P

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK • THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT • ALBANY, NY 12234

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ PHYSICS
2006 Edition List of Physical Constants
Name Universal gravitational constant Acceleration due to gravity Speed of light in a vacuum Speed of sound in air at STP Mass of Earth Mass of the Moon Mean radius of Earth Mean radius of the Moon Mean distance—Earth to the Moon Mean distance—Earth to the Sun Electrostatic constant 1 elementary charge 1 coulomb (C) 1 electronvolt (eV) Planck’s constant 1 universal mass unit (u) Rest mass of the electron Rest mass of the proton Rest mass of the neutron me mp mn h k e Symbol G g c Value 6.67 × 10–11 N• m2/kg2 9.81 m/s2 3.00 × 108 m/s 3.31 × 102 m/s 5.98 × 1024 kg 7.35 × 1022 kg 6.37 × 106 m 1.74 × 106 m 3.84 × 108 m 1.50 × 1011 m 8.99 × 109 N• m2/C2 1.60 × 10–19 C 6.25 × 1018 elementary charges 1.60 × 10–19 J 6.63 × 10–34 J• s 9.31 × 102 MeV 9.11 × 10–31 kg 1.67 × 10–27 kg 1.67 × 10–27 kg

Prefixes for Powers of 10
Prefix tera giga mega kilo deci centi milli micro nano pico Symbol T G M k d c m µ n p Notation 1012 109 106 103 10 –1 10 –2 10 –3 10 –6 10 –9 10 –12

Approximate Coefficients of Friction
Rubber on concrete (dry) Rubber on concrete (wet) Rubber on asphalt (dry) Rubber on asphalt (wet) Rubber on ice Waxed ski on snow Wood on wood Steel on steel Copper on steel Teflon on Teflon Kinetic 0.68 0.58 0.67 0.53 0.15 0.05 0.30 0.57 0.36 0.04 Static 0.90 0.85

0.14 0.42 0.74 0.53

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Wavelength in a vacuum (m) 10–13 10–12 10–11 10–10 10–9
X rays Gamma Rays Ultraviolet Infrared

10–8

10–7 10–6

10–5

10–4

10–3

10–2 10–1

100

101

102

103

104

Microwaves
TV, FM AM

Long Radio Waves

Radio Waves

1021 1020 Frequency (Hz)

1019

1018

1017

1016 1015

1014 1013

1012

1011

1010

109

108

107

106

105

Visible Light (not to scale) Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red

7.69 × 1014

6.59 × 1014

6.10 × 1014

5.20 × 1014

5.03 × 1014

4.82 × 1014

Absolute Indices of Refraction
(f = 5.09 × 1014 Hz) Air Corn oil Diamond Ethyl alcohol Glass, crown Glass, flint Glycerol Lucite Quartz, fused Sodium chloride Water Zircon 1.00 1.47 2.42 1.36 1.52 1.66 1.47 1.50 1.46 1.54 1.33 1.92

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics 2006 Edition

3.84 × 1014

Page 2

Energy Level Diagrams
Hydrogen
Level
n=∞ n=6 n=5 n=4 n=3 n=2 Ionization

Mercury
Level Energy (eV)

Energy (eV)
0.00 –0.38 –0.54 –0.85 –1.51 j –3.40 i h g f e d c b

Ionization

0.00 –1.56 –1.57 –2.48 –2.68 –3.71 –4.95 –5.52 –5.74

Ground State n=1 –13.60 a

Ground State –10.38

Energy Levels for the Hydrogen Atom

A Few Energy Levels for the Mercury Atom

Classification of Matter
Matter

Particles of the Standard Model
Quarks
Name Symbol Charge up u +2 e
3

charm c +2 e
3

top t +2 e
3

Hadrons

Leptons

down d –1 e
3

strange s –1 e
3

bottom b –1 e
3

Baryons

Mesons

Leptons
electron e –1e electron neutrino νe 0 muon µ –1e muon neutrino νµ 0 tau τ –1e tau neutrino ντ 0

three quarks

quark and antiquark

Note: For each particle, there is a corresponding antiparticle with a charge opposite that of its associated particle.
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics 2006 Edition Page 3

Electricity
Fe = kq1q2 r2 A = cross-sectional area E = electric field strength Fe = electrostatic force I = current k = electrostatic constant L = length of conductor P = electrical power q = charge R = resistance Req= equivalent resistance r = distance between centers V2 R t = time V = potential difference W = work (electrical energy) ∆ = change ρ = resistivity

F E= e q V= W q ∆q I= t R= V I ρL R= A P = VI = I 2R =

V 2t W = Pt = VIt = I2Rt = R

Series Circuits
I = I1 = I2 = I3 = . . . V = V1 + V2 + V3 + . . . Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + . . .

Parallel Circuits
I = I1 + I2 + I3 + . . . V = V1 = V2 = V3 = . . . 1 1 1 1 Req = R1 + R 2 + R3 + . . .

Circuit Symbols
cell battery switch
V A

Resistivities at 20°C
Material Aluminum Copper Gold Nichrome Silver Tungsten Resistivity (Ω• m) 2.82 × 10–8 1.72 × 10–8 2.44 × 10–8 150. × 10–8 1.59 × 10–8 5.60 × 10–8

voltmeter ammeter resistor variable resistor lamp

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics 2006 Edition

Page 4

Waves
v = fλ T= 1 f c = speed of light in a vacuum f = frequency n = absolute index of refraction T = period v = velocity or speed λ = wavelength θ = angle θi = angle of incidence θr = angle of reflection

θi = θr n= c v n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 n2 v1 λ1 n1 = v2 = λ 2

Modern Physics
Ephoton = hf = hc λ Ephoton = Ei – Ef E = mc 2 c = speed of light in a vacuum E = energy f = frequency h = Planck’s constant m = mass λ = wavelength

Geometry and Trigonometry
Rectangle A = bh Triangle A= Circle A = πr 2 C = 2πr Right Triangle c 2 = a2 + b 2 sin θ = a c cos θ = b c tan θ = a b
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics 2006 Edition

A = area b = base C = circumference h = height r = radius

1 bh 2

a 90°

c

θ
b

Page 5

Mechanics
d v = t a = ∆v t vf = vi + at d = vit +
1 2 at 2

a = acceleration ac = centripetal acceleration A = any vector quantity d = displacement or distance ET = total energy F = force Fc = centripetal force Ff = force of friction Fg = weight or force due to gravity FN = normal force Fnet = net force Fs = force on a spring g = acceleration due to gravity or gravitational field strength G = universal gravitational constant h = height J = impulse k = spring constant KE = kinetic energy m = mass p = momentum P = power PE = potential energy PEs = potential energy stored in a spring Q = internal energy r = radius or distance between centers t = time interval v = velocity or speed v = average velocity or average speed W = work x = change in spring length from the equilibrium position ∆ = change θ = angle µ = coefficient of friction

vf2 = vi2 + 2ad Ay = A sin θ Ax = A cos θ F a = net m Ff = µFN Fg = g= Gm1m2 r2 Fg m

p = mv pbefore = pafter J = F t = ∆p net Fs = kx PEs =
1 2 kx 2

Fc = mac
2 ac = v r

∆PE = mg∆h KE =
1 mv2 2

W = Fd = ∆ET ET = PE + KE + Q P = W = Fd = F v t t

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics 2006 Edition

Page 6
DET 615 96-05540 96-040 CDC

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.