S , which sits on a closed curve , can be expressed

by the line integral of the of the magnetic potential vector on the curve :

B dA curl A dA A dl .

(2.2.9)

This shows that the magnetic flux through an open surface depends

only on the closed curve that bounds it.

(the relationship law between magnetic flux density, magnetic

field strength and magnetization)

Statement: For any point and for any time moment, between magnetic

flux density vector B , magnetic field strength vector H and magnetization

vector M exists the following relation:

B 0 H M .

(2.3.1)

By expressing the magnetization vector M by its two components,

namely temporary component M t and permanent component M p , the

magnetic constitutive law has the following form:

B 0 H 0 M t 0 M p

(2.3.2)

permanent magnetization.

37

Statement: For any point and for any time moment, temporary

magnetization M t depends on the magnetic field strength H :

Mt Mt H .

(2.4.1)

specific forms.

We remind a material is called isotropic if in any of its points there are

no privileged directions (in other words, its local properties does not depend on

the direction of a certain quantity) and is called linear if in any of its points

there are no privileged values (in other words, its local properties does not

depend on the value of a certain quantity).

Below there will be presented and discussed the various dependences

between the magnetic flux density and the magnetic field strength function of

magnetic materials nature.

For isotropic linear materials, the dependence (2.4.1) has the form

M t m H,

(2.4.2)

which is called magnetic susceptibility, and the magnetic constitutive law

becomes

B 0 H 0 M t 0 M p 0 H 0 m H 0 M p

0 1 m H 0 M p .

(2.4.3)

r 1 m

(2.4.4)

o r

(2.4.5)

Using these, the magnetic constitutive law in magnetic field becomes

B H 0 M

38

H I p,

(2.4.6)

Ip

B H I p

Figure 2.4.1, a

Figure 2.4.1, b

of view as in Figure 2.4.1,a case for which M

0 and, respectively, as in

classified as follows:

diamagnetic materials (that have a r slightly less than one);

paramagnetic (that have a r slightly more than one);

ferromagnetic materials (with very big r , touch four figures and which,

from certain pair of values, they loose their linear character).

In the table below there are presented values of the relative permeability

for a couple of diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials, observing that for all of

them one can consider r 1.

Hydrogen

1-0,06310-6

Copper

1-08,810-6

Water

1-910-6

Zinc

1-1210-6

39

Halite

1-12,610-6

Silver

1-1910-6

Mercury

1-2510-6

Bismuth

1-17610-6

Azoth

1+0,01310-6

Air

1+0,410-6

Oxygen

1+1,910-6

Aluminum

1+2310-6

Platinum

1+36010-6

a three-orthogonal coordinate axis system, in each point in the space each scalar

component of temporary magnetization vector depends in principle on all scalar

components of the magnetic field strength vector. In a Cartesian coordinate

system,

for

example,

if

H Hx i Hy j Hz k ,

M t M t x i M t y j M t z k and B Bx i B y j Bz k , then

M t m H x m H y m H z

xx

xy

xz

x

M t y m yx H x m yy H y m yz H z

M t z m zx H x m zy H y m zz H z .

(2.4.7)

40

m

xx

m yx

m

zx

m xy

m yy

m zy

m xz

m yz ,

m zz

(2.4.8)

(2.4.9)

M t m H

B 0 H 0 M t 0 M p 0 H 0 m H 0 M p

(2.4.10)

0 1 m H 0 M p 0 r H 0 M p H I p ,

where r 1 m is he relative permeability tensor, and 0 r is the

absolute permeability tensor.

Ip

B H I p

B H

H

H

H

Figure 2.4.2, a

Figure 2.4.2, b

Relation (2.4.10) has the vector interpretation from Figure 2.4.2,a with

the particular case in Figure 2.4.2,b corresponding in which M p 0.

If we explicitly write the relation (2.4.10):

Bx xx

B y yx

B

z zx

xy

yy

zy

xz H x I p x

yz H y I p y ,

zz H z I p

z

(2.4.11)

41

we remark the fact that the matrix corresponding to the tensor is symmetrical

and positive defined. There are three orthogonal directions, called principal

magnetization directions, having the unit vectors u1 , u 2 , u 3 , for which the

scalar

components

of

vectors

B B1 u1 B2 u 2 B3 u 3 ,

H H1 u1 H 2 u 2 H 3 u 3 and I p I p u1 I p u 2 I p u 3 after

1

B1 1 0 0 H1 I p1

B 0 0 H I .

