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Seminar:

Water fuelled car systems and


it's types and application.

Neerad Nandan (2K12/EP/041)


Examination panel:
Prof. M. Jayasimhadri
Prof. N.K. Puri
Dr. Neha Tyagi
Introduction:

A water-fuelled car is an automobile that


hypothetically derives its energy directly from
water. Water-fuelled cars have been the subject
of numerous international patents, newspaper
and popular science magazine articles, local
television news coverage, and websites. The
claims for these devices have been found to be
pseudoscience and some were found to be tied to
investment frauds. These vehicles may be
claimed to produce fuel from water on board with
no other energy input, or may be a hybrid
claiming to derive some of its energy from water
in addition to a conventional source (such as
gasoline).

Water is fully oxidized hydrogen. Hydrogen itself


is a high-energy, flammable substance, but it's
useful energy is released when water is formed.
Water will not burn. The process of electrolysis
can split water into hydrogen and oxygen, but it
takes as much energy to take apart a water
molecule as was released when the hydrogen
was oxidized to form water. In fact, some energy
would be lost in converting water to hydrogen
and then burning the hydrogen because some
waste heat would always be produced in the
conversions. Releasing chemical energy from
water, in excess or in equal proportion to the

energy required to facilitate such production,


would therefore violate the first or second law of
thermodynamics.
According to the currently accepted laws of
physics, there is no way to extract chemical
energy from water alone. Water itself is highly
stableit was one of the classical elements and
contains very strong chemical bonds. Its enthalpy
of formation is negative (-68.3 kcal/mol or -285.8
kJ/mol), meaning that energy is required to break
those stable bonds, to separate water into its
elements, and there are no other compounds of
hydrogen and oxygen with more negative
enthalpies of formation, meaning that no energy
can be released in this manner either.[9]

Most proposed water-fuelled cars rely on some


form of electrolysis to separate water into
hydrogen and oxygen and then recombine them
to release energy; however, because the energy
required to separate the elements will always be
at least as great as the useful energy released,
this cannot be used to produce net energy.

Garrett electrolytic carburettor:

Charles H. Garrett demonstrated a water-fuelled


car for several minutes. The car generated
hydrogen by electrolysis as can be seen by
examining Garrett's patent, issued that same
year. This patent includes drawings which show a
carburettor similar to an ordinary float-type

carburettor but with electrolysis plates in the


lower portion, and where the float is used to
maintain the level of the water. Garrett's patent
fails to identify a new source of energy.

Stanley Meyer's water fuel cell:

At least as far back as 1980, Stanley Meyer


claimed that he had built a dune buggy that ran
on water, although he gave inconsistent
explanations as to its mode of operation. In some
cases, he claimed that he had replaced the spark
plugs with a water splitter, while in other cases it
was claimed to rely on a fuel cell that split the
water into hydrogen and oxygen. The fuel cell,
which he claimed was subjected to an electrical
resonance, would split the water mist into
hydrogen and oxygen gas, which would then be
combusted back into water vapour in a
conventional internal combustion engine to
produce net energy.
The fuel cell purportedly split water into its
component elements, hydrogen and oxygen. The
hydrogen gas was then burned to generate
energy, a process that reconstituted the water
molecules. According to Meyer, the device
required less energy to perform electrolysis than
the minimum energy requirement predicted or
measured
by
conventional
science.
The
mechanism of action was alleged to involve
Brown's gas, a mixture of oxyhydrogen with a
ratio of 2:1, the same composition as liquid
water. If the device worked as specified, it would
violate both the first and second laws of
thermodynamics, allowing operation as a

