11 views

Uploaded by Manuel Pinzon

Magnetism

- Applied Modern Physics
- Spintronics0607
- Annett Book 2-1
- CERN-2004-008
- articol_ZsSzakacs_2
- Micromagnetics
- thetpu[1]
- 2nd Sem CSE R2013 Syllabus - Cse Tube
- Fixed_broadband_2000-2015.xls
- resume_07252013
- S1
- 05447777
- Carpenter_p2-22_98
- magnetism assessment - google forms
- Modeling Multiphase Flow
- L 15
- Bohannan 1999
- S. V. Iordanskiy- Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and vortex lattices
- dhanu3nw
- Employee Main Doc

You are on page 1of 110

Jaejun Yu

School of Physics, Seoul National University

jyu@snu.ac.kr

c

2005

Jaejun Yu

5-18 January 2005

Abstract

In this lecture,1 I will give a brief introduction on a quantum mechanical view on magnetism in real materials, especially, consisting of transition metal elements and their compounds, and the physical principles for the applications of magnetic materials as magnetic

sensors and memory devices. Further, I will discuss the connection between magnetism

and superconductivity in high Tc superconductors as an example.

Contents

1 What is all about condensed matter physics?

1.1 Macroscopic vs. microscopic objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 Most condensed matter systems are quantum mechanical by nature! . . . . . .

1.3 How do we approach the condensed matter system in order to understand the

physics of a black box? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4 Particle zoo in the condensed matter systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5 Energy scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

6

11

12

15

16

19

2.1 Magnetic Storages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.2 Magnetic Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

3 A quantum mechanical view of magnets:

Pauli exclusion principle and Coulomb interactions

3.1 Sources of Magnetic Moments . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2 Magnetic Moment of an Atom . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3 Magnetic Moments in Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4 A Model for the Exchange Interactions in Solids . .

3.5 Transition Metal Oxides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.6 Magnetic Impurity in a Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

34

34

39

47

59

68

73

4.1 Heisenberg Model: Mean Field Solution . . . . . . .

4.2 Order Parameters: Description of Phase Transition .

4.3 Bragg-Williams Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.4 Ginzburg-Landau Functional . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.5 Second-Order Phase Transition . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.6 correlation length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

78

78

80

81

85

86

89

90

High Tc superconductivity

107

7 References

110

1.

... How do we understand the physical properties of single particle systems in a classical

or quantum sense? In other words, what do we measure or observe?

p

... In classical dynamics, the state of a single particle is determined by the observables {x(t), p(t)}. It can

be extended to the system with many particles where the state of the system is described by the set of

observables {xi (t), pi (t)|i = 1, 2, ..., N }. However, when N 1025 , it is practically impossible to trace

the orbits of all, even the part of, the particles. Here it is the point where the statistical physics comes into

playing a role. Instead of following each individual particles, we measure a quantity by an (ensemble or

time) average of the given quantities adopted in classical dynamics. In addition, now we have to deal with

new observables such as entropy, temperature, ....

The same thing applies for the case of quantum systems. The only difference is the dynamics state of the

quantum system is determined by a state vector |(x, t)i for a single particle and |(x1 , x2 , ..., xN , t)i.

1.1.

Observables for the macro object consisting of more than 1020 particles:

specific heat cv entropy, temperature

bulk modulus or compressibility pressure P

polarization P, magnetization M electro-magnetic field E, B

reflectivity, color, conductivity, ... etc.

For an example, what physical property of the cube (or disk) makes this happen, i.e., a

cube float over a magnet against gravitation?

(Hint: This is the phenomenon called magnetic levitation, which is mainly attributed to the Meisner effect of superconductors.)

force F

magnetic Flux

charge density distribution, electron cloud (bonding), ... etc.

an AFM image

an STM image

a LEED image

What physical quantities do they represent?

What physical quantity does it represent?

(This is an image of our brain probed by using the technique of the nuclear magnetic

resonance.)

1.2.

~

d

p

free (i.e., non-interacting) particle systems.

