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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM
Introduction
A preschool (also nursery school, kindergarten outside USA) is an
educational establishment offering early childhood education to children between
the ages of three and five, or seven, prior to the commencement of compulsory
education at primary school. They may be privately operated or government-run
and the costs may be subsidized. Moreover, A kindergarten is a preschool
educational approach based around playing, singing, practical activities, and
social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Many aspects of
the approach, developed by Friedrich Frbel in Germany, are now seen as
essential elements of early-years education around the world. 1
Frbel created the first kindergarten in Bad Blankenburg in 1837 as an
experimental social experience for children entering school, believing that
children should be nurtured of and nourished 'like plants in a garden'. The term is
used in many countries to describe a variety of educational institutions for
children ranging from the ages of two to seven based on variety of teaching
methods.
In the Philippines, education officially starts at the Elementary level and
placing children into early childhood education through kindergarten is optional to
parents. Early Childhood Education in the Philippines are classified into: (1)
Center-based programs, such as the Barangay day care service, public and

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private pre-schools, kindergarten or school-based programs, community or
church-based early childhood education programs initiated by nongovernment
organizations or people's organizations, workplace-related child care and
education programs, child-minding centers, health centers and stations; and (2)
Home-based programs, such as the neighborhood-based play groups, family day
care programs, parent education and home visiting programs.
Early childhood education is strengthened through the creation of
Republic Act No. 8980[20] or the Early Childhood Care and Development Act of
2000. In 2011, the Department of Education disseminated copies of the
Kindergarten Education Act through Republic Act No. 10157 making it
compulsory and mandatory in the entire nation. As provisions in this law, children
under five years old will be required to enroll in the kindergarten in any public
elementary in the country. This goes with the implementation of the K-12 system
in the Basic Education Curriculum.
Kindergarten education has become the first stage of compulsory and
mandatory formal education as provided for by the aforementioned Republic Act
10157 or the Kindergarten Education Act effective school year 2011-12. It is
considered vital to holistic development of the Filipino child. Due to its mandatory
status, school year 2012-2013 figures for kindergarten showed 1,773,505
enrollees and by 2013-2014, it increased by 24.84% or an estimate of 2,213,973
enrollees. Along with the implementation of RA 10157 is the need for an
assessment tool like the restructured and contextualized School Readiness Yearend Assessment (SReYA) made into twelve (12) dominant mother tongue

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languages. This is designed to identify the performance level of the kindergarten
pupils across different developmental domains aligned with the National Early
Learning Framework.
SReYA aims to assess the childrens readiness across the different
development domains. These are the physical health and well-being, motor
development, mathematics, language and literacy, sensory perceptual, physical
and social environment, character and values development, and socio-emotional
development. Likewise to utilize the results as basis for providing appropriate
interventions to address specific needs of the children. And, to share to parents
the assessment results as basis to come up with home-based activities.
The definition and measurement of school readiness has a long history in
education and child development. Early definitions emphasized cognitive and
language development in the format of standardized tests and were not
comprehensive in the coverage of important skills, behaviors, and attitudes
necessary for school success. Inherent in any definition of school readiness and
being school-ready is an informed assessment of mastery or proficiency in key
skills and behaviors that are predictive of later school performance and progress.
Inherent in any definition of school readiness and being school-ready is an
informed assessment of mastery or proficiency in key skills and behaviors that
are predictive of later school performance and progress.
There are different Assessment tools used to measure a childs early
development which has a strong research basis to demonstrate validity or

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prediction of school readiness. However, some are reliable and probably do
predict a childs current or very short-term status, but they do not tend to predict
long-term success in school. Therefore, good readiness tests probably do reflect
a childs readiness for kindergarten, but not beyond. Thus, they can be used to
indicate the skills a child possesses and those needing more attention in
kindergarten. But children learn so much in kindergarten and develop so fast
during this age period that they need to be reassessed at the end of kindergarten
or the beginning of first grade. If the assessments can show the current state of
children, then the results can be used to inform teachers and administrators of
how to match the kindergarten program to the particular group of children or
individual children.

In this respect, assessments can be used to guide

programming.
There are a lot of principles though some register a conflicting view from
preparation to interpretation of test scores. This holds true with the goals and
functions of testing. Hopkins and Stanley for instance quoted Findley 2 typologies
of purposes by test which are instructional, administrative, and guidance.
Instructional when it provides for feedback, motivation, and over-learning while
administrative(ion) facilitate quality control, program evaluation and research,
classification and placement, selection, accreditation, mastery, and certification.
The guidance function of tests when it diagnose special attitudes or abilities. 3
Testing is a universal practice designed to assess the performance or
achievement of the learners. It is a major activity; a priority consideration and
basis of the school guidance services. The teachers who most of the time are

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exposed to actual classroom setting should be knowledgeable, skillful and love to
administer tests to really provide appropriate action. Likewise, acquire and
develop the desired competencies with deep and meaningful understanding of
oral and written tests. A scenario for example is the administration of the School
Readiness Year-end Assessment (SReYA) to kindergarten pupils. 4 Nevertheless,
the assessment shall not be treated as achievement tests or final examination.
Hence, no child shall be refused entry to Grade 1 based on the results of this
assessment.5 This is a stated requirement in DepED Order No. 5 of 2013,
Policy Guidelines on the Implementation of School Readiness Year-end
Assessment (SReYA) for kindergarten.
Readiness tests can measure the extent that early childhood programs
prepare children for school.
developmentally

appropriate

Quality early childhood programs in terms of


practice,

physical

environment,

teacher

qualifications, and director qualifications are critical to adequately prepare a child


for school.