2

2

2 p2

B3 0 0 3 H 3 I p

3

(2.4.12)

density and magnetic field strength can be expressed (or at least approximated)

analytically (see Figure 2.4.3) by a real, nonlinear function f :

B f H .

(2.4.13)

H

0

Figure 2.4.3

One notices there are nonlinear materials (such as for example some

iron, nickel, cobalt alloys) for which the dependence of the relationship

between the magnetic flux density and the magnetic field strength cannot be

expressed (and not even approximated) analytically. These materials present a

specific phenomena called magnetic hysteresis, which expresses the fact that a

functioning point from the curve which gives the dependence B BH has

coordinates dependent on the succession of states followed to arrive in that

specific point, so it depends on the historical realizations of that state.

42

Below we present, from the qualitative point of view, this phenomena (see

Figure 2.4.4). Starting from an initial state in which the material is not

magnetized, state corresponding to point O0;0 in the plane H; B and

applying a magnetic field with increasing magnetic field strength, one notices

first a nonlinear increase of the magnetic flux density followed by a

saturation plateau until point A1 H max ; Bmax . On this plateau, an increase of

the magnetic field strength does not lead to significant increases of the magnetic

flux density. OA1 curve is called the first magnetization curve.

Figure 2.4.4

When the magnetic field strength is decreased, the values of the magnetic

flux density do not coincide to those corresponding to the first magnetization

curve for the same values of H . The decrease of the magnetic flux density is

realized by applying an increasing magnetic field but opposite as direction to the

initial one. To magnetic field cancellation it corresponds a nonzero remanent

magnetic flux density the functioning point A2 0; Br . The magnetic field that

cancels the magnetic flux density is called coercive magnetic field

functioning point A3 H c ;0 .

43

H max is reached, brings the functioning point A4 H max ; B max in a point

A1 symmetric with respect to the origin of the coordinate system axis. Then, if

the magnetic field is increased, the functioning points are being placed on the

curve A4 A5 A6 A1 which is symmetric to curve A1 A2 A3 A4 with respect to the

origin. In this way the hysteresis cycle closes.

Ferromagnetic materials magnetize following irreversible evolutions,

which for a given value of H corresponding in principle to three possible values

for B , corresponding to the first magnetization curve OA1 , to the descending

part A1 A2 A3 A4 or to ascending part A4 A5 A6 A1 of the hysteresis cycle.

We also mention that, once we arrive in point A , for example H ; B

coordinate, we decrease the value of the magnetic field by value H , after

which we come back to the starting value point, describing in this way a

secondary cycle. This cycle is very flat, it can be approximated by its median

and, the transformation that took place can be considered as being quasireversible.

In point P there are defined the following three relative permeabilities

(see Figure 2.4.4):

static relative permeability r, s , equal to the to the trigonometric tangent of

the angle between AO chord and OH axis:

r,s

B

0 H

tg ;

(2.4.14)

of the angle between the trigonometric tangent in point A and the OH axis:

B

H 0 0 H

r , d lim

H 0

tg ;

(2.4.15)

tangent between the median of the secondary cycle and the OH axis:

B

H 0 0 H

r , rev lim

H 0

with Max ; .

44

tg ,

A

(2.4.16)

can be divided into two big categories:

o soft magnetic materials, characterized by narrow cycles, respectively small

coercive fields (see dependence (a) from Figure 2.4.5);

o hard magnetic materials, characterized by wide cycles, respectively big

coercive fields (see dependence (b) from Figure 2.4.5).

B

Figure 2.4.5

The curves from Figure 2.4.5 gives us only a qualitative information, that

do not make out the real magnitude order of the ratio between the widths of the

hysteresis cycles. For comparison, we present below the values of the remanent

flux density Br and of the coercive field H c for a few of the soft

ferromagnetic materials, respectively for hard magnetic materials.

