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95

7 Adaptive Filtering

In this section we will implement some simple adaptive signal processing. In

particular, issues related to implementation in FPGAs are considered. In the first

exercises we will design a fully parallel adaptive FIR filter. In particular we will

take note of the feedback that is present and how this means that there is a large

critical path.

Exercise

7.1 Standard Parallel Adaptive LMS Filter

Open the system:

\adaptive\lms1\lms1.mdl

This system implements the update equation for the complete adaptive

structure

w0 ( k )

w0 ( k 1 )

x(k)

w1 ( k )

w1 ( k 1 )

=

+ 2e ( k ) x ( k 1 )

x(k 2)

w2 ( k )

w2 ( k 1 )

x(k 3)

w3 ( k )

w3 ( k 1 )

The implementation maps the structure shown below:

x(k)

z-1

z-1

z-1

w0(k-1)

w1(k-1)

w2(k-1)

w3(k-1)

y(k)

d(k)

z-1

z-1

z-1

z-1

e(k)

2

x(k)

z-1

z-1

z-1

96

(a) Run the simulation and confirm the filter weights converge to the desired

solution for this system identification.

(b) Change the set of weights in the unknown system and run the simulation.

Does the filter still converge?

ANSWER:

(c) Reduce the step size by a factor of 10 and run the simulation again, what

can you observe? Do the weights converge? You may want to increase

the number of samples in this simulation.

Answer:

(d) In the above LMS signal flow graph indicate the critical path.

(e) Using System Generator, target the XC2VP30 device (available on the

board used in this course). Note that the XC2V40 only has 4 multipliers

and hence is not big enough for this design. Once the HDL has been

generated, synthesise and implement the design using the usual

procedure with the ISE tools. This may take several minutes to complete

so be patient!

(f) Complete the table below.

Report

Result

Value

Number of BUFGXMUXs

Place and Route

Report

Number of 18 x 18 multipliers

Number of SLICEs

static timing report

Minimum Period

Maximum Frequency

Exercise

7.2 Non canonical LMS implementation

Open the system:

\adaptive\LMS_transpose\LMS_transpose.mdl

This system implements the non canonical LMS structure. Remember that the

reason for using the transpose FIR is because it presented some advantages

when implemented in FPGAs in terms of critical path. However most

importantly note that the integrity of the algorithm has been slightly changed

and is NOT identical to the standard LMS (in fact it is sub-optimal).

In this example we present an LMS implementation in which we have

introduced the transpose FIR structure instead of the canonical. The resulting

implementation of the LMS is called the non-canonical LMS and is shown in

the figure below.

7 Adaptive Filtering

97

x(k)

y(k)

d(k)

w0(k-1)

w1(k-1)

w2(k-1)

z-1

z-1

z-1

w3(k-1)

z-1

z-1

z-1

z-1

e(k)

2

x(k)

z-1

z-1

z-1

(a) Check the configuration in the provided System Generator file and confirm

it implements the structure shown above.

(b) Run the simulation and confirm the filter weights converge to the desired

solution.

(c) Using the ISE tools, complete the table below taking particular note of the

Maximum clock frequency which should be higher than the previous design

due to the reduced critical path.

Report

Result

Value

Number of BUFGXMUXs

Place and Route

Report

Number of 18 x 18 multipliers

Number of SLICEs

static timing report

Minimum Period

Maximum Frequency

Exercise

7.3 LMS Audio Using Configurable LMS Block

In this exercise a configurable LMS block is presented. The block is then tested

by using it in an audio example to filter out a sine wave.

98

\adaptive\LMS_audio\adaptive_lms2.mdl

Intsead of using discrete blocks to build an LMS filter, a configurable subsystem has been created. This block can be found in the Simulink library

browser within the Adaptive Blockset.

(a) Explore the parameters of the LMS block. Each parameter is used to set

the structure of the design. The figure at the bottom the page shows how

the parameters are used to set the width of the data paths.

(b) Run the system. Note that this will take a little time to run through the full

15 seconds of audio. During this time feel free to alter the Manual Switch

so that you alter between filtered and non-filtered audio capture.

(c) Once the simulation has finished play back the captured audio file at:

\adaptive\LMS_audio\audio.wav

(d) You should be able to hear the filter adapt as the tone slowly disappears.

Also, look at the scope output which will show the filter adapting.

(e) To view the inside of the LMS block, right click on the block and then select

Look Under Mask. To look within each coefficient block of the design just

repeat this process. By doing this, confirm that the LMS structure is the

same as the one built from discrete tokens in Exercise 7.1. Feel free to

alter the parameters of the LMS block and then check to see if the changes

have been made automatically.

Input Width

Adders grow to

accommodate

integer bit growth

z-1

z-1

y(k)

d(k)

Coefficient Width

Error Width

z-1

z-1

z-1

Step Width

Error

-1 + Input Width

-1

z

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