Experiment

© All Rights Reserved

986 views

Experiment

© All Rights Reserved

- CE121-F FW3
- Concrete Hollow Blocks (CHB) Worksheets
- Compressive Strength of Mortar Cube
- (CPC) Material and Testing Laboratory MANUAL
- Unconfined Compression Test
- SOIL MECHANICS LABORATORY MANUAL
- Experiment- Determination of Unit Weight and Voids of Aggregares 2
- Material Testing Laboratory
- compression test on wooden cubes when the load is applied
- A Submerged Isosceles Triangle: Center of Pressure and Area Moment of Inertia
- Compressive Strength Test on Concrete Cylinders
- Civil Volume Calculations
- Charging for Civil Engineering Services
- Chapter 1 Properties of Reinforced Concrete
- Compressive Strength of Mortar Cubes assignment
- Critical Reynolds Number in Pipe Flow
- Symmetrical Parabolic Curve
- Lab 1- Normal Consistency and Setting Time
- Fineness of Cement
- Material Testing Manual

You are on page 1of 9

withstands loads tending to elongate. In other words, compressive strength

resists compression (being pushed together), whereas tensile strength resists

tension (being pulled apart). In the study of strength of materials, tensile

strength, compressive strength, and shear strength can be analyzed

independently.

Compressive strength is often measured on a universal testing machine;

these range from very small table-top systems to ones with over 53 MN

capacity. Measurements of compressive strength are affected by the specific

test method and conditions of measurement. Compressive strengths are

usually reported in relationship to a specific technical standard.

The "strain" is the relative change in length under applied stress; positive

strain characterizes an object under tension load which tends to lengthen it,

and a compressive stress that shortens an object gives negative strain.

Tension tends to pull small sideways deflections back into alignment, while

compression tends to amplify such deflection into buckling.

By definition, the ultimate compressive strength of a material is that value of

uniaxial compressive stress reached when the material fails completely. The

compressive strength is usually obtained experimentally by means of a

compressive test. The apparatus used for this experiment is the same as that

used in a tensile test. However, rather than applying a uniaxial tensile load, a

uniaxial compressive load is applied. As can be imagined, the specimen

(usually cylindrical) is shortened as well as spread laterally. A Stressstrain

curve is plotted by the instrument and would look similar to the following:

PROCEDURES

1. Knowing the proportion of each materials.

Many factors affect the compressive strength test results of

masonry units, especially the confinement effect that significantly

changes the strength of the similar elements. Many difficulties are

found in researches that aim to characterize the mechanical properties

of constituent material of masonry unit, mainly because concrete

blocks have a distinct moulding process in comparison to moulding test

samples. Therefore, some researches utilize samples extracted from

units, assuring equality of material mechanical properties.

As steel platen restraint and unit geometry cause significant

effects on test results, a summary of previous researches is presented.

In these analyses, a better standardization of samples is important due

behaviour of the block under axial compression.

concrete were moulded in three nominal levels of compressive strength: 10

N/mm, 20 N/mm and 30 N/mm. Concrete blocks and samples were cast

according to the same steps: concrete placement, vibration, cure,

demoulding and finishing (top and bottom flattening with a thin sulphur

layer).

Steel moulds were used to prepare concrete blocks. Internal cores were

provided by two EPS (expanded polystyrene) blocks fixed to the steel mould,

as illustrated in Figure 1. The EPS units were extracted right after 7 days. All

the blocks were manufactured in laboratory to assure the desired concrete

strength, high process quality and geometric precision. Some of these steps

are illustrated in Figure 2. Concrete blocks and cylindrical samples were

in linearly controlled displacement mode. The controlled displacement mode

allowed acquisition of stress-strain graphs, including the softening branch.

platen (394 mm x 194mm). On the top, this platen was connected to

the loading system by means of a 294mm diameter rigid steel cylinder.

On the bottom, the test samples were supported by the rigid steel

block of the Universal testing machine. The dimensions of the platen

fulfill the recommendations of Atkinson and

the Figure 3 illustrates the test set-up.

Concrete that constitutes the core blocks

was characterized by compression and

tension tests of cylindrical concrete samples

(100 x 200 mm). Eight displacement

transducers (base length = 100 mm) were

positioned along vertical reference lines on

the blocks to measure average strain. The

localization of measurement lines is shown

in Figure 4. The front view of displacement

locates a transducer that is disposed on the main face of the block, in

the middle of the hollow. The strain measurement in cylindrical

concrete samples was performed by two displacement transducers.