Br

H c

A / m

0,6

0,4

0,6

Pure Iron

1,4

0,13

10

45

Br

H c

A / m

1,8

40

0,15

20

Steel (cu 1% C)

0,7

5103

1,1

5103

0,73

34103

0,55

65103

Cobalt Ferrite

0,16

90103

Barium Ferrite

0,35

200103

0,45

260103

One can notice that, for both categories, the magnitude order of the

remanent flux densities is the same, while the values of coercive fields are

slightly different. For example, taking into consideration two materials with the

same value of the remanent flux density, manganese zinc ferrite from the soft

materials category and cobalt ferrite from the hard materials category, one can

notice a ratio between the widths of the hysteresis cycles, expressed by the ratio

of their coercive fields, of 1/4.500.

Finally, its important to mention that the completion of a hysteresis

cycle is accompanied by energy transfer from the magnetic field to the

ferromagnetic body, the volume density of this energy being proportional to

the cycles area (as Warburg theorem proves, theorem that will be presented in a

following chapter of this book).

We also remember that the properties of the ferromagnetic material

are greatly influenced by temperature, these properties even disappearing

for certain limit values of temperature, proper for each material, called

Curie points. Curie point for cobalt is 1.1370 C , for iron is 7530 C , and for

0

nickel is 376 C . Increasing the temperature over the Curie point value

leads to the transformation of ferromagnetic materials into paramagnetic

materials.

46

(the relationship between electric displacement, electric field

strength and electric polarization)

Statement: For any point and for any time moment, between electric

displacement vector, D electric field strength vector E and polarization

vector P exists the following relation:

D 0 E P.

(2.5.1)

As for the magnetic constitutive law, this law has only local form.

Expressing the electric polarization vector P by its two components,

namely the temporary P t and the permanent component P p , the electric

constitutive law has the following form:

D 0 E Pt Pp

(2.5.2)

permanent electric polarization.

Statement: For any point and for any time moment, temporary

electric polarization P t depends on electric field strength E :

Pt Pt E .

(2.6.1)

particular forms.

As follows we present and comment various types of dependences

between electric displacement and electric field strength as a function of

magnetic materials nature.

For linear and isotropic materials, the dependence (2.6.1) has the form

P t 0 e E,

(2.6.2)

47

where the proportionality coefficient e is a material numeric (nondimensional) constant called electric susceptibility, and the electric constitutive

law becomes

D 0 E Pt Pp 0 E 0 e E Pp 0 1 e E Pp .

The numeric quantity

(2.6.3)

r 1 e

is called relative permittivity, and the numeric quantity

(2.6.4)

0 r

is called the absolute permittivity or electric constant.

(2.6.5)

Using these notations, the electric constitutive law has the form

D E P p.

Pp

(2.6.6)

D E Pp

E

E

D E

Figure 2.6.1, a

Figure 2.6.1, b

the case in which P p 0 and, respectively, as in Figure 2.6.1,b for the case in

which P p 0.

Depending on their relative permittivities, materials can be classified as

follows:

which, if bigger than certain pair of values, they loose their linear

characteristics).

In the table below e present the values of the relative permeabilities for

some of the diaelectric and paraelectric materials.

48

Aggregation state

H2

1,0003

Air

1,0006

O2

1,0006

Gaseous

CO

1,0007

CO2

1,001

CH4

1,001

C2H6

1,0015

Air ( 1910 C )

1,43

2,2

Acetone ( 200 C )

21,2

Ethyl alcohol ( 15 0 C )

26

Liquid

32,5

Nitrobenzene (18 0 C )

36

81,1

95

Paraffin

2,2

Polyethylene

2,3

Polyamide

Solid

2,4

Insulant paper

2,4

Bakelite

2,8

Plexiglas

Pressboard

Solid

3,03,6

3,44,3

49

Aggregation state

Ebonite

2,55,0

Rubber

3,06,0

Quartz glass

4,04,2

Porcelain

5,06,5

Solid

ClNa

5,5

Mica

5,07,0

Glass

5,58,0

SO4K2

8,35

Diamond

16,5

For linear and anisotropic materials, one can notice that, if a threeorthogonal coordinate system is taken into consideration, in each point from the

space, each scalar component of temporary electric polarization vector depends,

in principle on all scalar components of electric field strength vector. In a

Cartesian coordinate system, for example, if E E x i E y j E z k ,

P t Pt x i Pt y j Pt z k and

D Dx i D y j D z k , then

Pt 0 e E x 0 e E y 0 e E z

xx

xy

xz

x

Pt y 0 e yx E x 0 e yy E y 0 e yz E z

Pt z 0 e zx E x 0 e zy E y 0 e zz E z .

