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Genes

Question # 1
What are genes?
Question # 2
How large a part of our personality is inherited?
Question # 3
What characterizes us, homo sapiens?
Question # 4
What characterizes homo erectus?

Question # 5
Who were neanderthalls?

Question # 1
What are genes?

If you imagine your DNA as a cookbook, then your genes are


the recipes. Written in the DNA alphabet - A, T, C, and G - the
recipes = genes tell your cells how to function and what traits
to express.
For example, if you have curly hair, it is because the genes
you inherited from your parents are instructing your hair
follicle cells to make curly strands.
https://www.23andme.com/en-int/gen101/genes/

Human beings have between 20,000 and


25,000 genes.
Each one of us has the same set of genes.
https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/basics/gene
https://www.23andme.com/en-int/gen101/genes/

Question # 2
How large a part of our
personality is inherited?

How large a part of your


personality is learned?
_____%

How large a part of your


personality is inherited?
_____%

Personality traits are between 40% and 60% heritable.

https://www.goodreads.com/review/show/1044045074 page 104.


http://hbr.org/2011/07/the-unselfish-gene/ar/4

6 creativity studies of identical twins show that 25% to


40% of what we do innovatively stems from genetics.
That means that about 2/3 of our innovation skills
come through learning.
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/10054210-the-innovator-s-dna location 311.

The human population will become


more alike as races merge.

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/11/091124-origin-of-species-150-darwin-human-evolution.html

Further inspiration
https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/How-is-your-personality-1528059

Question # 3
What characterizes us,
homo sapiens?

160,000 200,000 years ago is the


origin of our species, homo sapiens.
http://www.thersa.org/events/our-events/wired-for-culture, March 1, 2012.
http://www.ted.com/talks/mark_pagel_how_language_transformed_humanity.html, minute 7.
http://jp.dk/rejser/andet/article2751188.ece?page=2
http://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/v/human-prehistory-101--prologue

http://youtu.be/-UnWtH7rpNw minute 7.

Around 50,000 years ago, about a hundred people moved


from Africa to Asia.
Everyone alive today, who has any non-African ancestors,
is probably descended from this group.
https://www.23andme.com/en-int/gen101/prehistory/outofafrica/

Neanderthall

Homo sapiens

http://www.ted.com/talks/svante_paeaebo_dna_clues_to_our_inner_neanderthal.html

Contrary to our ancestors Homo erectus and the


Neanderthalls, we homo sapiens have the ability
to learn from each other, build on ideas of each other.
Therefore, we develop more than Homo erectus and
the Neanderthals did.
http://www.ted.com/talks/mark_pagel_how_language_transformed_humanity.html, minute 5.

http://www.ted.com/talks/mark_pagel_how_language_transformed_humanity.html, minute 6.

Further inspiration
https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Learning-strategies-1487708

Question # 4
Who was homo erectus?

Our ancestors, the Homo erectus, evolved about


2 millions years ago on the African savanna.

http://www.ted.com/talks/mark_pagel_how_language_transformed_humanity.html

http://youtu.be/-UnWtH7rpNw minute 7.

How homo erectus may have looked.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_erectus

For 1 million years, homo erectus made the same hand


axes over and over again.
In other words, they were not good at learning from each
other, for example watch and copy from others. As a result
they could not improve on ideas of each other.
http://www.ted.com/talks/mark_pagel_how_language_transformed_humanity.html

http://www.ted.com/talks/mark_pagel_how_lan
guage_transformed_humanity.html, minute 5.

Question # 5
Who were neanderthalls?

Between 1% and 4% of the DNA of modern Europeans and


their descendants on other continents is of Neanderthal
origin.

Neanderthals were larger and heavier than us.


http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21692847-neanderthals-parting-gifts-homo-sapiens-were-disease-causing-genes
http://www.bostonglobe.com/ideas/2015/02/13/our-lost-cousins-neanderthals/O2cSNRBhPjcJYl76EoDAxK/story.html

How neanderthals may have looked

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal

Neanderthals lived in Europe and Central Asia


and died out 40,000 years ago.

http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21692847-neanderthals-parting-gifts-homo-sapiens-were-disease-causing-genes
http://www.bostonglobe.com/ideas/2015/02/13/our-lost-cousins-neanderthals/O2cSNRBhPjcJYl76EoDAxK/story.html

http://youtu.be/-UnWtH7rpNw minute 7.

The tools of the Neanderthals were somewhat more


complicated than those of homo erectus. The tools of
neanderthals also changed very little over the 300,000
years that neanderthals lived.

http://www.ted.com/talks/mark_pagel_how_language_transformed_humanity.html, minute 5.

http://www.ted.com/talks/mark_pagel_how_language_transformed_humanity.html, minute 5.