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Objectives: Upon the completion of the course, the student must be able to

1. find directional derivatives (if they exist);

2. find equations of tangent plane and normal line to a surface;

3. find extreme values of functions (constrained or unconstrained case); and

Review: Vectors, Equations of Lines and Planes in Space

Outline:

Definitions

Tangent Planes and Normals to Surfaces

Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

Lagrange Multipliers

Review Notes

Consider a vector A

x ,y

Magnitude:

A

x2 y 2

Unit Vector in the direction of

A:

tan A

UA

x

A

y

x

y

A

U A cos A i sin A j

where i

1 ,0

and

0 ,1

f

fx a,.b : slope of the line tangent to the curve of intersection of the surface z f x,y

x

and the plane y b at P a,b, f a,b .

f

fy a,.b : slope of the line tangent to the curve of intersection of the surface z f x,y

y

x a at P a,b, f a,b

Directional derivatives are used to determine rate of change towards a certain direction. In our case,

vectors will be used to represent directions.

Definition (of directional derivative).

Let f be a function of two variables x and y . If u is a unit vector cos i sin j ,

then the directional derivative of f in the direction of u , denoted by Du f is given by

f x hcos ,y h sin f x,y

if this limit exists.

h

h0

Du f x,y lim

Remark: Du f xo ,yo is the rate of change of f at the point xo ,yo in the direction of

u.

MATH 38

Example.

Consider the function defined by f x,y 2 x2 y2 .

Determine Du f if U is the unit vector in the direction of

a.

b.

3

Du f x,y fx x,y cos fy x,y sin .

Exercise.

Consider the function defined by f x,y 3 x2 4y2 .

Determine Du f if U is the unit vector in the direction of

a.

3

4

b.

Let f be a function of two variables x and y such that fx and fy exist. The gradient

of f denoted by f (read as "del f ") is defined by

f x,y fx x,y i fy x,y j .

Example.

Consider the function defined by f x,y 2 x2 y2 .

Determine f x,y .

Remarks:

1.

Du f x,y U f x,y

2.

3.

f through

xo ,yo .

Example.

Consider the function defined by f x,y x2 y2 .

Determine D u f 4 ,3 where U is the unit vector in the direction

12 , 5

MATH 38

Exercises.

Determine the directional derivative of f at point

1.

f x,y x2 y , P 1 ,2

2.

f x,y ex siny , P 0 , 4

1.

f x,y x2 3 xy 2y2 , P 1 ,2

P in the direction of

A 3 ,4

1,

2 , 1

_______________

2. Sketch the level curve of f x,y

y

x2

point at 1 ,2 , NOT in its position representation) is perpendicular

to the level curve.

Definition.

Let f be a function of two variables x , y and z . If u is a unit vector

cos i cos j cos k , then the directional derivative of f in the direction of

denoted by Du f is given by

u,

if this limit

h

h0

Du f x,y,z lim

exists.

then

x, y

and

z , and

Definition.

Let

x, y

and

such that fx ,

f x,y,z fx x,y i fy x,y j fz x,y k .

Example.

Consider the function defined by f x,y,z cosxy sinyz .

Determine D u f 2 ,0 3

1 ,2 , 2 .

MATH 38

Exercises.

Determine the directional derivative of f at point

3.

f x,y ,z x3 y y2 z2 , P 2 ,1 ,3

4.

f x,y ,z ln x2 y2 z2 , P 1 ,3 ,2

P in the direction of

A

1 ,2 ,2

1 ,1 ,1

Let f be a function of two variables

f xo ,yo 0 .

1. The maximum value of Du f xo ,yo is f xo,yo . This value is attained in the direction of

f xo,yo .

Examples.

0. Determine the maximum and minimum values of D U f for

f x,y ex Arctany at P 0 ,1 .

1. The density of a rectangular plate at a point in the xy plane is given

by x,y

1

x2 y2 3

.

3 ,2

Exercise.