An example of exactly solvable models:

1

H = ~(a+ a + )

2

a+ a|ni = n|ni

a|Oi = 0

1.3.

the physics of a black box?

Experimental Methods:

By disturbing the black box by phtons, phonons, electrons, and/or neutrons, try to get a

hint on elementary excitations in the system.

Theoretical Methods:

By guessing possible elementary excitations and working out the QM equation of motions, see if we can predict the physics of the system. If wrong, correct the model for

the elementary excitations for the better description.

How to disturb the black box?

Question: Measuring the dc resistance is a way of disturbing the system? What really

happens inside the black box when we apply a bias voltage?

Current-Voltage curve of a YBCO high Tc superconductor

Light scattering experiment: (Photoemission / IR spectroscopy)

1.4.

quasi-particles: electrons, holes, polarons, excitons, Cooper pairs, ...

collective excitations: phonons, magnons, zero-sound, plasmons, ...

1.5.

Energy scale

The condensed matter system is merely a collection of atoms, where each atom

consists of electrons and a nucleus (me mN ).

From the uncertainty principle xp ~,

p

p

p = 2me E 3mkB T

Thus, practically, the size of atom the size of electrons.

atomic unit: ~ = e2 = me = 1

x aB =

EB =

~2

= 0.529177A (Bohr radius)

me2

1 e2

me4

= 2 = 13.6058eV = 1Ry

2 aB

2~

kB 3.2 106 K1

B = 2.13 106 T1 , ...

( = e2 /~c: fine structure constant)

x L

Eo =

~

L

p2

1

2m

2L2

ve

1

c

L

L

electrons in solid

Fermions: Pauli exclusion principle

Degenerate Electrons: lowest possible excitations near the Fermi energy

Energy Scale

Coulomb interaction: eV

Magnetic ordering temperature Tc : 0.1 meV 50 meV

Dipole-dipole interaction: 0.1 meV

2.

Magnets

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

Magnetic Diagram

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) using the NMR technique

2.1.

Magnetic Storages

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

2.2.

Magnetic Sensors

(C. A. Ross, MIT)

3.

Pauli exclusion principle and Coulomb interactions

3.1.

Magnetic moment: M = gB J

proportional to the angular momentum J = L + S

Spin moment S

Orbital moment L

Localized State

Since the rotational symmetry is preserved, it has the quantum eigenstates |jmi:

J2 |jmi = j(j + 1)|jmi

where

J=L+S

If the spherical symmetry is broken, e.g., inside a lattice, the orbital moment can be

quenched due to the lack of rotational symmetry, i.e.,

hLi = 0

Delocalized State

A free electron state such as |ki may not be an eigenstate of the angular momentum

operator L.

Only |sms i may contribute to the magnetic moment.

SC

B=0

Supercurrent induced by the current of Cooper pair electrons:

Js (r) = A(r)

An impurity atom in a metal

Anderson Impurity Model

3.2.

m=-2

m=-1

m=0

m=1

m=2

s

p

d

Hunds Rule

1. Maximum total S = max Sz with Sz =

Obeying the Pauli exclusion principle

msi

P

2. Maximum total L = max Lz with Lz = i mli

Minimizing the Coulomb interaction energy

3. Spin-orbit interaction:

J=

|L + S|

|L S|

if more than half-filled

Exchange Energy

Pauli exclusion principle: anti-symmetric two-particle wavefunction

1

|(r1 ; r2 )i = [a (r1 )b (r2 ) b (r1 )a (r2 )] | i| i

2

Coulomb interaction

VC (r1 r2 ) =

e2

|r1 r2 |

Z

=

dr1 dr2 VC (r1 r2 )|a (r1 )|2 |b (r2 )|2

Z

dr1 dr2 VC (r1 r2 )a (r1 )b (r2 )a (r2 )b (r1 )

= Uab Jab

Exchange Density

a(r)

b(r)

a*(r) (r)

b

by letting (r) be separated: Hunds 2nd rule

(, )

L

2

1

d

0

8 10

Spin-Orbit Coupling

determined by the sign of the coupling constant

L S

where

high spin

dV (r)

dr

low spin

L

3.3.

eg

l=2

t2g

|eg i = {|x2 y 2 i, |z 2 r2 /3i}

|t2g i = {|xyi, |yzi, |zxi}

Uncertainty Principle:

p

~

x

Kinetic Energy:

EK =

p2

~2 1

2m

2m (x)2

e2

x

where A 0.1, an order of magnitude smaller than the direct Coulomb interaction

energy.

