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M.I.

1752
Rev. M

MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTION

Lubricating Oil For Domestic 567, 645 and 710


Locomotive Engines

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Please refer to the EMD Safety Precautions section in the applicable Locomotive Running
Maintenance Manual or Locomotive Service Manual whenever routine service or
maintenance work is to be preformed.
WARNING: Running the engine with oil that has HIGH fuel dilution may
result in a crankcase explosion and/or severe engine damage.
_______________________________________________________________________.

Copyright 2004
General Motors Electro-Motive. All rights reserved. Neither this document, nor any part thereof, may
be reprinted without the expressed written consent of General Motors Electro-Motive. Contact GM
EMD Service Publications Office.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0

Introduction ................................................................................................. 4

2.0

Oil Quality .................................................................................................... 4

3.0 Oil Type ........................................................................................................ 5


3.1
Introduction............................................................................................................ 5
3.2
Fuel Efficient Oils.................................................................................................. 6
4.0 Qualification Tests for Oil........................................................................... 6
5.0 Development Program Requirements for New Oil Formulations............ 6
5.1
Laboratory Evaluations.......................................................................................... 6
5.2
2-567 Silver Lubricity Test.................................................................................... 7
5.3
Full Scale Field Test .............................................................................................. 7
5.4
Summary ................................................................................................................ 7
6.0 Specific Recommendations ....................................................................... 7
6.1
Use of One Oil ....................................................................................................... 7
6.2
Mixing of Oils........................................................................................................ 8
6.3
Re-Refined Oils ..................................................................................................... 8
6.4
Reclaimed Oils....................................................................................................... 8
6.5
Filter Changes ........................................................................................................ 9
6.6
Oil Changes............................................................................................................ 9
6.7
Fuel Dilution ........................................................................................................ 10

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1.0 Introduction
This Maintenance Instruction (MI) is reissued for the following reasons:
Add multigrade oil information to Table 1
Add recommendations on re- refined oil
Add recommendations on fuel dilution in Table 2
And new information to Table 3
This MI provides recommendations, suggestions, and comments for the selection of a
suitable engine lubricating oil. In this document, the word oil refers to engine
lubricating oil unless otherwise noted.
The following topics are covered:
Oil Quality
Oil Type
Qualification Tests for Oil
Development Program Requirements for New Oil Formulations
Specific Recommendations

2.0 Oil Quality


Actual performance in the diesel engine is the only real measure of quality in oil. This is
because of the impossibility of establishing limits on all physical and chemical
properties of oils, which can affect their performance in the engine over a broad range
of environmental influences.
Oil quality is defined as consistent compliance with oil specifications and is the
responsibility of the oil supplier, a term applicable to refiners, blenders, and rebranders of
oil. Because there are a substantial number of commercial oils marketed today,
engine manufacturers and consumers cannot completely evaluate the entire spectrum
of products available. As a result, the selection of suitable, heavy duty oil must be
made in consultation with a reliable oil supplier capable of making product
recommendations commensurate with the engine builders specifications and specific
environmental influences, as well as furnishing such a product on a consistent
quality level.

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3.0 Oil Type


3.1

Introduction

General Motors Electro-Motive (EMD) requires the use of an SAE 40 or SAE 20W40 heavyduty additive type oil conforming to the specifications in Table 1 in all engine applications.
In addition to the properties described in Table 1, the oil formulation should have a high
resistance to oxidation, and a low tendency toward the formation of harmful carbonaceous
and/or additive ash deposits. Additionally, it must be non-corrosive to silver metal at 285
F (140 C) (EMD L.O. 201 test). Oils with sufficient alkaline reserve (TBN) and highly
effective detergent-dispersant systems should be employed in line with fuel quality and
service demands.