Quality programs ensure that children (especially low-income

children) are getting the experiences needed to succeed in kindergarten and the
early school years.
To synchronize the guidance services of school with administration and
the management of resources entails monitoring of performance. This is the gap
that will justify the necessity for this research to reconcile the efforts exerted by
the school personnel.

Statement of the Problem

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The study will analyze the pupils performance of Albay Central School
based on the school readiness year-end assessment (SReYA) for school year
2012-2013. Specifically, it will answer the following sub-problems:
1. What is the readiness profile of the Grade 1 pupils along the following
developmental domains:
a. Physical Health and Well-Being
b. Motor Development
c. Mathematics
d. Language and Literacy
e. Sensory Perceptual
f. Physical and Social Environment
g. Character and Values Development
h. Socio-Emotional Development
2. What are the most and least learned skills of the pupils as revealed by
the SReYA scores?
3. What are the factors that affect the performance of the pupils on the
SReYA as perceived by the parents and teachers?
4. What learning activities may be proposed along the different developmental domains?
Scope and Delimitation
This study will focus on the 2014-2015 performance of pupils in the School
Readiness Year-end Assessment (SReYA) of Albay Central School.

It will

describ the readiness of the grade one pupils along physical health and

well-

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being development domains. Likewise it will analyze the most and least learned
skills based on SReYA scores including the factors perceived by parents and
teachers. And from the assessment, the researchers will come up with proposed
learning activities along the different development domains.
This undertaking will exclude the pupils with kindergarten education from
other schools. Also, the qualified kindergarten pupils but failed to take the test (if
any) and those with reservation not to join, have transferred and/or no longer
available for follow-up purposes.

Significance of the Study


Inclusion of kindergarten in the formal education system is a challenge to
school administration and at the same time a resource management concern.
Discussion on its merit is no longer an issue as it is a necessity to pursue the
delivery of quality basic education. The kindergarten (kinder) is an immediate
response by the government to produce knowledgeable, competent and skillful
learners. And this entails information on profile, test results, and their factors
associated to academic performance. With these perspectives, this study can
significantly yield the following benefits:
Community. Results of the study will give feedback on performance of the
kindergarten pupils along the developmental domain particularly on physical and
social environment. The community folks can be of help to provide conducive
physical and social environment.

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Department of Education (DepEd). Utmost, the Department of
Education (DepEd) will be aware of the status and on-going development
activities in the field such as the implementation of the school readiness year-end
assessment. Knowledge arising from comparison between the desired and actual
performance and academic accomplishment shall be established or may even
require re-planning and re-alignment of priorities. To some extent includes the
issuance of policy guidelines to strengthen prioritization of resources for use in
kindergarten education.
Kindergarten pupils. This group of learners stands to benefit most from
this study as it is meant for them. Providing them with best opportunities start
with the knowing their strengths and weaknesses as well as their potentials to
response to situations.
Guidance personnel. One of the key players to look into the welfare of
the pupils is the guidance personnel. They should be interested with the findings
of studies since it is their field of specialization. And at times act as resource
person in the preparation, implementation and evaluation of guidance and
counseling plan and programs/projects/activities in the school/ district/division
level.
Parents. The parents who are directly responsible by law with their
children shall be acquainted with the various teaching-learning situations. They
shall be made aware and hopefully cooperate, collaborate and actively get
involved in the plan and programs / projects / activities where their personal
presence is needed.

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Teachers. Findings of the study will give feedback on the performance of
the kindergarten pupils. The kindergarten pupils strengths and weaknesses as
shown in the test results will guide the teachers what to focus in their teachinglearning activities.
Field of Guidance and Counseling. Another sector or field of study or
specialization to benefit from the undertaking is guidance and counseling
particularly in the conceptualization of relevant guidance services. Lessons
learned as revealed by the findings may be incorporated in the curriculum for
teacher education so serve as real case scenario in the field. Others may even
be topics for academic discussion by the academe and practitioners as well as
reference in crafting plans and programs/projects/activities to strengthen the
kindergarten education. On the other hand may even identify areas of concern in
the preparation of guidance and counseling services, relevant plans and
programs to ensure the delivery of basic quality education.
Researchers. Ideally, researchers need data and information to support
their ideas from the findings of the study. Some may come up with insights to
validate previous knowledge. On the part of the researcher herself, she will have
the real exposure and experience in conducting research.

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NOTES
1

Wikipedia, Preschool Education, retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/


wiki/Preschool_education
2
Kenneth D. Hopkins and Julian C. Stanley, ed., Educational and
Psychological Measurement and Evaluation, Sixth Edition, Reprinted (163
Tandang Sora Street, Caloocan City: Philippine Graphic Arts, Inc.), pp. 12-16.
3

W.G. Findley, Purpose of School Testing Programs and their Efficient


Development. In Kenneth D. Hopkins and Julian C. Stanley, Educational and
Psychological Measurement and Evaluation, Sixth Edition, Reprinted (163
Tandang Sora Street, Caloocan City: Philippine Graphic Arts, Inc.), p. 12.
4
Hopkins and Stanley, p. 16.
5

DepEd Order No. 5, s. 2013, Policy Guidelines on the Implementation


of the School Readiness Year-End Assessment (SReYA) for Kindergarten.
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tem 4, DepEd Order No. 5, s. 2013 dated 25 January 2013.
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Basic Education Information System