perpetual motion machine. Throughout his


patents, Meyer used the terms fuel cell or water
fuel cell to refer to the portion of his device in
which electricity is passed through water to
produce hydrogen and oxygen. Meyer's use of
the term in this sense is contrary to its usual
meaning in science and engineering, in which
such cells are conventionally called electrolytic
cells. Furthermore, the term fuel cell is usually
reserved for cells which produce electricity from
a chemical redox reaction, whereas Meyer's fuel
cell consumed electricity, as shown in his patents
and in the circuit pictured on the right. Meyer
describes in a 1990 patent the use of a water fuel
cell assembly and portrays some images of his
fuel cell water capacitor. According to the patent,
in this case "... the term fuel cell refers to a single
unit of the invention comprising a water
capacitor cell ... that produces the fuel gas in
accordance with the method of the invention."
Dennis Klein:
In 2002, the firm Hydrogen Technology
Applications patented an electrolyser design and
trademarked the term Aquygen to refer to the
hydrogen oxygen gas mixture produced by the
device. Originally developed as an alternative to
oxyacetylene welding, the company claimed to
be able to run a vehicle exclusively on water, via

the production of Aquygen, and invoked an


unproven state of matter called magnegases and
a discredited theory about magnecules to explain
their results. Company founder Dennis Klein
claimed to be in negotiations with a major US
auto manufacturer and that the US government
wanted to produce Hummers that used his
technology.

At present, the company no longer claims it can


run a car exclusively on water, and is instead
marketing Aquygen production as a technique to
increase fuel efficiency, thus making it Hydrogen
fuel enhancement rather than a water-fuelled car.
The current prototype vehicle receives a net
increase in horsepower and an average increase
of 20 to 30 percent in miles per gallon.
An earlier prototype ran totally on the HHOS
(water mileage was about 25 miles per ounce
He went 100 miles on 4 ounces of water). The
HHOS does not affect water or oil temperatures.
The HHOS can be installed with very little
modification to a standard piston engine and so
can be retrofitted on nearly any existing
automobile. Unlike a fuel cell, where hydrogen is
stored at a dangerous 10,000 PSI, the HHOS
produces Aquygen Gas on demand at less than

60 PSI. Exhaust contains minimal emissions and


no CO2.

Genepax Water Energy System:


In June 2008, Japanese company Genepax
unveiled a car which it claims runs on only water
and air, and many news outlets dubbed the
vehicle a water-fuel car. The company says it
cannot reveal the core part of this invention, yet,
but it has disclosed that the system uses an
onboard
energy
generator
(a
membrane
electrode assembly) to extract the hydrogen
using a mechanism which is similar to the
method in which hydrogen is produced by a
reaction of metal hydride and water. The
hydrogen is then used to generate energy to run
the car. This has led to speculation that the metal
hydride is consumed in the process and is the
ultimate source of the car's energy, making the
car a hydride-fuelled hydrogen on demand
vehicle, rather than water-fuelled as claimed.

Dr Ghulam Sarwar:

In December 2011 a Pakistani doctor, Ghulam


Sarwar claimed that he had invented a car that
only runs on water. At the time the invented car
was claimed to use 60% water and 40% Diesel or
fuel, but that the inventor was working hard to
make it run on only water, probably by end of
June 2012. It was further claimed that the car
emits only oxygen rather than the usual carbon.

Agha Waqar Ahmad:

Agha Waqar Ahmad, a Pakistani, claimed in July


2012 to have invented water-fuelled car by
installing a water kit for all kind of automobiles.
The kit consists of a cylindrical jar, which holds
the water, a bubbler, and a pipe leading to the
engine. He claims that the kit uses electrolysis to
convert water into HHO, which is then used as
fuel. The kit requires use of distilled water to
work. Ahmed claims that he has been able to
achieve much higher amounts of oxyhydrogen
compared to any other inventor because of
undisclosed calculations. Ahmed claims that any
car using his kit can run exclusively on water and
will yield 40 kilometres of travel on a litre of
water.
Hydrogen Boosters:
The technology has been there for decades to
use hydrogen (often in the form of Brown's
gas/HHO) as a booster to help enhance fuel
combustion of gasoline and diesel.

The way it works is as follows. Since engines by


their very nature are only partially efficient,
unburned fuel ends up as hydrocarbons in the
exhaust. The introduction of a small amount of
hydrogen, normally in the 1 to 2% range,
enhances the ignition to make an almost

complete burn which in turn results in more


power. Engines also decarbonise and get cleaner,
run slightly cooler, and normally there is a gain
on fuel efficiency since less fuel is needed to
produce the same amount of power in the
engine.

