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DESIGN STUDY OF BOILER FURNACES

- 2.4. Furnaces
- Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Production
- Flue Gas and Fly Ash
- RCA of Boiler Tube Failure in 210 MW plant
- Hand Book of Durga Saptashati Chanting
- Boiler Efficiency excel sheet
- ISO 7919-1 Part 1 General Guidelines
- Standard Handbook of Engineering Calculation
- Procedures for Manufacture Licensing of Boiler and Pressure Vessel
- MILL OPTIMIZATION
- Fundamentals of Boiler Design
- Boiler Furnace Desaign Steps
- Mill Reject
- Shiv Puran
- sampling
- Boiler Water Treatment
- Ball mill pulveriser.ppt
- Principles of Boiler Operations
- Benchmark Capital Cost for TPS
- Effect of Silica on Power Plant Performance

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A. A. Shatil1

Translated from lektricheskie Stantsii, No. 4, April 2006, pp. 5 10.

It is shown that the standard method of design of boiler furnaces is not suitable for nonstandard operating conditions. A physicomathematical model of the furnace process is suggested for design studies of promising furnace devices and of conditions of flame extinction. An example of engineering design of a furnace with controlled process is presented.

Keywords: standard method, furnace design, operating conditions, model, furnace process, study, extinction.

The theory and design of heat exchange in furnaces presented in [1, 2] have been developed for the most part by

professors A. M. Gurvich and V. V. Mitor. For many years

these norms have played a determining role in the creation

and maintenance of boiler units in Russia. In 1998 the furnace part of the standard method was amended in the third

edition [3].

Under conditions of unsteady supply of fuel to power

generating units, of the need for changing (or, on the contrary, for preservation of) their operating parameters and for

raising the flexibility of operation, and of increasingly stringent economical and ecological requirements, it has became

necessary to control the processes of combustion and heat

exchange in the furnace chambers of boilers. It is obvious

that the zero-dimensional standard methods of furnace design developed for traditional furnace and burner devices

have limited possibilities as applied to novel technologies of

firing, especially for solid fuel. This circumstance makes it

necessary to develop a zonal engineering method of furnace

design, which will consider simultaneously the processes of

mixing, combustion, and heat exchange in the furnace.

Unfortunately, the procedure for computation of radiant

heat exchange recommended in [3] does not involve the concepts of the degree of flame blackness afl and of the reduced

degree of furnace blackness af widely used in scientific literature. This has led to discrepancies in methodological recommendations on design of furnace devices issued jointly by

the Central Boiler and Turbine Institute (TsKTI) and the

All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (VTI) [4].

Considering the computation of heat exchange in furnaces we should not neglect the discussion in [5] concerning

the reliability of the values of the coefficient of thermal efficiency of waterwalls recommended in [2, 3], which is determined as the ratio of the radiant heat flows taken up by a

1

conditional evaluation of the coefficients and af and of the

effective radiant temperature of the flame Teff that enter the

equation for computing the specific heat taken up by the

waterwalls [2], i.e.,

4

qt = 4.9 108 afT eff

.

(1)

Since the value of the heat flow qt is measured quite reliably, for the specified the temperature Teff it is fully determined by the product y a f . This gives some leeway for

choosing the factors and af individually. Numerous experimental data show that the gas temperature at the outlet from

boiler furnaces computed by the method of [2] is usually

lower than the actual temperature [5]. This means that the

computed values of the degree of blackness af (or of the coefficient ) have been overestimated. This drawback is absent in [3]. This could have been done in [2] if the assumption that the areas of the surfaces of the waterwall Fw and of

the flame Ffl in the equation relating af, afl, and are the

same were not used; this relation should have the form [6]

af =

a fl

,

a fl + ( F - a fl )y

(2)

which depends on the optical density of the flame Bu or on

the proportion of the volume occupied by the luminous

flame.

Thus, in accordance with Eq. (2) the decrease in af at tabulated value of [2, 3] causes a decrease in qt and, correspondingly, increases the balance temperature T f at the outlet

from the furnace. It is obvious that in the given case the increase in , as suggested in [5], will again disturb the design

heat balance of the furnace and is thus inexpedient.

