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-:[Install Notes]:-
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==> Run the setup
==> After Install Don't Start/Lunch Program
==> Disable/Push Your Antivirus
==> Unpack Patch.RAR
==> Then Run & Apply Patch [x86 or x64]
==> Enjoy ...
• PROGRAM PROVIDED FOR TEST PURPOSES ONLY!
• IF YOU LIKE THIS PROGRAM, SUPPORT DEVELOPERS, BUY IT!, THEY DESERVED IT!
-------------------
-:[Install Notes]:-
-------------------
==> Run the setup
==> After Install Don't Start/Lunch Program
==> Disable/Push Your Antivirus
==> Unpack Patch.RAR
==> Then Run & Apply Patch [x86 or x64]
==> Enjoy ...
• PROGRAM PROVIDED FOR TEST PURPOSES ONLY!
• IF YOU LIKE THIS PROGRAM, SUPPORT DEVELOPERS, BUY IT!, THEY DESERVED IT!
-------------------
-:[Install Notes]:-
-------------------
==> Run the setup
==> After Install Don't Start/Lunch Program
==> Disable/Push Your Antivirus
==> Unpack Patch.RAR
==> Then Run & Apply Patch [x86 or x64]
==> Enjoy ...
• PROGRAM PROVIDED FOR TEST PURPOSES ONLY!
• IF YOU LIKE THIS PROGRAM, SUPPORT DEVELOPERS, BUY IT!, THEY DESERVED IT!

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You are on page 1of 15

Unit 3

Unit 3

Methods of Proof

Structure

3.1

Introduction

Objectives

3.2

Proof Techniques

Self Assessment Questions

3.3

Summary

3.4

Terminal Questions

3.5

Answers

3.1 Introduction

In this unit we discuss various methods of proofs and few examples. The

techniques will give an idea to analyze and solve the problems.

Objectives:

At the end of the unit the student must be able to:

A significant requirement for reading this subject is the ability to follow

proofs. In mathematical arguments, we employ the accepted rules of

deductive reasoning, and many proofs are simply a sequence of such steps.

Direct Proof: Consider a set of hypothesis H1, H2, , Hn from which we

want to infer a conclusion C.

Consider the example: Prove that if x and y are rational numbers then x +

y is rational.

Sikkim Manipal University

Page No.: 48

Unit 3

n such that x = p/q and y = m/n. Then x + y = p/q + m/n = (pn + mq)/qn.

Since pn + mq and qn are both integers, we conclude that x + y is a rational

number.

Indirect Proof: Proofs which are not direct are called indirect. Two main

types of indirect proof, uses the negation and conclusion, so they are often

suitable when that negation is easy to state. The first type of proof is contrapositive proof.

Consider the example: Prove that if m + n 73, then m 37 or n 37, m

and n being positive integers.

Solution: We prove this by taking contra-positive: not m 37 or n 37

implies not m + n 73. By De morgan law, the negation of m 37 or n

37 is not m 37 and n 37. That is,

m 36 and n 36 so that the contrapositive proposition is if m 36 and n

36 then m + n 72. This follows from the inequalities: a c and b d

imply that

a + b c + d for all real numbers a, b, c, d.

Few special proof techniques are used so frequently that it is appropriate to

review them briefly.

1. Proof by induction

2. Proof by contradiction

3. The pigeonhole principle, and

4. The Digitalization Principle

5. Proof by Contradiction

6. Exhaustive Proof and Proof by cases

Page No.: 49

Unit 3

Let A be the set of all natural numbers such that

Then A = N.

In other words: The principle of mathematical induction states that any set

of natural numbers containing zero, and with the property that it contains n +

1 whenever it contains all the numbers up to and including n, must in fact be

the set of all natural numbers.

In practice, induction is used to prove assertions of the following form:

For all natural numbers n, property P is true.

The above principle is applied to the set A = {n: P is true of n} in the

following way.

(1)

(2)

The induction hypothesis is the assumption that for some fixed but

arbitrary n 0, P holds for each natural number 0,1,... , n.