The carbon dioxide emissions are not really


reduced but there is a close to 100% elimination
of hydrocarbons along with near 100%
elimination of carbon monoxide which indicates a
complete burn. There is also a substantial
reduction in the visible pollutants such as nitrous
oxides, in the NOx family, by 20 to 60%.

An analogy would be comparing an engine to a


pile of firewood. If it is damp, it is very hard to
light. Image the hydrogen being like a cup of
gasoline. If you pour it on the timber and light a
match to it, the wood will combust much more
quickly. Adding hydrogen to the engine, ensures
that the combustion is as complete and efficient
as possible.

Putting too much hydrogen is not good either.


Once you reach a threshold, introducing more

hydrogen gas than is required for a full burn, due


to the inefficiency of generating the hydrogen
gas with an alternator, causes diminishing
returns and results in fuel mileage going down.

There are many different ways to produce this


gas but most units have the following in
common. The device contains has metal plates
that are connected to the a positive and negative
poles of the car battery . This unit is normally 3-5
inches in diameter, 6 inches high or taller, and is
fastened inside the engine compartment. When
the water is electrolyzed via the electrical charge
going across the water, a gas comes out of the
top. Dependent on how the unit is designed, the
composition of the gas varies. Typically what
comes out is called Brown's gas or HHO which is
a mixture of Hydrogen and Oxygen. This gas gets
ducted into the air intake which is where air
comes in to go into the engine. This
air/hydrogen/oxygen/water
mixture
is
then
combined with the fuel that is being atomized or
vaporized and helps catalyze the burning of the
fuel efficiently. This results in a better economy of
fuel and burning, cleaner emissions and
improved power.

The dream of people working on these devices is


to get an engine self running solely on hydrogen
and oxygen (water) with no pollution and using
only water as fuel. This requires the ability to
produce a large amount of gas from water with
very little electricity. Enough hydrogen needs to
get produced to be able to run the engine and
have the alternator produce enough energy to
run the electrolysis unit, which then powers the
engine... Some people claim to have achieved
this but never have had their invention publicly
reproduced
by
third
parties
and/or
commercialized. Until someone figures it out, as
a transitional stage, we have hydrogen booster
technologies.
The expected fuel savings that can be seen vary.
There is a correlation between engine size and
amount of gas being produced. For gasoline
engines, getting 15-20% consistently on gasoline
engines is not uncommon.... sometimes higher,
sometimes lower.

On a diesel engine, the gain is between 5% and


20% dependent on the engine size, the use, and
the type of fuel. On start/stop trucks like garbage
trucks, 15-20% is commonly seen and on longer
distance the gain is often less than 10%. For

example, one truck operator in Australia is saving


350 litres of fuel a week. So as you can see, with
the price of fuel being what it is today, the
payback time is pretty quick.

Hydrogen Fuel Injection System:


Hydrogen burns significantly faster than diesel
fuel, and with a signficantly lower Lower
Flammability Limit (LFL, or sometimes LEL). Both
of these factors lead to small amounts of
hydrogen having significant effects on diesel
combustion. The first and most important effect,
for our purposes, is that the hydrogen promotes a
faster and more complete burn of the diesel fuel,
closer to the top of the power stroke in a diesel
engine.
This leads to increased thermal
efficiency, which necessarily leads to less fuel
spent for a given amount of work. In addition,
hydrogen has a significant stabilizing effect on
cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion, which
leads to further efficiency improvements.
The addition of hydrogen to the combustion cycle
also has significant effects on emissions, both
due to the properties of hydrogen in combustion
itself, and due to the increased thermal efficiency
resulting
from
the
hydrogen-enhanced

combustion. A faster and more complete burn


leads to dramatic reductions in unburnt
hydrocarbons (Particulate Matter), and in carbon
monoxide (CO). The increased fuel economy
leads to a reduction in carbon dioxide levels
(CO2), and the higher thermal efficiency of the
combustion cycle leads to lower exhaust
temperatures, which leads to a reduction in
nitrous oxides (NOx).