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UGC/CBSE NET SUBJECTS

1. Mathematical Logic / Formal Language (Completed 10%)


2. Discrete Mathematics (Completed 50%)
3. Graph Theory
4. Probability & Statistics.
5. Formal Language & Theory of Computation (Completed 60%)
6. Computer Arithmetic & Digital Electronics (Completed 90%)
7. Computer Organization & Architecture.
8. Microprocessor & Microcontroller (8085, 86, P-3/4)
9. Database Design & ORACLE.
10.
Computer Graphics.
11.
Principle of Programming Language.
12.
C Programming Language. (Completed 99%)
13.
C++ programming Language.
14.
OOPS Concept with JAVA.
15.
Web Languages, HTML, XHTML, JAVA SCRIPT, etc.
16.
Compiler Design
17.
Data Communication & Networking (Unix Network
Program)
18.
File Structure in Linux/Unix With C
19.
Data Structure & ADA
20.
Operating System & System Programming.
21.
Windows, UNIX & Linux Operating Systems.
22.
Software Engineering.
23.
Artificial Intelligent
24.
Digital Signal Processing.
25.
Digital Image Processing.
26.
Parallel Computing
27.
Mobile Computing.
28.
Data Warehouse & Mining.
29.
E-Technologies.
30.
Reasoning.(Completed 80%)
31.
Aptitude. (Completed 80%)

Mathematical Logic & Formal Language


Unit-1: Propositional Logic OR Sentential Logic
Fundamentals: Syntax, Unique parsing, Semantics, Equivalences,
Consequences, Calculations, Informal proofs.

Normal Forms and Resolution: Clauses, CNF and DNF representations, Adequacy
of calculations, SAT, Resolution refutation, Adequacy of resolution.
Proof Systems: Axiomatic system PC, Adequacy of PC, Analytic tableau PT,
Adequacy of PT, Compactness of PL.
Unit-2: First Order Logic
Fundamentals: Syntax of FL, Scope and binding, Substitutions, Semantics of
FL,
Quantifier laws, Equivalences, Consequences.
Normal Forms in FL: Calculations, Informal proofs, Prenex forms, Skolem forms,
Herbrand's theorem, Skolem-Lowenheim theorem, Resoltion in FL
Proof Systems for FL: Axiomatic system FC, Analytic tableau FT, Adequacy of FC
and FT, Compactness in FL.
Unit-3: Model Theory
Basic Idea of Model Theory, Universal Algebra, Notations of Model Theory
Compactness and Elementary Submodels : Compactness Theorem, Isomorphisms,
elementary equivalence and complete theories, Elementary Chain Theorem, LowenheimSkolem Theorems, The Los-Vaught Test, Every complex one-to-one polynomial map is onto
Diagrams and Embeddings: Diagram Lemmas, Every planar graph can be four coloured,
Ramseys Theorem, The Leibniz Principle and infinitesimals, Robinson Consistency Theorem,
Craig Interpolation Theorem
Model Completeness: Robinsons Theorem on existentially complete theories,
Lindstroms Test, Hilberts Nullstellensatz
The Seventeenth Problem: Positive definite rational functions are the sums of squares
Submodel Completeness: Elimination of quantifiers, The Tarski-Seidenberg Theorem
Model Completions: Almost universal theories, Saturated models, Blums Test
Unit-4: Recursion/Computability Theory

Computable Functions : Decidable, Computable, URM, Algorithms, etc.


Generating Computable Functions : Basic Functions, Substitution, Recursion, Minimalisation, etc.
Churchs Thesis : Godel-Kleene, Turing-Computability, Churchs Thesis, etc.
Numbering Computable Functions : Numbering programs, Diagonal Method, s-m-n Theorem, etc.
Universal Programs : Universal functions and programs, Applications, Effective Operations etc.
Decidability, Undecidability, and Partial Decidability: Undecidable programs, Diophantine, Sturms
algorithm, etc.
Recursive and Recursively Enumerable Sets : Recursive Sets, Recursively Enumerable Sets,
Productive Sets, Creative Sets, Simple Sets, etc.
Reducibility and Degrees : Many-One Reducibility, Degrees, etc. , Turing Reducibility, Turing Degrees,
etc.
NP Problem : NP, NPC, NPH, NP Reduction, etc.
Unit-5: Proof Theory
Introduction to Proof Theory.
N-Systems & H-Systems : Natural Deduction Systems, Ni as a term calculus, The
Relation Between C, I and M, Hilbert Systems
Gentzen Systems: The G1 & G2 Systems, The Cut Rule, Equivalence of G & N
Systems, Systems with local rules, Absorbing the structural rules, The one side
system for C

Cut Eliminations with Applications: Cut Elimination, Application of cutfree


systems, A more efficient calculus for Ip, Interpolation and definable function,
Extensions of G1 & G3 Systems, Logic with equality, The theory of apartness.
Bounds and Permutations: Numerical bounds on cut eliminations, Size and cut
elimination, Permutation of rules for classical logic, Permutability of rules for G1i
Normalization for Natural Deduction : Conversion & Normalization, The
structure of normal derivations, Normality in G and N Systems, Extension with
simple rules, E-logic and ordinary logic, Conservativity of predicative classes and
horn clause, Strong normalization, Hyper exponential Bounds
Resolution: Introduction to Resolution, Resolution in PL, Resolution in FL,
Unification of Clauses, Extending Resolution
Unit-6: Set Theory
Naive set theory: introduction and basic notions, equinumerosity; Cantor set, Schrder-Bernstein
Theorem, Partially Ordered Sets and Lattices, Relations, Functions. Axiomatic set theory: Foundations
Cardinal numbers: Countable Sets, Cardinal Numbers, Comparison of Cardinal Numbers; Zorns
Lemma, Cardinal Addition, Cardinal Multiplication, Cardinal Exponentiation.
The natural numbers: existence, uniqueness, recursion, basic properties
Partially ordered sets: basic notions, fixed point theorems
Well ordered sets: basic notions, transfinite induction and recursion, comparability results, The Axiom of
Choice, The Axiom of Replacement, The hereditarily finite sets, The Axiom of Foundation
Ordinal numbers: basic properties, characterization, the cumulative hierarchy
Interpreting the theory: Zermelo universes, Rieger universes, Aczels antifounded universe
Basic Properties of Metric Spaces: Definitions and Examples, Open Sets,
Convergence; Closed Sets, Continuity
Completeness, Separability, and Compactness: Completeness, Separability,
Compactness
Unit-7: Other Logic Systems
Linear Logic, Fuzzy Logic, Second-Order Logic, Higher Order Logic, infinitary logic,
Modal logics, Intuitionistic logic, Algebraic logic, Lukasiewicz Logics, Probabilistic
Logics, Default Logic, Autoepistemic Logic