EC A

x

x

Here we dropped the interaction term between electrons and background positive charge.

What is it?

Delocalized State:

Molecular / Band State

t= A VAB B

o

hA

hB

Ho = hA + hB + VAB

o t

Ho =

t o

1

| i = (|A i |B i)

2

= o t

o+t

o

2t

o -

t

o+t

1

2 i = [|+ , i|+ , i |+ , i|+ , i]

2

o

2t

o -

o+t

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

2t

Consider two hydrogen atoms separated by a distance d. What are the ground states of

this system in the limits of d 0 and d ? What is the dominating factor in each limit?

Try to make a qualitative argument in describing the physics.

What about a lattice of hydrogen atoms with a lattice constant d? Discuss the possible physical properties of the lattice with varying d from to 0.

2t

Three-Sites Molecular

o -States

t

o+t

o

o -

2t

t

o+t

o

o 2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

2t

t

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

o+t

o

2t

o -

o+t

o

o -

2t

t

These delocalized molecular state is stable when the Coulomb interaction energy U is

smaller than the kinetic energy gain W = 2t.

Z

U = h2 |VC (1, 2)|2 i dr1 dr2 VC (r1 r2 )A (r1 )A (r2 )

: on-site Coulomb interaction energy

Pauli Paramagnetism

D() =

dN ()

d

Z EF

1

1

1

N =

D(E + B B)dE

D(E)dE = B BD(EF )

2

2

B B 2

0

Z EF

Z EF

1

1

1

D(E B B)dE

D(E)dE = B BD(EF )

N =

2

2

0

B B 2

Z

EF

M = B (N N ) = 2B D(EF )B =

3N 2B

3N 2B

B = s =

2kB TF

2kB TF

N 2

Substracting the Landau diamagnetic contribution L = 2kB TBF , we have the Pauli Paramagnetic Susceptibility:

N 2B

P =

kB TF

3.4.

When U W , the localized states of |o i becomes stable relative to the band (molecular)

state |2 i:

1

|o i = [| , s1 i| , s2 i | , s2 i| , s1 i]

2

which is a combination of the localized orbitals |A,B i instead of the molecular states | i.

Here the starting Hamiltonian Ho include the interaction term of U :

Ho = hA + hB + U

and the hopping term VAB should be considered as a perturbation.

Two-particle excited states:

|o (s1 , s2 )i = |A , s1 i|B , s2 i

|A (, )i = |A , i|A , i

|B (, )i = |B , i|B , i

Ho |o i = 2o |o i

Ho |A i = (2o + U )|A i

Ho |B i = (2o + U )|B i

2o+U

o

hA

hB

spins!

|p (s1 , s2 )i = |s1 , s2 i

Energy Correction via the Perturbation Theory with H1 = VAB

First-order correction:

hs1 , s2 |H1 |s1 , s2 i = 0

Pauli exclusion prohibits the double occupancy at the same site:

|A , i|A , i = 0

That is,

|A , s1 i|A , s1 i = 0

Second-order correction:

h, |H1 |A i = h, |H1 |B i = t

h, |H1 |A i = h, |H1 |B i = 0

(2)

E,

(2)

E,

=0

=

En Eo

n

2t2

=

=

= JAF

En Eo

U

n

Heff = +JAF~A ~B

What happens if additional degenerate (or almost degenerate) states exist at each atom

while U W ?

