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Introduction to Magnetism and Magnetic Materials

Jaejun Yu
School of Physics, Seoul National University
jyu@snu.ac.kr
c
2005
Jaejun Yu

KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp


5-18 January 2005

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Abstract
In this lecture,1 I will give a brief introduction on a quantum mechanical view on magnetism in real materials, especially, consisting of transition metal elements and their compounds, and the physical principles for the applications of magnetic materials as magnetic
sensors and memory devices. Further, I will discuss the connection between magnetism
and superconductivity in high Tc superconductors as an example.

This lecture is support by KIAS and SNU-CTP.

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Contents
1 What is all about condensed matter physics?
1.1 Macroscopic vs. microscopic objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Most condensed matter systems are quantum mechanical by nature! . . . . . .
1.3 How do we approach the condensed matter system in order to understand the
physics of a black box? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Particle zoo in the condensed matter systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 Energy scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5
6
11
12
15
16

2 Magnetism in Real Materials


19
2.1 Magnetic Storages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.2 Magnetic Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3 A quantum mechanical view of magnets:
Pauli exclusion principle and Coulomb interactions
3.1 Sources of Magnetic Moments . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Magnetic Moment of an Atom . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Magnetic Moments in Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 A Model for the Exchange Interactions in Solids . .
3.5 Transition Metal Oxides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Magnetic Impurity in a Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

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34
34
39
47
59
68
73

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

4 Effective Hamiltonian and Phenomenological Theory


4.1 Heisenberg Model: Mean Field Solution . . . . . . .
4.2 Order Parameters: Description of Phase Transition .
4.3 Bragg-Williams Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Ginzburg-Landau Functional . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 Second-Order Phase Transition . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6 correlation length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5 Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and magnetic sensors

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78
78
80
81
85
86
89
90

6 Magnetism and superconducitivity:


High Tc superconductivity

107

7 References

110

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

1.

What is all about condensed matter physics?


... How do we understand the physical properties of single particle systems in a classical
or quantum sense? In other words, what do we measure or observe?
p

... In classical dynamics, the state of a single particle is determined by the observables {x(t), p(t)}. It can
be extended to the system with many particles where the state of the system is described by the set of
observables {xi (t), pi (t)|i = 1, 2, ..., N }. However, when N 1025 , it is practically impossible to trace
the orbits of all, even the part of, the particles. Here it is the point where the statistical physics comes into
playing a role. Instead of following each individual particles, we measure a quantity by an (ensemble or
time) average of the given quantities adopted in classical dynamics. In addition, now we have to deal with
new observables such as entropy, temperature, ....
The same thing applies for the case of quantum systems. The only difference is the dynamics state of the
quantum system is determined by a state vector |(x, t)i for a single particle and |(x1 , x2 , ..., xN , t)i.

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

1.1.

Macroscopic vs. microscopic objects

Observables for the macro object consisting of more than 1020 particles:
specific heat cv entropy, temperature
bulk modulus or compressibility pressure P
polarization P, magnetization M electro-magnetic field E, B
reflectivity, color, conductivity, ... etc.

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

For an example, what physical property of the cube (or disk) makes this happen, i.e., a
cube float over a magnet against gravitation?

(Hint: This is the phenomenon called magnetic levitation, which is mainly attributed to the Meisner effect of superconductors.)

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Observables for the micro or nano object of order 102 particles:

conductance G / electron tunneling current I


force F
magnetic Flux
charge density distribution, electron cloud (bonding), ... etc.

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

an AFM image

an STM image

a LEED image

What do we really see in these images?


What physical quantities do they represent?

An example of the SEM System:

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

MRI Image: What do we really see in this image?


What physical quantity does it represent?

(This is an image of our brain probed by using the technique of the nuclear magnetic
resonance.)

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

1.2.

Most condensed matter systems are quantum mechanical by nature!

~
d
p

Unfortunately, however, there is no quantum mechanical solution available except for


free (i.e., non-interacting) particle systems.
An example of exactly solvable models:
1
H = ~(a+ a + )
2
a+ a|ni = n|ni
a|Oi = 0

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

1.3.

How do we approach the condensed matter system in order to understand


the physics of a black box?

Experimental Methods:
By disturbing the black box by phtons, phonons, electrons, and/or neutrons, try to get a
hint on elementary excitations in the system.
Theoretical Methods:
By guessing possible elementary excitations and working out the QM equation of motions, see if we can predict the physics of the system. If wrong, correct the model for
the elementary excitations for the better description.
How to disturb the black box?

