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Explain the scope and features of Human Resource Development

Write a short note on Business Process Reengineering.

Human Resource Development: Features, Scope, Objectives and Functions!
In 1970, Leonard Nadler published his book “Developing Human Resources” in which he coined the term
‘human resource development’ (HRD). Human resource refers to the talents and energies of people that
are available to an organization as potential contributors to the creation and realization of the organization’s mission, vision, values, and goals.
Development refers to a process of active learning from experience-leading to systematic and purposeful
development of the whole person, body, mind, and spirit. Thus, HRD is the integrated use of training,
organizational and career development efforts to improve individual, group, and organizational

Definitions of HRD:
1. According to South Pacific Commission ‘human resource development is equipping people with
relevant skills to have a healthy and satisfying life’.
2. According to Watkins, ‘human resource development is fostering long-term work related learning
capacity at individual, group and organizational level’.
3. The American Society for Training and Development defines HRD as follows: ‘human resource
development is the process of increasing the capacity of the human resource through development. It is
thus the process of adding value to individuals, teams or an organization as a human system’.

Features of HRD:
1. Systematic approach:
HRD is a systematic and planned approach through which the efficiency of employees is improved. The
future goals and objectives are set by the entire organization, which are well planned at individual and
organizational levels.
2. Continuous process:
HRD is a continuous process for the development of all types of skills of employees such as technical,
managerial, behavioral, and conceptual. Till the retirement of an employee sharpening of all these skills is

3. Multi-disciplinary subject:

3. economics. engineering. Human resource being a systematic process for bringing the desired changes in the behaviour of employees involves the following areas: 1. 4. training. career planning. development. Learning through job rotation and job enrichment. Learning through social and religious interactions and programmes. 9. HRD deals with efficient utilization of human resources and it is a part of HRM. Workers’ participation and formation of quality circles. medicine. workers’ participation and quality circles. 4. Scope of HRD: Human resource management (HRM) deals with procurement. Development of employees through succession planning.HRD is a Multi-disciplinary subject which draws inputs from behavioural science. be it a manufacturing organization or service sector industry. 6. commerce. Techniques: HRD embodies with techniques and processes such as performance appraisal. Development of employees through managerial and behavioural skills. etc. counseling. maintenance and utilization of human resources. Career planning and development programmes for the employees. 8. management development. 10. 2. 5. Objectives of HRD: . 7. All-pervasive: HRD is an essential subject everywhere. 5. Performance appraisal of the employees in order to understand their capabilities and improving them through additional training. management. Recruitment and selection of employees for meeting the present and future requirements of an organization. Employee learning through group dynamics and empowerment. Offering the employees’ performance counselling and performance interviews from the superiors. compensation.

HRD must ensure that the organization creates a culture and provides equal opportunities to all employees in matters of career planning.The prime objective of human resource development is to facilitate an organizational environment in which the people come first. Performance appraisal. HRD should aim at improving the skills of employees in order to motivate them to work with effectiveness. Quality circles. 2. skills. 7. Succession planning. Equity: Recognizing every employee at par irrespective of caste. creed. Career planning and development. quality of work life. 6. religion and language. Employability: Employability means the ability. training and development. Employee’s participation in management. Employee training and development. 4. This can help the employees to adapt themselves to organizational change that takes place on a continuous basis. can create a very good environment in an organization. The other objectives of HRD are as follows: 1. Adaptability: Continuous training that develops the professional skills of employees plays an important role in HRD. promotion. 5. HRD Functions: HRD functions include the following: 1. So. 3. and competencies of an individual to seek gainful employment anywhere. 2. 3. Organization change and organization development. Business Process Reengineering (BPR) .