(2.6.7)

e

xx

e e yx

e

zx

e xy

e yy

e zy

e xz

e yz ,

e zz

50

(2.6.8)

(2.6.9)

Pt 0 e E

D 0 E Pt P p 0 E 0 e E P p

0

1 E P

e

(2.6.10)

0 r E P p E P p ,

absolute permittivity tensor.

Pp

D E Pp

D E

E

E

Figure 2.6.2, a

Figure 2.6.2, b

2.6.2,a with the particularization from Figure 2.6.2,b corresponding to situation

for which P p 0.

If relation (2.6.10) is written explicitly:

D x xx xy xz E x Pp x

P

yy

yz y

py ,

y yx

D

z zx zy zz E z Pp z

(2.6.11)

and it can be noticed that the matrix corresponding got tensor is symmetrical

and positive defined. So, there are three orthogonal directions (called

electrization principal directions), having the unit vectors u1 , u 2 , u 3 for

which the scalar components of the vectors D D1 u1 D2 u 2 D3 u 3 ,

E E1 u1 E2 u 2 E3 u 3 and P p P p u1 P p u 2 P p u 3 with

1

51

D x 1

D y 0

D 0

z

2

0

0 E x Pp x

0 E y Pp y .

3 E z P

pz

(2.6.12)

Statement: The electromotive force (emf) u along a closed curve

is equal to the rate of decrease (in time) of the magnetic flux S across any

surface S bordered by the closed curve :

d S

dt

(2.7.1)

results the integral form of the law:

E dl dt B dA.

(2.7.2)

dA

dl

Figure 2.7.1

The electromagnetic induction law has the above form only with the

condition that the reference direction of the closed curve (the reference

direction of the oriented line element dl ) and the direction of the normal to

the surface S (the oriented area element dA ) are associated according to

right corkscrew rule (see Figure 2.7.1).

52

For moving media, the integration domains follows the bodies in their

movement, and the derivative with respect to time of the magnetic flux is a

substantial derivative and it is computed using the following relation:

d

B

dA

div

B

curl

B

w

dA,

t

dt S

(2.7.3)

Using Stokes relation, it results that

E dl curl E dA

(2.7.4)

rot B w dA B w dl .

(2.7.5)

and

S

Taking into account the local form (2.2.3) of the magnetic flux law, one

obtains a new integral form of the electromagnetic induction law:

E dl

B

dA B w dl.

(2.7.6)

Relation (2.7.6) emphasizes the physical significance of the law: the time

variable magnetic field produces (induces) an electric field by the

electromagnetic induction phenomena. Therefore, the electromagnetic

induction is a physical phenomena, unlike electric displacement D and

magnetic induction B which are physical quantities.

Moreover, relation (2.7.6) allows the decomposition of the emf into two

components:

u ut um ,

(2.7.7)

with

ut

B

dA

B

dA

(2.7.8)

53

u m B w dl

w B dl

(2.7.9)

The two components correspond to the two ways of electromagnetic

induction phenomena production: the time variation of the magnetic

induction B at rest (no movement) ( u t is on zero in this case), respectively,

the movement of at least a portion of a closed curve in a magnetic field

in such a way that the field lines are cut away by the field (only in this case

um is non zero).

We remark that the sum from relation (2.7.7) does not depend on the

reference system chosen for the movement, while the separation into two

components depends in general o the adopted reference system.

The reference system of the emf can be arbitrary chosen. To determine

the real sense of the induced emf, Lenz formulated his famous rule: the real

direction of emf is such that its effects oppose the generating causes.

Therefore, the minus sign from relation (2.7.1) does not have to be

assimilated from mathematical point of view with Lenzs law, this coming from

the adopted convention when we associate the direction for dl with the direction

of dA according to the corkscrew rule.

