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4 Criticism of Chhayavaad

Chhayavaad (Hindi: ) (approximated in English

as Romanticism) refers to the era of Neo-romanticism
in Hindi literature, particularly Hindi poetry, 1922
1938,[1] and was marked by an upsurge of romantic and
humanist content. Chhayavad was marked by a renewed
sense of the self and personal expression, visible in the
writings of time. It is known for its leaning towards
themes of love and nature, as well as an individualistic
reappropriation of the Indian tradition in a new form of
mysticism, expressed through a subjective voice.

When it arrived, Chhayavaad was very well received by

readers and critics alike. However, subsequent scholars
have criticized Chhayavaad for excessive use of decorative language, romanticism aloof from contemporary social and economic malaise and setting stricter rules on
meter, rhyme etc.

5 Notes


[1] Hindi Language

[2] Historical Development of Hindi University of Illinois at

In, Chhayavad Yug is 1918 to 1937, and is preceded by

Bharatendu Yug (18681900), and Dwivedi Yug (1900
1918), and is in turn, followed by the Contemporary Period, 1937 onwards.[1][2]

[3] Chhayavaadi Movement

Chhayavad continued till later half of the 1930s, when

the golden era of modern Hindi poetry was gradually replaced by social didacticism inspired by the uprising nationalist fervour, when some of the later poets of this era,
like Dinkar, Mahadevi and Bachchan took nationalist and
social critiquing within their poetry.

6 References
Romantic Poetry in the Era of Convention
Chhayavad study in The Journal of the American
Oriental Society, Jul 1, 2001
1 Now available in Vani Prakashan, New Delhi

Notable authors

Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala',

Sumitranandan Pant and Mahadevi Varma[3] are
considered as the four pillars of Chhayavaadi school of
Hindi literature. Other important gures of this literary
movement were Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar', Harivansh Rai
Bachchan, Makhanlal Chaturvedi and Pandit Narendra
Though Harivansh Rai Bachchan became excessively
critical of Chhayavaad later in his career and was associated with other genres like Rahasyavaad, Pragativaad
and Haalaavaad.

Notable works

Jaishankar Prasad's Kamayani (1936) is considered an

important magnum opus of this school, followed by
Mahadevi Varma's, Nihar (Mist, 1930), Harivansh Rai
Bachchan's, Madhushala (1935).


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