Discrete Mathematics
Unit-1: Fundamentals & Logic
What is Mathematics? Types of Mathematics, Discrete Mathematics, Application to Discrete
Mathematics, Different Discrete Mathematical Structures
Propositional Logic: Statements; Compound Statements; Truth Values; Evaluating the Truth of More
General, Compound Statements; Logical Equivalence; Tautologies and Contradictions; Summary of
Logical Equivalences, Logical Equivalences Involving ; Representation of If-Then As Or; The
Negation of a Conditional Statement; The Contrapositive of a Conditional Statement; The Converse and

Inverse of a Conditional Statement; Only If and the Biconditional; Necessary and Sufficient Conditions;
Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens; Additional Valid Argument Forms: Rules of Inference; Fallacies;
Contradictions and Valid Arguments; Summary of Rules of Inference, Applications
First Order Logic: The Universal Quantifier; The Existential Quantifier; Formal Versus Informal
Language; Universal Conditional Statements; Equivalent Forms of Universal and Existential Statements;
Implicit Quantification; Tarskis World, Negations of Quantified Statements; Negations of Universal
Conditional Statements; The Relation among , , , and ; Vacuous Truth of Universal
Statements; Variants of Universal Conditional Statements; Necessary and Sufficient Conditions, Only If,
Translating from Informal to Formal Language; Ambiguous Language; Negations of Multiply-Quantified
Statements; Order of Quantifiers; Formal Logical Notation; Prolog, Universal Modus Ponens; Use of
Universal Modus Ponens in a Proof; Universal Modus Tollens; Proving Validity of Arguments with
Quantified Statements; Using Diagrams to Test for Validity; Creating Additional Forms of Argument;
Remark on
the Converse and Inverse Errors, Applications
Boolean Logic: Introduction to Boolean algebra and Boolean functions. Different
representations of Boolean functions. Logic Gates, Minimization of Circuits,
Application of Boolean functions to synthesis of circuits, Description of Russells
Paradox; The Halting Problem
Unit-2: Number Theory, Set Theory and Proof Theory
Number Theory: Divisibility and Modular Arithmetic, Integer Representations and Algorithms, Primes
and Greatest Common Divisors, Solving Congruences, Applications of Congruences, Cryptography
Sequences: Explicit Formulas for Sequences; Summation Notation; Product Notation; Properties
of Summations and Products; Change of Variable; Factorial and n Choose r Notation; Sequences in
Computer Programming; Application
Counting: The Basics of Counting, The Pigeonhole Principle, Permutations and Combinations, Pascals
Triangle; Binomial Coefficients and Identities, The Binomial Theorem and Algebraic and Combinatorial
Proofs for It; Applications, Generalized Permutations and Combinations, Generating Permutations and
Combinations, InclusionExclusion, Applications of InclusionExclusion,
Recurrence Relations: Linear recurrence relations with constant coefficients
(homogeneous case); discussion of all the three sub-cases. Linear recurrence
relations with constant coefficients (non-homogeneous case); discussion of several
special cases to obtain particular solutions. Solution of linear recurrence relations
using generating functions, Divide-and-Conquer Algorithms and Recurrence
Relations
Discrete Probability: An Introduction to Discrete Probability, Probability Theory, Conditional
Probability, Bayes Theorem, Expected Value and Variance,
Proof Theory: Introduction to Proofs, Proof Methods and Strategy, Direct Proof, Indirect Proof, Proof by
Contradiction; Argument by Contraposition; Relation between Proof by Contradiction and Proof by
Contraposition; Mathematical Induction, Strong Induction and Well-Ordering, Recursive Definitions and
Structural Induction, Recursive Algorithms, Program Correctness
Set Theory: Introduction to the theory of sets; combination of sets; power sets; Venn Diagrams,
complements, cartesian products, finite and infinite sets; principle of inclusion and exclusion; cardinality

and countability, Algorithm to Check Whether One Set Is a Subset of Another (Optional). Properties of
Sets: Set Identities; Proving Set Identities; Proving That a Set Is the Empty Set,
Unit-3: Relation, Function, Matrix, Graph And Tree
Function: Functions; mappings; injection and surjections; composition of functions;
inverse functions;special functions; Peono postulates; pigeonhole principle;
recursive function theory;
Relation: Relations and Their Properties, n-ary Relations and Their Applications,
Representing Relations, Closures of Relations, Equivalence Relations, Partial
Orderings, Warshall's algorithm to compute transitive closure of a relation
Graph: Graphs and Graph Models, Graph Terminology and Special Types of Graphs.,
Representing Graphs and Graph Isomorphism, Connectivity, Euler and Hamilton
Paths, Shortest-Path Problems, Planar Graphs, Graph Coloring
Tree: Introduction to Trees, Applications of Trees, Tree Traversal, Spanning Trees,
Minimum Spanning Trees
Unit-4: Analysis of Algorithm and Automata
Analysis of Algorithms: Graph of a Function, Power Functions, The Floor Function, Graphing Functions
Defined on Sets of Integers, Graph of a Multiple of a Function, Increasing and Decreasing Functions, A
Computational Model for Analysis, Big-Oh, Big-Theta & Big-Omega Notations, Orders of Power
Functions; Orders of Polynomial Functions; Orders for Functions of Integer Variables; Extension to
Functions Composed of Rational Power Functions, Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions;
Application: Number of Bits Needed to Represent an Integer in Binary Notation; Application: Using
Logarithms to Solve Recurrence Relations; Exponential and Logarithmic Orders,
Application of Analysis of Algorithms: Computing Orders of Simple Algorithms; The Sequential Search
Algorithm; The Insertion Sort Algorithm; Time Efficiency of an Algorithm, Binary Search; Divide-andConquer Algorithms; The Efficiency of the Binary Search Algorithm; Merge Sort; Tractable and
Intractable Problems; A Final Remark on Algorithm Efficiency,
Finite Automata: Languages and Grammars, Finite-State Machines with Output, Finite-State Machines
with No Output, Language Recognition, Turing Machines.

