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You are on page 1of 10

What is integration?

Integration is the process of measuring the area under a function plotted on a graph. Why

would we want to integrate a function? Among the most common examples are finding the

velocity of a body from an acceleration function, and displacement of a body from a velocity

function. Throughout many engineering fields, there are (what sometimes seems like)

countless applications for integral calculus.

Sometimes, the evaluation of expressions involving these integrals can become daunting, if

not indeterminate. For this reason, a wide variety of numerical methods has been developed

to simplify the integral.

Here, we will discuss the trapezoidal rule of approximating integrals of the form

b

I f x dx

a

where

a lower limit of integration

b upper limit of integration

What is the trapezoidal rule?

The trapezoidal rule is based on the Newton-Cotes formula that if one approximates the

integrand by an n th order polynomial, then the integral of the function is approximated by

the integral of that n th order polynomial. Integrating polynomials is simple and is based on

the calculus formula.

07.02.1

07.02.2

Chapter 07.02

b n1 a n1

n

, n 1

x

dx

a

n 1

So if we want to approximate the integral

b

(1)

I f ( x)dx

(2)

f ( x) f n ( x)

(3)

where

f n ( x) a0 a1 x ... an1 x n1 an x n .

(4)

where f n (x) is a n th order polynomial. The trapezoidal rule assumes n 1 , that is,

approximating the integral by a linear polynomial (straight line),

f ( x)dx f ( x)dx

1

Derived from Geometry

The trapezoidal rule can also be derived from geometry. Look at Figure 2. The area under

the curve f1 ( x) is the area of a trapezoid. The integral

b

a

1

(Sum of length of parallel sides)(Perpendicular distance between parallel sides)

2

1

f (b) f (a) (b a)

2

f (a) f (b)

(12)

(b a)

Trapezoidal Rule

07.02.3

Example 1

The vertical distance covered by a rocket from t 8 to t 30 seconds is given by

30

140000

x 2000 ln

9.8t dt

140000 2100t

8

a) Use the single segment trapezoidal rule to find the distance covered for t 8 to

t 30 seconds.

b) Find the true error, Et for part (a).

c) Find the absolute relative true error for part (a).

07.02.4

Chapter 07.02

Solution

a)

f (a) f (b)

I (b a)

, where

2

a 8

b 30

140000

f (t ) 2000 ln

9.8t

140000 2100t

140000

f (8) 2000 ln

9.8(8)

140000 2100 (8)

177.27 m/s

140000

f (30) 2000 ln

9.8(30)

140000 2100 (30)

901.67 m/s

177.27 901.67

I (30 8)

11868 m

30

140000

x 2000 ln

9.8t dt

140000 2100t

11061 m

so the true error is

Et True Value Approximate Value

11061 11868

807 m

True Error

100

True Value

11061 11868

100

11061

7.2958 %

Trapezoidal Rule

07.02.5

In Example 1, the true error using a single segment trapezoidal rule was large. We can

divide the interval [8,30] into [8,19] and [19,30] intervals and apply the trapezoidal rule over

each segment.

140000

f (t ) 2000 ln

9.8t

140000 2100t

30

19

30

19

f (8) f (19)

f (19) f (30)

(19 8)

(30 19)

2

2

140000

9.8(19) 484.75 m/s

f (19) 2000 ln

140000 2100 (19)

f (30) 901.67 m/s

Hence

177.27 484.75

484.75 901.67

(30 19)

2

2

8

11266 m

The true error, Et is

Et 11061 11266

205 m

30

f (t )dt (19 8)

The true error now is reduced from 807 m to 205 m. Extending this procedure to dividing

[a, b] into n equal segments and applying the trapezoidal rule over each segment, the sum of

the results obtained for each segment is the approximate value of the integral.

Divide (b a) into n equal segments as shown in Figure 4. Then the width of each segment

is

ba

h

(26)

n

b

I f ( x)dx

a

ah

a2h

a ( n 1) h

ah

a ( n 2) h

a ( n 1) h

(27)

07.02.6

Chapter 07.02

b

f (a) f (a h)

a f ( x)dx (a h) a

f (a h) f (a 2h)

(a 2h) (a h)

f (a (n 2)h) f (a (n 1)h)

a (n 1)h a (n 2)h

f (a (n 1)h) f (b)

b a (n 1)h

f ( a ) f ( a h)

f ( a h ) f ( a 2 h)

h

h

...................

2

2

f (a (n 2)h) f (a (n 1)h)

f (a (n 1)h) f (b)

h

h

2

2

h

n 1

2

i 1

ba

n1

f

(

a

)

2

f (a ih) f (b)

2n

i 1

(28)

Trapezoidal Rule

07.02.7

Example 2

The vertical distance covered by a rocket from t 8 to t 30 seconds is given by

30

140000

x 2000 ln

9.8t dt

140000 2100t

8

a) Use the two-segment trapezoidal rule to find the distance covered from t 8 to

t 30 seconds.

b) Find the true error, Et for part (a).

c) Find the absolute relative true error for part (a).

Solution

a) The solution using 2-segment Trapezoidal rule is

ba

n1

I

f

(

a

)

2

f (a ih) f (b)

2n

i 1

n2

a 8

b 30

ba

h

n

30 8

2

11

30 8

21

I

f (8) 2 f (8 11i) f (30)

2(2)

i 1

22

f (8) 2 f (19) f (30)

4

22

177.27 2(484.75) 901.67

4

11266 m

30

140000

x 2000 ln

9.8t dt

140000 2100t

8

11061 m

so the true error is

Et True Value Approximate Value

11061 11266

205 m

07.02.8

Chapter 07.02

True Error

100

True Value

11061 11266

100

11061

1.8537%

30

140000

x 2000 ln

9.8t dt

140000 2100t

n

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Approximate

Value

11868

11266

11153

11113

11094

11084

11078

11074

Et

t %

a %

-807

-205

-91.4

-51.5

-33.0

-22.9

-16.8

-12.9

7.296

1.853

0.8265

0.4655

0.2981

0.2070

0.1521

0.1165

--5.343

1.019

0.3594

0.1669

0.09082

0.05482

0.03560

Trapezoidal Rule

Example 3

Use the multiple-segment trapezoidal rule to find the area under the curve

300 x

f ( x)

1 ex

from x 0 to x 10 .

Solution

Using two segments, we get

10 0

h

5

2

300(0)

f (0)

0

1 e0

300(5)

f (5)

10.039

1 e5

300(10)

f (10)

0.136

1 e10

ba

n1

I

f

(

a

)

2

f (a ih) f (b)

2n

i 1

10 0

21

f

(

0

)

2

f (0 5) f (10)

2(2)

i 1

10

f (0) 2 f (5) f (10)

4

10

0 2(10.039) 0.136 50.537

4

10

300 x

0 1 e x dx 246.59

246.59 50.535

t

100

246.59

79.506%

07.02.9

07.02.10

Chapter 07.02

Why is the true value so far away from the approximate values? Just take a look at Figure 5.

As you can see, the area under the trapezoids (yeah, they really look like triangles now)

covers a small portion of the area under the curve. As we add more segments, the

approximated value quickly approaches the true value.

10

Approximate

Value

Et

0.681

245.91 99.724%

50.535

196.05 79.505%

170.61

75.978 30.812%

227.04

19.546 7.927%

16 241.70

4.887

1.982%

32 245.37

1.222

0.495%

64 246.28

0.305

0.124%

300 x

1 e

dx .

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