For continuity domains the equality:

curl

w

B

t

dA

curl E dA

(2.7.10)

is valid for any surface S and it imposes the equality of the integrands:

curl E

B

curl w B .

t

(2.7.11)

Relation (2.7.11) represents the local form for continuity domains of the

electromagnetic induction law.

54

B

t

(2.7.12)

B

dA.

(2.7.13)

curl E

the lines of the electric field produced by electromagnetic induction

phenomena are closed curves which surrounds the lines of the time varying

magnetic field which generated them.

In stationary regime, the electromagnetic induction law becomes the

theorem of the stationary electric potential, which ha the local form

curl E 0

(2.7.14)

E dl 0.

(2.7.15)

regime shows that, in this regime, the vector field E is non-rotational and,

according to the vector identity which states that the curl of the gradient for any

scalar field is zero, it can be introduced the scalar quantity V , called electric

potential, with relation:

E grad V .

(2.7.16)

Figure 2.7.2

55

regime allows the demonstration of the following theorem: the voltage drop

between two points M k and M j from space (arbitrary point) does not

depend on the paths (integration curve) between them.

Indeed (see Figure 2.7.2), let consider two paths (arbitrary) between M k

and M j , represented by the open curves C1 and C 2 , whose reunion is the

closed curve .

According to relation (2.7.15) it results that

Mj

Mj

Mk

Mj

E dl E dl E dl E dl E dl 0

Mk

C1

Mj

C 2

Mj

Mj

Mk

C1

Mk

C 2

(2.7.17)

that is

E dl E dl u M k M j .

Mk

C1

(2.7.18)

Mk

C 2

to an ordered pair consisting of two points from the space, while the electric

potential is a physical scalar quantity associated to each point in the space.

As relation (2.7.16) is a differential type relation, it means that electric

potential is defined up to an arbitrary additive constant. This constant represents

the value V M 0 VM 0 , arbitrary, of potential M 0 from the space, arbitrary,

considered to be reference value for all potentials. Then, the potential of any

point from the space, for example M j , is

V M j VM j VM 0

Mj

E dl.

(2.7.19)

M0

voltage between points M j and M 0 . For easiness, we use Cartesian coordinate

system:

56

M0

u P j P0

M0

E dl grad V dl

Mj

Mj

M0

V

V

V

k dx i dy j dz k

x y

Mj

M0

0

V

V

V

dx

dy

dz dV V

Mj

Mj

Mj

M0

(2.7.20)

V M j VM 0 ,

Computing electric voltage between two points M k and M j from the

space following a path

2.7.2), one obtains:

Mj

uMk M j

M0

Mj

E dl E dl E dl VM 0

Mk

C3

Mk

M 0 (see Figure

VM0

M0

(2.7.21)

Mj

V M 0 E dl V M 0 E dl V M k V M j ,

M0

M0

Mk

relation which represents the expression of the voltage between any two

points function of their potentials.

If one considers VM 0 0 , it is said that point M 0 is grounded or

earthed and in an electric circuit it has a specific symbol (see Figure 2.7.2).

In these conditions

V M j VM j

M0

E dl.

(2.7.22)

Mj

57

Statement: The magnetomotive force (mmf) um along any closed

curve is equal to the sum between the conduction electric current iS

through an open surface S , arbitrary, bordered by the closed curve

and the time derivative of the electric flux over the same surface S :

um iS

dS

dt

(2.8.1)

By rewriting relation (2.8.1) one obtains the integral form of the law:

H dl

J dA

d

D dA

dt S

(2.8.2)

which has the above presented form only if the association between the

reference direction of the orientation the oriented line element dl and the

oriented area element dA is according to the corkscrew rule (as for the

electromagnetic induction law).

For moving media, the integration domains follows the bodies in their

movement, following a similar path as the one described for the electromagnetic

induction law, and the integral developed form of magnetic circuit law is

obtained:

H dl curl H dA J dA

div

D

curl

D

w

dA

t

J dA

D

dA

w divD dA curlD w dA ,

58

(2.8.3)

respectively,

u m iS id S

iv S

iR S .