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Question: Measuring the dc resistance is a way of disturbing the system? What really
happens inside the black box when we apply a bias voltage?
Current-Voltage curve of a YBCO high Tc superconductor

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Question: What happens when we shine a light on the matter?


Light scattering experiment: (Photoemission / IR spectroscopy)

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

1.4.

Particle zoo in the condensed matter systems

elementary excitations in solids


quasi-particles: electrons, holes, polarons, excitons, Cooper pairs, ...
collective excitations: phonons, magnons, zero-sound, plasmons, ...

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

1.5.

Energy scale
The condensed matter system is merely a collection of atoms, where each atom
consists of electrons and a nucleus (me  mN ).
From the uncertainty principle xp ~,
p
p
p = 2me E 3mkB T
Thus, practically, the size of atom the size of electrons.

atomic unit: ~ = e2 = me = 1
x aB =
EB =

~2
= 0.529177A (Bohr radius)
me2

1 e2
me4
= 2 = 13.6058eV = 1Ry
2 aB
2~

In atomic unit, aB = 1, EB = 1/2, c = 1/ 137,


kB 3.2 106 K1
B = 2.13 106 T1 , ...
( = e2 /~c: fine structure constant)

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

energy of an electron in a box of size L:


x L
Eo =

~
L

p2
1

2m
2L2

speed of electrons in a box:


ve

1
c

L
L

electrons in solid
Fermions: Pauli exclusion principle
Degenerate Electrons: lowest possible excitations near the Fermi energy

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Energy Scale
Coulomb interaction: eV
Magnetic ordering temperature Tc : 0.1 meV 50 meV
Dipole-dipole interaction: 0.1 meV

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

2.

Magnetism in Real Materials


Magnets

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Solenoid vs. Bar Magnet

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Origin of Magnetic Moments

Magnetic permeability and origin of magnetic moments?


2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Magnetic Diagram

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Magnetic Image of Our Brain


MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) using the NMR technique

Mapping of Proton Spin Resonance Frequencies

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Levitating magnetic bar on a superconducting bed

Magnetic shielding by the superconducting current

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

2.1.

Magnetic Storages

Magnetic thin films


2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

2.2.

Magnetic Sensors

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

MFM (Magnetic Force Microscopy) Image of Nanomagnet Array


(C. A. Ross, MIT)

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

3.

A quantum mechanical view of magnets:


Pauli exclusion principle and Coulomb interactions

3.1.

Sources of Magnetic Moments

Magnetic moment: M = gB J
proportional to the angular momentum J = L + S
Spin moment S
Orbital moment L

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Localized State
Since the rotational symmetry is preserved, it has the quantum eigenstates |jmi:
J2 |jmi = j(j + 1)|jmi
where
J=L+S

If the spherical symmetry is broken, e.g., inside a lattice, the orbital moment can be
quenched due to the lack of rotational symmetry, i.e.,
hLi = 0

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Delocalized State
A free electron state such as |ki may not be an eigenstate of the angular momentum
operator L.
Only |sms i may contribute to the magnetic moment.

Exception: Diamagnetic shielding current in a superconducting state.

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Perfect Diamagnetism: Superconductivity

SC

Inside the superconductor:


B=0
Supercurrent induced by the current of Cooper pair electrons:
Js (r) = A(r)

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

A Localized State Coupled to Delocalized States?


An impurity atom in a metal

Formation of a Local Moment Broken Symmetry State!


Anderson Impurity Model

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

3.2.

Magnetic Moment of an Atom

m=-2

m=-1

m=0

m=1

m=2

s
p
d

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Hunds Rule
1. Maximum total S = max Sz with Sz =
Obeying the Pauli exclusion principle

msi

P
2. Maximum total L = max Lz with Lz = i mli
Minimizing the Coulomb interaction energy
3. Spin-orbit interaction:

J=

|L + S|
|L S|

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

if less than half-filled


if more than half-filled

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Exchange Energy
Pauli exclusion principle: anti-symmetric two-particle wavefunction
1
|(r1 ; r2 )i = [a (r1 )b (r2 ) b (r1 )a (r2 )] | i| i
2
Coulomb interaction
VC (r1 r2 ) =

e2
|r1 r2 |

EC2 = < (1, 2)|VC |(1, 2)i


Z
=
dr1 dr2 VC (r1 r2 )|a (r1 )|2 |b (r2 )|2
Z
dr1 dr2 VC (r1 r2 )a (r1 )b (r2 )a (r2 )b (r1 )
= Uab Jab