Graph Theory
Unit-1: Basics of Graphs
Introduction to Graph: Definition of a graph and directed graph, simple graph. Degree of a vertex,
regular graph, bipartite graphs, subgraphs, complete graph, complement of a graph, operations of graphs,
isomorphism and homomorphism between two graphs, degree sequences, line graphs, chordal graphs,

Paths & Circuits: Walks, paths and circuits, connectedness of a graph, Disconnected graphs and their
components, Konigsberg 7-bridge problem, Around the world problem, Euler graphs, Hamiltonian paths
and circuits, connectivity, Dijkstras shortest path algorithm, Floyd-Warshall shortest path algorithm
Diagraphs: Diagraphs & Sub diagraphs, Diagraphs and Binary Relations, Directed Paths and
Connectedness, Circuits in Diagraph, Matrix Representations, Vertex Degree, Paths and Cycles, Eulerian
and Hamiltonian Diagraphs, Paired Comparisation and Tournaments, Acyclic diagraphs and
decyclization.
Eulerian and Hamiltonian graphs: Existence theorem for Eulerian and Hamiltonian graphs,
Characterization, Fleurys algorithm, chinese-postman-problem, Necessary conditions and sufficient
conditions of Hamiltonian Graph
Unit-2: Basics of Tree And Advance Concepts of Graph
Tree: : Trees and their properties, distance and centre in a tree and in a graph, rooted and binary trees,
spanning trees and forest, fundamental circuits, cut sets, connectivity and separability,1-isomorphism, 2isomorphism, breadth first and depth first search.
Matrix representation of graphs: Incidence matrix and its sub matrices, Reduced incidence matrix,
circuit matrix, fundamental circuit matrix, cut set matrix, fundamental cut set matrix, path matrix,
adjacency matrix of a graph and of digraph
Connectivity: Cut Set, Some properties of Cut-Set, All Cut-Sets in a graph, Fundamental Circuits and
Cut-Set, Connectivity, Two Connected graphs and sub graphs, the structure of 3-connected graphs,
Mengers Theorem, Maders Theorem, Edge disjoint spanning tree, Paths between given pair of vertices,
Matching: The matching problem, Matching in bipartite graphs, matching in general graphs, Perfect
Matching, The Personnel Assignment Problem, The optimal assignment problem, A Chinese postman
problem postscript, greedy and approximation algorithms, Berge's Theorem, Hall's theorem, Tutte's
theorem, Konig's theorem, Petersen's theorem, algorithms for matching and weighted matching (in both
bipartitie and general graphs), factors of graphs (decompositions of the complete graph), Tutte's f-factor
theorem;
Planner Graph and Duality: Combinatorial vs Geometric Graph, Planner Graph, Eulers formula,
Kuratowskis Two Graphs, Different representation of a planner graph, Detection of planarity, Geometric
Dual, Combinatorial Dual, Convex Polyhedra,
Graph Coloring: Vertex Coloring: Chromatic number and cliques, greedy coloring algorithm, coloring
of chordal graphs, Brooks theorem, Edge Coloring: Gupta-Vizing theorem, Class-1 graphs and class-2
graphs, equitable edge-coloring, Matchings, Coverings, Four Color Problem, Map Coloring, The Five
Color Theorem, The Heawood Coloring Theorem, Brooks theorem, the greedy algorithm, the WelshPowell bound, critical graphs,
Random Graphs: The basic models - use of expectations, simple properties of almost all graphs, almost
determined variables use of variance, Hamiltonian cycles, the phase transition.
Ramsey Theory: Ramseys Original Theorem, Ramsey Numbers, Induced Ramsey Theorem, Ramsey
Properties and Connectivity, Turans Theorem and Applications, Schurs Theorem.

Unit-3: Graph Algorithms & Applications:


Algorithms: Computer Representation of Graph, Some basic Algorithms (Connectedness and
components, A spanning tree, a set of fundamental circuits, Cut Vertices and Separability, Directed
Circuits ), Shortest Path Algorithms, DFS and BFS Algorithms, Isomorphism Algorithm, Performance
and Analysis of Graph Theory Algorithms, Graph Theoretic Computer Language.
Network and Flows: Circulations, Flows in networks, Grouped valued Flows, K-Flows for small k, Flow
coloring duality, Tuttes flow conjectures, Flow cuts, max flow min cut theorem, perfect square.
Vector Space: Sets with one operation, Sets with two operations, Modular Arithmetic and Galois Fields,
Vector and vector spaces, Vector space associated with a graph, Basic vectors of a graph, Circuits and
Cut-Set Subspaces, Orthogonal Vectors and Spaces, Intersection and Join of W and Ws.
Switching And Coding Theory: Contact Networks, Analysis of Contact Networks, Synthesis of Contact
Networks, Sequential switching networks, Unit cube and its graph, Graph in coding theory.
Electrical Network Analysis: What is an Electrical Network? Kirchhoffs Current and Voltage law, Loop
currents and node voltage, RLC Network with independent source, General lumped, linear and fixed
network.
Operations Research: Transport Networks, Extensions of Max-flow and min-cut theorem, Minimal cos
flows, The multicommodity flow, Activity networks in project planning, Analysis of an activity network,
Graphs in game theory.
Optimization Techniques: Single variable and multivariable optimization - Lagrangian
method - Kuhn-Tucker conditions. Classification -Techniques of unconstrained
minimization - Scaling of Design variables - Direct search methods - Random
jumping method - Grid search method. Univariate method - Hook and Jeeve's
method-Newton - Raphson method - Fibonacci method. Random pattern and
Random search methods.
Unit-4: Some Extra Concepts
Enumeration of Graphs: Types of Enumeration, Counting labeled tree, Counting Unlabeled tree,
Polyas Counting theorem, Graph enumeration with Polyas theorem.
Extremal problems : Szemeredi's regularity lemma and applications, Erdos-Stone theorem, the problem
of Zarankiewicz, extremal problems for minors and subivisions, applications in geometry
Algebraic graph theory : Cayley graphs, the Laplacian, strongly regular graphs, isoperimetric
inequalities, Colin de Verdiere's invariant
Geometric graph theory : crossing number, Andreev-Koebe-Thurston theorem, string graphs
Perfect graphs : polyhedral aspects, perfect matrices, Shannon capacity, Lovasz theta function,
computing the chromatic and clique number of a perfect graph, graph entropy and application to sorting,
imperfection ratio and the channel assignment problem.
Signed graphs : totally odd K4's, nearly bipartite graphs and odd K5's, Guenin's theorem and Seymour's
conjecture

