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Research Instrument

This section of the thesis is also

called Tools of Gathering Data,
Research Tools, Instrumentation and
Data Collection. The instrument to be
used must be appropriate to the
study, valid, and reliable.

Guidelines in the Use of

Research Instruments





Specify the research instrument/s used (main

instrument and subsidiary instrument, if needed).
Justify their uses.
If the instrument is constructed by the researcher,
he has to give details of construction and data on
validity and reliability.
If an instrument was copied from sources and was
modified by the researcher, he has to indicate the
If an instrument is standardized and used in toto,
the researcher has to specify its reliability and
validity including the name of the author and
authors permission.
The researcher must give the details of
instructions to research assistants, if they are
utilized for research activities.

Data-Gathering procedure

any research study, the researcher should

indicate briefly how the investigation was conducted.
To conduct of the research should start from the
approval of the permit to conduct the study to how
the instrument is distributed; who were given the
instrument; how many were given; and how the
instrument was retrieved. This section is also called
Procedure of Investigation or Research Procedure.

Sources of Data
The researcher must indicate the
source of data of each sub-problem of
the study. Some sources of data could
be taken from the instrument used in
the study, documents, published and
unpublished research materials, books,
and periodicals.

Locals of the Study

Is required in some studies such as
anthropological, sociological, historical,
experimental, and descriptive study if there is
a necessity. If this section is included, the place
where the study is conducted and the reasons
the choice of the place must be discussed.

Statistical Treatment of Data

Other institutions call this sub-heading
as Treatment of Data, Statistical Tools in
Gathering Data, Statistical of Data, or
Data Analysis and Interpretation.
The kind of statistical treatment
depends upon the nature of the problem,
especially the specific problems and the
nature of the data gathered.

Presentation, analysis and

interpretation of data
In this section where the obtained data for
the sub-problems / specific problems are
presented, analyzed and interpreted. The
data can be presented through the use of
tables, text, graphs, and figures (if needed).
The research sub-problems is given a
heading and is presented consistent with the
sequence found in the Statement of the

Guidelines in the Presentation,

Analysis and Interpretation of


Presentation of Data in Table Form:

1. Present the data in the order of the sub-problems

stated in the Statement of the Problem.
2. Table heading is generally an inverted pyramid.
3. Numerical data found in the tables should be
consistent with the textual presentation.
4. Table headings should be consistent with the title
found under the section for List of Tables.
5. There should be fewer rows and columns in the
6. As much as possible, tables should not be
7. Tables should follow the citation of the table


For Graphs and Figures:

1. Figures and graphs are used to illustrate
quantitative data but they should not be
overused so as not so distract the presentation.
2. Graphs make tabular values more clear and
3. Graphs that occupy more than half a page
should be placed on a separate page.
4. Graphs are numbered with Arabic rather than
Roman numerals.
5. Titles of figures and graphs are placed below
6. Graphs should follow the related textual
7. Graphs and figures must be presentable in

Characteristics of a Good Figure





The titled should clearly describe the

nature of the data presented.
Figures should be simple enough to convey
a clear idea, and be understandable
without the aid of textual description.
Numerical data upon which the figure is
based should be presented in an
accompanying table, if it not included in
the figure itself.
Data should be used sparingly. Too many
figures distract rather than illuminate the
Figures that occupy less than half page
may be placed on the same page as
textual material.


In Ranking the Data:

1. Arrange the data according to theirs
ranks (1,2,3,4,5, and so on.)
2. Point out in the discussion the first
three (3) highest ranks or first five (5)
highest ranks and how these ranks
affect the findings. In some cases, the
lowest ranks are also discussed if they
adversely affect the outcome of the


Analysis of Data:
1. Present the result of the analysis in a clear
and logically organized manner.
2. Analyze in-depth to give meaning to the data
presented in the table. Avoid table reading.
3. When variables are correlated, state whether
the correlation is positive or negative;
indicate the level of significance and make a
4. In the determining the significance of
difference of variables, state the obtained
statistical result; the level of the significance
of the difference and make a decision.


Interpretation of Data:
1. Establish the interconnection between
and among data.
2. Check for indicators whether the
hypothesis is supported or not supported
by the findings of the study.
3. Link the present findings with previous
literature or existing theory.
4. Use parallel observation with
contemporary events to give credence
presented in the Introduction (Chapter 1).
5. Draw out implications.