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Different approaches in modeling of RC shear wall

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- End Length Offsets
- Cracking
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- Tekla Structural Designer Quick Start Guide for Concrete
- M. J. N. Priestley, F. Seible, G. M. Calvi-Seismic Design and Retrofit of Bridges-Wiley-Interscience (1996)
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shear wall: A review

A. L. Mulla1, Satish Rathod2, Y. R. Suryawanshi3

Dept. of Civil Engineering, JSPMS Imperial College of Engineering and research, Wagholi, Pune.

Abstract RC shear walls are used in new structures as well as in the rehabilitation of existing structures.

Shear walls (SWs) are vital to limit deformation demands under earthquake excitations. So correct modeling of

shear walls is most important issue in linear and nonlinear analyses of building for Predicting the behavior of RC

shear walls under lateral loads such as winds and earthquake. This paper presents various modeling techniques

that have been used by researchers in modeling of RC shear walls. These range from macro-models, micromodels such as finite element models and fibre models. For the purpose of finite elements modelling, different

techniques utilizing either shell elements or combination of frame elements with mid pier frame can be used. The

paper discusses the efficiency of each modelling approach in representing both the global and local behavior of

RC shear walls. . The aim of this study is to investigate the suitability, simplicity, accuracy; effectiveness of

different

structural models

Index TermsShear wall, Macro modelling, Micro modelling, Frame element, Shell element.

I. INTRODUCTION

Shear walls are part of the lateral force resisting system that carry vertical loads, bending moments

about the wall strong axis, and shear forces parallel to the wall length. Shear wall system is one of the

most common and effective lateral load resisting systems that is widely used in medium- to high-rise

buildings. It can provide the adequate strength and stiffness needed for the building to resist wind and

earthquake loadings, provided that a proper design is considered, that cares for both the wall strength

and ductility. During the recent years, an enormous effort has been done to provide analytical models

that are able to simulate the actual behaviour of RC elements including shear walls. The rapid

increase in the computational efficiency of computers helped the researchers to develop more

sophisticated models that can account for several phenomena of RC shear walls that were used to be

ignored in the analysis due to their complexity. For these models to be verified, experimental research

is continuously conducted on RC shear walls tested under monotonic, cyclic, or dynamic loading. The

numerical modeling of RC walls is not involved only in the applications for new construction, but it

is also extended to the applications of retrofitting of existing structures. In that case, it is important to

construct a representative model that is able

Manuscript received April 13, 2015

to evaluate the expected response of an existing RC shear wall under certain lateral load hazard, and

to predict its expected mode of failure in order to be able to choose the most suitable and effective

retrofitting technique for that wall that would meet a target performance.

The numerical modeling of RC elements started by Clough et al. (1965) when they proposed the

first nonlinear macromodel, and by Ngo and Scordelis (1967) who proposed the first application of

the finite element method of analysis in RC elements. Since then several advancements were done in

the area of modeling of RC elements including shear walls. The objective of this paper is to present

the different numerical models proposed by researchers for the analysis of RC shear walls

II. LITERATURE REVIEW

A. Analysis of Shear Wall with Openings Using Solid65 Element [7]

Previous researches on the behavior of shear walls with openings assumed elastic analysis utilizing

shell and brick elements. The present work adopts nonlinear finite element analysis using solid65

element. The analysis comprises both material and geometric nonlinearities. Solid65 element models

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no.

the nonlinear response of concrete material based on a constitutive model for the triaxial behavior of

concrete after Williams and Warnke. Five shear wall models with different opening sizes are

analyzed. A sixth model of a solid shear wall is also presented to compare the analysis results. The

paper studies the effect of the size of the openings on the behavior of the reinforced concrete shear

walls.

Modeling of Shear Wall Using Solid65 Element

The solid65 element models the nonlinear response of reinforced concrete. Solid65 models the

concrete material based on a constitutive model for the triaxial behavior of concrete after Williams

and Warnke. It is capable of plastic deformation, cracking in three orthogonal directions at each

integration point.

The cracking is modeled through an adjustment of the material properties that is carried out by

changing the element stiffness matrices. If the concrete at an integration point fails in uniaxial, biaxial

or triaxial compression, the concrete is assumed crushed at that point. Crushing is defined as the

complete deterioration of the structural integrity of the concrete.

ANSYS allows entering three reinforcement bar materials in the concrete, each material

corresponding to the x, y and z

directionsthe

of smeared element (ANSYS, release 5.5).