Graphs on surfaces : representativity, minors and disjoint paths on surfaces,locally planar graphs,
planarizing cycles
Tree-width and relatives : tree-decompositions, tree-width, excluding a planar graph, brambles,
computing tree-width, algorithms, branch-width, path-width
The graph minor theorem : tree-decompositions, the tangle decomposition, surfaces, vortices, excluding
a general graph, application to algorithms and well-quasi-ordering

Theory of Computation
Unit-1: Regular Language and Finite Automata
Preliminaries: Set, Relations, Functions, Methods of proof, Graphs, strings, Language, Grammar,
Difference between syntax and semantics, Difference between Natural, Formal and programming
language, Automata, History of Automata. Basics about Automata, Computability and Complexity Theory

Finite State Machine: Finite State Machine, Example of Finite State Machine, Components of Fine State
Automata, Elements of Finite State System, Mathematical Representation of Finite State Machine,
Automata Classification, Automata in Real world,
Finite Automaton: Formal Definition of Finite Automaton,. Examples of Finite Automata,
Classifications of Finite Automata, DFA, Design of DFA, NFA, Design of NFA, Examples of DFA and
NFA, NFA with move, Advantage of NFA over DFA, Difference between NFA and DFA, Equivalence
of NFA and DFA, Minimal DFA, 2 way DFA, Difference between DFA and 2DFA, Applications of NFA
and DFA in text searching, Finite Automaton with output, Moore Machine, Design of Moore Machine,
Mealy Machine, Design of Mealy Machine. Difference between Moore and Mealy Machine, Equivalence
of Moore and Mealy Machine, Applications of Moore and Mealy Machine, Myhill-Nerode Theorem, Two
way finite automata, multithread finite automata, probabilistic finite automata, Weighted finite automata
and digital images(Finite automata and black and white image, gray-scale image, Inferencing and deinferencing, Transformation on digital images )
Regular Language: Regular expression, operators of regular expression, building regular expressions,
precedence of regular expression, properties of regular expression, language associated with regular
expression, Regular language, properties of regular language, Proving language not to be regular (The
Pumping Lemma, Pigeon Hole Principle, Applications of the Pumping Lemma), Closer properties of
regular language (Closer under Boolean operation, Reversal, Homomorphism, Inverse Homomorphism),
Decision properties of regular language (Testing emptiness of regular language, testing membership of
regular language), Regular Grammars (Right and left linear grammar, Right linear grammars generate
regular language, Equivalence of Regular grammar and Regular Language), Ardens Theorem,
Equivalence of Finite Automata and Regular expressions, Applications of regular expressions (Regular
expressions in Unix, Lexical Analysis, Finding patterns in text), Algebraic laws for regular expression
(Associative and Commutative law, Distributive Law, The Idempotent law, Discovering laws for regular
expression)
Unit-2: Context-Free Language And PDA
Context-Free Grammar: Example of CFG, Formal Definition of CFG, Design of CFG, Derivation Tree,
The Language of Grammar, Sentential Form, Parse Tree (Constructing parse tree, left most and right
most, From inference to tree, from tree to derivations, From derivation to recursive inference),
Simplification of CFG (Simplification, Reduction, Eliminate Null and Unit production, Normal Forms fro
CFG, CNF and GNF, Difference between CNF and GNF), Applications of CFG (Parser, The YACC
Parser generator, Markup Language, XML and document type definition), Ambiguity in grammars and
language (Ambiguous grammar, Removing Ambiguity, Left most derivation as a way to express the
ambiguity, Inherent Ambiguity), The Pumping Lemma for CFG, Application of the Pumping Lemma,
Closure properties of CFG (Substitution theorem and its application, reversal, intersection with a regular
language, Inverse Homomorphism), Decision properties of CFG.
Push-Down Automata: Components of PDA, Descriptions of PDA, Elements of PDA, The language
accepted by PDA, Instantaneous Description of PDA, Design of PDA, Determinism and
Nondeterminisim, Equivalence of PDA and CFL
Unit-3: Linear Bounded Automata And Turing Machine
Linear Bounded Automata: Context Sensitive Grammar, Formal Definition of CSG, Properties of CSG,
Context Sensitive Language, Closure properties, Recursive vs Context Sensitive, Applications of CSG,
Linear Bounded Automata, Components of LBA, Elements of LBA, Design of LBA, Examples of LBA,
Applications of LBA.

Turing Machine: Components of TM, Elements of TM, Description of TM, Moves of a TM, String
Classes in TM, Language Accepted by TM, Design of TM, Example of TM, Variations of TM (Two way
Infinite Tape TM, Multi Tape TM, Multi Head TM, Non-Deterministic TM, Two Dimensional TM,
Restricted Turing Machine, Linear Bound Automata), TM as Enumerator, Equivalence between TM and
Type-0 Language, Godel Numbering, Turing Machines and computer (Simulating a TM by computer,
Simulating a Computer by TM, Comparing the running times of Computer and TM),
Unit-4: Decidability, Reducibility and Computability
Decidability: Some problems that cannot be solved by TM, Computability and Decidability, The TM
Halting Problem, The digonalization method, Halting problem is undecidable, A Turing-Unrecognizable
Language, Decidable Language, Decidable Problems Concerning Regular Language, Decidable Problem
Concerning CFG, Undicidable problem for Recursively Enumerable Language, The Post Corespondence
Problem.
Reducibility: Undicadable Problems from Language Theory, Mapping Reducibility, Computable
Function, Formal Definition of Mapping Reducibility.
Advance Computability Theory: The Recursion Theorem, Terminology for Recursion Theorem,
Decidability of Logical Theories, A Decidable Theory, An Un Decidable Theory, Turing Reducibility
Unit-5: Computational Complexity
Time Complexity: Measuring Complexity, Big-O and small-o notations, Analyzing algorithms,
Complexity Relationship Among Models, The Class P, Polynomial Time, Examples of Problems in Class
P, The Class NP, Examples of Problems in NP, Difference between Np and P, NP-Completeness,
Definition of NP-Completeness, The Cook-Levin Theorem, Additional NP-Complete Problems,
Space Complexity: Savitchs Theorem, The Class PSPACE, PSPACE Completeness, The TQBF
Problem, Wining Strategy for games, Generalized Geography, The class N and NL, NL-Completeness,
NL equals CoNL
Advance Topics in Complexity Theory: Hierarchy Theorems, Exponential Space Completeness,
Relativization, Circuits Complexity, Approximation Algorithm, Probabilistic Algorithm, Alternation,
Alternating time and space, The Polynomial Time Hierarchy, Interactive Proof System, Parallel
Computation, Cryptography
Unit-6: Recent Trends, Applications and Other Models
Recent Trends: Regulated Rewriting, Marcus Contextual Grammars, Lindenmayer System, Grammar
Systems (CD Grammar System, PC Grammar System), Distributed Automata
Other Models of Computation: Recursive Functions, Post Systems, Rewriting System, DNA
Computing, Membrane Computing, Tissue P System