(3)

true for n + 1. By the induction principle, A is then equal to N, that is, P

holds for every natural number.

3.2.2 Example

Prove by mathematical induction that the sum of the first n natural numbers

is

n n1

2

Solution:

That is to prove that 1 + 2 + 3 + . + n

(i)

n n 1

2

Base Step: Let n = 0. Then the sum on the left is zero, since there is

Page No.: 50

Unit 3

For n1, left side = 1, right side

11 1

1 . Hence the result is

2

true for n1

(ii)

and n 0. Then 1 + 2 + 3 + + m

(iii)

m 1

2

Induction Step: We now show that the above result is true for nm1.

Adding the m1 th term viz., m1 to both sides we obtain.

1 + 2 + 3 + ... + m m 1

m

m 1

1

2

m 1

m m 1

2

m 1

m 1 m 2

2

m 1 1 ,

2

Hence by mathematical induction, the result is true for all positive integral

values of n.

3.2.3 Example

Prove by mathematical induction that

1

.... n

n n 1 2 n 1

6

Solution:

(i)

Base Step: Let n = 0. Then the sum on the left is zero, since there is

nothing to add. The expression on the right is also zero.

If n 1 , left side 12 1.

Page No.: 51

Right side

Unit 3

11 1 2 . 1 1

1. 2 . 3

1.

6

6

(ii)

Then 12 2 2 3 2 ... m 2

m m 1 2 m 1

.

6

equation, we get,

12 2 2 ... m 2 m 12

m 1

m 2 m 1 6 m 1

m m 1 2 m 1

m 1 2

6

m 1

6

2 m

7m 6

m 1 m 2 2 m 3

6

m 1

m 1 1 2 m 1 1

6

Therefore the result is true for nm1 . Hence by mathematical induction the

given result is true for all positive integers n.

3.2.4 Example

For any finite set A, the cardinality of the power set of A is 2 raised to a

power equal to the cardinality of A.

Solution:

Sikkim Manipal University

Page No.: 52

Unit 3

Now the power set of A can be divided into two parts, those sets containing

the element a and those sets not containing a. The latter part is just 2B, and

the former part is obtained by introducing a into each member of 2B. Thus

This division, in fact partitions 2A into two

disjoint equinumerous parts, so the cardinality of the whole is twice 2 B,

which, by the induction hypothesis, is 2 2n = 2

n+1

proof.

3.2.5 Example

(Refer unit 4 for definition of binary tree) A binary tree is a tree in which no

parent can have more than two children. Prove that a binary tree of height n

has at most 2n leaves.

Solution: If we denote the maximum number of leaves of a binary tree of

height n by l(n), then we want to show that l(n) 2n.

Basic Step: Clearly l(0) = 1 = 20 since a tree of height 0 can have no nodes

other than the root, that is , it has at most one leaf.

Inductive Hypothesis: l(i) 2i for i = 0, 1, , n.

Inductive step: To get a binary tree of height n +1 from one of height n, we

can create, at most, two leaves in place of each previous one. Therefore

l(n + 1) = 2l(n).

Now, using the inductive assumption, we get

Sikkim Manipal University

Page No.: 53

Unit 3

arbitrary, we can conclude that the statement is true for all n.

3.2.6 Example

(Refer unit 4 for the definition of tree) A tree G with n vertices has (n -1)

edges.

Proof : We prove this theorem by induction on the number vertices n.

Basic step: If n = 1, then G contains only one vertex and no edge. So the

number of edges in G is n 1 = 1 1 = 0.

Induction hypothesis: The statement is true for all trees with less than n

vertices. Induction step: Now let us consider a tree with n vertices. Let ek

be any edge in T whose end vertices are vi and vj. Since T is a tree, by

Theorem 6.5, there is no other path between vI and vj. So by removing ek

from T, we get a disconnected graph. Furthermore, T- ek consists of exactly

two components (say T1 and T2). Since T is a tree, there were no circuits in

T and so there were no circuits in T1 and T2. Therefore T1 and T2 are also

trees.