B. Numerical tools for modeling of RC shear walls [6]

Three different modeling techniques of RC shear walls into the OpenSEES software were discussed.

These models include fiber section model, flexure-shear interaction model and cyclic softened

membrane model (CSMM). Numerical simulation of cyclic loading test of a slender shear wall based

on OpenSEES in this paper shows that CSMM and fiber section model are able to simulate

characteristics of the cyclic wall responses. Strength deterioration, stiffness degradation, hysteretic

shape and pinching behavior are clearly captured in the analysis results, however because of fewer

DOFs and less computing time, the fiber section model is applicable to tall shear walls too.

Comparison between analytical model responses and test results show that the flexure-shear

interaction model provides a reasonably accurate response prediction for a slender shear wall.

a. Flexure- shear interaction model

In order to capture the experimentally observed

shearflexure interaction in RC walls, Orakcal proposed an analytical model that incorporates RC

panel behavior described by a rotation- angle approach into the multiple-vertical-lineelement-model

(MVLEM, Figure 18). The analytical model was based on the methodology developed by Petrangeli

to the MVLEM element. Flexure-shear interaction model involves modifying the MVLEM by

assigning a shear spring for each uniaxial element. Each uniaxial element is then treated as an RC

panel element, with membrane actions, with uniform normal and shear stresses applied in the in-plane

direction (Figure 19). The interaction between flexure and shear was incorporated at the uniaxial

element level. This methodology involves the implementation of the finite element method together

with a constitutive RC membrane model.

b. Fiber section model

In this model, there are a number of control cross-sections along the element. Each cross-section is

subdivided into concrete and steel fibers where uniaxial stress-strain laws are used to describe the

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no.

response of the material in the longitudinal direction (parallel to the element axis). These sections are

located at the control points of the numerical

integration

s- hear interaction model [9].

C. Nonlinear Analysis Methods for Reinforced Concrete

Buildings with Shear walls [5]

Reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls are modeled utilizing different techniques either using shell

elements or combination of frame elements. In the nonlinear analyses, the nonlinear material model

of mid-pier frame is generally based on plastic hinge concept located on the plastic zones at the end

of the structural elements or distributed along the member span length. The nonlinear behavior of the

shell elements is generally modeled using multi-layer shell element with layered material model. In

this approach, the concrete and the reinforcement inside the structural elements are modeled

respectively with different layers.

a.

Application of the finite element method for the analysis of building structures with shear walls

requires an understanding of the approximations involved in the modeling assumptions to build these

elements. The two modeling procedure and assumptions are explained below:

Frame Elements Based Model

The shear walls are modeled using a set of frame elements. The most common modeling technique is

to use a composition of mid-pier frame to represent the shear wall stiffness and a horizontal frame

(rigid arm) to allow proper connections with intersecting beams and slab components. The most

critical point for this model is the proper selection of rigidity and stiffness property for the horizontal

frame. Infinite rigidity of the upper frame can highly overestimate the bending moments especially at

the connecting beams. This model is used widely in practice to model planar shear walls in building

structures for linear and nonlinear analyses. This model might have no reliable results for very long,

interacting or complex shear walls with openings.

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no.

The shell element considered in most of the design software has six degrees of freedom at each node

and an in-plane rotational degree of freedom, which makes it compatible with three-dimensional

beam type finite element models. It is worth to know that a bilinear shape functions are used to define

the displacement field of the quadrilateral elements, Wilson (2002). Therefore, shear wall modeling

requires a mesh discretization in order to get realistic behavior. The advantage of using shell elements

is the ability to model very long, interacting and complex shear walls within the three dimensional

model.

b. Nonlinear Material Models Shear Walls The nonlinear element models of shear walls are

ranged from three dimensional nonlinear solid elements, two dimensional nonlinear shell elements to

simplified models using frame elements.

Continuum Finite Element Models

The shear wall is modeled with continuum elements using nonlinear solid elements existed in many

advanced finite element analyses software as ANSYS, ABAQUS, etc. The continuum elements offer

superiority in accurately modeling the concrete and reinforcement details (Nicolae and Reynouard,

2000). Reinforcement can be defined in three different directions. The plasticity model for concrete is

based on the flow theory of plasticity, Von Mises yield criterion, isotropic hardening and associated

flow rule. The continuum elements also capture important behavioral responses such as axial-flexure

interaction, inelastic shear deformation, steel confining effect on concrete behavior, concrete

compression softening, and concrete tension stiffening (Spacone and ElTawil, 2004).