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Exchange Density

a(r)
b(r)
a*(r) (r)
b

Gaining more (negative) exchange energy by aligning spins:

Hunds 1st rule

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Overlap and Exchange Integrals of the atomic p-orbitals

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Minimization of Coulomb Energy Term Uab


by letting (r) be separated: Hunds 2nd rule

Ylm (, ) = (1)m Ylm


(, )

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Configuration of 3d Transition Metal Ions

L
2
1

d
0

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

8 10

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Spin-Orbit Coupling
determined by the sign of the coupling constant
L S
where

high spin

dV (r)
dr

low spin
L

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

3.3.

Magnetic Moments in Solids

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Cubic Lattice Symmetry: Broken Spherical Symmetry

Crystal Field Splitting:

eg
l=2
t2g
|eg i = {|x2 y 2 i, |z 2 r2 /3i}
|t2g i = {|xyi, |yzi, |zxi}

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Kinetic Energy vs. Coulomb Energy


Uncertainty Principle:
p

~
x

Kinetic Energy:
EK =

p2
~2 1

2m
2m (x)2

Coulomb Exchange Energy:


e2
x
where A 0.1, an order of magnitude smaller than the direct Coulomb interaction
energy.
EC A

When x  1, the Coulomb energy dominates over the kinetic energy.

Wigner solid: frozen localized electrons

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Wigner Crystal: Metal-Insulator Transition

x
x

Result of the competition between kinetic and Coulomb energy!


Here we dropped the interaction term between electrons and background positive charge.
What is it?

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Delocalized State:
Molecular / Band State

t= A VAB B
o

hA

hB

Ho = hA + hB + VAB


o t
Ho =
t o

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Single-particle eigenstates and eigenvalues:


1
| i = (|A i |B i)
2

= o t

o+t
o

2t
o -

Corresponding two-particle state:

t
o+t

1
2 i = [|+ , i|+ , i |+ , i|+ , i]
2
o

2t

Spin-singlet ground state with single-particle molecular states | i

o -

o+t
2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

2t

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Energy Curve for a Hydrogen Molecule

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Consider two hydrogen atoms separated by a distance d. What are the ground states of
this system in the limits of d 0 and d ? What is the dominating factor in each limit?
Try to make a qualitative argument in describing the physics.
What about a lattice of hydrogen atoms with a lattice constant d? Discuss the possible physical properties of the lattice with varying d from to 0.

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

2t
Three-Sites Molecular
o -States
t

o+t
o
o -

2t
t

o+t
o
o 2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

2t
t
Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

o+t
o

2t

N -Sites States: Tight-Binding Energy Band


o -

o+t
o
o -

2t
t

These delocalized molecular state is stable when the Coulomb interaction energy U is
smaller than the kinetic energy gain W = 2t.
Z
U = h2 |VC (1, 2)|2 i dr1 dr2 VC (r1 r2 )A (r1 )A (r2 )
: on-site Coulomb interaction energy

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Pauli Paramagnetism

the change of the Density-of-states due to the Zeeman coupling:


D() =

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

dN ()
d

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Pauli Paramagnetic Susceptibility


Z EF
1
1
1
N =
D(E + B B)dE
D(E)dE = B BD(EF )
2
2
B B 2
0
Z EF
Z EF
1
1
1
D(E B B)dE
D(E)dE = B BD(EF )
N =
2
2
0
B B 2
Z

EF

M = B (N N ) = 2B D(EF )B =

3N 2B
3N 2B
B = s =
2kB TF
2kB TF
N 2

Substracting the Landau diamagnetic contribution L = 2kB TBF , we have the Pauli Paramagnetic Susceptibility:
N 2B
P =
kB TF

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

3.4.

A Model for the Exchange Interactions in Solids

When U  W , the localized states of |o i becomes stable relative to the band (molecular)
state |2 i:
1
|o i = [| , s1 i| , s2 i | , s2 i| , s1 i]
2
which is a combination of the localized orbitals |A,B i instead of the molecular states | i.
Here the starting Hamiltonian Ho include the interaction term of U :
Ho = hA + hB + U
and the hopping term VAB should be considered as a perturbation.