1

o

hA

A

1

Ao

1

o

hB

B

1

Bo

|A (, )i = |Ao , i|A1 , i

and

ho (, )|H1 |A (, )i =

6 0

Ho |A (, )i = (o + 1 + U J)|A (, )i = EA (, )|A (, )i

If the exchange energy is larger than the difference |o 1 |, i.e.,

J > |o 1 |

we have

EA (, ) < EA (, )

Therefore,

2t2

2t2

(2)

(2)

< E, =

E, =

En Eo

U J

U

n

3.5.

Cu

Cu

x

The larger x, the smaller t, i.e., W = more localized!

T

AF

FM

FM

n=

1/2

Ne

2N

Question: Why should the half-filled state be an insulator? What can one imagine to

happen when an additional electron or hole is introduced in a half-filled system?

rR(r)

3d

4p

4s

no node in radial wavefunctions

Question:

Let us consider the transition-metal fluoride MnF2 , which is observed to be antiferromagnetic at low temperatures. In this system, the fluorine F becomes F being fully ionized so

that the manganese Mn becomes Mn2+ .

(a) Based on the Hunds rule, discuss the possible spin and orbital configuration of Mn2+

ions. (Note that Mn2+ has a 3d5 configuration.)

(b) Considering that the Mn ions of MnF2 form a bcc lattice, guess the magnetic configuration

of the ground state of MnF2 .

(c) What difference would it make if we replace F ions by O2 ions, that is, the ground state

of MnO2 ? (Hint: Consider the crystal field effect in a cubic lattice.)

Now consider the long-range magnetic order in metals. We know that Cu is a good paramagnetic metal while Fe is a ferromagnetic metal. Explain the difference and similarity of the

two systems. Why Fe is not anti-ferromagnetic instead of being ferromagnetic? (Note that Fe

has a configuration of 3d6 4s2 and Cu has 3d10 4s1 .)

3.6.

after

before

high temperature,

spin-flip scattering

Kondo Effect

Spin-flip scattering between the free electrons of a metal and the local moment of a

magnetic impurity = the Kondo effect.

Highly correlated ground state where the conduction electrons form a spin-polarized

cloud around the magnetic impurity.

Below Kondo temperature, = a narrow resonance at the Fermi energy: Kondo

resonance.

Ntot =

1X

2X

lm,kF =

(2l + 1)l,kF

lm

l

Impurity

(R)=0

k,l(r)

k,l

R

kn-2

kn+1

kn

kn-1

kn

o()

(a)

0

d ()

*d

(b)

Kondo Resonance

TK

d ()

d+U

4.

4.1.

H=

Jij Si Sj + gB H

Si

hiji

X

X

X

Jij Si Sj + gB H

H=

Si = gB

Si Heff

i

hiji

Heff = H

1 X

Jij Sj

gB j

hSi i =

V M

N gB

Heff = H + M

V Jo

=

N (gB )2

N F

Heff

M =

= Mo (

)

V H

T

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

one can fine the magnetization M by solving the equation:

M (T ) = Mo (

o (T ) =

Mo

H

M

)

T

=

H=0

Mo0 (0)

T

=

M

Mo Heff

=

= o (1 + )

H

Heff H

Co

o

=

=

1 o

T Tc

Tc =

S(S + 1)

N (gB )2

S(S + 1) =

Jo

V 3kB

3kB

4.2.

Supercondutor

Magnets

Ferroelectrics

Liquid/Gas-Solid

Order-disorder

T > Tc

T < Tc

Symmetry

s (r) = 0

s (r) 6= 0

U (1)

Ms (r) = 0

Ms (r) 6= 0

O(3)

Ps (r) = 0

Ps (r) 6= 0

O(3)

(G) = 0 for G 6= 0 (G) 6= 0 for G 6= 0

TR

=0

6= 0

Z2

= hnA iA hnB iA

4.3.