Multi-Layer Shell Element

The shear wall is modeled using a fine mesh of smeared multi-layer shell elements. The multi-layer

shell element is based on the principles of composite material mechanics and it can simulate the

coupled in-plane/out-plane bending and the coupled in-plane bending-shear nonlinear behaviors of

RC shear walls (Miao et al, 2006). The shell element is made up of many layers with different

thickness. And different material

properties are assigned to various layers (Figure 17)

1

Rebar

2

3

Concrete

laye

Rebar

1

D. Comparison of Practical Approaches for Modelling Shear walls in Structural Analyses of

Buildings [4]

Shell elements formulations generally consist of out-ofplane (plate) and in-plane (membrane)

degrees of freedom. The membrane element with drilling degrees of freedom was a challenge for the

engineering community for many decades. The membrane elements generally combined with plate

elements to form a shell element that has six degrees of freedom at each node and an in-plane

rotational degree of freedom, which makes it compatible with three-dimensional beam-type finite

element. This approach was successful and many analysis software have adopted various

formulations for the shell elements. In practical engineering, although the shell element appears to

have full compatibility with threedimensional beam element, some limitations in the formulation were

identified. Although drilling rotations allow introducing external loads in the form of drilling

moments, analytical results show inconsistency and sensitivity to mesh sizes and loading conditions.

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no.

The shell element can be used efficiently for the analysis of building structures with shear walls.

The shell element considered in most of the design software has six degrees of freedom at each node

and an in-plane rotational degree of freedom, which makes it compatible with three-dimensional

beam-type finite element models. It is worth to know that a bilinear shape functions are used to define

the displacement field of the quadrilateral elements, Wilson (2002). Therefore, shearwall modeling

requires a mesh discretization in order to get realistic behavior. The advantage of using shell elements

is the ability to model very long, interacting and complex shearwalls within the three dimensional

model. The optimal size of the mesh and the effects of mesh size on the results are shown in the

numerical examples below. Although the shell element formulations include the drilling degree of

freedom, analytical results show inconsistency and sensitivity of the drilling moment to mesh sizes

and loading conditions. This shortcoming has significant effects on the bending moment of the inplane beams connected to the shearwall. To resolve this problem, in engineering practice, the beam

connecting to shear wall are generally modeled to some extend inside the shearwall shell elements.

Rigid

Element

Beam framing

into wall

Figure 14: Rigid element defined along the top chord of the wall

Rigid

Element

Beam framing

a. Frame Elements Based Model

The shearwalls are modeled using a set of frame elements. The most common modeling technique is

to use a composition of mid-pier frame to represent the shearwall stiffness and a horizontal frame

(rigid arm) to allow proper connections with intersecting beams and slab components. The most

critical point for this model is the proper selection of rigidity and stiffness property for the horizontal

frame. Infinite rigidity of the upper frame can highly overestimate the bending moments especially at

the connecting beams. This model is used widely in practice to model planar shearwalls in building

structures for linear and nonlinear analyses. This model might have no reliable results for very long,

interacting or complex shearwalls with openings.

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no.

Rigid Arm

MidPier

Element

Beam framing

into wall

Wall

Based on numerical results for different buildings models and shearwalls configurations and the

different analyses set results of the example building, the following conclusions can be made

In modeling shearwalls with shell elements, the drilling moment of the shearwalls and the bending

moment of the inplane connected beams are changed dramatically with mesh density. For finer

meshes 10 times reduction of the drilling moment can be estimated.

Introduction of top chord frame stabilise the results considerably. Good estimation of the properties

of the top chord frame is very important not to affect the overall stiffness of the structural system.

Best results are obtained using a top chord frame element to enhance the fixity of the beams framing

into the shearwall. Using one penetrating rigid element along the top mesh give good results for

coarse meshes. For finer mesh (20x20) 15% differences are exist in drilling moments for shearwalls

and bending moments of the beams along major direction.

E. Advancement in modeling of RC shear walls [3]

This paper presents different modeling

techniques that have been used by researchers in modeling of RC shear walls. These range from

macro-models such as lumped plasticity, multiaxial spring models, combined models, up to micromodels such as finite element models and fibre models. The paper discusses the efficiency of each

model in representing both the global and local behaviour of RC shear walls.

a.