It is clear that |V(T1)| + |V(T2)| = |V(T)| where V(T) denotes the set of vertices

in T.

Also |V(T1)| and |V(T2)| are less than n.

Therefore by the induction hypothesis, we have

|E(T1)| = |V(T1)| - 1 and |E(T2)| = |V(T2)| - 1.

|E(T1)| = |V(T1)| - 1 and |E(T2)| = |V(T2)| - 1.

3.2.12 Problem

Prove by mathematical induction that 2n n for all positive integer n.

Page No.: 54

Unit 3

is true. Hence P 1 is true

Now 2m 1 2 . 2m 2m . We know that 2m m m m 1 for all

Therefore by induction P n is true for all n.

3.2.13 Example

Show by induction that n n 1 2 n 1 is divisible by 6.

Solution: Let P n n n 1 2n 1

Now P 1 1 . 1 1 2 1 6 , this is divisible by 6.

Assume that P m is divisible by 6.

That is, m m 1 2m 1 is divisible by 6.

Therefore m m 1 2m 1 6k for some integer k.

Now

P(m+1) = (m+1) [(m+1) + 1] [2 (m+1)+1]

m 1 m 2 2m 3

m 1 m 2 2m 1 2

m 1 m 2 2m 1 2 m 1 m 2

m m 1 2m 1 2 m 1 2m 1 2 m 1 m 2

6k 2 m 1 3m 3 by induction hypothesis

6k 6 m 1

Sikkim Manipal University

Page No.: 55

Unit 3

Since each term on the R.H.S is divisible by 6 their sum is also divisible by 6.

Hence P m 1 is divisible by 6. Therefore by induction P n is divisible by

6 for all n N

3.2.7 The Pigeonhole Principle

If A and B are finite sets and

from A to B.

(In other words, if we attempt to pair off the elements of A (the pigeons)

with elements of B (the pigeonholes), sooner or later we will have to put

more than one pigeon in a pigeonhole).

Proof:

Basis Step: Suppose B = 0, that is, B = . Then there is no function f: A

B and so no one to one function.

Induction Hypothesis: Suppose that f is not one-to-one, provided that f: A

B, A> B, and B n, where n 0.

Induction Step: Suppose that f: A B and A> B = n + 1. Choose some

a A (since A > B = n + 1 1, A is nonempty, and therefore such a

choice is possible). If there is another element a a1 A, such that f(a) =

f(a1), then obviously f is not a one-to-one function, and we are done.

So, suppose that a is the only element mapped by f to f(a).

Consider then the sets A {a}, B-{f(a)}.

The function g: A-{a} B-{f(a)} that agrees with f on all elements of A-{a}.

Now the induction hypothesis applies, because B-{f(a)} has n elements, and

A -{a} = A -1 > B -1 = B-{f(a)}.

Therefore, there are two distinct elements of A-{a} that are mapped by g

(and therefore by f) to the same element of B-{b}. Hence f is not one-to-one.

Sikkim Manipal University

Page No.: 56

Unit 3

Let R be a binary relation on a set A, and let D, the diagonal set for R, be {a

aA and (a, a) R}. For each a A, let

Ra = {b: b A and (a, b) R}. Then D is distinct from each Ra.

If A is a finite set, then R can be pictured as a square array; the rows and columns

are labeled with the elements of A and there is a cross in the box with row labeled

a and column labeled b, just in case (a, b) B. The diagonal set D corresponds to

the complement of the sequence of boxes along the main diagonal, boxes with

crosses being replaced by boxes without crosses, and vice versa. The sets Ra

correspond to the rows of the array. The diagonalization principle can then be

rephrased: the complement of the diagonal is different from each row.

3.2.9 Example

Let us consider the relation R = {(a, b), (a, d), (b, b), (b, c), (c, c), (d, b), (d,

c), (d, e), (d, f), (e, e), (e, f), (f, a), (f, c), (f, d), (f, e)}; notice that R a = {b, d},

Rb = {b, c}, Rc = {c}, Rd = {b, c, e, f}, Re = {a, e}, and Rf = {c, d, e}. All in all, R

may be pictured like this:

x

Page No.: 57

Unit 3

Its complement is

x

from each row of the array; for D, because of the way it is constructed,

differs from the first row in the first position, from the second row in the

second position, and so on.