179

1570-145X/06/4003-0179 2006 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

180

A. A. Shatil

u

w

w3

w2

w1

gradient (w3 > w2 > w1): u, w, transverse and longitudinal velocities,

respectively.

In recent years TsKTI specialists developed an approximate zero-one-dimensional zonal model and TORKA software for computing the firing process in boilers [7, 8], which

was later generalized to furnace devices with different aerodynamic circuits and methods of fuel firing [9]. This physicomathematical model of the process (stationary combustion, extinction, inflammation, heat exchange) employs the

ideas presented in [10]. Specifically, L. A. Vulis suggests ...

to give up observation of the behavior of individual particles

of fuel or combustible mixture and concentrate on the phenomena occurring in the central part of the furnace volume.

He also notes that the introduction of volume-averaged values of temperature and concentration better meets the actual

conditions of the occurrence of the process in those parts of

the furnace chamber where the fresh mixture intensely mixes

with the combustion products.

Organization of the firing process is based on mixing of

three flows, i.e., of the oxidizer (air), of the fuel, and of the

combustion products. The applied science of firing considers

two mechanisms of diffusion (mixing), i.e., molecular and

turbulent ones. However, it is obvious that these two mechanisms are accompanied by convective mixing caused by the

aerodynamic structure of the flow, i.e., the structure of the

burning device or of the furnace chamber itself.

In actual furnace devices all the three mixing mechanisms (molecular, turbulent, and convective) act in parallel

and every subsequent mechanism cannot occur without the

preceding ones. In other words division of flows into small

volumes due to the turbulence increases their total surface

for the occurrence of molecular mixing. In its turn, convective mass transfer not only ensures mixing of distant gas volumes but also creates velocity gradients that intensify manyfold the turbulent mass transfer in them. Therefore, it can be

assumed that the latter mechanism plays a determining role

in the three mechanisms of mixing in a furnace. This allows

us to estimate the quality of mixing in actual furnaces by

studying their models.

turbulent flow with velocity gradient is considered in [11]. It

is shown that according to the theorem of N. E. Zhukovskii a

transverse lifting force acting on some small cylinder (volume), which randomly displaces from one steam line to

another one that has another velocity, draws it far aside. The

place of the cylinder is taken (by the same mechanism) by

another element moving in the opposite direction. This picture of mixing (mass transfer) is presented in Fig. 1; a simplified computation of parameters characterizing mass transfer

by this mechanism is presented in [8].

The geometrical and physical similarity of furnace devices is usually disturbed with growth in the capacity of

boiler units. The number of burners and decks increases and

the proportion of the sizes of the burners (nozzles) and of the

furnace changes respectively. The conditions of heat exchange between the flame and the furnace waterwalls change

too and so does the aerodynamic structure of the flows of air

and gases in the volume of the furnace. All these factors

worsen the mixing of the flows of fuel, air, and combustion

products.

The highest intensity of mass transfer is observed in the

initial region of the jets fed into the flow [12]. For straight

round jets its length Li is equal to 4 5 diameters of the nozzle d0. In the case of a great number of burners with small diameter (at the same velocities) mass transfer is primarily ensured by the near-wall layer of the ascending (carrying) flow.

This means that it is necessary to choose an optimum relative

hitting range of the jet h, as is recommended, for example, in

[13], for the design of gas burners. Consequently, in order to

improve mixing in the furnace of a more powerful boiler the

burners (nozzles) should have a larger size. This aspect of

mixing should also be matched with the kinetic conditions of

combustion, because the enlargement of the burners (nozzles) increases the sizes of the circulation zones and the time

of residence of the gases r in the zone of active combustion

(ZAC).

Many difficulties arising in operation of boilers firing

pulverized coal, for example, slagging of the heating surfaces, deviation from the design values of steam temperature,

narrowing of the working range of loads, and dependence on

the variable characteristics of the fuel, can be eliminated in

furnaces with controlled furnace process. An example of a

furnace device for firing one or several kinds of fuel is a

two-zone furnace that combines an inverted mode of organization of combustion [8, 9] and a system of undergrate blast.