Database Design & ORACLE


Unit-1: Introduction to Database & ER Model
File System and Database: Traditional File Based Approach, Limitations of the File Based Approach,
Database Approach, DBMS, Components of DBMS, Database Design Process, Different Users and roles
in database environment, History of DBMS, Advantage and Disadvantage of DBMS, The three level

ANSI-SPARC Architecture, Database Languages, 4th Generation Database Languages, Different Data
Models and Conceptual Modeling, Different Functions of DBMS, Database Architectures, Multi-User
Database Architecture, File-Server Architecture, Two-tire, Three-tire, N-tire database Architecture,
Middleware, Transaction Processing, Monitors, Service Oriented Architecture, Web Services, Distributed
DBMS, Data Warehousing, Cloud Computing based database, Components of DBMS,
ER Model: High-level conceptual modeling, ER Modeling concepts, ER Diagrams, Cardinality
constraints, Higher-order relationships, Enhanced ER Model (EER), Weak-entity types, Subclasses and
inheritance, Specialization and Generalization, Modeling of UNION types using categories
Unit-2: Relational Data Model
Relational Model: History of Relational Model, Relational Data Structures, Mathematical Relation,
Database Relation, Properties of Relation, Relation Keys, Representing Relational Database Schema,
Different Integrity Constraints, Different Views,
Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus: Unary Relational Operators, Binary Relational Operators,
Additional Relational Operators, Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory, Relational Calculus,
Tuple Relational Calculus, Domain Relational Calculus,
Relational Database from ER Mapping: Relational Database Design from ER to Relational Mappings,
Design Relational database by mapping EER to Relational Model.
SQL: Introduction to SQL, Objectives of SQL, History of SQL, Importance of SQL, Terminology, SQL
Commands, Data Manipulation (Simple queries, ORDERBY, GROUPBY, Aggregate Functions, Sub
queries, ANY and ALL tag, Multi Table Queries, EXISTS and NOT EXISTS, UNION, INTERSECT,
EXCEPT, Database Update), Data Definition (ISO SQL Datatypes, Entity Integrity, Referential Integrity,
Domain Constraints, General Constraints, Create Table, Alter Table, DROP Table, Create Index, Drop
Index, Create View, Drop View, View Resolution, View Updatability, WITH CHECK OPTION,
Advantage and Disadvantage of views, Transactions, GRANT, REVOKE), The SQL Programming
Language (Declarations, Assignments, Control Statements, Exceptions, Cursors), Subprograms, Store
Procedure, Functions, Packages, Triggers, Recursion
Object Relational DBMS: Weakness of RDBMS, Storing Objects in a Relational Database, Introduction
to Object Relational DBMS, SQL:2011 (Row Types, User defined Types, Subtypes and Supertypes, User
Defined Routines, Polymorphism, Reference Types and Object Identity, Creating Table, Querying data,
Collection Types, Types Views, Persistent Stored Modules, Triggers, Large Objects, Recursion), Object
Oriented Extension in ORACLE
Unit-3: Database Design
Database Development Lifecycle: The Information System Lifecycle, The Database System Development
Lifecycle, Database Planning, System Definition, Requirement Collection and Analysis, Database Design
(Approaches of Database Design, Data Modeling, Phase of database design), DBMS Selection,
Application Design, Transaction Design, User Interface Design, Prototyping, Implementation, Data
Conversion and Loading, Testing, Operational Maintenance, CASE Tool
Functional Dependencies and Normalization: Design Guidelines for Relational Schemas, Functional
Dependencies, The Process of Normalization, Data Redundancy and Update Anomalies, Insert, Deletion
and Modification Anomalies, First Normal Form, Second Normal Form, Third Normal Form, BCNF, Four
Normal Form, Five Normal Form, Normalization up to BCNF440, Inference rules for Functional
Dependencies, Minimal Set of Functional Dependencies, Inclusion Dependencies, Other Dependencies