(2.8.4)

-the conduction current:

iS

J dA;

(2.8.5)

D

dA ,

t

S

(2.8.6)

idS

where

D

Jd

t

(2.8.7)

- the convection current:

ivS

w div D dA w v dA,

(2.8.8)

where

w v J v

(2.8.9)

- Roentgen current

iR S

curlD w dA D w dl .

(2.8.10)

The magnetic circuit law emphasizes two causes that can generate the

magnetic field: conducting bodies transited by conduction currents and/or

time variable electric fields (by displacement currents, convection and

Roentgen currents).

59

For continuity domains, the equality (2.8.3), true for any surface S ,

leads to:

curl H J

D

w v curl D w ,

t

(2.8.11)

relation that represents the local form of the magnetic circuit law.

rot H J

D

t

(2.8.12)

and it shows that the closed lines of the magnetic field surrounds the

conductors transited by conduction currents, respectively the lines of the

time variable electric field that generate them.

In steady state regime the magnetic circuit law becomes the Ampre

theorem, and it has the local form:

curl H J

(2.8.13)

u m is .

(2.8.14)

In the particular cases of the point from the space for which the vector

field H is non-rotational ( curl H 0 ), according to the vector identity which

states that the curl of the gradient of any scalar field is zero, the scalar quantity

Vm , can be introduced, called scalar magnetic potential, using the relation:

H grad Vm .

(2.8.15)

Statement: The conduction current i which exists from a closed

surface , arbitrary, is equal to the rate of decrease (in time) of the

electric charge qV contained in a domain V bordered by the closed

surface :

60

dqV

dt

(2.9.1)

By rewriting the relation (2.9.1) one obtains the integral form of the law:

J dA

J dAext

d

v dv

dt V

(2.9.2)

unit normal to a closed surface (towards its exterior as in Figure 2.9.1), it

results that the reference direction of the current i is towards the exterior

of the space domain V .

dA dAext

dv

V

Figure 2.9.1

For moving media, the time derivative from relation (2.9.2) is a

substantial derivative, which is computed using the relation:

d

v dv v div w v

dt V

V t

dv,

(2.9.3)

such that the developed integral form of the electric charge conservation law

becomes:

J dA

v

t div w v

V

dv,

(2.9.4)

61

v

t div w v

V

div J dv

dv ,

(2.9.5)

in which

w v J v

(2.9.6)

As relation (2.9.5) is true for any domain V , from the integrands

equality one obtains the local form of the electric charge conservation law for

continuity domains:

div J

v

div J v

t

(2.9.7)

v

.

t

(2.9.8)

or

div J J v

div J

v

.

t

(2.9.9)

div J 0 ,

(2.9.10)

i 0

(2.9.11)

and it shows that, in this regime, for any closed surface the electric

conduction current is preserved.

The electric charge conservation law underlines from macroscopic point

of view that the electric convection current is generated by moving bodies.

62

conduction current density J depends on the electric field strength E :

(2.10.1)

JJ E .

(2.10.1) has explicit forms. As follows, there will be studied only the conducting

linear and isotropic materials. In this case the dependence (2.10.1) becomes:

J E Ei ,

(2.10.2)

E i represents impressed electric field strength.

Despite it has the attribute electric, the impressed electric field in not an

electric field in the accepted notion as it was presented up to now.

For it understanding it is very useful to call the microscopic configuration

of the conductors, noticing that upon the free charge carriers, in certain

conditions (if, for example, the conductors are heterogeneous, or they are

accelerated, or they are not isotherms), beside the electric nature forces, there

are also acting non-electric forces.

Admitting as a simplified model of the microscopic structure of a

homogenous, not-accelerated and isotherm conductor, a ionic network positive

charged, placed in an electronic fluid negatively charged and without ordered

component for its constitutive particles movement, the volume electric charge

density of the conductors is zero.

Supposing that upon this conductor there is applied a non electric

perturbation, it has a new regime: due to non electric forces, the electrons will

migrate and they will generate in this way a separation of opposite signs

charges, showing an electric field strength E , oriented from the region with

excess positive charges towards the region with excess of negative charges.

Upon each electron (having the charge q0 ) act two types of forces: an electric

nature one:

F el q0 E

(2.10.3)

63

electric nature one F neel having the direction of the field. The electron will

move under the action of the non zero resulting force

F neel

0.