The temperature

following:

1.

rate of change of

2i 3 j 6k

2.

the magnitude and the unit vector on the direction of the direction of

the greatest rate of change of T at 3 ,2 ,2

MATH 38

Recall:

For the equation of a plane:

Let P0 x0 ,y0 ,z0

plane.

N.

Hence, P0 P N 0 .

For the equation of a line:

Let P0 x0 ,y0 ,z0

This gives the parametric equation of the line: x x0 at; y y0 bt; z z0 ct.

Alternatively, if a,b and

y y0

x x0

z z0

then

is the symmetric equation of the line.

a

b

c

_______________________

Definition (of a normal vector)

A vector orthogonal to a tangent vector of every curve C through a point P0 on a surface

Theorem.

If a surface S is given by the equation F x,y ,z 0 and

Fx , Fy and Fz are not all zero at P0 on S, then

F is differentiable and

F P0 is a normal vector to S

at P0 .

Remark:

vector.

Hence, the equation of tangent plane is given by

as a normal

MATH 38

F P0 x x0 i y y0 j z z0 k 0 .

surface at the indicated point.

1.

x2 y2 3z 2

2.

y ex cosz

at the point

at the point

2 ,4 ,6

1 ,e,0

Remark:

The normal line to S at P0 is a line through the point P0 in the direction of the normal vector

x x0 t Fx x0 , y0 , z0 ;

y y0 t Fy x0 , y0 , z0 ;

z z0 t Fz x0 , y0 , z0 .

Also, if Fx , Fy and Fz are all non-zero, the symmetric equation of the line is given by

y y0

x x0

z z0

Fx x0 ,y0 ,z0

Fy x0 ,y0 ,z0

Fz x0 ,y0 ,z0

Example.

Determine a parametric and symmetric equation of the normal line to the

surface given by x2 y2 z2 2z 0 at the point 1 ,0 1 .

Exercises.

1. Determine the equation of the tangent plane to the surface

z 2e3 y cos2 x

at the point

,0 ,1

is parallel to the plane 8 x 3 y z 0 .

3. Show that the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2

a2

y2

b2

x0 x

a2

z2

c2

1 at

x0 ,y0 ,z0

y y z z

0 0

1

b2

c2

surface x2 y2 z2 16 at the point 2 ,3 , 3

x2 y2 z2 a2

x0 ,y0 ,z0

on the sphere

MATH 38

Remark:

All tangent lines to a surface at a point P0 lie on the tangent plane to the surface at P0 .

Solving for the tangent line to a curve of intersection

Let P0 be a point on the curve of intersection, C , of surfaces F x,y ,z 0 and

G x,y,z 0 .

curve of intersection, C .

Example.

Determine the equation of the tangent line to the curve of intersection of

the surfaces defined by x2 y2 z 8 and x y2 z2 2 at the

point 2 ,2 ,0 .

If two surfaces have a common tangent plane, the two surfaces are said to be tangent at that

point.

Remark: If F x,y ,z 0 and G x,y,z 0 are tangent at a point P0 ,

then F P0

Example.

Show that the surfaces defined by x2

x2 y2 z2 6z 7 0

Theorem.

z2 4 y 0

and

0 ,1 ,2

MATH 38

are not both zero at P0 on C , then F P0 is a normal vector to C at P0 .

Remark:

In R2 , the equation of the tangent line to the curve F x,y 0 at P0 x0 ,y0 is given by

Fx x0 ,y0 x x0 Fy x0 ,y0 y y0 0 .

Exercises.

1. Determine the equation of the tangent line to the curve of intersection

of the surfaces defined by y ex sinz 2 and

z y2 ln x 1 3 at the point 0 ,2 ,0 .

2. Show that the surfaces defined by 4 x2 y2 9z2

xyz 36 are tangent at the point 3 ,6 ,2 .

108

and

2 x3 2y3 9 xy 0 at the point 1 ,2 .

__________________

2.3 Extrema of Functions of More Than One Variable

Definition (of relative extrema)

Let f be a function of two variables

f x,y

and y .

for all x, y B .

f x,y for all x, y B .