Compression and tension tests of blocks are illustrated in Figure 5.

During the compression tests of blocks, cracks appeared at a load level

about 80% of the ultimate load, in a diagonal direction along the larger

face of the blocks. These cracks showed to be of crushing type and

were succeeded by progressive spalling. Internally to the block, critical

cracks proceeded along an inclined plane, towards the transversal

webs.

The preliminary set of tests indicates a small value of coefficient of

determination, always less than 5%. For this reason it was defined for

each group of test, the quantity of six samples and three blocks for

compression and tension test. The values presented in the tables refer

to the mean value and coefficient of variation of each group.

Table 2 summarizes the compressive and tensile strength of the hollow

concrete block tests. It can be seen that the tensile strength is about

10% of the compressive strength. These tests (referred by letter BB in

the followed tables) were carried out to evaluate the compressive and

tensile strength of blocks and samples. The elements were tested

without monitoring displacements, and correlations between the

mechanical properties of blocks and samples have been established.

transducers (Figure 3 and Figure 4) was carried out to obtain the stress-strain

relationships of the elements. Tables 3 and 4 present the relationships

between compressive and tensile strength of blocks and samples. These

relationships can also be observed in the graphs shown in Figure 7. Figure 8a

illustrates the stress-strain curves of the samples. Values of mechanical

properties obtained in sample tests are presented in Table 5. The Poisson

ratio value obtained for all strength levels is about 0.19. In Figure 8b it can

be seen graphs of stress versus longitudinal and transversal strain for

concrete samples, obtained from B-1 group of tests.

Table 6 summarizes the mechanical properties obtained from compression

tests of hollow blocks. Compressive and tensile strength values of blocks and

cylindrical samples are correlated according to the distribution shown in

Figure 9. Two curves represent the distribution of the data of Figure 9a a

linear curve and an exponential curve , which present almost

the same coefficient of determination, 0,985 and 0,986, respectively.

Equations 1 and 2, valid for sample compressive strength range from 10

N/mm to 45 N/mm, define the correlation curves.

behaviour of the block. At lower stress levels the estimated curve become

closer to the experimental one and the correlation of compressive strength

determines the most differences among the relationships.

However, theoretical curves always present compressive strength values

lower than those obtained experimentally. It is possible that if a very rigid

steel platen is used in the test set-up, a better approximation can be

obtained.

Conclusions

Several researches aim to correlate mechanical properties of hollow concrete

blocks and mechanical properties of concrete that constitute it. They are

limited to single comparisons between compressive strength values obtained

in tests of blocks and concrete samples. The results of this kind of study

cannot be extended to all situations because many variables influence them,

such as geometry of blocks and concrete samples, confinement effects,

moulding or extraction methods and variability of test results.

This paper presented some preliminary results of a broader research that

targets a detailed analysis of structural behaviour of blocks, prisms and

masonry walls.

- CE121-F FW3Uploaded byChristian Tabigue
- Concrete Hollow Blocks (CHB) WorksheetsUploaded byLloyd R. Ponce
- Compressive Strength of Mortar CubeUploaded byNadia Aman
- (CPC) Material and Testing Laboratory MANUALUploaded byBryan Joshua Villar
- Unconfined Compression TestUploaded byTeo Peng Keat
- SOIL MECHANICS LABORATORY MANUALUploaded bykumsai71
- Experiment- Determination of Unit Weight and Voids of Aggregares 2Uploaded byschoffil
- Material Testing LaboratoryUploaded bydantan187
- compression test on wooden cubes when the load is appliedUploaded byAdil Javed Chaudhary
- A Submerged Isosceles Triangle: Center of Pressure and Area Moment of InertiaUploaded byLinda Fahlberg-Stojanovska
- Compressive Strength Test on Concrete CylindersUploaded byHaydar Taş
- Civil Volume CalculationsUploaded byCharles Rommel Tado
- Charging for Civil Engineering ServicesUploaded bybaniiknik
- Chapter 1 Properties of Reinforced ConcreteUploaded bySochan Seng
- Compressive Strength of Mortar Cubes assignmentUploaded byPablo Gomes
- Critical Reynolds Number in Pipe FlowUploaded byStephen Mirdo
- Symmetrical Parabolic CurveUploaded byRalph Castillo
- Lab 1- Normal Consistency and Setting TimeUploaded byFeras Temimi
- Fineness of CementUploaded bydkchaudhari11
- Material Testing ManualUploaded bySandeep Kumar
- 117Uploaded byToni
- Experiment No.1 Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse AggregateUploaded byJohn Robert Banez
- Fluid Meters in Incompressible FlowUploaded byStephen Mirdo
- C4 - Sieve Analysis (Aggregate Grading) for Fine and Coarse AggregateUploaded byEdrox Wong
- Ce Reviewer MathUploaded byfuturecivilengineer
- surveying 2 fieldwork 2Uploaded byapi-20006973
- Fineness of CementUploaded byLarrizSamudio
- Compressive Strength Test WorksheetUploaded byLloyd R. Ponce
- Lab#1 Specific GravityUploaded byJoanna Gamboa
- Parabolic CurvesUploaded byViola Aiko Matibag