F el F neel q0 E F neel q0 E

q

0

(2.10.4)

The term

F neel

Ei

q0

(2.10.5)

has the dimension of an electric field strength and it is called impressed electric

field strength. Impressed electric field is a quantity that capture from the

electric point of view the non electric nature actions upon the charge

carriers from the conductors, in heterogeneous areas of the chemicalphysical properties.

Function on the cause nature that generates them, the impressed electric

fields can be of mechanical, thermal, chemical, etc nature, and function of

space repartition of heterogeneities, the impressed electric field can be

surface or interface (contact) ones.

Relation (2.10.2) can be also written under the form:

E Ei J,

(2.10.6)

resistivity

1.

(2.10.7)

linear relation:

0 1 0 ,

(2.10.8)

temperature variation coefficient.

For the majority of the metals 0 (resistivity increases with

temperature), but there are other conducting materials such as coal for example,

for which 0 (their resistivity decreases while the temperature increases).

64

In the table below there are presented the values of the resistivity and

of the resistivity temperature variation coefficient for a few of conducting

materials.

at 200 C

103 between

[ mm2 / m ]

00 C and 1000 C

Silver

0,0161

Technical Cooper

0,0175

4,45

Electrolytic Cooper

0,0175

4,4

Gold

0,0237

3,77

Aluminum

0,0278

4,23

0,08

1,5

Platinum

0,0866

2,47

Iron

0,0918

6,25

Nickel

0,138

6,21

Plumb

0,221

4,11

Cooper Nickel

0,4

0,2

Manganin

0,43

0,6

Constantan

0,45

0,4

Retort carbon

7,25

-0,3

Carbon

40 100

-0,2

Uranium Oxide

50 1000

-1,5

0,05 1000

-2,6

Yellow Cooper

Copper Oxide

materials can be classified into three big categories, namely:

insulators, having big values for resistivity (respectively vary small values

for conductivity); a perfect insulator is the material for which 0 ;

65

conductivity) and with exponential shape for their temperature function

variation;

conductors, with very small values for resistivity (respectively very big

values for conductivity); a perfect conductor is the material for which

0.

The physical significance of the electric conduction law is to underline as

a cause for the apparition of the electric field the bodies that possess

impressed electric field.

For all constitutive laws, the local forms are those that give the consistent

information. The constitutive law of electric conduction is not an exception from

this rule. The integral form of this law is very useful for electric circuits study

and it will be presented for the particular case of the conductors having

transverse sections sufficiently small in order to consider that the repartitions

of the conduction electric currents through the conductors sections are

uniform. These conductors are called filiform.

uf

M2

ub

i

M1

Figure 2.10.1, a

Figure 2.10.1, b

Let consider a section from such a filiform conductor, having the area of

the section constant A (see Figure 2.10.1, a), through which flows a current i .

The module of the current density J will be then

66

i

.

A

(2.10.9)

Integrating the local form of the constitutive law of the electric conduction

along the axis C of the conducting section, between the extremities M1 and

M 2 of this section, one obtains:

M2

M2

M2

M2

E E i dl E dl E i dl J dl

M1

M1

M1

C

M2

M1

C

M2

J dl

M1

M1

2

i

dl

dl i

A

A

M

(2.10.10)

because the vectors J and dl are omo-parallel, and the electric conduction

current is along the conductor. In this relation appear the following quantities:

electric voltage along the line:

M2

uf

E dl ;

M1

C

(2.10.11)

M2

uei ei e

E i dl ;

M1

C

(2.10.12)

M2

dl

A.

M1

C

(2.10.13)

So, the integral form of the constitutive law of electric conduction for

filiform conductors is:

u f e R i

(2.10.14)

67

in relation (2.10.14) are associated using the convention depicted in the

graphical representation from Figure 2.10.1,b. Because in general the

reference directions are arbitrary chosen, they can be optionally chosen; if one

uses other reference directions that the ones presented in Figure 2.10.1,b, the

integral form of the constitutive law of electric conduction changes by changing

the corresponding signs of the terms with changed reference directions.