and Normal Form, Properties of Relational Decomposition, Algorithm for Relational Database Schema
Design,
Database Design Using UML: The Database Design and Implementation Process, Basics of UML
Diagrams, Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design, UML Design Tools, Rational Rose,
Automated Database Design Tools
Unit-3: Logical Conceptual and Physical Design
Introduction to Database Design Methodology, Conceptual, Logical and Physical Database Design, All
the Steps of Database Design Methodologies
Physical Design: Secondary Storage Device, Buffering of Blocks, Placing File Records on the Disk,
Operations on File, Heap File, Sorted Files, Hashing Techniques, RAID Technology, Storage Area
Network, Types of Single Label Ordered Index, Multilevel Index, Dynamic Multilevel Index, Indexes on
multiple Keys, Other Types of Indexes, Translating SQL Queries to Relational Algebra, Algorithm for
external sorting, Algorithm for SELECT and JOIN, Algorithm for PROJECT and SET, Implementing
Aggregate Operations and Outer JOIN, Combine Operation Using PIPILINING, Using Heuristic in
Query Optimization, Using Selectivity and Cost Estimate in Query Optimization, Query Optimization in
ORACLE, Semantic Query Optimization,
Unit-4: Database Issues
Security and Administration: Database Security, Countermeasures (Authorization, Access Control,
Views, Backup and Recovery, Integrity, Encryption, RAID), Security in various DBMSs, DBMS and Web
Security, Proxy Servers, Firewalls, Digital Certificates, Kerberos, Secure socket layer and Secure HTTP,
Secure Electronic Transaction and Secure Transaction Technology, Java Security, Activex Security, Data
and Database Administrations,
Transaction Management: Transaction Support, Properties of Transaction, Database Architecture,
Concurrency Control, The Need of Concurrency Control, Serializability and Recoverability, Locking
Methods, Deadlocks, Timestamp Method, Multi version Timestamp Ordering, Optimistic Techniques,
Granularity of data items, Database Recovery, The Need for recovery, Transactions and Recovery,
Recovery Facilities, Recovery Techniques, Recovery in Distributed DBMS, Advanced Transaction
Model, Nested Transaction Model, Sagas, Multilevel Transaction Model, Dynamic Restructuring,
Workflow Model, Concurrency Control and Recovery in ORACLE, ORACLEs Isolation level,
Multiversion Read Consistency, Deadlock Detection, Backup and Recovery,
Query Processing: Overview of Query Processing, Query Decomposition, Heuristical Approch to Query
Optimization, Cost Estimation for the Relational Algebra Operation, Database Statistics, Selection
Operations, Join Operation, Projection Operation, The Relational Algebra Set Operations, Enumeration of
Alternative Execution Strategy, Pipeline, Linear Trees, Physical Operators, Reducing the Search Space,
Enumerating Left-Deep Trees, Semantic Query Optimization, Distributed Query Optimization, Query
Optimization in ORACLE
Unit-5: Advanced Database Concepts
Distributed Database: Distributed DBMS Concepts and Design Introduction Functions and
Architecture of DDBMS Distributed Relational Database Design Transparency in DDBMS
Distributed Transaction Management Concurrency control Deadlock Management Database

recovery The X/Open Distributed Transaction Processing Model Replication servers Distributed
Query Optimization - Distribution and Replication in Oracle.
Object Oriented Database: Object Oriented Databases Introduction Weakness of RDBMS Object
Oriented Concepts Storing Objects in Relational Databases Next Generation Database Systems Object
Oriented Data models OODBMS Perspectives Persistence Issues in OODBMS Object Oriented
Database Management System Manifesto Advantages and Disadvantages of OODBMS Object
Oriented Database Design OODBMS Standards and Systems Object Management Group Object
Database Standard ODMG Object Relational DBMS Postgres - Comparison of ORDBMS and
OODBMS.
Web Database: Web Technology And DBMS Introduction The Web The Web as a Database
Application Platform Scripting languages Common Gateway Interface HTTP Cookies Extending
the Web Server Java Microsofts Web Solution Platform Oracle Internet Platform Semi structured
Data and XML XML Related Technologies XML Query Languages
Intelligent Database: Enhanced Data Models For Advanced Applications Active Database Concepts
And Triggers Temporal Database Concepts Deductive databases Knowledge Databases.
Current Trends: Mobile Database Geographic Information Systems Genome Data Management
Multimedia Database Parallel Database Spatial Databases - Database administration Data
Warehousing and Data Mining.
Unit-6: Basics of ORACLE and MYSQL DBMS

The C Programming Language


Module 1: Introduction
Basic Linux commands and vi editor
Compilation and linking process
Header files and Libraries
Process memory layout on 16 and 32 bits
(user space and kernel Space details)

Operating system, Kernel, Microprocessor and Compiler


Memory allocation variable and function, load time and run time
Linux Installation
Module 2: Operators
Types of operators
Rules
Dealing with all 45 operators
Module 3:Data types
Data types, qualifiers, modifiers, format specifiers
Dealing with each data types
Memory representation of each type
Module 4: Control Structure
Types of control structure
Basic fundamental of loop and recursion
Dealing with all control structures
( goto, for, while, do while, if else, switch case)
Module 5: Pointer
What is pointer?
Why pointer?
Different concept of pointer
(memory leak, wild pointer, null pointer, dangling pointer )
Types of memory address
Application of pointer
Heap and stack exploration
Module 6: Array
How to introduce array?
When single and double?
Dynamic array and efficient use of malloc, calloc and free Pointer and array.
Module 7: Function
Styles of writing program
What is function?
Why function
Library and system calls
Function recursion
Function with va_list
Function calling convention
Module 8: Storage Class
Types of storage class
Scoping rules
Dealing with all storage classes

Module 9: Preprocessor
C Compiler, Preprocessor, Assembler, linker
Preprocessor directives
Dealing with all preprocessor directives
Module 10: Structure and union
Memory allocation of structure and union
Why structure and union?
What is structure and union?

Bit field
Module 11: Dynamic memory allocation
Heap allocation using malloc and calloc
Memory leak, link and linked list
How to write the code snippet
Introduction of DS
Module 12: File Handling
Types of file
Buffer and streams
File operations
File operations using std.library and system calls
File locking and unlocking
File linking
Text and Binary file I/O
Module 13: Command line argument
What is command line and why command line?
Programs using command line
Use of Environment vector
Developing start and stop process
Module 14: Process, threads and signal
What is process & Threads?
Types of process and threads
Use of fork, vfork?
Daemon process
Signals and how to handle all signals
Use of return and exit statements
Module 15: Locking Mechanism
Dealing with OS resources
Locking using mutex, file locking and semaphore
Module 16: Socket and Network programming
Introduction to Inter Process communication (IPC)
OSI Layers with a practical approach, IP and Port numbers.
Introduction to PC and HOST
Networking using TCP and UDP
Concurrent Server using Process and Threads
Module 17: ODBC Programming
ODBC rules and regulation
Introduction to MYSQL and Oracle
Creating, inserting and retrieving records for
different Data bases.
Module 18: Graphics & Curses
Graphics using Glade interface with GTK+
Working with GTK Widgets, Event handling
Developing Application Interface
Developing Application using ncurses library
Module 19: Development tools
Make, cscope, gdb, valgrind, strace and ltrace

