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CHAPTER 4:

REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH

BY MISS SITI SOFEA MD

INTRODUCTION:
REPRODUCTION
The process new organisms being
produced from the existing ones
All organisms carry out reproduction to:
(a) ensure the continuity of life
(b) conserve the continuity of its own
species

TYPES OF REPRODUCTION
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Involves 1 parent

Involves 2 parents from the


same species with different
sexes

Does not involve gamete

Both parents produce


gametes for fertilisation

Offspring produced are


genetically identical to the
parent

Offspring produced are


different from the parents

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN
HUMAN
GAMETE FORMATION
FERTILIZATION
DEVELOPMENT OF ZYGOTE
IMPLANTATION
DEVELOPMENT OF FOETUS

CHAPTER 4: REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH

4.1 GAMETE
FORMATION
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GAMETE FORMATION
The formation of reproductive cells
(gametes)
SPERMATOGENESIS

OOGENESIS

Formation of
sperms

Formation of ova

HUMAN GAMETE
GAMETE/
REPRODUCTIVE CELL

GONAD/
REPRODUCTIVE
ORGAN

MALE

FEMALE

SPERM

OVUM

TESTIS

OVARY

GAMETE FORMATION IS
IMPORTANT TO LIFE
BECAUSE..

Progeny: It increases the number of offspring


through fertilization
Variation: It results in genetic variation in the
offspring
The diploid state of an organism: It
maintains the diploid number of zygote (2n) from
one generation to another by fusing one male
gamete (n) with one female gamete (n).
Conservation of life: To ensure the survival and
continuity of organisms
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MALE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM

Consists of two testes each covered by


scrotum.

MALE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM

Each testis has about a thousand of


seminiferous tubules.
All tubules are joined to a single,
much-coiled tube called epididymis.

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MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


PARTS
Testis
(Plural:
testes)
Epididymis
Scrotum

Vas
deferens
(sperm
duct)
Prostate
gland
Seminal
vesicle

FUNCTIONS
Produce sperms and male sex hormones
(testosterone and androgen)
Place - sperms are stored and become
matured
Covers the testes and maintain their
temperature. The temperature inside it
should be 2C less than body temperature to
ensure the production of healthy sperm
A vessel convey the sperms to the urethra

Secretes a white liquid to activates sperms


Secrete a thick colourless liquid containing
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nutrients for sperms

SPERMATOGENESIS:
SPERM FORMATION
Process of sperm formation.
Specifically occur in the seminiferous tubule of the testis.
Consist of 3 phase:
Division phase
Growth phase
Maturation phase
The seminiferous tubule contain: Germinal epithelial cells also known as primordial germ cells - undergo
mitotic division producing many diploid spermatogonia
Sertoli cells - Provide nutrients to the maturing sperms
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BY MISS SITI SOFEA MD

STAGES OF
SPERMATOGENESIS
The primordial
germ cells
divide
repeatedly by
mitosis to
produce
spermatogonia
(2n)

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STAGES OF
SPERMATOGENESIS
During puberty,
each
spermatogoniu
m grow larger
and develops
into a primary
spermatocyte
(2n)

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STAGES OF
SPERMATOGENESIS

The primary
spermatocyte
undergoes
meiosis I to
produce two
secondary
spermatocytes
(n)
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STAGES OF
SPERMATOGENESIS

Each secondary
spermatocyte
undergoes
meiosis II to
produce four
spermatids (n)
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STAGES OF
SPERMATOGENESIS

The spermatids
get nutrients
from Sertoli cells
(by attaching
their heads onto
Sertoli cells) and
undergo
differentiation
and form
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spermatozoa

Structure of sperm

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FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM
Consist of

two ovaries
two fallopian tubes
the uterus
a cervix
a vagina

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Structu
Function
re
Ovary
Produces ova (eggs) and female sex
hormones (oestrogen and progesterone)
Fallopian Place - Fertilization occur (an ovum fuses
tube
with a sperm to form a zygote)
Uterus
Place - The embryo implanted and foetus
develops throughout pregnancy
Vagina
Receive sperms from penis and channels
the sperms toward fallopian tubes
Cervix
Connects uterus to vagina
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OOGENESIS
Process of ovum formation
Occur inside ovary
Starts during the foetal development.
Consist of 3 phase:
Division phase
Growth phase
Maturation phase
The outer layer of ovary composed of germinal epithelial
cell or primordial germ cell which undergo repeated
mitosis.
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STAGES OF OOGENESIS

The primordial germ cells undergo repeated mitosis producing


oogonia (2n).
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STAGES OF OOGENESIS

Each oogonium grows and become a primary oocyte (2n) which is


surrounded by follicle cells forming a primary follicle.
The follicle cells help to nourish the oocyte as well as secreting estrogen).

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STAGES OF OOGENESIS

Every month starting puberty until menopouse,


the primary oocyte meiosis I
a secondary oocyte (n) AND a first polar body (n).

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STAGES OF OOGENESIS

The secondary oocyte also surrounded with follicle cells


a secondary follicle develop a mature follicle Graafian follicle
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STAGES OF OOGENESIS

During ovulation,
Graafian follicle will burst, releasing secondary oocyte to Fallopian tube.
Graafian follicle is then changes into corpus luteum.
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STAGES OF OOGENESIS

If there is a fertilization occur, the secondary oocyte will complete the


meiosis II forming ovum (n) and a second polar body (n).
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STAGES OF OOGENESIS

The first polar body will also undergoes meiosis II forming another two
second polar bodies. They eventually disintegrate.
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SIMILARITIES OF
SPERMATOGENESIS AND OOGENESIS
Purpose - to produce gametes
Starts from primordial germ cells
Involved meiosis
Produced haploid gametes

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SPERMATOGENESIS VS
OOGENESIS

SPERMATOGENESI
S

DIFFERENCES

OOGENESIS

Sperm

GAMETES
PRODUCED

Ovum

Testes
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Has a round,
midpiece and a
tail

PLACED OF
FORMATION
NO OF
GAMETES
PRODUCED
SHAPE OF
GAMETES
PRESENCE OF

Ovaries
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Round
Present but31

SPERMATOGENESIS
DIFFERENCES
OOGENESIS
Occur throughout MITOTIC DIVISION Occur during foetal stage,
life after puberty
OF PRIMORDIAL
then all the primary
GERM CELLS
oocytes in an ovary
subsequently develop into
ova after birth
Occur continuously MEIOTIC DIVISION
Occur discontinuously.
and does not stop at
Stop at prophase I and
any age
metaphase II. Meiosis II
completes only if the
secondary oocytes is
fertilised by a sperm
Spermatids
CELL
Absent
differentiate into
DIFFERENTIATION
sperms
Equal distribution of CYTOKINESIS OF
Unequal distribution of
cytoplasm in all four
GAMETE CELL
cytoplasm with almost all
sperm cells
the cytoplasm contained
in the secondary oocyte
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and ovum, while the small

HOMEWORK

WHY IT IS IMPORTANT
TO PRODUCE A
NUMBER OF SPERMS?
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