In the particular case of the steady state regime, one proved that the voltage

does not depend on the path and, as a consequence, the voltage along the path

u f is equal to the voltage ub computed along any open curve Cb having as

extremities the point M1 and M 2 (called terminals in the electric circuit

theory); the electric voltage

M2

ub

E dl

M1

Cb

(2.10.15)

is called the terminals voltage, and the integral form of the constitutive law of

electric conduction becomes

ub e R i .

(2.10.16)

Statement: The power volume density p of the power transferred

from electromagnetic field to substance in the electric conduction process is

equal, at any moment of time, to the dot product between the electric field

strength E and the conduction electric current density J :

p E J.

(2.11.1)

We remark that the sign of the dot product shows the real direction of

the transferred power: from the field towards the conducting body if p 0 ,

respectively from the conducting body towards the field if p 0 .

68

From relation (2.10.6) and (2.11.1) one can obtain a new expression of the

local form of the law, for linear and isotropic conductors:

p J Ei J J E i J .

(2.11.2)

The two terms from the right side of equation (2.11.2) have the following

interpretation:

2

irreversibly transferred by the electromagnetic field of the conductor.

Term E i J has the direction imposed by the orientation of the two vectors

E i and J ; if is the smallest angle between the two vectors, then we can

have the following situations: 0; 2 , so E i J 0 and the power is

transferred from the impressed electric field sources (of the conductor) to

the electromagnetic field or ; , so E i J 0 and the power is

2

transferred from the electromagnetic field to impressed electric field

sources (of the conductor) or 2 and there is no power transfer

The integral form of the law is obtained by first integrating the local form

(2.11.1) on domain V in which the electric conduction process takes place.

The total power transferred by the electromagnetic field to the carrying current

conductors from V

p dv E J dv,

(2.11.3)

and the corresponding energy to this phenomena between two time moments t1

and t 2 is

t2

t2

W P dt E J dv dt .

t1

t1

V

(2.11.4)

The measure units S.I. for the quantities p , P and W are, respectively,

watt per cubic meter ( W / m 3 ), watt ( W ) and watt multiplied by second ( W s ).

For a filiform conductor in steady state regime (see Figure 2.10.1,a),

taking into account that dv A dl , it results that the integral relation (2.11.3)

takes the particular form

69

E J dv E J dv E J A dl

E dl u f i ub i Pb ,

(2.11.5)

that shows that the power transferred by the electromagnetic field to the

conducting section in the electric conduction process is equal to the power Pb

called received power at its terminals.

Regarding the physical significance, the law characterizes the thermal

effect of the electromagnetic field, referring to heat producing phenomena

(Joule-Lenz effect) which is associated to the electric conduction current

flow through the conductors, that corresponds to the transformation of

electromagnetic energy into caloric energy.

Statement: The substance mass m deposited at one of the electrodes of

an electrolytic bath in a time interval t1 ;t 2 depends on the electric current

it flowing through the bath as in relation:

t

1 A 2

m

i t dt ,

F0 v t

(2.12.1)

where F0 is a universal constant called Faradays constant, that has the value

F0 96 .484 ,6

C

,

ech.gram

(2.12.2)

A is the mols mass of the deposited substance, and v is the valence of a ion

from the deposited substance.

The ratio A / v is called the chemical equivalent, and its value are

presented in the table below.

70

Atomic mass

Valence

Ag

Chemical

equivalent A / v g

Aluminum

Oxygen

16

Aluminum

27

Magnesium

24

12

Iron 3

55,9

18,6

Nickel

58,6

29,3

Cooper 2

63,2

31,6

Zinc

68,8

34,4

39

39

tin

117,4

58,7

Cooper 1

63,2

63,2

Gold

196,1

65,4

Platinum

194,4

97,2

Mercury

199,8

99,9

Plumb

206,4

103,2

Silver

107,7

107,7

Substance

Potassium

The physical significance of the electrolysis law is that it shows the mass

transport phenomena associated to electric current flow through certain

substances.

The electrolysis process has many practical applications such that electrometallurgy (metal extraction from ore, metal refining, substance preparation

etc.) and galvanotechnics (galvanostegy the coating of some object by nickel

plating, chrome plating, cadmium plating a.s.o and galvanoplasty object

shape reproduction).

71

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