Bragg-Williams Theory

Consider the Ising model with the spin = | i or | i. The order parameter m = hi is the

average of the spin:

m = (N N )/N

Entropy S:

S = ln CNN = ln CNN(1+m)/2

S

1

1

= s(m) = ln 2 (1 + m) ln(1 + m) (1 m) ln(1 m)

N

2

2

Average Energy E:

E = J

X

hiji

1

m2 = JN zm2

2

Bragg-Williams free energy f (T, m):

1

1

f (T, m) = (E T S)/N = Jzm2 + T [(1 + m) ln(1 + m) + (1 m) ln(1 m)] T ln 2

2

2

1

f

= zJm + T ln[(1 + m)/(1 m)] = h

m

2

zJm + T tanh1 m = h

m = tanh[(h + Tc m)/T ]

Note that heff = h + Tc m.

near T 0:

m = tanh(Tc m/T ) 1 2e2zJ/T

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

near T Tc :

1

1

m (Tc /T )m (Tc /T )3 m3 (Tc /T )m m3

3

3

m = [3(Tc T )/T ]1/2

4.4.

Ginzburg-Landau Functional

1

1

s(m) = ln 2 m2 m4 + ...

2

12

1

1

f (m) = (T Tc )m2 + m4 T ln 2 + ...

2

12

where Tc = zJ

Assuming (r) as a local order parameter,

Z

Z

1

F = drf (T, (r)) + dr c |(r)|2

2

where f can be expanded by

1

f (T, ) = r2 w3 + u4 + ...

2

where r = a(T Tc )

Symmetry properties of the free energy functional F !

4.5.

1

f (T, ) = r2 + u4

2

r + 4u3 = h

For h = 0,

=

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter Camp: Lectures on Magnetism

0

(r/4u)1/2

if

if

T > Tc

T < Tc

Jaejun Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

(Tc T )

where = 1/2.

Susceptibility

[r + 12u2 ]

=1

h

1/r

ifT > Tc

=

=

1/(2|r|)

ifT < Tc

h

|T Tc |

with = 1.

Free energy density f

f=

Specific heat cv

0

r2 /(16u)

2f

=

cv = T

T 2

ifT > Tc

ifT < Tc

0

T a2 /(8u)

ifT > Tc

ifT < Tc

4.6.

correlation length

1 (r, r0 ) =

2F

= (r + 12u2 c2 )(r r0 )

(r)(r0 )

(q) =

(q) =

1

r + 12u2 + cq 2

1

2

=

1 + (q)2

c 1 + (q)2

where

=c

1/2

2 1/2

[r + 12u ]

=

(c/r)1/2

c1/2 /(2r)1/2

ifT > Tc

ifT < Tc

0 =

c

r(T = 0)

1/2

=

c

aTc

1/2

5.

What is Magnetoresistance?

In the free electron system, the conductivity is often described by the Drude model:

ne2

=

m

Unless H (magnetic field) is too large, the mean scattering time does not depend on H:

(H)

= 0 + o(H 2 )

H

l=vF

Spin-dependent Density-of-State at F : Ds (F )

e2

= s =

ns (H)

m

ns (H) Ds (F )

EF

EF

Giant magnetoresistance effect (GMR) in a junction between two magnetic electrodes

Electrons undergo quantum tunneling through a thin insulating layer

Conductance s across the junction

4e2 L

s =

Ds (F )DsR (F )

hNk

(H)

o

1

Double Exchange Model with Superexchange Interactions

L

L

L

X

X

X

+

+

~

~i S

~j ,

Si ~ab cia cib + JAF

S

tij ci cj + h.c. JH

H=

hiji,

i,ab

i,j

JH

Kinetic Energy Gain by the Double Exchange Mechanism

The magnetic coupling of two magnetic layers depends on the thickness of the intervening non-magnetic spacer layer.

Oscillatory exchange coupling: observable quantum interference effects.

Confinement of electrons in a quantum well formed in the nonmagnetic layer by the

spin-dependent potentials of the magnetic layers.

