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PILE FOUNDATION

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

PART I:
INTRODUCTION TO PILE
FOUNDATION

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Scope of Pile Foundation


Engineering

Selection of Foundation Type


Selection of Pile Type
Single Pile Analysis
Pile Group Analysis
Quality Control and Quality Assurance

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Nomenclature
Pile cap
Raker pile
Tie beam

Keywords: pile cap, piles, soft clay, sand, raker pile, batter pile
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Taxonomy
(1) Application
Reduce Vibrations
Problem

Solution

Keywords: tanks, silos, chimneys, machine foundations, sand, ground water,


compaction piles, raked piles, damping of piles, small damping, vibrations
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Improve Stability of Bridge Abutment

Keywords: soft clay, fill, bridge abutment


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Embankment Pile

These piles, not soft clay,


carry fill load and transfer the
load to bearing layer..
Therefore, no horizontal
forces carried by abutment
piles.

Keywords: soft clay, raked piles, bridge abutment, fill


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Anchor piles as for dry docks

Uplift hydraulic
pressure

Keywords: ground water, up-lift force, anchor piles


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Offshore Structures on Piles

Keywords: cyclic loading, scour, compression, steel pipe piles, tension


force
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Stabilization of Slope by Piles

Keywords: slope stability, large diameter pile, steel pipe pile, failure
surface
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Stabilization of Slope by Piles

Keywords: failure surface, clay, precast piles,


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Anchor Piles in Swelling Soil

Keywords: seasonal changes, swelling clay, montmorillonite, high liquid limit,


high plasticity index, building
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

(2) Based on material


Concrete pile
Steel pile
Timber pile

Keywords: concrete pile, steel pile, timber, H pile


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Concrete pile
Precast Concrete Pile

Keywords: point, concrete, reinforcement. pile diameter


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Prestressed Concrete Piles

Keywords: height strength concrete, brittle, reduced cracking, reduced


ductility
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Concrete strength

Keywords: cube strength, hard driving, normal to easy driving, high


capacity, reduced weight, easy driving
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Lifting of precast piles

Keywords: pile length, lifting hooks, moment


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Steel Pile
Steel H-Pile

Large contact area, high Qs

Keywords: easy to drive, easy to cut, corrosion, expensive, splicing, soil plug,
driving shoe, steel plate
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Steel Pipe Piles

Keywords: diameter, closed


or open ended, soil plug,
diameter
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Steel corrosion

Keywords: steel piles, concrete piles, National Bureau of


Standards, splices, reinforcement, salt water
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Timber Piles

Characteristics

Keywords: advantages, difficulties, limit bearing capacity, soft clay, tip, shaft,
ground water, butt
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Pile splices

Keywords: steel sleeve, steel strap


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

(3) Disturbance to Surrounding Soil

Keywords: large displacement piles, small displacement piles, non-displacement


piles, bored piles, precast piles, pipe piles, cased, uncased
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

(4) Loading Conditions of Piles

Keywords: compression, lateral load, tension


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

(5) Load Transfer Mechanism


Resistance of friction pile or floating
pile mostly comes from friction
resistance. Even though there is a
point resistance, since the pile is
not founded into a firm-bearing
layer the point resistance is very
small. In contrary, end bearing or
point bearing pile, the pile
resistance particularly come from
point resistance.
Keywords: friction or floating piles, end bearing piles, clay, sand, rock
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Splices and Rock Points

Keywords: rock point


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

(6) Based on Installation Method


Driven Pile
Bored Pile
Jacked-Down Pile

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Driven pile
Installation method

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Settlement during driving in sand

Keywords: settlement, diameter, compaction within this zone


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Settlement during driving in clay

Keywords: soft clay, heave, volume, soft clay, remoulded zone, pore water
pressure, undrained shear strength
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Redriving of pile in clay

Keywords: risen piles, redriving, heave, soft clay, separation of splice


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Bored Pile
Installation method

Keywords: casing, driving, casing filled with water, casing filled with
concrete, reinforcement
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Installation method with casing for soft clay

Keywords: casing, driving, casing filled with water, casing filled with
concrete, reinforcement
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Necking during casting in soft clay

Keywords: casing, soft clay, sand or silt, ground water


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Bored pile with bell

Keywords: bells
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Installation using bentonite slurry

Keywords: ground water, surface casing, bentonite slurry, chisel, pouring of


concrete, lowering of reinforcement element
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Various shapes of slurry trench pile

Keywords: size, shape

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Jacked-Down Pile
Installation method

Keywords: pump, manometer, steel insert, hydraulic jack, pile


segment
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

(7) Proprietary Pile


Raymond step tapered pile

Keywords: steel shell, steel cone, light bulb, reinforcement cage, casting of concrete
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Franki pile

Keywords: concrete plug, bulb, internal hammer, prefabricated shaft, light casing
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

PART II.
PILE BEARING CAPACITY
ANALYSIS

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Pile Bearing Capacity


Single Pile
Pile Group

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Pile Bearing Capacity of


Single Pile
Compression capacity
Tension capacity
Lateral capacity

Keywords: compression, lateral load, tension


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Capacity of Pile Group


Efficiency
Group settlement

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Issues Relating to Pile


Capacity

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Load distribution along pile

Ultimate resistance of piles:


For sand, shaft and point
equally contribute to ultimate
resistance
For clay, shaft resistance
dominated ultimate resistance

Keywords: sand, clay, point resistance, shaft resistance


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Load vs. Displacement

Keywords: load, displacement, soft clay, stiff clay, sand, cast in place
pile, driven pile, with bell
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Load deformation relationship


Shaft resistance of soft clay and sand are fully mobilized, i.e. reach its maximum
value, at relatively small pile displacement.
Point resistance is reached at relatively large pile displacement compare to shaft
resistance.
Point resistance of large displacement piles (i.e. driven-pile) is mobilized relatively
faster (at relatively small displacement) than non-displacement piles (i.e. bored-pile).
This due to the fact that driven pile compacting soil close to the pile tip, and boredpile loosening soil close the pile tip due to stress release. However, for a certain
cases driven pile could loosen soil close to the pile tip. For example, driving piles
through very dense sand or highly over consolidated soil.