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Many-Particle Excited States


Two-particle excited states:
|o (s1 , s2 )i = |A , s1 i|B , s2 i
|A (, )i = |A , i|A , i
|B (, )i = |B , i|B , i
Ho |o i = 2o |o i
Ho |A i = (2o + U )|A i
Ho |B i = (2o + U )|B i

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

2o+U
o

hA

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

hB

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Only remaining degrees of freedom of the ground state |o i are

spins!
|p (s1 , s2 )i = |s1 , s2 i
Energy Correction via the Perturbation Theory with H1 = VAB
First-order correction:
hs1 , s2 |H1 |s1 , s2 i = 0
Pauli exclusion prohibits the double occupancy at the same site:
|A , i|A , i = 0
That is,
|A , s1 i|A , s1 i = 0

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Second-order correction:
h, |H1 |A i = h, |H1 |B i = t
h, |H1 |A i = h, |H1 |B i = 0
(2)
E,

(2)
E,

X0 |h, |H1 |n i|2


=0
=
En Eo
n

X0 |h, |H1 |n i|2


2t2
=
=
= JAF
En Eo
U
n

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Anti-Ferromagnetic Superexchange Interactions

Heff = +JAF~A ~B

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Ferromagnetic Exchange Interactions


What happens if additional degenerate (or almost degenerate) states exist at each atom
while U  W ?

1
o

hA

A
1
Ao

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

1
o

hB

B
1
Bo

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Now additional excited states become available:


|A (, )i = |Ao , i|A1 , i
and
ho (, )|H1 |A (, )i =
6 0
Ho |A (, )i = (o + 1 + U J)|A (, )i = EA (, )|A (, )i
If the exchange energy is larger than the difference |o 1 |, i.e.,
J > |o 1 |
we have
EA (, ) < EA (, )
Therefore,

X0 |h, |H1 |n i|2


2t2
2t2
(2)
(2)

< E, =
E, =
En Eo
U J
U
n

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Ferromagnetic Exchange Interaction

Heff = |JF M |~A ~B

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

3.5.

Transition Metal Oxides

Cu

Cu
x
The larger x, the smaller t, i.e., W = more localized!

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

FM Metal and AF Insulator


T
AF

FM

FM
n=

1/2

Ne
2N

Band-filling controlled by band degeneracy or by doping

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Question: Why should the half-filled state be an insulator? What can one imagine to
happen when an additional electron or hole is introduced in a half-filled system?

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Why Transition Metals (TM) and TM Compounds

rR(r)
3d

4p

4s

both 3d and 4f electron wavefunctions are extremely localized:


no node in radial wavefunctions

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Question:
Let us consider the transition-metal fluoride MnF2 , which is observed to be antiferromagnetic at low temperatures. In this system, the fluorine F becomes F being fully ionized so
that the manganese Mn becomes Mn2+ .
(a) Based on the Hunds rule, discuss the possible spin and orbital configuration of Mn2+
ions. (Note that Mn2+ has a 3d5 configuration.)
(b) Considering that the Mn ions of MnF2 form a bcc lattice, guess the magnetic configuration
of the ground state of MnF2 .
(c) What difference would it make if we replace F ions by O2 ions, that is, the ground state
of MnO2 ? (Hint: Consider the crystal field effect in a cubic lattice.)
Now consider the long-range magnetic order in metals. We know that Cu is a good paramagnetic metal while Fe is a ferromagnetic metal. Explain the difference and similarity of the
two systems. Why Fe is not anti-ferromagnetic instead of being ferromagnetic? (Note that Fe
has a configuration of 3d6 4s2 and Cu has 3d10 4s1 .)

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

3.6.

Magnetic Impurity in a Metal

after
before
high temperature,
spin-flip scattering

low temperature: singlet ground state

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Kondo Effect
Spin-flip scattering between the free electrons of a metal and the local moment of a
magnetic impurity = the Kondo effect.
Highly correlated ground state where the conduction electrons form a spin-polarized
cloud around the magnetic impurity.
Below Kondo temperature, = a narrow resonance at the Fermi energy: Kondo
resonance.

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Friedel Sum Rule


Ntot =

1X
2X
lm,kF =
(2l + 1)l,kF
lm
l

Impurity





(R)=0

k,l(r)

k,l

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Scattering Phase Shift and Change of Density-of-State

R
kn-2

kn+1

kn

kn-1

kn

o()

(a)

0
d ()

*d
(b)

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Kondo Resonance

TK

d ()

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

d+U

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

4.

Effective Hamiltonian and Phenomenological Theory

4.1.