11 802

J. MATHON et al.

FIG. 5. Long-period ~belly! contribution to the coupling ob(Mathon et al.)tained from Eq. ~5! at room ~full circles! and zero ~squares! temperatures. The left-hand scale gives the coupling in mRy per atom

random

inMRAM

the ~001! (magnetic

surface, the right-hand

scaleaccess

in mJ/m 2 . memory)

the majority-spin carriers is, therefore, only partial. Because

2005 KIAS-SNU Physics Winter

Camp: asymmetry

Lectures on Magnetism

of this

in the confinement of the majority and

coupling strength,

formally equiva

(sd ] k' / ] E) 21 ] c

the nominal thickn

is, therefore, great

viates strongly from

Full discussion of

strength is deferre

The temperatu

strongly influenced

energy.28 The con

necks of the Cu F

curve! and zero ~da

9. Virtually all of

tween zero and ro

the strong energy

contrast to the bell

ligible.

Finally, compar

contributions to th

coupling in a Co/

Jaejun

Yu, <jyu@snu.ac.kr>

totally

dominated

AF

FM

FM

Insulator

6.

High Tc superconductivity

What happens when the half-filled AF insulator is being doped?

Doped Cu-oxides Systems

T

pseudo-gap

AF

0

SC

0.3

Spin-order Ground State of an Anti-Ferromagnet:

Y

+

|AF i =

c+

(2i) c(2i+1) |Oi

i

|BCS i =

Y

+

(uk + vk c+

k ck )|Oi

k

X

X

Heff =

c+

c

+

J

si sj

j

i

hiji

hiji

7.

References

Basic Quantum Mechanics:

1. S. Gasiorowicz, Quantum Physics, (John Wiley & Sons, 1996).

Quantum Mechanics, (Hermann, 1977).

2. C. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu, and F. Laloe,

Magnetism:

1. R. M. White, Quantum Theory of Magnetism, (Springer, 1983)

2. D. C. Mattis, The Theory of Magnetism, (Spinger, 1981)

Correlated Electron Systems:

1. P. Fulde, Electron Correlations in Molecules and Solids, (Springer, 1995).

2. M. Imada, A. Fujimori, and Y. Tokura, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1039 (1998).

- Applied Modern PhysicsUploaded bySaumya Srivastava
- Spintronics0607Uploaded byrohitjmd
- Annett Book 2-1Uploaded byBenedetta Flebus
- CERN-2004-008Uploaded bySrinivasa Muralidhara
- articol_ZsSzakacs_2Uploaded byZsolt Szakács
- MicromagneticsUploaded byMani Pillai
- thetpu[1]Uploaded byNiculae George Razvan
- 2nd Sem CSE R2013 Syllabus - Cse TubeUploaded byCSETUBE
- Fixed_broadband_2000-2015.xlsUploaded byBongka Vacancy
- resume_07252013Uploaded byMohammad Zaheer
- S1Uploaded byVaibhav Choudhari
- 05447777Uploaded byBalaji
- Carpenter_p2-22_98Uploaded bymauricio rojas alvarez
- magnetism assessment - google formsUploaded byapi-429470440
- Modeling Multiphase FlowUploaded bydvanupkle
- L 15Uploaded byshivam007
- Bohannan 1999Uploaded byDragan Sokolovski
- S. V. Iordanskiy- Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and vortex latticesUploaded byGreamxx
- dhanu3nwUploaded byajay_kairi
- Employee Main DocUploaded byarikakiran
- Three-Phase Selflimiting EUCAS 2011Uploaded byAyşe Erkoç
- Yeatman It eUploaded byramzchile
- Zener DiodeUploaded byRobin Johnson
- Kinetics of Phase Transitions in Block CopolymersUploaded byCarlos Reta
- Crystal Structure 3Uploaded byCazimir Bostan
- AEI602Uploaded byapi-26787131
- EOPM QuestionsUploaded byRoy Vesey
- Poly SugaCarbUploaded bymndmatt
- PhysRevLett.86.4104Uploaded bykapanak
- presentation.pptxUploaded byajay kumar