Table 1. SAE 40 and SAE 20W40 Oil Specifications


Property

ASTM Test
Designation

New, Unused Oil Limits


SAE 40
SAE 20W40

Viscosity:
D88 or D445
Saybolt Universal Seconds at
690-1100 (149-237.5 cSt) 580-890 (125-192 cSt)
100 F (37.8 C)
70-85 (12.9-16.8 cSt)
72-85 (13.6-16.8 cSt)
Seconds at 210 F (98.9 C)
132 206
112 170
cSt at 40 C (104 F)
12.5 16.3
13.2 16.3
cSt at 100 C (212 F)
Viscosity Index
D2270
60 105
105 125
Low Temperature Cranking
D5293 (20W)
9500 cP max @ -15C
Viscosity
Flash Point
D92
420 F Min. (216 C)
Fire Point
D92
475 F Min. (246 C)
Pour Point
D97
40 F Max. (4.5 C)
Zinc Content (Note 1)
10 ppm Max.
Total Base Number ( N o t e 2 )
D2896
7 20
Note 1: Zinc additive compounds, such as zinc dithio-phosphate, must not be present in oil for EMD
engines. Oils containing more than 10 ppm zinc may be contaminated with zinc dithio-phosphate or similar
additive compounds, which will not satisfactorily lubricate the silver bearings in some EMD engines. Note
that oil analysis on new or rebuilt engines may show initial elemental zinc content which exceeds the 10
ppm limit. This can be due to the use of a recommended thread compound that contains zinc metal. Zinc
metal is harmless to silver bearings and its concentration in the oil will dissipate in time through normal oil
addition.
Note 2: The use of oils with Total Base Numbers over 13 (ASTM D-2896) are generally not required
unless fuel sulfur levels exceed 0.5% or the higher levels of detergency and/or dispersancy associated
with these higher base number products is demanded.

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3.2

Fuel Efficient Oils

Future oil products may have associated claims relating to improved fuel economy due to
the use of multigrading, friction modifiers, or combinations of both.
EMD policy requires that the diesel engine oil satisfactorily lubricate the entire engine and
does not address the fuel economy aspects of such products. As a result, the
responsibility for any such claims must rest with the oil/additive supplier.

4.0 Qualification Tests for Oil


The diesel engine oil must satisfactorily lubricate the entire engine under all
conditions expected to be encountered. While the condition and performance of the
engine in actual service provides the criteria in reaching a final judgment of oil
suitability, there are several laboratory tests that are useful in making preliminary
evaluations of a product, as follows:
1. Physical and chemical profiles
2. Corrosion of metals:
a. Silver and copper - EMD No. L.O. 201 method.
b. Lead - S.O.D Method No. 5321-1 (modified).
3. Overall evaluation of oxidation stability by the EMD L.O. 201 method, including:
a. Viscosity increase characteristics
b. Retention of alkalinity (additive concentrate)
c. Development of insolubles.

5.0 Development Program Requirements for New Oil


Formulations
5.1

Laboratory Evaluations

The supplier of the lubricant base stock and the supplier of the additive concentrate are
expected to conduct complete laboratory and bench test qualifications by ASTM and EMD
methods. EMD will review and monitor such tests and, if all results are in good agreement
and within acceptable limits, the oil formulation will be considered worthy of 2-567 engine
evaluation to determine its silver lubricity characteristics.

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5.2

2-567 Silver Lubricity Test

The purpose of this test is to determine that the laboratory qualified oil formulation will
satisfactorily lubricate the silver wrist pin bearing. This test evaluation is also expected to
be conducted or contracted by the oil or additive supplier with review and monitoring
of the results by EMD.

5.3

Full Scale Field Test

Upon successful completion of the laboratory and silver lubricity tests, an oil formulation
will be considered worthy of full scale field test evaluation. Field tests should be
conducted in a minimum of three EMD engines, preferably in heavy duty service, for at
least one year.
During the field evaluation and its conclusion, EMD will review the oil and engine
performance data generated by the supplier(s).
After successful completion of the field test program, the oil will be considered
satisfactory for limited use, but should be closely monitored during the following two
years of commercial introduction.

5.4

Summary

Oil formulations established and proven by this development program must remain exactly
the same with no subsequent changes in their make-up. Changes in additive component
manufacture or blending process following completion of the development program must
be disclosed and reviewed with EMD.
If an oil or additive improvement program is desirable or necessary, the revised
formulation must be evaluated by going through the complete development program.

6.0 Specific Recommendations


6.1

Use of One Oil

The use of a single brand name lubricant is recommended for locomotive fleets. This
recommendation of long standing is substantially supported by observations of the
performance of fleets lubricated with mixed oil products.