The former design with top blast has been studied under operating conditions in [14, 15]. The latter design is more

widely used in boilers [16] but less studied.

Figure 2 presents a model for aerodynamic blasting of

such furnaces with top and undergrate blasts (TB and UB, respectively). The figure also shows the distribution of vertical

velocities of the flow in the longitudinal plane passing

through the axes of the upper nozzles. The results of operation [15] show that the firing process can be controlled effectively using the entire furnace volume and large uniflow noz-

181

X2 = 1.0

= 1.15

20.3

X2 = 0.66 = 1.15

580

16.8

X2 = 0.33

= 1.15

13.3

X1 = 1.0 = 1.15

X1 = 0.67

a = 0.70

8.5

a

X1 = 0.22

a = 0.55

0.50V

B = 0.9

6.3

Fig. 2. Model of a furnace with top and undergrate blast (a) and distribution of the vertical velocities of flow in it (b).

0.45V

4.3

0.20V

performed not only with the help of the aerodynamics but

also by choosing the appropriate place and methods for feeding of the fuel. It is obvious that such organization of the furnace process meets the tendency for improving the aerodynamics of combustion chambers and widening the zone of

active combustion in them [17] at the expense of the zone of

delayed burning (ZDB).

Examples of approximate computation of various devices (a boiler furnace, a combustion chamber, a furnace,

etc.) with the help of the TORKA software are presented in

[9]. Here an example of zone-after-zone computation of a

variant of controlled furnace combining TB and UB modes is

presented for a boiler with a steam output of 270 tons/h firing lean Kuznetsk coal with slag-tap removal. The design diagram of the furnace is given in Fig. 3. The diagram presents

the feed places and the flow rates of fuel B (in fractions of

the total flow rate) and of air (in factions of V0), the relative

distances from the initial sections of ZAC (X1) and ZDB

(X2), and the running excess air factors = i/Bi. The

main design parameters of the firing process, i.e., the temperature of the flame J, the combustion efficiency , the mechanical q4 and chemical q3 underfiring, the concentrations

of CO and C NO x (at = 1.4), and the heat flows qt over the

height of the furnace, are presented in Table 1.

B = 0.9

conditions (the content of volatiles in the fuel (Vg = 9%,

= 0.45), the stability of combustion of low-reaction coal is

ensured by partial gasification of the fuel in the first two regions of ZAC. In this case the combustion efficiency is high

and the concentration of nitrogen and carbon oxides is low.

In addition, the computed temperature of gases at the outlet

from the furnace is also lower than the design value by

60 70C due to the involvement of the sloping bottom into

the process, which implies the presence of a margin in the

steam rate of the boiler. This example shows that such computational studies make it possible to estimate the expediency of new engineering solutions and the expected parameters of the designed boiler.

The TORKA software makes it possible to compute

the parameters of the firing process not only for stationary

combustion modes but also for the modes of extinction and

inflammation. Figure 4 presents a diagram of the thermal regime of combustion of fuel in a flow in the coordinates

( = RT/E, where R is the gas constant, T is the temperature,

and E is the activation energy) [8 10]. The points in the diagram are the points of intersection and tangency of the

X1

X2

J, C

, %

q 4, %

q3, %

CO, %

CNO x , mg/m3

q, Mcal/(m2 h)

0.22

0.67

1.0

0.33

0.66

1.0

0.9

1.0

1.0

0.55

0.70

1.15

1.15

1.15

1.15

1376

1433

1364

1328

1259

1197

33.49

62.14

83.59

95.84

97.62

98.31

1.08

1.86

11.23

3.44

2.13

1.60

55.53

36.00

5.18

0.72

0.25

0.09

25.34

13.04

1.25

0.17

0.06

0.02

88

245

502

554

562

565

163

181

159

145

115

93

182

A. A. Shatil

the parameters of the limiting mode in which the computation stops upon a change in this or that input parameter. At

the same time, normal computation at q3 > 0 is performed

at the same process parameters, which corresponds to the

state of the process before the moment of extinction. These

two modes are realized in the algorithm through a kinetic

coefficient m included into the Arrhenius criterion and calculated by the formula