Heisenberg Model: Mean Field Solution


H=

Jij Si Sj + gB H

Si

hiji

Introducing an effective field Heff ,


X
X
X
Jij Si Sj + gB H
H=
Si = gB
Si Heff
i

hiji

where the effective mean field


Heff = H

1 X
Jij Sj
gB j

and the average magnetization


hSi i =

V M
N gB

Heff = H + M
V Jo
=
N (gB )2
N F
Heff
M =
= Mo (
)
V H
T
2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

For the case of H = 0,


one can fine the magnetization M by solving the equation:
M (T ) = Mo (

o (T ) =

Mo
H

M
)
T


=
H=0

Mo0 (0)
T

where the Curies constant is determined to be Co = Mo0 (0).

For the case of H 6= 0,


=

M
Mo Heff
=
= o (1 + )
H
Heff H
Co
o
=
=
1 o
T Tc

where the critical temperature Tc becomes


Tc =

S(S + 1)
N (gB )2
S(S + 1) =
Jo
V 3kB
3kB

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

4.2.

Order Parameters: Description of Phase Transition


Supercondutor
Magnets
Ferroelectrics
Liquid/Gas-Solid
Order-disorder

T > Tc
T < Tc
Symmetry
s (r) = 0
s (r) 6= 0
U (1)
Ms (r) = 0
Ms (r) 6= 0
O(3)
Ps (r) = 0
Ps (r) 6= 0
O(3)
(G) = 0 for G 6= 0 (G) 6= 0 for G 6= 0
TR
=0
6= 0
Z2
= hnA iA hnB iA

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

4.3.

Bragg-Williams Theory

Consider the Ising model with the spin = | i or | i. The order parameter m = hi is the
average of the spin:
m = (N N )/N
Entropy S:
S = ln CNN = ln CNN(1+m)/2
S
1
1
= s(m) = ln 2 (1 + m) ln(1 + m) (1 m) ln(1 m)
N
2
2
Average Energy E:
E = J

X
hiji

1
m2 = JN zm2
2

where z is the number of nearest neighbor sites.


Bragg-Williams free energy f (T, m):
1
1
f (T, m) = (E T S)/N = Jzm2 + T [(1 + m) ln(1 + m) + (1 m) ln(1 m)] T ln 2
2
2

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

The equation of state under an external field h:


1
f
= zJm + T ln[(1 + m)/(1 m)] = h
m
2
zJm + T tanh1 m = h

m = tanh[(h + Tc m)/T ]
Note that heff = h + Tc m.

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Mean field solutions for h = 0:


near T 0:
m = tanh(Tc m/T ) 1 2e2zJ/T
2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

near T Tc :
1
1
m (Tc /T )m (Tc /T )3 m3 (Tc /T )m m3
3
3
m = [3(Tc T )/T ]1/2

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

4.4.

Ginzburg-Landau Functional

Free energy near Tc


1
1
s(m) = ln 2 m2 m4 + ...
2
12
1
1
f (m) = (T Tc )m2 + m4 T ln 2 + ...
2
12
where Tc = zJ
Assuming (r) as a local order parameter,
Z
Z
1
F = drf (T, (r)) + dr c |(r)|2
2
where f can be expanded by
1
f (T, ) = r2 w3 + u4 + ...
2
where r = a(T Tc )
Symmetry properties of the free energy functional F !

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

4.5.

Second-Order Phase Transition


1
f (T, ) = r2 + u4
2

The equation of state:


r + 4u3 = h
For h = 0,

=
2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

0
(r/4u)1/2

if
if

T > Tc
T < Tc
Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

(Tc T )
where = 1/2.
Susceptibility

[r + 12u2 ]
=1
h


1/r
ifT > Tc
=
=
1/(2|r|)
ifT < Tc
h
|T Tc |
with = 1.
Free energy density f

f=
Specific heat cv

0
r2 /(16u)

2f
=
cv = T
T 2

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

ifT > Tc
ifT < Tc

0
T a2 /(8u)

ifT > Tc
ifT < Tc

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

4.6.

correlation length
1 (r, r0 ) =

2F
= (r + 12u2 c2 )(r r0 )
(r)(r0 )
(q) =

(q) =

1
r + 12u2 + cq 2

1
2
=
1 + (q)2
c 1 + (q)2

where
=c

1/2

2 1/2

[r + 12u ]


=

(c/r)1/2
c1/2 /(2r)1/2

ifT > Tc
ifT < Tc

and the correlation length |T Tc | with = 1/2.