The C++ Programming Language

Module 1: Basic of OS, editors, compilers, installation process


Different editor like vi, QT, visual C++, Notepad, TC++.
Basic Linux command with vi editor
Compilation and Linking process in TC++ and G++ environment.
Something about Operating Systems, Microprocessors and motherboard.
Why C and C++.
Different application area.
Demo GUI applications
Lab exercise.
Module 2: Syntax and Semantics
Programming Paradigms.
Basic Features OOP and their advantages.
Input and Output streams in C++.
Manipulators and uses.
How to design own manipulators.
Key words and Data types.
Available Operators.
Control Structure.
Unit test.
Lab exercise.
Module 3:Function concepts
Why function.
Parts of User defined function.
Value passing/returning technique.
Inline function
Function Overloading
Lambda function.
Pointers to function
Designing Library.
Unit test.
Lab exercise.
Module 4: Structure, union, pointer
Basic of structure and union
Application of structure and union.
Basic of pointers.
Different kinds of pointer.
Pointer arithmetics.
Dynamic memory management.
Learning data structure using pointer.
About smart pointer, this pointer and virtual pointer.
Unit test.
Lab exercise.
Module 5: Class and Namespaces
OOPS and UML.
Object model.
Different UML diagram.
Class, object and instances.
What is namespace and difference between class and namespace.
Different accessing modes.

Working with static and const keywords.


Data hiding and encapsulation.
Objects, static objects, Array of objects.
Friend function., friend class and more
Unit test.
Lab exercise.
Module 6: : ctor and dtor
About constructor and its properties
Types of constructor
Copy constructor
Overloading of constructor
Delegation.
Anonymous object.
Private ctor and dtor.
Recursive ctor.
Local vs Global object.
Variety of classes.
Unit test.
Lab exercise
Module 7: Inheritance
Why Inheritance
Category of Inheritance.
Ctor and dtor in Inheritance.
Common constructor.
Delegation.
Unit test.
Lab exercise.
Module 8: Polymorphism
About polymorphism
Compile time and runtime polymorphism.
Operator overloading.
All types of operator overloading.
Virtual functions.
Pure virtual function and abstract base class.
VPTR and VTABLE.
Object slicing.
Constructor and virtual function.
Virtual destructor.
Dtor with virtual function.
Unit test
Lab exercise.

Module 9: STL
Towards generic programming using template.
Class template.
class template with more function.
Function template.
Function template with more arguments.
Towards STL (standard template library).

Details about containers.


Details about algorithm.
Details about iterator.
Lab exercise.
Module 10: Exception handling
Exception handling.
Single and multiple catch statements.
Exception in inheritances.
Exception in ctor and dtor.
Standard exception handling.
Unit test.
Lab exercise.
Module 11: String Handling
String handling.
Different C string handling library.
String handling using relational operator.
Different string handling function.
Regular Expression
Unit test.
Lab exercise.
Module 12: File handling
File handling.
Using Linux system call method.
Using constructor method.
Using open and close member function method.
Both sequential and random file accessing mechanism.
Different error handling mechanism in files.
Object as file stream reader and writer.
Unit test
Lab exercise
Module 13: Database operation
What is database?
SQL for relational database.
About API connect to database.
Database connectivity Sqlite, MySQL.
Database manipulation using c++.
Unit test.
Module 14: Process and Threads
About process.
Process stages.
Process creation using fork() and vfork().
Daemon process.
Process ID and about priority.
About thread.
Different thread manipulation stage.
Thread locking using mutex.
Conditional variable and deadlock.
Lab exercise.
Module 15: Networking
Introduction to networking.
About TCP/UDP protocol.

Different programming on TCP.


Different programming on UDP.
Lab exercise.
Module 16: Graphics, OpenGl, QT and visual C++
Graphics programming.
Different design approach.
OpenGL programming.
Idea about game design.
GUI designing using QT.
Signal and slots.
Introduction to different modules.
Introduction towards Visual C++.
Lab exercise.
Module 17: WEB development using C++
Web basics.(HTML, java script, CSS).
CGI services.
GET and POST methods.
Web designing.
Lab exercise.
Module 18: Internationalization
Locale and internationalization
Different types Facet.
Lab exercise.

Data Communication and Networking


UNIT I:
Introduction: Data Communications, Networks, The Internet, Protocols and Standards, Network Models,
Layered Tasks, The OSI Model, Layers in the OSI Model, TCP/IP Protocol Suite, Addressing, Physical

Layer and Media, Data and Signals, Analog and Digital, Periodic Analog Signals, Digital Signals,
Transmission impairment, Data Rate Limits, Performance, Digital Transmission, Digital-to-Digital
Conversion, Analog-to-Digital Conversion, Analog Transmission, Digital-to-analog Conversion, Analogto-analog Conversion
UNIT II:
Bandwidth utilization: Multiplexing and Spreading, Multiplexing, Spread Spectrum, Transmission Media,
Guided Media, Unguided Media: Wireless, Switching, Circuit-Switched Networks, Datagram Networks,
Virtual-Circuit Networks, Structure of a Switch, Using Telephone and Cable Networks for Data
Transmission, Telephone Networks, Dial-up Modems, Digital Subscriber Line, Cable TV Networks,
Cable TV for Data Transfer
UNIT III:
Error Detection and Correction, Introduction, Block Coding, Liner Block Codes, Cyclic Codes,
Checksum, Data Link Control, Framing, Flow and Error Control, Protocols, Noiseless Channels, HDLC,
Point-to-Point Protocol, Multiple Access, Random Access, Aloha, Controlled Access, Channelization,
IEEE Standards, Standard Ethernet, Changes in the Standard, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, IEEE
802.11, Bluetooth
UNIT IV:
Connecting LANs, Backbone Networks, and Virtual LANs, Connecting Devices, Backbone Networks,
Virtual LANs, Cellular Telephony, Satellite Networks, Sonet/SDH, Architecture, Sonet Layers, Sonet
Frames, STS Multiplexing, Sonet Networks, Virtual Tributaries, Virtual-Circuit Networks: Frame Relay
and ATM, Frame Relay, ATM, ATM LANs
UNIT V:
Network Layer: Logical Addressing, IPv4 Addresses, IPv6 Addresses, Network Layer: Internet Protocol,
Internetworking, IPv4, IPv6, Transition from IPv4 to IPv6, Network Layer: Adress Mapping, Error
Reporting and Multicasting, Address Mapping, ICMP, IGMP, ICMPv6, Network Layer: Delivery,
Forwarding and Routing, Delivery, Forwarding, Unicast Routing Protocols, Multicast Routing Protocols
UNIT VI:
Transport Layer: Process-Process Delivery: UDP, TCP and SCTP, Process-to-Process Delivery, User
Datagram Protocol (UDP), TCP, SCTP, Congestion Control and Quality of Service, Data Traffic,
Congestion, Congestion Control, Two Examples, Quality Service, Techniques to improve QoS, Integrated
Services, Differentiated Services, QoS in Switched Networks

