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SEPARATION OF HETEROGENOUS

MIXTURE
POLITEKNIK PERKAPALAN NEGERI SURABAYA

Introduction to Separation Processes

Separation process is used to transform a mixture of


substances into two or more distinct products.

The mixture can be a combination of any two or


more states: solid-solid, solid-liquid, solid-gas, liquidliquid, liquid-gas, gas-gas, solid-liquid-gas mixture, etc.

Why Separations are needed?

Isolating valuable chemicals from mixtures


Removing impurities from raw materials
Purification of products

Separation Process Mechanisms

Phase creation

Phase addition

Barrier

Solid agent

External field

Homogen Vs Heterogeneous Mixture

Pemisahan homogen:
a. Menciptakan fasa lain
b. Menambahkan agent pemisah
c. Tidak dapat dilakukan secara
mekanik
Pemisahan heterogen:
a. Dipisahkan langsung secara
mekanik
b. berdasarkan perbedaan
ukuran, bentuk atau
densitas

Mechanical Separation
Advantages
Relatively less Energy Requirements

Ease of Operation
Ease of Maintenance
No special Feed pretreatment required

Disadvantages
Not applicable for separating Components in homogeneous phase
Applicable to low flow rates

Klasifikasi Pemisahan heterogen

On the basis of characteristics

Depending on the difference in size or shape

Depending on the difference in phase density

Depending on fluid and particle mechanics

Depending on surface, electrical or magnetic properties

On the basis of phases involved


Gas-liquid (or Vapour-liquid)
Gas-solid (or Vapour- solid)
Liquid-liquid (immiscible)
Liquid-solid
Solid-solid

On

the principal methods

Settling and Sedimentation


Inertial and centrifugal separation
Electrostatic precipitation
Filtration
Scrubbing
Flotation
Drying

Settling and Sedimentation

Force balance:

Settling : proses pemisahan particle dari fluida dengan


gaya gravitasi yang bekerja pada partikel

Persamaan Kecepatan Settling


Zona settling Laminar

Zona settling transisi

Zona settling turbulent

Settling Process

is usually taken to be a vessel in which the


velocity of the gas (or vapor) is the terminal settling
velocity
for droplets of 100 m diameter

a. is usually taken to be a vessel in which the


terminal settling velocity for droplets of 100 m diameter
b. simple gravity settler or decanter for removing a dispersed liquid phase from another
liquid phase. The horizontal velocity must be low enough to
allow the low-density droplets to rise from the bottom. Decanters are normally
designed for a droplet size of 150 m but can be designed for droplets down to 100 m
c. gas solid particle separations, the size of the solid particles
is more likely to be known than the other types

Thickener for liquid solid separation

Gravity Settling Classifier

Pemisahan Dengan Sentrifugasi


siklon

Hidrosiklon

Pemisahan Dengan Medan luar

Medan listrik (Electrostatik presipitator

Magnetic field

Contoh Soal
1. Solid particles with a size 100 m are to be separated from
larger particles in a settling chamber. The owrate of gas is 8.5
m3s1. The density of the gas is 0.94 kgm3 and its viscosity
2.18 105 kgm1s1 .The density of the particles is 2780
kgm3
a. Calculate the settling velocity, assuming the particles are
Spherical
b. The settling chamber is to be box-shaped, with a rectangular
cross section for the gas ow. If the length and breadth of the
settling chamber are equal, what should the dimensions of the
chamber be for 100% removal of particles 100 m? assume
length = breadth

Contoh Soal
2. A liquid liquid mixture containing 5 kgs1 hydrocarbon
and 0.5 kgs1 water is to be separated in a decanter. The
physical properties are given

The water can be assumed to be dispersed in the


hydrocarbon.
Estimate the size of decanter required to separate the
mixture in a horizontal drum with a length to diameter ratio
of 3:1 and an interface across the center of the drum

Soal latihan
1. Gravity settler digunakan untuk memisahkan partikel
dengan ukuran rata-rata 75 mikron dari gas dengan
flowrate 1,6 m3/s. densitas partikel 2100 kg/m3 .
viscositas gas 1,85 x10-5 kg/ms dan densitasnya 1,18
kg/m3. estimasi dimensi dari settling chamber dengan
mengasumsikan luas penampangnya berbentuk persegi
panjang dengan panjang= 2xlebar nya ? (ganjil)
2. Decanter untuk memisahkan minyak dengan air. Dimana
aliran masuk terdiri campuran 6 kg/s air dan 0,6 kg/s
minyak. Asumsikan air sebagai fase kontinyu. Rasio L/D=3.
estimasi dimensi dari dekanter untuk memisahkan droplet
air dengan diameter rata2 150 mikron? (genap)

Fluid property soal 2

3. Jelaskan cara kerja (sertai dengan gambar) dari pemisahan


dengan metode:
a. Filtrasi dan scrubbing (ganjil)
b. Flotasi dan drying (genap)