- Beam Design Formulas With Shear and MomentUploaded byMuhammad Saqib Abrar
- Calculator Techniques - July 23, 2016Uploaded byMa Angelica Alzaga
- Revised Floor Plan[1]Uploaded byNeil Laquian
- Detailed EstimateUploaded byNeil Laquian
- Slope and Deflection FormulasUploaded byNeil Laquian
- Experiment in Fluid MechanicsUploaded byNeil Laquian
- Book of EnochUploaded byNeil Laquian
- Apocrypha Wisdom of the King James Bible 1611Uploaded byMedad Aharon
- Apocrypha Susanna of the King James Bible 1611Uploaded bylani416
- APOCRYPHA 1st ESDRAS OF THE KING JAMES BIBLE 1611.pdfUploaded byxhyrruz
- The Book of TobiasUploaded byNeil Laquian
- The Book of JudithUploaded byLucius
- Apocrypha Bel and the Dragon of the King James Bible 1611Uploaded bylani416
- Paganini - Duo MerveilleUploaded byFS7_82
- CopuzUploaded byNeil Laquian
- 4GENPSY1Uploaded byNeil Laquian

- FDM-1.pdfUploaded byKarthik Iyer
- 03 Lect 17 Wind TunnelUploaded bymgskumar
- DesignUploaded byeakbkk
- Settlement calculationUploaded byIthihas Seventyone
- make shiftUploaded byAnnamarie SanDiego
- chapter17 PhysicsUploaded bynallilatha
- 3000 Solved Problems in Physics-10pUploaded bySunil Shrikant Sontakke
- Experiment 1 - Properties of Gas and LiquidUploaded byIzyan Syifaa
- Finite Element Analysis of Mini Baja FrameUploaded bydharminderarora
- Non Conventional Machining MethodsUploaded byGaurav Nigam
- Cylindrical Bending of Unsymmetric Composite LaminatesUploaded bydeathjester1
- Basic HPLCUploaded byvikram80
- P91 Welding Technology6Uploaded byhiyeon
- building science ii report-ilovepdf-compressedUploaded byapi-289018905
- Sidekaziz Glass 131007191634 Phpapp01Uploaded byAntonValy
- 1DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC.docxUploaded byavinash
- Solvent Interactions With Polymeric Heat Transfer SurfacesUploaded byMaterialsdavid
- chap5-4Uploaded byChristopher Evan
- secound quantizacionUploaded byferreirasidnei
- Tlv for Physical AgentsUploaded bymmudassarali
- PH Control in Water Treatment Plant by the Addition of Carbon Dioxide_Al-MutazUploaded bymodesto66
- Seperation MethodsUploaded bybldp03
- Printable Brinell Hardness ChartUploaded bySijo Kaviyil Joseph
- Us 8556209Uploaded bysnuffit11
- APHUploaded byDipti Bhanja
- Sizing Mist Eliminators for New and Retrofit Existing SeparatorsUploaded byGiang T Le
- gek46074.pdfUploaded byJose Alberto Uribe Minier
- BEF 24002 - Tutorial 6 - Sensors and Transducers Part I.docUploaded byFarhana Shafie
- 2Uploaded byRobin Roy
- Module 4 Optical InstrumentsUploaded byMelvin Cabonegro