Mathematical induction is the process of proving a general theorem or

formula involving the positive integer n from particular cases.

A proof by mathematical induction consists of the following two steps.

(i)

(ii)

Assuming the theorem to be true for nm , prove that it is also true for

n m 1

Note that here m is a particular value of n . From (i) the theorem is true for

n1 and from (ii) it is true for n112 ; since it is true for n2 it follows from

(iii) that it is also true for n 2 1 3 and so on. Hence theorem is true for

all positive integral values of n .

3.2.10 Proof by Contradiction

Proof by contradiction is sometimes a very useful technique to prove that

some statements are true. In this technique, let us assume that property P

is not true.

3.2.11 Example

Prove by contradiction, that

Assume that

Page No.: 58

Unit 3

q is even.

This is a contradiction to our assumption that p and q have no common

factors. Therefore

3.2.12 Example

Give a proof by contradiction of if 3n + 2 is odd, then n is odd.

Solution: Let p: 3n+2 is odd

q: n is odd.

To construct a proof by contradiction, assume that both p and q are true.

That is, assume that 3n + 2 is odd and that n is not odd.

Since n is not odd, it is even.

Now we can show that if n is even, then 3n + 2 is even.

(Verification: n is even

3n + 2 is even).

have a contradiction. This completes the proof by contradiction, proving that

if 3n + 2 is odd, then n is odd.

3.2.13 Exhaustive Proof and Proof by Cases

Some theorems can be proved by examining a relatively small number of

examples. Such proofs are called exhaustive proofs, since these proofs

proceed by exhausting all possibilities. An exhaustive proof is a special type

of proof by cases where each case involves checking a single example.

Page No.: 59

Unit 3

3.2.14 Example

Prove that (n + 1)3

(n + 1)3

3n when n = 1, 2, 3, 4.

for n = 2, we have (n + 1)3 = 33 = 27 and 3n = 32 = 9;

for n = 3, we have (n + 1)3 = 43 = 64 and 3n = 33 = 27; and

for n = 4, we have (n + 1)3 = 53 = 125 and 3n = 34 = 81;

Therefore, (n + 1)3

3.2.15 Example

(Proof by Cases) Prove that if n is an integer, then

1. Prove by mathematical induction that

13 2 3 3 3 ... n 3

2. Prove that

n2

n 1 2

4

Page No.: 60

Unit 3

3.3 Summary

We introduced a variety of different methods of proof and illustrated how

each method is used. This unit is useful for several other important proof

methods, where we consider different cases separately and proof where we

prove the existence of objects with desired properties.

1. What is wrong with the following purported proof that all horses are the

same color?

The proof is by induction on the number of horses.

Basic step: There is only one horse. Then clearly all horses have the same

color.

Induction Hypothesis: In any group of upto n horses, all horses have the

same color.

Induction Step: Consider a group of n+1 horses. Discard one horse; by

induction hypothesis, all the remaining horses have the same color. Now

put that horse back and discard another; again all the remaining horses

have the same color. So all the horses have the same color as the ones that

were not discarded either time and so they all have the same color.

(Hint: The induction proof fails for n=2).

3.5 Answers

Self Assessment Questions

1. (i) For n1 , left side 13 1

right side

12 1 12

1. 4

1

4

4

(ii) Assume the result to be true for n m

Sikkim Manipal University

Page No.: 61

Unit 3

m 2 m 1 2

(induction

4

Then 13 2 3 3 3 ... m 3

hypothesis)

1

... m

m 1

m2

m 1 2

4

m 1 2

4

m 1 3

4m 4

m 1 2 m 2 2

4

m 1 2 m 1 1 2

4

the given result is established for all positive integers.

2. Proof by Contradiction method .

3. Take two odd integers m and n. Then there exist two integers r and t so

that m = 2r + 1 and n = 2t + 1.

Page No.: 62

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