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6.2

Mixing of Oils

EMD recommendeds that oils are not mixed. The combining of lubricants with different
additive and base stock components creates a chemical mixture that cannot be readily
evaluated in the laboratory, and its field performance cannot be reliably predicted.
If mixing of oils is mandatory, the following approach is suggested in an effort to minimize
potential risk factors associated with this practice:
1. The oils considered for mixing should contain the same additive concentrate.
2. The viscosity and viscosity index properties should be identical.
3. The number of oils to be mixed should be limited to no more than three for a given fleet
operation.
4. The brand name oil, which is the parent of the common additive selected, should,
because of its full qualification and fleet experience, be the primary component of the
mixture.
5. Only premium base stocks should be considered for the other two components. Each
base stock and common additive formulation are to be evaluated by the standard
procedures of laboratory analysis and laboratory engine testing.
6. After the three common additive oils are selected, an equally proportioned mixture of
these oils should undergo the same laboratory and test engine evaluations. Upon
satisfactory completion of these tests, the mixture should then be evaluated in at least
three EMD engines in heavy duty service for a period of at least one year.

6.3

Re-Refined Oils

Oil formulations containing re-refined base stocks may be acceptable for qualification
through the test program detailed in this MI if the level of processing and quality of the rerefined base stocks is judged as acceptable to EMD. The oil re-refining process should
include suitable screening of used oil feedstocks followed by a multistage process to
remove water, light ends, and fuel prior to distillation. A hydrotreating stage is required
after the distillation process to remove any impurities carried over by the distillation
process. Finally, the supplier must demonstrate that the re-refined stocks pass rigorous
statistical control standards to assure product consistency and quality.

6.4

Reclaimed Oils

Considered as a general category, reclaimed oils are not recommended for lubrication of
EMD engines. If reclaimed oils are to be used, their use requires a maximum of
evaluation and control, and the following suggestions are offered:
1. The reclaimed oil must have the same additive package as the name brand oils with
which it will be mixed.
2. The reclaimed oil must pass all analysis and quality control requirements of brand name
oils.

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3. The reclaimed oil should be introduced into the main supply tank of the railroad facility
at a rate not to exceed a 20% ratio.
4. Reclaimed oil should never be used as a full engine charge.

6.5

Filter Changes

Regular monitoring of oil filter tank pressure should be used to determine filter
condition.
Replacement of oil filter elements should be made according to the Scheduled
Maintenance Program, unless pressure monitoring or laboratory analysis of the oil dictates
earlier replacement.
Replacement elements must be of the EMD type or equivalent in all respects. Elements
intended for use with other types of engines are not suitable. Where highly dispersant
oils are employed, carbonaceous matter may be suspended so finely in the oil that it is
essentially unfilterable. In such situations, it might appear that an extension of the filter
replacement interval may be justified. However, caution should be exercised when
contemplating such action since filter materials have not yet been developed that will
tolerate prolonged exposure to lubricants at high temperature without deterioration and/or
possible disintegration of the filter media.

6.6

Oil Changes

Oil change intervals prescribed in the applicable Scheduled Maintenance Program are
based on average operating conditions with quality fuels of less than 0.5% sulfur content.
When oil change intervals are overextended, serious and costly engine problems may
result. This can occur if the additive concentrate is depleted beyond acceptable limits,
and the oil loses essential properties including alkalinity, detergency, and dispersancy. In
the absence of vital reserves of these properties, the oil no longer provides satisfactory
protection of the engine in limiting harmful deposit formations from oxidized oil and other
contaminants, or adequate control of the corrosive products of combustion.
Oils that have experienced severe additive depletion will result in accelerated engine wear,
stuck or broken piston rings, liner scuffing, and corrosive attack and/or frictional failure of
vital bearing surfaces.
Regular laboratory analysis of the oil is a valuable means of judging the condition of the
oil, and is of equal value in reflecting the condition of the engine. Both engine and oil
condition must be given careful consideration when planning to extend oil change
intervals beyond those recommended. Table 3 provides detailed information on analysis.

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6.7

Fuel Dilution

EMD guidelines for fuel dilution are covered in Tables 2 and 3. Oil draining is
mandatory for whichever event occurs first: exceeding the fuel dilution limit (HIGH
or above), or dropping below the minimum viscosity limit.
WARNING: Running the engine with oil that has HIGH fuel dilution may
result in a crankcase explosion and/or severe engine damage.
Figure 1 shows fuel dilution effects on viscosity and flash point up to 5%. The SAE
20W40 fuel dilution limit is 1% less than the maximum limit allowed for SAE 40 oil. This
limit was established to allow for permanent and temporary shear effects associated with
multigrade oils. Field experience has shown that new oil starting viscosity is reduced by
about 0.75 cSt @ 100 C in EMD engines due to permanent shear of the multigrade VI
improver. This phenomenon coupled with viscosity reduction due to temporary shear has
resulted in minimum viscosity limits of 13.0 cSt @ 100 C for multigrade oils. EMD
recommends that customers develop a fuel dilution chart on their fleet oil to establish the
relationship between viscosity and flash point change as a function of percent fuel dilution.