Ex

2

4

0.5

In

3

0

3

0.05

Fig. 4. Diagram of the thermal regime of combustion: 1, heat liberation curve; 2, heat removal curves; 3, initial point of the process

( = 0, = 0), C, point of stationary regime; Ex, point of extinction;

In, point of inflammation; 4, point of crisis-free regime.

which correspond to these modes. Since the stationary modes

have been studied quite well, we will consider in detail the

critical operating conditions of actual furnaces. Note that after the publication of [6], works devoted to determination of

the temperature of extinction Tex in boilers appeared as well.

A computational model of the firing process makes it

possible to analyze the modes of extinction in different kinds

of boilers with allowance for the numerous parameters of the

firing process. Extinction of the flame in furnaces of traditional boilers with burners depends primarily on the kinetics

of combustion and can be caused by growth in the excess air

factor in the burners g (at g > 1), in the fraction of the recycling flue gases r, in the coefficient of thermal efficiency of

the waterwalls , and in the thermal stress of the furnace volume qv, or by decrease in the temperature of hot air th.a, in the

content of volatiles in the fuel Vg, in the time of residence of

combustion products in ZAC r, in the content of oxygen in

the oxidizer O2 , etc. On the other hand, the stability of combustion depends on the aerodynamic structure of the flow

near the burners and in ZAC. The sizes of the zones of

recirculation play a substantial role. In operation extinction

of the flame is often caused by an abrupt decrease in the feed

of fuel (disabling of the mills or pulverized coal feeders or

reduction in the combustion value of the fuel), i.e., by step

growth in the excess air factor in the furnace.

Computation with the use of the TORKA software

gives the full volume fraction of flue gases in percent and the

value of chemical underfiring q3 in regions of the furnace.

Firing of organic fuel is always accompanied by the presence

of products of incomplete combustion of CO and H2. Therefore, the algorithm stipulates the possibility of determination

of the parameters of the firing process at the moment of

extinction, which is characterized by disappearance of these

gases, i.e., chemical underfiring in ZAC. The condition

(3)

the total consumption of fuel per boiler (with respect to the

heat). The coefficient m0 for ZAC depends on the type of furnace; for ZDB it is assumed that m0 = 1 and x = 0 [9]. This

simulates a fluctuating combustion process from q3 > 0 to

q3 = 0 (and backward) observed in operation as pulsations of

pressure and temperature in the furnace before extinction of

the flame.

It is presumed in the chosen model of firing (Fig. 4) that

a stationary process with crisis moments of extinction and inflammation under specific conditions can transform into a

crisis-free process without extinction [10]. Transfer from a

crisis form of the T dependence to a crisis-free form is

possible, in principle, in one and the same device. Specifically, this can be ensured by increasing the initial temperature of the process T0, using an auxiliary (pilot) flame of

highly reactive fuel (i.e., reducing the coefficient m, which

lowers the effective activation energy E), or decreasing the

removal of heat through the walls of the furnace chamber

(reduction of the coefficient ). A powerful factor of stabilization of combustion is the creation of zones with < 1 and

zones with combustion of lumped solid fuel in a fluidized (or

another) layer where the chemical underfiring is inconsiderable. It follows from Eq. (3) that this is similar to lighting

(x > 0).

The computational dependences of the extinction temperature Tex of the flame of pulverized coal on the content of

volatiles in the fired fuel Vg plotted for several boilers firing

pulverized coal with dry-ash and slag-tap removal, which are

presented in Fig. 5 [8], allow us to write the following equation

Tex = 1660 8.3Vg

(4)

(5)

or

values of the temperature Tex and the combustion efficiency

ex at the moment of extinction, which is described by the

equation

Tex = 554/(1 ex).