Micro-Modeling versus Macro-Modeling The two main approaches for modeling of RC

members are micro-modeling and macro modeling. Micro-modeling such as the finite element

analysis or fiber analysis is based on representing the behaviour of different materials that compose

the RC element and the interaction between them. The member is discretized into small elements and

principles of equilibrium are applied. This approach is complex and needs high numerical processing

efforts, and hence it might not be practical for large structures and it is limited to model individual

structural components such as a column, a beam or a wall. On the other hand, macro-modeling is

based on representing the overall behaviour of the RC element, such as the wall deformations,

strength, and energy dissipation capacity. The global behaviour of the RC element using a macromodel should be calibrated using an experimental verification to adjust the parameters needed for the

model. This approach is simple and does not require high numerical efforts, which makes it suitable

to simulate the response of large structures.

b.

Hysteretic Models

The cyclic behaviour of RC shear walls should be defined using a hysteretic model that is able to

simulate different inelastic phenomena of reinforced concrete materials. The modeling of the

hysteretic behaviour of the RC element can affect the element response significantly (Anderson and

Townsend 1977). These models can be used to represent the axial, flexure and shear behaviour of the

element. The hysteretic model consists of a primary curve (backbone curve) that control the

monotonic loading and some hysteresis rules that control the loading and unloading element

behaviour under cyclic loading. The control parameters of the hysteresis rules are adjusted to simulate

the actual cyclic behaviour of the tested wall.

c.

Micro-Modeling of RC Shear Walls

Finite element method of analysis

The number of the finite elements is chosen according to the level of accuracy required and the

available analysis tool. The FEM of analysis is capable of tracking the members global behaviour

(e.g. member forces and displacements) in addition to its local behaviour (e.g. crack pattern, material

stresses and strains). The first FE model used for RC element was proposed by Ngo and Scordelis

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no.

(1967). The proposed two-dimensional linear model used constant strain triangular (CST) finite

elements to model the concrete and steel elements, linkage elements were used to represent the bond

between steel and concrete elements, and the effect of cracking was included in the model. Fibre

(layer) model

In this model, the member is divided longitudinally into several segments, and each segment consists

of parallel layers. Some layers would represent the concrete material and other layers would represent

the steel material. In other type of models, each single layer was divided into a finite number of fibres

as shown in Figure 5 (a). The constitutive laws for concrete and steel materials are defined, and hence

the moment-curvature relationship of the member can be calculated at each load level. This model

accounts for the distribution of flexibility along the member length and the

axial

-flexure interaction.

(b) Multi

l-ayer finite element model

d.

Two-component beam-column element

The model developed by Clough et al. (1965) consisted mainly of two parallel components; one was

fully elastic and the other was perfectly elasto-plastic as shown in Figure 6. The two components

were able to represent the material yielding (elasto-plastic behaviour) and the strain hardening (elastic

behaviour). The nonlinearity of this model was represented uniformly along the entire member

length. The main problem of this model was its inability to represent the element stiffness

Figure 6 Two

component

element model.

One-component beam-column element

This element which was developed by Giberson (1967) consisted of one linear elastic member with

two nonlinear rotational springs at the two member ends as shown in Figure 7. The members

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no.

nonlinear deformations were assumed to be lumped at the zero-length end springs (lumped plasticity).

For this model, the deformed shape was assumed to have a double curvature with a fixed point of

contraflexure at the middle of the member, and the plain sections were assumed to remain plain. The

one-component model and the general twocomponent model need an appropriate hysteretic

loaddeformation (or moment-curvature) models to be defined. This requires definition of different

properties of the members plastic hinges such as stiffness, strength, ductility, cyclic behaviour, etc.,

which may be difficult to be defined unless

some assumptions were made. Multiple spring model

Multiple spring model

This model was proposed by Takayanagi and Schnobrich (1976). The multiple spring model

consisted of a number of inelastic springs that are connected in series using rigid members as shown

in Figure 7. The inelastic properties of each spring were varied according to the segment properties

and the level of axial load on that segment, however the segment properties were assumed to be

constant along the segment length. The model was used to represent the behaviour of coupled shear

walls, while the coupling beams were modeled using one-component elements. This model was used

by Emori and Schnobrich (1981) to model the shears wall of a 10-storey frame-wall building. Linear

shear deformations were assumed in the analysis. The models were found to satisfactorily represent

the nonlinear behaviour of the studied structure.

Multi-axial spring model (MS model)

This model was proposed by Lai et al. (1984) to simulate the axial-flexure interaction of RC

columns. The proposed model consisted of an elastic linear member with two multiaxial spring

elements (MS elements) of zero dimensions located at the two member ends as shown in Figure 8.