UNIT VII:
Application Layer: Domain Name System, Name Space, Domain Name Space, Distribution of Name
Space, DNS in the Internet, Resolution, DNS Messages, Types of Records, Registrars, Dynamic Domain
Name System (DDNS), Encapsulation, Rmote Logging, Electronic Mail and File Transfer, Remote
Logging, Telnet, Electronic Mail, File Transfer
UNIT VIII:
WWW and HTTP: Architecture, Web Documents, HTTP, Network Management: SNMP, Network
Management System, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), Multimedia, Digitizing Audio and
Video, Audio and Video Compression, Streaming Stored Audio/Video, Streaming Live Audio/Video,
Real-Time Interactive Audio/Video, RTP, RTCP, Voice over IP
UNIT IX: Network Programming (All Concepts of Unix Network Programming by W. R. Stevens
Volume 1 & 2 Book)
Intro to Network Program, TCP/IP Protocol Stacks, Intro to Network Programming, Sockets, Port
Numbers, Common Port Numbers, Common Protocol Numbers, Unix Domain Socket, Internet Domain
Socket, Socket Functions, Socket System Calls, Client Side Programming, Server Side Programming,
Byte Ordering Requirements, Concurrent Server Design, Iterative Server Design, Socket Debugging
Techniques, Advanced Socket Options, Changing Socket Buffer Sizes, Reusing Socket Addresses,
Keeping the Connections Alive, TCP Socket Options, Setting Max Segment Size, Setting TCP No-Delay,
Advanced I/O Functions, Socket Timeouts, Vectored Read/Writes, Netstat Network Stat Utility,
Tcpdump Packet Dump Utility

Operating Systems and System Programming

UNIT I OPERATING SYSTEMS OVERVIEW


Introduction to operating systems Computer system organization, architecture
Operating
system structure, operations Process, memory, storage management Protection and
49

security Distributed systems Computing Environments Open-source operating


systems
OS services User operating-system interface System calls Types System
programs
OS structure OS generation System Boot Process concept, scheduling
Operations
on processes Cooperating processes Inter-process communication Examples
Multithreading models Thread Libraries Threading issues OS examples
UNIT II PROCESS MANAGEMENT
Basic concepts Scheduling criteria Scheduling algorithms Thread scheduling
Multipleprocessor
scheduling Operating system examples Algorithm Evaluation The criticalsection
problem Petersons solution Synchronization hardware Semaphores Classic
problems of synchronization Critical regions Monitors Synchronization examples
Deadlocks System model Deadlock characterization Methods for handling
deadlocks
Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Avoidance Deadlock detection Recovery from
deadlock
UNIT III STORAGE MANAGEMENT
Memory Management Swapping Contiguous memory allocation Paging
Segmentation
Example: The Intel Pentium - Virtual Memory: Background Demand paging Copy on
write Page replacement Allocation of frames Thrashing.
UNIT IV I/O SYSTEMS
File concept Access methods Directory structure File-system mounting Protection
Directory implementation Allocation methods Free-space management Disk
scheduling
Disk management Swap-space management Protection
UNIT V CASE STUDY
The Linux System History Design Principles Kernel Modules Process Management
Scheduling Memory management File systems Input and Output Inter-process
Communication Network Structure Security Windows 7 History Design Principles

System Components Terminal Services and Fast User File system Networking.
UNIT - VI : ADVANCED OS
Architectures of Distributed Systems - System Architecture types - issues in distributed operating systems
- communication networks - communication primitives. Theoretical Foundations - inherent limitations of
a distributed system - lamp ports logical clocks - vector clocks - casual ordering of messages - global state
- cuts of a distributed computation - termination detection. Distributed Mutual Exclusion - introduction the classification of mutual exclusion and associated algorithms - a comparative performance analysis.
UNIT - VII :
Distributed Deadlock Detection -Introduction - deadlock handling strategies in distributed systems issues in deadlock detection and resolution - control organizations for distributed deadlock detection centralized and distributed deadlock detection algorithms -hierarchical deadlock detection algorithms.
Agreement protocols - introduction-the system model, a classification of agreement problems, solutions
to the Byzantine agreement problem, applications of agreement algorithms. Distributed resource
management: introduction-architecture - mechanism for building distributed file systems - design issues log structured file systems.
UNIT - VIII :
Distributed shared memory-Architecture- algorithms for implementing DSM - memory coherence and
protocols - design issues. Distributed Scheduling - introduction - issues in load distributing - components
of a load distributing algorithm - stability - load distributing algorithm - performance comparison -

selecting a suitable load sharing algorithm - requirements for load distributing -task migration and
associated issues. Failure Recovery and Fault tolerance: introduction- basic concepts - classification of
failures - backward and forward error recovery, backward error recovery- recovery in concurrent systems
- consistent set of check points - synchronous and asynchronous check pointing and recovery - check
pointing for distributed database systems- recovery in replicated distributed databases.
UNIT - IX :
Protection and security -preliminaries, the access matrix model and its implementations.-safety in matrix
model- advanced models of protection. Data security - cryptography: Model of cryptography,
conventional cryptography- modern cryptography, private key cryptography, data encryption standardpublic key cryptography - multiple encryption - authentication in distributed systems.
UNIT - X :
Multiprocessor operating systems - basic multiprocessor system architectures - inter connection networks
for multiprocessor systems - caching - hypercube architecture. Multiprocessor Operating System structures of multiprocessor operating system, operating system design issues- threads- process
synchronization and scheduling.
Database Operating systems :Introduction- requirements of a database operating system Concurrency
control : theoretical aspects - introduction, database systems - a concurrency control model of database
systems- the problem of concurrency control - serializability theory- distributed database systems,
concurrency control algorithms - introduction, basic synchronization primitives, lock based algorithmstimestamp based algorithms, optimistic algorithms - concurrency control algorithms, data replication.
UNIT XI: UNIX/MINIX SYSTEM PROGRAMMING
Follow The concepts of The MINIX Book by Tanenbum