B containing

containing

Remarks:

1. A point

a ,b is a critical point of f if

b.) fx a,b or fy a,b

Theorem (Second-Derivative Test)

MATH 38

on some open disk

fy a,b 0 .

ii.

i.

fxy a,b 2

If D a,b 0 and fxx a,b 0 (or fyy a,b 0 ), f has a relative minimum value at

a ,b .

If D a,b 0 and fxx a,b 0 (or fyy a,b 0 ), f has a relative maximum value at

a,b .

a ,b , f a,b .

Example.

Determine the relative extremum values and the point/s where they occur

of the function defined by f x,y x3 y2 6 x2 y 1 . Also,

determine the saddle points, if there are any.

where they occur of the given functions. Also, determine the saddle

points, if there are any.

x2

3y3 9 y2 3 xy 9y 9 x

2

1.

f x,y

2.

f x,y x3 y3 3 y2 3 x 9y 2

_________________

3. Determine the minimum distance between the origin and the surface

z2 x2 y 4 .

Hint: Express the distance of a point on the given surface as a function

of x and y , only. Also, the point where the minimum distance

occurs coincides with the point where the square of the minimum

distance occurs.

Definitions.

A region R is bounded if it is a subregion of a closed disk. The boundary of a region R is

the set of all points P such that B P ;r contains points of R and points not in R , for

any r . A closed region contains its boundary.

Theorem (Extreme-Value Theorem)

MATH 38

10

an absolute maximum-value and an absolute minimum value on R .

R . Then,

f has

Consider a function f that is continuous on a closed and bounded region R . An absolute

extremum of f occurs at a relative extremum of f or at a point on the boundary of R .

1.

2.

3.

4.

Determine function values at critical points of f interior to R .

Determine extreme values on f on the boundary of R .

The largest (smallest) function value from (2) and (3) is the absolute maximum (minimum)

value of f on R .

Example.

Determine the absolute maximum and absolute minimum values of the

function defined by f x,y y3 x2 3y over the region bounded by

x2 y 1 2 1 .

Exercise.

Determine the absolute maximum and absolute minimum values of

f x,y 3 x2 xy on the region bounded by the parabola y x2

and the line y 4 .

There are two distinct boundaries to be considered for this item.

Optimization problems can be distinguished into two: the constrained case and the

unconstrained (or free extremum) case. Many real world problems (mostly economics in nature) are

examples of the constrained case such as maximizing a manufacturer's profit but is constrained by

factors such as the amount raw materials available. In this scenario, the profit is our objective and the

amount of raw material is the constraint. The unconstrained case was already considered in the

previous section when the relative extrema of a given function are determined.

Theorem.

Consider functions f and g with continuous first partial-derivatives. If f has a relative

extremum value at x0 ,y0 , subject to the constraint g x ,y 0 and

g x0 ,y0

f x0 ,y0

g x0 ,y0

MATH 38

11

g x0 ,y0

and g at x0 ,y0 .

Remark: f x0 ,y0

defined by f

(Two variables, one constraint)

Problem: Maximize or minimize z f x,y subject to the constraint g x ,y 0 .

1. Form the auxiliary function F x ,y ,

2. Set the first-partial derivatives of

Fx x ,y ,

f x,y g x,y .

F to zero.

Fy x ,y ,

4. Among the critical points of

F x ,y ,

Example.

1. Determine the absolute extrema of the function

f x, y x2 4xy y2 subject to the constraint that x y 6 .

2. Use the Lagrange Method to determine the point on the plane

3 x 2y z 5 that is closest to the point 1 ,2 ,3 , and find

the minimum distance.

Exercises.

1. Determine the relative extrema of f x,y xy subject to the

2

y2

constraint x

1.

the origin.

z2 x2 y 4

from

3. Determine the dimensions of a right circular cylinder that will give the

maximum volume if required surface area is 24 .

The surface area of a right circular cylinder is given by 2r 2 2rh.

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