The MS element consisted of 5 concrete and 4 steel springs, each spring was assumed to be uniaxially

stressed and its behaviour was governed by the hysteretic stress-strain characteristics of the simulated

material (concrete or steel). The main input for this model was the material (concrete/steel)

constitutive laws rather than the load-deformation relationship of the whole member. Multi-linear

curves were used to represent the stressstrain or (force-deformation) relationship for concrete and

steel springs. The spring deformations were conformed to the

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no.

plane section

ssumption.

a

Figure 8 Multi

a

- xial spring model by Lai et al. (1984): a)

Member model, b) Inelastic element,

Truss models

This model assumed that the wall will act as a statically determinate truss. The model consists of

diagonal concrete compression struts, horizontal tension ties (representing the shear reinforcement),

and two boundary elements at the wall ends to carry the moment acting. Figure 9(a) shows the truss

model used by Oesterle at al. (1984) for analysis of shear response of RC shear walls. Other models

based on the same analogy were used to calculate the capacity of RC walls, such as the SoftenedStrut-and-Tie model shown in Figure 8(b). The model was used by Yu and Hwang (2005) to predict

the shear capacity of RC squat walls. It is worth noting that, although such models are able to predict

the capacity of RC elements, they cannot capture the cyclic or the hysteretic behaviour of these

elements.

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no.

10

1984)

, et al. (

(b) Softened

-Strut

-and-Tie model

Combined models

Three Vertical Line Element (TVLE) model

The model consisted of three vertical line elements connected to each other by rigid bars at the top

and the bottom wall ends, two edge links with axial springs representing the boundary elements, and

the central one-component element with three springs to control the vertical, horizontal, and

rotational deformations of the wall as shown in Figure 10. The main problems about this model were

the lack of deformation compatibility between the wall and the boundary elements, and the difficulty

in defining the properties of the springs.

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no.

11

Multiple Vertical Line Element (MVLE) model

The wall element was represented by a number of uniaxial elements connected in parallel using

infinitely rigid bars located at the top and bottom wall ends; two external elements simulates the wall

boundary elements, while the other elements simulates the combined axial-flexure behaviour of the

central panel. A horizontal spring was used to represent the inelastic shear behaviour of the wall. The

authors modified the axialelement-in-series model (AESM) by having two-component model for

element 1, representing the cracked concrete and steel reinforcement behaviour, instead of the onecomponent element in the original model as shown in Figure 12. The constitutive laws for concrete

(cracked and uncracked) and steel elements were defined to describe the hysteretic response

of the materials.

Figure 13 Modified-element

axial -in-series

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no.

12

F. An analytical model to predict the inelastic seismic behavior of shear-wall, reinforced concrete

structures [2]

2001

A shear failure mode model based on experimental results has been added to the computer program

larz. And studied most relevant problems and solutions devised during the development of this model.

Validation of the model was carried out by comparing its results with the actual response of two

b. Model for flexural failure mode

The SINA hysteresis model implemented in the larz computer program (Fig. 3) was adopted in this

study to model the non-linear flexural behavior and the moment curvature hysteretic relations for wall

elements. As shown in Fig. 3, pinching effects and stiffness and strength reductions due to repeated

cycles at the same deformation level were not implemented in the model for flexural behaviorreal

buildings. In spite of the fact that the model is two-dimensional and, hence, it ignores the torsional

response, the results obtained

are satisfactory

columns, shear walls).

Model for shear failure mode

Shear dominated behavior was also modeled using the SINA hysteresis model as shown in Fig. 4.

Pinching effects and strength reduction due to repeated cycles at the same deformation level were

now implemented in the hysteresis model. The model for the shear failure mode assumes independent

of the shear strength of walls on both the bending

This study has proposed and implemented a model to include the shear failure mode for walls in

available computer programs. The model developed in this study is a macro-model validated with the

experimental results of cyclic tests of shear walls

G. Modeling of reinforced concrete shear wall for nonlinear analysis combining FEM panel model

and

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no.

