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Material required to perform the engineering analysis for automotive application under thermal conditions.

Material required to perform the engineering analysis for automotive application under thermal conditions.

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You are on page 1of 18

Nonlinear Material

in Your Analysis

This guide is made for non-experienced FEA users. It provides

basic knowledge needed to start analyzing plasticity in materials.

Experienced FEA analysts can also use this guide to get used to

the NFX workflow.

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Nonlinear Materials in the Industry.......

Work Hardening...

10

11

Examples... 16

Nonlinear Materials in

the Industry

requires high resistance, light materials and components.

For example: Automotive, Marine, Defense, Aerospace, Heavy

Machinery, Consumer Goods, Electronics, Oil and Gas, Medical

Industry, etc.

Page 3

models and rules.

Material types: Elasto-plastic, Hyper-elastic

Yield Criterions : Von Mises (Metals)

Nonlinear entries: Stress strain curve, Plastic hardening curve, perfect plastic

Hardening Rules: Isotropic, Kinematic, Combined

Dependence: Temperature, Strain rate

Page 4

Engineering Stress

Strain Curve

in handbooks and are used in many specifications.

Monotonic behavior is obtained from a tension test where a

specimen with circular or rectangular cross sections within the

uniform gauge length is subjected to a monotonically increasing

tensile force until it fractures.

Engineering stress S from a uniaxial test is defined by dividing

the axial force by the original cross sectional area.

Sy - yield strength

Su - ultimate tensile strength

A0

Page 5

instantaneous cross sectional area.

True stress in tension is higher than engineering stress

because the cross section area decreases during the loading.

f - true fracture strength

f - true fracture strain or ductility

- true stress

- true strain

A - instantaneous cross sectional area

Page 6

Converting Engineering

Data to True Data

easily converted to True

Data.

600

Relationships between

true stresses - strains and

engineering ones are

described using the

following formulas. These

equations are valid up to

necking.

300

500

400

200

100

0

0

0.00105

0.024

0.045

0.1

0.14

0.19

Nominal Stress

[MPa]

Nominal

Strain

True Stress

[MPa]

Plastic Strain

nom

nom

nom (1+nom)

ln (1+nom)

tot-true/E

2,23E+02

0,00105

2,23E+02

0,0010494491

0,0

2,80E+02

0,024

2,87E+02

0,0237165266

0,0223668734

3,66E+02

0,045

3,82E+02

0,0440168854

0,0422177119

4,00E+02

0,1

4,38E+02

0,0953101798

0,0932472638

4,40E+02

0,14

4,98E+02

0,1310282624

0,1286850559

4,80E+02

0,19

5,63E+02

0,1739533071

0,1713000674

Page 7

Work Hardening

permanent change in shape. This is different to elastic

deformation, which is reversible.

Most materials do not exhibit only plastic deformation or elastic

deformation, but rather a combination of the two. The following

discussion mostly applies to metals, especially steels, which

are well studied. Work hardening occurs most notably for

ductile materials such as metals. Ductility is the ability of a

material to undergo plastic deformations before fracture (E.g.:

bending a steel rod until it finally breaks).

B

Loading

A

Unloading

C

0

Page 8

mostly used. Hollomon's equation is a powerful law which

describes the relationship between the stress and the

amount of plastic strain it used to generate the hardening

curve of a nonlinear material.

= K (p)n

K - strength coefficient (stress intercept at p = 1)

n - strain hardening exponent (slope of the line)

p - plastic strain

Properties of Steel

Page 9

Material:

Steel

Su

MPa/(ksi)

E

GPa/ksi 103

K/K

MPa/(ksi)

n/n

1010

331/(48)

203/29.5

534/867

(78)/(126)

0.185/ 0.244

1020

441/(64)

203/29.5

738/1962

(107)/(284)

0.190/ 0.321

1038c

582/(84)

201/29.5

1106/1340

(160)/(195)

0.259/ 0.220

required in FEA

materials and manufacturing processes. A good example

is desirable work hardening.

Desirable work hardening occurs in metalworking

processes that induce plastic deformation to exact a

shape change.

Examples:

- Rolling

- Bending

- Shearing

- Drawing

Page 10

stress-strain curve or plastic hardening curve.

Stress-Strain Curve definition takes into account all the

material curves including elastic and plastic domains.

Stress-Strain Curve

Page 11

plastic domain, so the initial value should be equal to the yield

stress.

Page 12

in NFX

Velocity, Acceleration

Time

Velocity, Acceleration

considering fast changing events (load/displacements) and

inertia.

Time

Velocity or Acceleration

is solved using static loads.

Page 13

Time

step is based on the quantities calculated during the previous time step.

This is called the Euler Time Integration Scheme. Using this scheme,

the solution remains stable even if large time steps are taken. This is

also called an unconditionally stable scheme. The disadvantage is that

this algorithm requires you to inverse the stiffness matrix and this is

computationally intensive, especially when nonlinearities are present.

In Explicit analysis, the inversion of the complex stiffness matrix can

be avoided, and only the mass matrix [M] has to be inverted. When

lower order elements are used (always recommended in explicit), the

mass matrix is a lumped matrix, or a diagonal matrix, whose inversion

is a single step process, hence this is very easily done. The

disadvantage is that the Euler Time integration scheme is not used in

explicit, and thus the solution is not unconditionally stable and very

small time steps have to be used.

Nonlinear Static

Nonlinear Quasi-Static

Nonlinear Implicit Dynamic

Used to solve true static

equilibrium

Nonlinear Explicit Dynamic

Used to solve true dynamic

equilibrium

Sequential Nonlinear

Implicit + Explicit Coupled

Page 14

analysis types can be performed in the functions for the

problem considered

Static

Structural problems

Quasi-Static

Metal forming

Dynamic

Impact problems

IMPLICIT METHOD

EXPLICIT METHOD

Page 15

Examples

Page 16

Examples

- Nonlinear Explicit Analysis

Page 17

ready to go !

Please contact us if you have any

questions during your trial:

Email: info@midasfea.com

Telephone: +44 (0) 1908 776717

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