105

60

100

50

95

40

90

30

85

20

80

10

75

0
0

Approx. Flash Point Drop, deg


F

Nominal % Viscosity @ 100 C

Fuel Dilution Chart

% Fuel Dilution (vol.)

Figure 1. Fuel Dilution

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Table 2. Fuel Dilution Action Required


Fuel Dilution
%

Condition

02

Normal

25
(SAE 40)
24
(SAE 20W40)

Borderline

5 10
(SAE 40)
4 10
(SAE 20W40)

10 20

High

Very High

20 30

Change
Filters

Change
Oil

None

Find and fix fuel leak

None

DO NOT RUN ENGINE


Find and fix fuel leak
Check oil sample for wear
metals per M.I. 1752 and
follow recommended
action

None

DO NOT RUN ENGINE

Perform crankcase
inspection, visually inspect
all upper connecting rod
bearing fishback surfaces
for accelerated wear per
EMM

Extremely
High
30 40

Engine Inspection
Required

Additional
Action Required
None

Find and fix fuel leak


Check oil sample for wear
metals per M.I. 1752 and
follow recommended
action
DO NOT RUN ENGINE
Find and fix fuel leak
Check oil sample for wear
metals per M.I. 1752 and
follow recommended
action

Remove one connecting


rod bearing and visually
inspect bearing surfaces per
EMM *

DO NOT RUN ENGINE


Find and fix fuel leak
Check oil sample for wear
metals per M.I. 1752 and
follow recommended
action

Remove one connecting


rod bearing and visually
inspect bearing surfaces per
EMM *
Do an airbox inspection per
EMM

* If abnormal wear conditions are found, a main bearing inspection must be done per Engine
Maintenance Manual (EMM) or Running Maintenance Manual
Also reference: Inspection & Qualification Guide Engine Main & Connecting Rod Bearings (Doc MM003003)

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Table 3. Interpretation of Oil Sample Analysis


NOTE: Shaded areas indicate the following recommended action: shut down engine, drain oil, and change filters. Nonshaded areas indicate the following recommendation: change filters only.
Oil Analysis
Basis for
NORMAL
BORDERLINE
HIGH
Recommended Action
Analysis
No Action
Take Extra Oil
Correct
Required
Samples
Condition
Flash Point &
Viscosity
Check for
dilution if
Flash Point
less than 420
F (216 C)
See Table 2 for
SAE 40
0 to 2%
2 to 5%
Above 5%
Fuel Leak
recommendations.
SAE 20W40
0 to 2%
2 to 4%
Above 4%
SAE 40 Vis
12.5 cSt
limit @ 100 C,
Min.
SAE 20W40
13.0 cSt
Vis limit @
100 C, Min.

Water Leak

Free Water

None

Any

Chromate
Inhibitor
Boron
Inhibitor
Silicon

0 to 20 ppm

20 to 40 ppm

0 to 10 ppm

10 to 20 ppm

0 to 5 ppm

5 to 10 ppm

Air Filtration

Excessive
Oxidation

Contaminated
fuel (cracking
catalyst)

TBN (D-4739)
Min.
TAN (D664)
Max.
Viscosity Rise,
Max. @ 100 F,
SUS
Viscosity Rise,
Max. @ 100
C, cSt
PH Min.
Pentane
Insolubles,
Max. (D893
modified)
Aluminum,
Silicon, and/or
Magnesium

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Above 40
ppm
Above 20
ppm
Above 10
ppm

Resample with dry container.


Find and fix leak. Check
main bearings per
Maintenance Manual.
Find and fix water leak.
Check oil filter tank pressure
Improved air filter
maintenance required. Antifoam agent present in new oil.