13

A member model of reinforced concrete shear wall with boundary columns and beams was proposed

for nonlinear and dynamic frame analysis. The reinforced concrete shear wall was idealized as axial

springs for columns and a panel under plane stress states with rigid beams at top and bottom floor

levels. Two methods were compared, in which isoparametric element and incompatible rectangular

element with four nodes for the panel element were used. The model was verified through the

analysis of T-shaped wall tests. The analytical results obtained by the proposed model showed

generally good correlation with the experimental results. Shear deformation was overestimated by

isoparametric panel element, whereas incompatible rectangular element, which incorporated flexural

deformation by using internal displacements, gave better correlation with the experimental results of

flexural yielding walls. For the walls in shear failure, the analytical results were basically same either

by isoparametric element or incompatible element.

a. Composition of RC Wall Member Model

Three-Vertical-Line-Element-Model (TVLEM)

It was formulated [Kabeyasawa, 1983] to idealize a generic wall member as three vertical line

elements with infinitely rigid beams at top and bottom floor levels. Outside truss elements were

represented by the axial stiffness of boundary columns, while the central element was a uniaxial

model with vertical (axial), horizontal (shear) and rotational springs. This model has been verified by

many test data resulting in a satisfactory correlation between calculated and measured response of

structures that use shear walls. However, it was reported [Colotti, 1993] that the response was not

adequately described for high shear stresses.

In order to improve the prediction of the overall (shear and flexural) behavior of RC structural walls,

this study proposes a 4-node panel under biaxial loading to represent the wall effect (Figure 1(b)).

The boundary column uses the same axial spring proposed in TVLEM. Using just one panel to

constitute the wall, shear strain will be overestimated by the isoparametric element (Figure 2(a)),

satisfactory result cannot be obtained for the flexural problem. Flexural deformation must be

considered in the element. In this study, incompatible rectangular element is used, in which flexural

deformation can

12

434

(a) Isoparametric Element

(b) Incompatible Element

Figure 2: Panel Element Isoparametric Element and

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no.

14

Incompatible Element

A new model for reinforced concrete shear wall was proposed, which combined a FEM panel

element and boundary line elements. Two methods using isoparametric element and incompatible

element for a panel were compared with the test results. The model with isoparametric element

slightly overestimates shear deformation for flexural yield shear walls. The model with incompatible

rectangular element is better than the model isoparametric element for prediction of shear and

flexural displacement components. The model gave a good correlation between analytical and

experimental results.

III. CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY

The study of all above researches, experiments, practical tests, and findings it is concluded that

1. For modelling of shearwall there are two main approaches namely Macro modelling and Micro

modelling, each approach has its own advantage and disadvantages due to idealizations and

assumptions and choice of approach is mainly depend on response parameters of interest either local

or global behavior of shear wall.

2. Choice of modelling of shear wall also depends on types of shear wall its dimension, shape, material

used for wall, loading on wall etc.

3. Although the finite element method appeals for its accuracy and for its ability to model different

phenomena and their interaction, it requires the solution of a large system of equations, and the

integration of stress in two or three space directions. This model is complex and needs high numerical

processing effort, and hence it might not be practical for large structures

4. There are mainly six models included in macro scale model: one-component model, two-component

model, multi-axial spring model (MS model), truss model, multi spring model and multi component

model. The macro scale model is based on representing the overall behavior of the RC shear wall,

such as the wall deformations, strength, and energy dissipation capacity.

REFERENCES

[1] Shaohua1, Toshimi2, (2000) Modeling of reinforced concrete shear wall for nonlinear Analysis, World

Conference on Earthquake Engineering

[2] P.A. Hidalgo1 , R.M. Jordan2, M.P. Martinez3, (2002), An analytical model to predict the inelastic seismic

behavior of shearwall, reinforced concrete structures, Engineering Structures 24 (2002).pp 8598

[3] K. Galal1 and H. El-Sokkary2, Advancement in modeling of RC shear walls, (The 14thWorld Conference on

Earthquake Engineering October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China)

[4] J. Kubin1, Y. M. Fahjan2 and M. T. Tan3, (2008), Comparison of Practical Approaches For

ModellingShearwalls in Structural

Analysis of Buildings, the 14 thWorld Conference on Earthquake Engineering October 12-17, 2008, Beijing,

China

[5] Y.M. J. Kubin1 M.T. Tan2, (2010), Nonlinear Analysis Methods for Reinforced Concrete Buildings with

Shear walls, 14th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering

[6] Ali Soltani1,.Farhad Behnamfar2,.Kiachehr Behfarnia3,.Farshad Berahman4, (2011)Numerical tools for

modeling of RC shear walls,8th International Conference on Structural Dynamics

[7] Mazen A. Musmar, (2013), Analysis of Shear Wall with Openings Using Solid65 Element, Jordan Journal

of Civil Engineering, Volume 7, No. 2,

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Wagholi, Pune

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no.

PG-coordinator

Guide

Structural Engineering

Head of Department

Civil Engineering

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

15

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