- 4 - Crystal StructureUploaded byMANOJ M
- 2TRANSLATIONALMECHANICALSYSTEMSUploaded byNataly Mendoza
- Pgprospectus2014 2016 Cape Town UniversityUploaded byManuel Pinzon
- Class Bfs 1209091917115502Uploaded byManuel Pinzon
- Third Row Transition Metals by X-ray Photoelectron SpectroscopyUploaded byManuel Pinzon
- Raman BiTiOUploaded byManuel Pinzon
- Para Metro AugerUploaded byManuel Pinzon
- Basics of EISUploaded byPanji Aji Wibowo
- Technical Handbook of Stainless SteelsUploaded byahmmush
- 571-XPS-Lecture1_000Uploaded byManuel Pinzon
- Dispersion of Electrogyration in Sillenite CrystalsUploaded byManuel Pinzon
- Bismuth Titanate From Nanocomposite and Sol-gel ProcessesUploaded byManuel Pinzon
- Atomic Structure of Doped SillenitesUploaded byManuel Pinzon
- Applications of Bismuth(III) Compounds in Organic SynthesisUploaded byManuel Pinzon
- A Quantitative Analysis of the Laser Sintering of Bismuth Titanate CeramicsUploaded byManuel Pinzon
- 3D Bi12TiO20,TiO2 Hierarchical Heterostructure, Synthesis and Enhanced Visible-light Photocatalytic ActivitiesUploaded byManuel Pinzon
- Photocatalytic Property of Bismuth Titanate Bi12TiO20 CrystalsUploaded byManuel Pinzon
- Structural and Dielectrical Properties of Bismuth TitanateUploaded byManuel Pinzon
- Grain Growth Behavior in Bismuth Titanate-based CeramicsUploaded byManuel Pinzon

- diana lepe rodriguezUploaded byapi-276670409
- Engagement Pack PPEUploaded bychris
- Brosur Generator MagnaUploaded byNirwana Group
- Series 405NRSRW Specification SheetUploaded byWatts
- 218 39 Solutions Instructor Manual Chapter 1 World MechanismsUploaded byaikluss
- TH ADFREE 19.11.2018Uploaded bySabana Yasmin
- UMFLUXUS_F7V4-0-2ENUploaded bysarkaft
- Revised Ism CodeUploaded bymetallourgos
- writing to investigate a cause peer reviewUploaded byapi-299173929
- 080816_18th Dairy Pulse (16th to 31st July,2016) (1).pdfUploaded byyagnasree
- Blood & Honour Field ManualUploaded byAnonymous
- Session 7 Factor AnalysisUploaded byBharat Mendiratta
- UC San Diego AP Credit PolicyUploaded byKevin Nguyen
- Using Php Code Sniffer ToolUploaded byHitesh Kumar Dewangan
- early years philosophy approach - final draftUploaded byapi-292855098
- Listeria, Listeriosis and Food Safety 2nd ed. - E. Ryser, et. al., (Marcel Dekker, 1999) WW.pdfUploaded byChristopher Parra
- FADAL SpecificationsUploaded bypopious_j_pito
- 65050561 Sample Database Pune HniUploaded byReshma
- Rosicrucian Digest, November 1951Uploaded bysauron385
- SonalikaUploaded byManpreet Singh Johal
- Property Assessed Payments for Energy Retrofits - Sonja Persram, Sustainable Alternatives ConsultingUploaded byProjectNeutral
- Vocabukary List (172)Uploaded bytarubi53
- Bill of Material CreationUploaded bysandeshbhavsar
- Bakkalaureatsarbeit GIDEN Ilhami 0235017.docUploaded byDean Prayogo Effendi
- Dove Soft Pvt Ltd Intl Dest PlUploaded bySharron Woodbridge
- STG Pumps and Motors ManagementUploaded byHendra Prudential
- Power System OptimizationUploaded by08mpe026
- CPE Gramatica Practica 2015-2016Uploaded byMarya Fanta C Lupu
- Obstacles and implementation of accounting software system in Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs): Case of South Asian perspective.Uploaded byijsab.com
- Sportsfest GuidelinesUploaded byJohn Carlo Ganata