(6)

183

Tex, K

Tex, K

a

b ex =

1106 - 8.3V g

1660 - 8.3V g

1500

(7)

kcal/mole) and at Vg = 100% (natural gas, E = 12 103

kcal/mole) the values of ex amount to 0.67 and 0.33 respectively. Note that these values of ex coincide with the values

of for extinction and inflammation of a flame of pulverized

coal obtained in [18] on the basis of other assumptions. However, it follows from (7) that the value ex = 2/3 is not constant and decreases to 1/3 upon growth in the reactivity of

the fuel.

On the whole, the thus obtained relationship between the

extinction parameters can be treated as a universal one. However, both these parameters (Tex and ex) are virtual and

cannot be used in practice because of the impossibility of

their representative estimation. Therefore, in order to predict

the conditions of stability of combustion we should compute

regime parameters of the process on which it depends and

which should be measurable. The computation should allow

for the following additional circumstances. The first circumstance is the effect of not only the temperature but also the

time r of residence of combustion products in the regions of

ZAC on the processes of combustion and extinction. In different flame furnaces it can differ by several times [9].

The effect of the residence time r (in seconds) on Tex can

be allowed for by an empirical coefficient determined from

the formula

k = 1.05 0.05r.

(8)

lower and at ex < 1 will be higher than at ex = 1 sec. The

second circumstance is connected with the instability of

feeding of solid fuel by the feeders of pulverized coal [18].

This requires what is known as a margin in the computation of the limiting air excess factor at the moment of extinction [8, 9]. For example, 3% fluctuations of the rate of fuel

feed (accordingly, = 0.03) can raise the extinction temperature by 80 100 K.

Evaluation of the parameters of crisis modes of inflammation does not present great practical interest. It is much

more important to be able to compute the parameters of the

mode of pilot firing of the boiler. In such a computation the

initial data are the air excess factor and the air temperature,

the rates of the main fuel and of the highly reactive fuel

(black oil, gas), and other parameters characterizing the performance of the burners and of the furnace.

Let is consider as an example the mode of pilot firing of

a TPP-210A twin-furnace boiler firing pulverized coal of

grade ASh. It is assumed that the solid fuel is fed into the furnace when the air is heated by the highly reactive fuel to

1000

500

0

4

12 3 11 10

2 1

6

11 4

12

3

10 2

6 1

1500

5

13 7

50

5

7

8

V g, %

1000

500

0

13

50

V g, %

content of volatiles in the fuel (a) and on the combustion efficiency

(b) at the moment of extinction for different kinds of furnace, grades

of coal, and types of ash removal: 1, TP-109, G, solid; 2, TP-240, SS,

solid; 3, TP-214, SS, solid; 4, TP-215, SS, solid; 5, BKZ-210, B1,

solid; 6, BKZ-500, B2, solid; 7, PK-10, peat, solid; 8, PK-10, lead,

solid; 9, TP-210A, ASh, liquid; 10, TP-100, G, liquid; 11, TP-87, SS,

liquid; 12, TPB-318, ASh, solid; 13, BKZ-670, B2, solid.

out of the six available ones is 10 tons/h (18% of the rated

feeding); that of black oil is about 1 ton/h (x = 0.20). Since

in the pilot firing the flame does not fill the whole of the

cross section of the ZAC, the critical coefficient m0 is taken

to be equal to 0.85 as in low-stress furnaces with bottom (or

elevated) burners [9]. The coefficients of thermal efficiency

of the waterwalls are taken to be equal to 0.20 for the ZAC

and 0.45 for the ZDB. The degree of blackness of the furnace

af is determined using formula (2), in which afl = 0.9 and

Fw/Ffl = 4 for the ZAC and afl = 0.5 and Fw/Ffl = 3 for the

ZDB.

The decisive moment in pilot firing is the choice of the

maximum value of the excess air factor. It is assumed in the

initial data for computation with the help of TORKA that

in the first region of the ZAC with a height of 5 m = 1.5,

whereas at the outlet from the second region (H = 8.95 m)

= 1.70. This increase in the excess air factor is caused by

the arrival of air into the furnace through dead burners. Computations have shown that the flame in the ZAC is stable (JZAC

= 1067 1086C, ZAC = 74.90 80.44%) and underfiring at

the outlet from the furnace is about 10%. A check of stability

of combustion (at q3 = 0) has shown that in the first region of

the ZAC combustion is absent and the fuel starts to burn only

in the second region. This means that in the given case pilot

firing at > 1.70 in the ZAC is impossible with a heat fraction of black oil x = 0.20. Therefore, it is desirable either to

raise the temperature of the hot air, i.e., the boiler should fire

black oil for a longer period, or to increase the proportion of

the highly reactive fuel. This example shows how the personnel can be informed on the conditions of pilot firing of a specific boiler.