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Idealized load deformation relationship

Keywords: pile load, point resistance, skin resistance


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Pile Bearing Capacity


Determination
A. Analytical Method

Based soil strength parameters obtained from laboratory test. Pile bearing capacity
is established based on general bearing capacity equation of shallow foundation.

B. Empirical Method

Based on field-testing method and empirical correlation from loading test. Empirical
relationship has been developed between SPT, CPT and Swedish Sounding with
pile bearing capacity.

C. Dynamic Method

Based on observation during pile driving. Response during pile driving reflects soil
resistance encounter by the pile. Pile ultimate resistance is determined taking into
account pile driving equipment, response during pile driving and other soil
parameters.

D. Pile Load Test Method

Based on load deformation characteristic during pile loading test.

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

A. ANALYTICAL METHOD

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

A.1. Introduction
(1) Direction of Pile Loading

Factor of Safety (FOS):


FOS for compression differs
than FOS for tension.
FOS for shaft resistance
differs than for point resistance.
Point and shaft resistance for
sand and clay determined
differently.

Keywords: compression, tension, weight of pile, factor of safety, allowable load,


point resistance, shaft resistance
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

(2) End Bearing Capacity

Omitted because
small compare to
overburden

Keywords: end bearing, undrained shear strength, bearing capacity factors


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Bearing Capacity
Pile resistance for pile in sand mostly contributed by overburden
pressure v.
The following assumptions for determination of pile capacity in
sand are:
The friction angle exist and cohesion equal to zero (=, c=0)
Pile length L, much bigger than pile diameter, as such the
contribution of pile resistance from gamma is negligible.
There are several bearing capacity factors Nq has been proposed:

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Meyerhof bearing capacity factor

Keywords: friction angle, bearing capacity factor


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Various Bearing Capacity Factors

Keywords: Terzaghi, Berezantsev, Meyerhof, Vesic, Brinch Hansen, de Beer,


friction angle
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Failure mechanism for Vesics factor

Keywords: point resistance, rigidity index, failure surface, compressibility,


rigidity index
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

A.2. Pile Capacity in Sand


(1) Bearing Capacity Equation

Keywords: loose, dense, coefficient of


lateral earth pressure at rest, small,
Vesic, displacement pile, nondisplacement pile, tapered pile

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

(2) Pile Shaft Capacity in Sand

Keywords: pile type, sand, critical


depth,

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

(3) Lateral Pressure Against Pile Shaft

Keywords: bored pile, small displacement pile, large displacement pile,


straight shaft, tapered shaft, lateral earth pressure
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Controlling factors
Lateral pressure exerted by soil on pile surface depend
on the following factors:
Disturbance and the nature of disturbance to
surrounding pile during pile construction. Driven pile
cause compaction (loose to medium sand and soft to
medium clay) or dilation (dense sand or overconsolidated
clay.
The inclination of side (straight side or tapered).

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Empirical parameter for K

Keywords: Mansur & Hunter, Tavenas, Ireland, lateral earth pressure


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Critical depth

Keywords: friction angle, bearing capacity value, diameter, length


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

A.3. Pile Capacity in Clay


(1) End resistance

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

(2) Shaft resistance

Keywords: normally consolidated clay,


overconsolidated clay, undrained shear
strength, reduction , ground surface

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Lambda-Method

Keywords: offshore structures, depth, mean value, skin


resistance

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Empirical estimate of pile skin friction in clay

Keywords: effective overburden pressure,


Flaate, Selnes, undrained shear strength

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

A.5. Other Consideration


(1) Load Transfer Mechanism

Keywords: t-z curves, q-y curve, driven pile, bored pile


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

(2) Negative Skin Friction

Keywords: lowering of ground


water level, driven pile, bored pile

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

A.6. Summary
Summary
Soil
Type

Point Resistance
Q p q p Ap

Shaft Resistance
Qs As f s

Sand

q p qN q'
or
1 2
qp
K o qN q'
3

f s K a v'

Clay

q p 9cu

Note:

K a depends on type of pile.


Shaft resistance constant after
reaching critical depth

f s c u
f s v'
f s ( v' 2cu )

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

B. EMPIRICAL METHOD

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

(1) Cone Penetration Test

End resistance

Keywords: area of pile, sand


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Shaft friction

Keywords: cone penetration test, friction sleeve small displacement pile, large
displacement pile
Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

(2) Standard Penetration Test


N-Value vs. pile capacity

Keywords: SPT, sand, pile diameter


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

(3) Weight Sounding Test (WST)


Estimate of Pile Capacity Based

Keywords: half-turns, timber piles, concrete piles, Norwegian Pile Commission, s


Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Laterally Loaded Single


Pile

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Failure Mode of
Horizontally Loaded Piles

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Lateral Pile Resistance in


Sand

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Lateral Pile Resistance in


Clay (Rotational Mode)

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073

Lateral Pile Resistance in


Clay
(Pile Failure Mode)

Indra S. Harahap/ EVB4013 VAB2073