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Case 1:16-cv-10254-DJC Document 17 Filed 06/10/16 Page 1 of 8


No. 1:16-cv-10254-DJC
Defendant President and Fellows of Harvard College1 (Harvard) hereby moves
pursuant to Local Rule 7.2 to file under seal a document supportive of its Motion to Dismiss. As
explained below, the document Harvard seeks to file under seal contains confidential and
intimately private information about parties and non-parties and is a record protected against
disclosure by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). Harvard has
conferred with counsel for Plaintiff, who indicated that Plaintiff assents to the relief requested in
this Motion.
Plaintiff Alyssa Leader filed this Complaint on February 16, 2016. Dkt. No. 1. The
Complaint alleges that Harvard acted with deliberate indifference to Leaders complaints of
sexual assault, harassment, and retaliation and thereby violated the federal prohibition on sexbased discrimination contained in Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C.
16811688 (Title IX), and that Harvard is liable for negligence and premises liability.

Harvards Board of Overseers, also named as a Defendant, is not itself a corporate entity with any legal status. The
parties anticipate jointly filing a stipulation of dismissal as to that Defendant.

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Throughout the Complaint, Leader discusses and relies upon the Final Report of the
investigation into Leaders complaints, issued by Harvards Office for Sexual and Gender Based
Dispute Resolution (ODR). See, e.g., id. 98, 100, 107, 112, 121. The Final Report contains
sensitive nonpublic information about Leader, John Doe, and other Harvard College student
witnesses provided to Harvard in connection with a process for which Harvard commits to taking
reasonable steps to protect the privacy of all involved, see Sexual and Gender-Based
Harassment Policy and Procedures for the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University
C(v) (Confidentiality).2 Harvard moves now to file the Report under seal.
Harvard intends to file a Motion to Dismiss the Complaint pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P.
12(b)(6), together with a Memorandum in Support of that Motion (Memorandum). The
Memorandum attaches ODRs Final Report, which Leader cites throughout the Complaint.
I. The Final Report Should Be Filed Under Seal Because It Contains Intimate
Personal and Confidential Information About Parties and Non-Parties.
Pursuant to District of Massachusetts Local Rule 7.2, confidential information or
materials submitted with court filings may be sealed or otherwise restricted from public access
upon a showing of good cause. Good cause exists in this matter because the Final Report
repeatedly identifies John Doe by name and reveals highly personal, confidential, and sensitive
information about Leader, John Doe, and other witnesses who were interviewed or involved with
the investigation that led to the Report.
The instant litigation places the content of and the process leading to the Final Report at
issue, with the result that ODRs Final Report and its contents are crucial to Harvards defense of
Leaders claims. The interests of both parties, John Doe, and third-party witnesses are aligned in

Available at

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respect to the principle that the Report should not be made available for public viewing. See
United States v. Miami Univ., 294 F.3d 797, 818 (6th Cir. 2002) (noting that release of
disciplinary records clearly will injure the reputations of the students involved, including the
perpetrator, the victim and any witnesses).
Likewise, the privacy interests of the Harvard students who participated in the
investigation and are named in the 79-page Final Report are straightforward: the Report
describes and assesses Leaders allegations and contains personal and private information about
parties to the ODR complaint as well as non-parties, including intimate details about sexual
interactions and events. The exhibits attached to the Report contain hundreds of pages of highly
personal and private text messages, emails, chat messages, and photographs of Harvard College
students and Leaders private journal. Harvards interests in confidentiality relate to the integrity
and functioning of its ODR process, and through that process, to the ultimate success of its
efforts to maintain a secure campus. Harvards policies emphasize confidentiality in the
investigation and reporting of sexual harassment and assault. See Compl. 59.
Also of concern in this case is the identity of John Doe, the individual accused by Leader
of sexual assault and found not responsible following ODRs investigation. Disclosure of John
Does name is unnecessary and unwarranted. See Contra Doe v. Word of Life Fellowship, Inc.,
2011 WL 2968912, at *2 (D. Mass. July 18, 2011). Once personally identifiable information
has been made public, the harm cannot be undone. Miami Univ., 294 F.3d at 818 (noting
release of disciplinary records clearly will injure the reputations of the students involved,
including the perpetrator, the victim and any witnesses).
Moreover, revealing personally identifiable information of any of the students named in
the Final Report may have a chilling effect on student and other witness participation in the Title

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IX investigatory process at Harvard. See DeCosta v. Chabot, 1994 WL 279739, at *2 (D.N.H.