Re-engineering emphasized a holistic focus on business objectives and how processes related to them. modeled. quality. Basic questions are asked. and customer needs. or to have plans to do so. measured. does it go on to decide how best to do it. cut operational costs. Re-engineering identifies. According to Davenport (1990) a business process is a set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined business outcome. and improved. and become world-class competitors. Re-engineering recognizes that an organization's business processes are usually fragmented into subprocesses and tasks that are carried out by several specialized functional areas within the organization. Often. particularly in terms of the wants and needs of its customers. Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is the practice of rethinking and redesigning the way work is done to better support an organization's mission and reduce costs.Business process re-engineering is a business management strategy. It can also be completely redesigned or eliminated altogether. Business Process Reengineering is also known as business process redesign. a business process can be decomposed into specific activities. analyzes. BPR aimed to help organizations fundamentally rethink how they do their work in order to dramatically improve customer service. Only after the organization rethinks what it should be doing. focusing on the analysis and design of workflows and business processes within an organization. no one is responsible for the overall performance of the entire process. and become world-class competitors. service. and speed. For that reason. encouraging full-scale recreation of processes rather than iterative optimization of sub-processes. Within the framework of this basic assessment of mission and goals. This drive for realizing dramatic improvements by fundamentally re-thinking how the organization's work should be done distinguishes the re-engineering from process improvement efforts that focus on functional or incremental improvement. and re-designs an organization's core business processes with the aim of achieving dramatic improvements in critical performance measures. business transformation. [1] In the mid-1990s. Reengineering starts with a high-level assessment of the organization's mission. BPR seeks to help companies radically restructure their organizations by focusing on the ground-up design of their business processes. such as cost. Reengineering maintains that optimizing the performance of sub-processes can result in some benefits. such as "Does our mission need to be redefined? Are our strategic goals aligned with our mission? Who are our customers?" An organization may find that it is operating on questionable assumptions. reengineering focuses on re-designing the process as a whole in order to achieve the greatest possible benefits to the organization and their customers. originally pioneered in the early 1990s. cut operational costs. as many as 60% of the Fortune 500 companies claimed to either have initiated reengineering efforts. strategic goals. As a structured ordering of work steps across time and place. re-engineering focuses on the organization's business processes—the steps and procedures that govern how resources are used to create products and services that meet the needs of particular customers or markets. A key stimulus for . but cannot yield dramatic improvements if the process itself is fundamentally inefficient and outmoded. or business process change management. Business Process Reengineering (BPR) began as a private sector technique to help organizations fundamentally rethink how they do their work in order to dramatically improve customer service.

to get in immediate contact with potential buyers  Automatic identification and tracking. Oracle. Leading organizations are becoming bolder in using this technology to support innovative business processes. It is considered by some as a major enabler for new forms of working and collaborating within an organization and across organizational borders. positioned their solutions as vehicles for business process redesign and improvement. especially workflow management systems were considered as a significant contributor to improved process efficiency. instead of requiring to be found  High performance computing. allowing on-the-fly planning and revisioning In the mid-1990s. BPR literature identified several so called disruptive technologies that were supposed to challenge traditional wisdom about how work should be performed. PeopleSoft.  Shared databases. The idea of these sessions is to conceptualize the ideal business process for the organization and build a business process model. In this analysis phase. a series of sessions should be held with process owners and stakeholders. regarding the need and strategy for BPR. BPR teams jump directly into the technology without first assessing the current processes of the organization and determining what exactly needs reengineering. Too often. Business needs analysis Another important factor in the success of any BPR effort is performing a thorough business needs analysis. allowing decision-making to be a part of everybody's job  Wireless data communication and portable computers. These sessions build a consensus as to the vision of the ideal business process. They help identify essential goals for BPR within each department and then collectively define objectives for how the project will impact each work group or department on individual basis and the business organization as a whole. allowing organizations to be centralized and decentralized at the same time  Decision-support tools. JD Edwards. Also ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) vendors. allowing things to tell where they are. Those items that seem unnecessary or unrealistic may be eliminated . allowing generalists to perform specialist tasks  Telecommunication networks. allowing field personnel to work office independent  Interactive videodisk. The role of information technology Information technology (IT) has historically played an important role in the reengineering concept. rather than refining current ways of doing has been the continuing development and deployment of sophisticated information systems and networks. making information available at many places  Expert systems. such as SAP.

The business needs analysis also helps in relating the BPR project goals back to key business objectives and the overall strategic direction for the organization. on awareness and knowledge about innovative activities undertaken by competitors and other organizations. This linkage should show the thread from the top to the bottom of the organization. . associate value. on a clear understanding of organizational strengths. and market structure. This alignment must be demonstrated from the perspective of financial performance. Such reengineering initiatives are wasteful and steal resources from other strategic projects. and  defining business objectives. Developing a business vision and process objectives relies. on the one hand. especially if there are other more critical projects to the future of the business.or modified later on in the diagnosing stage of the BPR project. customer service. the organization’s key stakeholders and sponsors may find themselves unable to provide the level of support the organization needs in terms of resources. and are more aligned with the strategic direction. It is important to acknowledge and evaluate all ideas in order to make all participants feel that they are a part of this important and crucial process. Results of these meetings will help formulate the basic plan for the project. Moreover. This plan includes the following:  identifying specific problem areas. and the vision for the organization. so each person can easily connect the overall business direction with the re-engineering effort. and on the other.  solidifying particular goals. without strategic alignment. There is always a possibility that an organization may make significant investments in an area that is not a core competency for the company and later outsource this capability. The business needs analysis contributes tremendously to the re-engineering effort by helping the BPR team to prioritize and determine where it should focus its improvements efforts. weaknesses. BPR projects that are not in alignment with the organization’s strategic direction can be counterproductive.