2.5
4.5
30%
12%
5.0
2.0%

Above 5 ppm

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Change Oil. If short oil life


persists, check lube oil
quality, fuel sulfur content,
oil cooler efficiency, engine
temperature controls, power
output (governor and rack
settings, EUI injector cal),
engine condition (worn
rings, cracked pistons, poor
combustion), oil filtration, or
oil pump suction leak.

Check fuel cleanliness. Notify


fuel supplier. If engine
smokes, check injector
calibration and tip erosion.
Check if piston rings are
excessively worn

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NOTE: Shaded areas indicate the following recommended action: shut down engine, drain oil, and change filters. Nonshaded areas indicate the following recommendation: change filters only.
Oil Analysis
Basis for
NORMAL
BORDERLINE
HIGH
Recommended Action
Analysis
No Action
Take Extra Oil
Correct
Required
Samples
Condition
Check if oil is contacting
galvanized or zinc painted
surfaces. Check if new
power assemblies were
installed using zinc
containing thread
Above 10 ppm becomes more
Zinc
0 to 10 ppm
compound. Check if make
dangerous with increasing values
up oil in stock is within
specifications. Notify lube
oil supplier. Check for silver
bearing failures if engine is
equipped with this bearing
Oil
type.
Contamination
Check if oil contains zinc or
Above 2 ppm is corrosive to silver. Check
Silver
0 to 1 ppm
1 to 2 ppm
for broken piston cooling
tubes, inefficient oil cooler, or
improper temperature control.
Feel loaded areas of piston
pins for signs of distress.
Measure piston to head
clearance with lead readings.
Oil draining is not mandatory.
Check strainers and bottom
of oil pan for debris.
Above 20
Abnormal Wear
Chromium
ppm
Or Corrosion
(Not
Check for rapid wear of rings
0 to 10 ppm 10 to 20 ppm
(Rapid increases
applicable if
& liners.
within normal
chromate
range should be
coolant
considered
inhibitor is
borderline
used)
condition)
Measure piston to head
0 to 75 ppm 75 to 150 ppm
Copper
Above 150
clearance with lead readings
ppm
to locate worn piston thrust
washers. Check connecting
rod bearing blade thrust faces
for distress. (See Note 1)
High iron and copper increase oxidation rates.
Iron

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0 to 75 ppm

75 to 125 ppm

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Above 125
ppm

Check for rapid wear of rings


& liners.

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NOTE: Shaded areas indicate the following recommended action: shut down engine, drain oil, and change filters. Nonshaded areas indicate the following recommendation: change filters only.
Oil Analysis
Basis for
NORMAL
BORDERLINE
HIGH
Recommended Action
Analysis
No Action
Take Extra Oil
Correct
Required
Samples
Condition
Lead
0 to 50 ppm 50 to 75 ppm
Above 75
Most likely lead flash is
ppm
dissolving off bearings.
Premature lead removal,
before bearings are broken
in, can lead to bearing
distress; inspect and replace
upper con rod bearings in
service less than 6 months if
lead flash has been removed
from the unloaded area of the
fishback bearing surface on
turbocharged engines. If con
rod bearings require
replacement, wrist pin
bearings should also be
checked and replaced if lead
flash has been removed.
If TAN > TBN, corrosive
attack of lead can occur.
Draining oil is mandatory if
oil analysis shows rapid rise
of lead ppm has occurred
Check for debris under
crankshaft gear indicative of
gear train bushing distress.
Copper
Two out of three elements in
Check idler gear bearing
In Combination
Iron
borderline or high range
clearances. Check main and
Lead
con rod bearings per
Maintenance Manual. Oil
draining is not mandatory.
Above
1. When in combination
40
with iron or chrome rise,
Tin
0 to 20 ppm 20 to 40 ppm
ppm
check for piston distress.
2. When in combination
with lead or copper rise,
In Combination
check for bearing
distress

Note 1: Due to carbon buildup on both the fire face of the cylinder head and the crown of the piston during service life, lead
wire readings should not be used as a basis for power assembly change out. Lead wire readings may continue to be used to
indicate wear trends. Significant clearance increases should be investigated as possible component failures.

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(D-L)
General Motors Electro-Motive
La Grange, Illinois 60525 USA
Telephone: 708-387-6000
Website: www.gmemd.com
2004
General Motors Electro-Motive. All rights reserved. Neither this
document, nor any part thereof, may be reprinted without the
expressed written consent of General Motors Electro-Motive.
Contact GM EMD Customer Publications Office.

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