184

CONCLUSIONS

1. Development of new technologies of firing organic

fuel and improvement of the operating furnace devices requires creation of a method for their computational study.

2. The computational model of the firing process developed by TsKTI has been tested on a great number of furnaces

of operating boilers firing a wide spectrum of fuel in all firing stages from pilot firing to extinction and on various furnace devices. This allows us to recommend the model and

the TORKA software for computational studies not only of

traditional boiler furnaces but also of furnaces employing

novel firing technologies.

3. It is expedient to have at least two modifications of

the software for practical purposes. One of them can be used

for design studies of furnaces and the other (simpler) modification can be used for an operating furnace (or a boiler as a

whole) for estimating the consequences of various possible

working situations.

REFERENCES

1. Thermal Design of Boiler Units (Standard Method) [in Russian],

Gosnergoizdat, Moscow (1957).

2. Thermal Design of Boiler Units (Standard Method) [in Russian],

nergiya, Moscow (1973).

3. Thermal Design of Boilers (Standard Method) [in Russian], NPO

TsKTI, St. Petersburg (1998).

4. . Kh. Verbovetskii and N. G. Zhmerik (eds.), Methodological

Recommendations on Design of Furnace Devices [in Russian],

Izd. NPO TsKTI, St. Petersburg (1996).

5. V. I. Antonovskii, Heat transfer in furnaces of steam boilers.

Retrospective consideration of the development of the standard

computational technique, Teplonergetika, No. 9 (2004).

A. A. Shatil

6. A. A. Shatil and E. K. Chavchanidze, Computational estimation of stability of flame due to firing solid fuels in boiler furnaces, Teplonergetika, No. 4 (1990).

7. A. A. Shatil and E. Ya. Skripova, About design of furnaces of

boilers firing pulverized coal, Teplonergetika, No. 9 (1993).

8. A. A. Shatil, Furnace Processes and Equipment [in Russian],

Izd. TsKTI, St. Petersburg (1997).

9. A. A. Shatil, Computational Study of Furnace Devices [in Russian], Izd. TsKTI, St. Petersburg (2003).

10. L. A. Vulis, Thermal Regime of Combustion [in Russian], Gosnergoizdat, Moscow Leningrad (1954).

11. N. Ya. Fabrikant, Aerodynamics [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow

(1964).

12. G. N. Abramovich, Turbulent Free Jets of Liquids and Gases [in

Russian], Gosnergoizdat, Moscow Leningrad (1948).

13. Yu. V. Ivanov, Fundamentals of Computation and Design of

Gas Burners [in Russian], Gosnergoizdat, Moscow (1963).

14. A. A. Shatil and B. N. Barbyshev, A study of the aerodynamics

of a furnace with inverted flame, nerg. letrifik., No. 2

(1983).

15. A. A. Shatil, V. P. Maistruk, A. E. Surkov et al., A study of the

method of inverted combustion of coals of grades D and G and

their intermediate product in TP-230-3 boiler, lektr. Stantsii,

No. 1 (1986).

16. N. S. Klepikov, L. N. Gusev, A. A. Shatil et al., Experience of

installation of undergrate blast system designed by Izd. NPO

TsKTI on low-, medium-, and high-capacity boilers, Trudy

TsKTI, Issue 287.

17. G. G. Olkhovskii and A. G. Tumanovskii, Problems and prospects of the use of coal in the power industry of Russia, nergetik, No. 12 (2004).

18. L. N. Gusev, A practical method for determining the temperatures of inflammation and extinction of pulverized coal flame in

chamber furnaces, Tyazh. Mashinostr., No. 6 (2002).

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