June 9, 1994) (granting a protective order to state third-party witness intending to file abuse
investigation records as supporting exhibits to a dispositive motion, in part in order to
encourage reports and to protect the reporters).
For all of these reasons, Harvard requests that this Court allow it to protect the identity of
John Doe and the other non-party witnesses by filing the Final Report under seal. See In re
Boston Herald, 321 F.3d 174 (1st Cir. 2003) (affirming the trial courts sound discretion to
maintain documents under seal where the privacy interests outweigh the general public interest
in access to judicial records, and adding that the Court should give increased weight to the
privacy interests of third parties).
II. The Final Report Should Be Filed Under Seal and Redacted Because It Constitutes
a Record Protected Against Disclosure by the Family Educational Rights and
Privacy Act.
As an independent basis to file the Final Report sealed and in redacted form to protect the
identities of Harvard College students, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
(FERPA) prohibits Harvard from producing to third parties any personally identifiable
information contained in education records of Leader or other Harvard students, except in
limited circumstances. 34 C.F.R. 99.10, 99.30. Personally identifiable information
includes a students name as well as any indirect identifiers that, alone or in combination, [are]
linked or linkable to a specific student that would allow a reasonable person in the school
community, who does not have personal knowledge of the relevant circumstances, to identify the
student with reasonable certainty. 34 C.F.R. 99.3. Education records are records directly
related to a student and maintained by an education institution, 34 C.F.R. 99.3, and include
disciplinary records. Miami Univ., 294 F.3d at 813. As discussed above, the Report includes the

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names of non-party Harvard College students as well as other information sufficient to identify
non-party Harvard College students. These student names and identities are confidential as a
matter of law, and Harvard should be permitted to redact all names, even when filing the Final
Report under seal.
Generally speaking, FERPA protects from public disclosure a students personally
identifiable information contained in his or her education records, absent the students consent.
FERPA regulations also make clear that witnesses and respondents in school disciplinary
proceedings have a privacy interest in the records of the proceedings. 34 C.F.R. 99.31(a)(14)
(emphasis added) provides:
(i) The institution must not disclose the final results of the disciplinary proceeding unless
it determines that
(A) The student is an alleged perpetrator of a crime of violence or non-forcible sex
offense; and
(B) With respect to the allegations made against him or her, the student has
committed a violation of the institutions rules or policies.
(ii) The institution may not disclose the name of any other student, including a victim or
witness, without the prior written consent of the student.
The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals has held that FERPAs restrictions on the disclosure of
information from student disciplinary proceedings apply notwithstanding state public records
laws and the First Amendment interests of press entities seeking to access information about
criminal conduct at universities. See Miami Univ., 294 F.3d at 811, 834. Several exceptions to
this principle are available under FERPA and its supporting regulations in 34 C.F.R. pt. 99. One
such exception entitles an institution to disclose to the court the students education records that
are relevant for the . . . institution to defend itself in a civil action brought by that student. 34
C.F.R. 99.31(9)(iii)(B) (emphasis added). This exception does not extend to disclosing to the

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court or to the public information of other College students who are named or are identifiable in
the Final Report but are not parties to this litigation. Id.
Reconciling Harvards entitlement to defend itself in this case with its privacy obligations
to John Doe and its witnesses requires that the Final Report be sealed from public view in its
entirety. Because FERPA protects not just personally identifying information, but personally
identifiable information, redacting the names of students from a public-facing Report would be
insufficient to comply with FERPA regulations. The Family Policy Compliance Office
(FPCO), the division of the U.S. Department of Education that administers and interprets
FERPA and its regulations, has opined that schools must protect from disclosure any information
that would render a non-consenting students identity easily traceable, even after removal or
redaction of nominally identifying information from the records.3 Once personally identifiable
information has been made public, the harm cannot be undone. Miami Univ., 294 F.3d at 818.
As such, consistent with FERPA, the Final Report should be filed under seal in redacted form.
For the reasons set forth above, Harvard respectfully requests that this Court issue an
Order permitting the Final Report, including exhibits, to be filed under seal and with redactions
to omit all references to the names and personally identifying information about any student
other than Plaintiff referenced in the Final Report and any witness interviewed in connection
with Plaintiffs ODR complaint.

See FPCO Guidance dated October 19, 2004, available at

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Respectfully submitted,

/s/ Victoria L. Steinberg

Victoria L. Steinberg, BBO #666482
Lauren A. Graber, BBO #679226
100 High St., 20th Floor
Boston, MA 02110
Apalla U. Chopra (pro hac admission pending)
400 South Hope Street
Los Angeles, California 90071
(213) 430-6000
(213) 430-6407
Danielle C. Gray (pro hac admission pending)
7 Times Square
New York, NY 10036
(212) 326-2000
(212) 326-2061


June 10, 2016


The undersigned counsel hereby certifies that she has conferred in good faith with
counsel for Plaintiff regarding the foregoing Motion. Plaintiff, through counsel, has indicated
that she assents to the relief requested in this Motion.
/s/ Victoria L. Steinberg
Victoria Steinberg

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I hereby certify that this document filed through the ECF system will be sent
electronically to the registered participants as identified on the Notice of Electronic Filing (NEF)
and paper copies will be sent to those indicated as non-registered participants on June 10, 2016.
/s/ Victoria L. Steinberg
Victoria Steinberg