0 =

c
r(T = 0)

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

1/2


=

c
aTc

1/2

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

5.

Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and magnetic sensors


What is Magnetoresistance?
In the free electron system, the conductivity is often described by the Drude model:
ne2
=

m
Unless H (magnetic field) is too large, the mean scattering time does not depend on H:
(H)
= 0 + o(H 2 )
H

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

l=vF

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Magnetic Multilayer Structure

Spin-dependent Density-of-State at F : Ds (F )
e2
= s =
ns (H)
m
ns (H) Ds (F )

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

EF

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Change of Ds () with an external magnetic field H

EF

s increases by the application of H, i.e., /H > 0

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Giant magnetoresistance effect (GMR)


Giant magnetoresistance effect (GMR) in a junction between two magnetic electrodes
Electrons undergo quantum tunneling through a thin insulating layer
Conductance s across the junction
4e2 L
s =
Ds (F )DsR (F )
hNk

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Tunneling Magnetoresistance (TMR)

(H)
o
1

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

TMR in Layered Manganites: La1+x Sr2x Mn2 O7 (x=0.4)

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Effective Model Hamiltonians for Doped Manganites


Double Exchange Model with Superexchange Interactions
L
L 
L

X
X
X
+
+
~
~i S
~j ,
Si ~ab cia cib + JAF
S
tij ci cj + h.c. JH
H=
hiji,

i,ab

i,j

JH

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Formation of Ferromagnetic Domain:


Kinetic Energy Gain by the Double Exchange Mechanism

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Application of a GMR Device

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Exchange Coupling in Magnetic Multilayers


The magnetic coupling of two magnetic layers depends on the thickness of the intervening non-magnetic spacer layer.
Oscillatory exchange coupling: observable quantum interference effects.
Confinement of electrons in a quantum well formed in the nonmagnetic layer by the
spin-dependent potentials of the magnetic layers.

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

11 802

J. MATHON et al.

FIG. 5. Long-period ~belly! contribution to the coupling ob(Mathon et al.)tained from Eq. ~5! at room ~full circles! and zero ~squares! temperatures. The left-hand scale gives the coupling in mRy per atom
random
inMRAM
the ~001! (magnetic
surface, the right-hand
scaleaccess
in mJ/m 2 . memory)

the corresponding Cu band can evolve. The confinement of


the majority-spin carriers is, therefore, only partial. Because
2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter
Camp: asymmetry
Lectures on Magnetism
of this
in the confinement of the majority and

visualize the effec


coupling strength,
formally equiva
(sd ] k' / ] E) 21 ] c
the nominal thickn
is, therefore, great
viates strongly from
Full discussion of
strength is deferre
The temperatu
strongly influenced
energy.28 The con
necks of the Cu F
curve! and zero ~da
9. Virtually all of
tween zero and ro
the strong energy
contrast to the bell
ligible.
Finally, compar
contributions to th
coupling in a Co/
Jaejun
Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>
totally
dominated

AF

FM

FM

Insulator

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

6.

Magnetism and superconducitivity:


High Tc superconductivity
What happens when the half-filled AF insulator is being doped?

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Phase Diagram of High Tc Superconductors:


Doped Cu-oxides Systems

T
pseudo-gap

AF
0

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

SC
0.3

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

Anti-Ferromagnetic Spin Correlation vs. BCS State


Spin-order Ground State of an Anti-Ferromagnet:
Y
+
|AF i =
c+
(2i) c(2i+1) |Oi
i

BCS State of a Superconductor:


|BCS i =

Y
+
(uk + vk c+
k ck )|Oi
k

t-J Model for the High Tc Superconductivity:


X
X
Heff =
c+
c
+
J
si sj
j
i
hiji

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

hiji

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

7.

References
Basic Quantum Mechanics:
1. S. Gasiorowicz, Quantum Physics, (John Wiley & Sons, 1996).
Quantum Mechanics, (Hermann, 1977).
2. C. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu, and F. Laloe,
Magnetism:
1. R. M. White, Quantum Theory of Magnetism, (Springer, 1983)
2. D. C. Mattis, The Theory of Magnetism, (Spinger, 1981)
Correlated Electron Systems:
1. P. Fulde, Electron Correlations in Molecules and Solids, (Springer, 1995).
2. M. Imada, A. Fujimori, and Y. Tokura, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1039 (1998).

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>