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Functions and importance of Gardemanger


The larder or Garde Manger is a department set aside for the storage of perishable food, both
raw and cooked and were food stuffs such as meat fish poultry and game are prepared and
made ready for cooking.

In this department all cold food items found on the menu such as Hors doeuvre cold
fish or meat dishes, cold sauces, salad dressings are prepared and dressed. One
particular special duty of this department is the preparation and presentation of all types
of cold buffet, which are nowadays a feature of so many functions.
For these functions to be carried out, it is essential that:

1. The larder be separated from the kitchen and located in a cool place. At the
same time, it must be close to the kitchen to avoid undue running about between
two departments which are closely interrelated.
2. It should be light, airy and well established and sufficiently spacious to allow the
staff to carry out their duties in a clean and efficient manner. It must also be able
to store prepared foods and buffets in a cool and hygienic manner.
3. It should be equipped with the necessary fitting, machinery and tools. In
accordance with the volume and/or quality of the trade of the catering
establishment in which it is situated.
Taking the above into consideration, it naturally follows that the work is broken down into various
fields such as Hors d'oeuvre, Salads, Butchery, Poultry, Cold Buffet etc, and in effect, in large
busy establishments each of these functions or duties are carried out by one or more men or
sometimes women, who specialize in the work of that particular sub-department. As an
example, the Butcher, Poulterer or Fishmonger may be an expert in that particular field without
being a trained chef or cook, and it sometimes happens that the salads or Hors d'oeuvre are
prepared by female staff trained in those particular duties only.
More frequently, these various duties are allocated by the Chef Grade Manager, who is in
overall charge of the department, to commis or assistant chefs, and they are known as Commis
Grade-Manager, whatever duties they re assigned to. Naturally, the busier the establishment,
the more Larder work it entails, therefore more is required to man the department. The smaller
the volume of trade the fewer commis required, and so on. In many establishments the Chef
Grade-Manager is single handed and carries out all the various functions himself.
It should be mentioned at this stage that often quality rather than quantity, of trade is the
determining factor in deciding the number of staff required in the Grade-Manager, or for that
matter in the kitchen as a whole.



Refrigeration equipment including refrigerators, walk-ins, reach-in, pull outs, traulsen, deep
freezers, bottle coolers, ice machines, coolers and chillers.

Food Processors with attachments for grinding, pureeing, kneading, mixing, Buffalo choppers,
bone saws

Gas range, boilers, heaters (if required)

Weighing scales - Electronic and manual

Steel tables, cupboards, storage racks and sinks

Mixers, juicers, Butchers block, Storage bins and shelves, Slicers, Blow torch, Pots, pans, stockpots,
larder tools such as serving spoons and ladles, sieves , Colanders , Conical strainers and Chinois, heat
Presses , Pie moulds, whisks, egg slices, steel basins and graters
Frying and flat spoons - Assorted knives (Butchers Boning knives ,butchers steak or cutting knives ,
Butchers saw(Tenon), Butchers saw(Bow), Butchers choppers and cleavers, Butchers chopping Knives,
Cooks 30 cms(12 inches)Knives, Cooks 20-24 cm (a/7 inches) knives, Cooks 6-8 cm (4 inches) knives,
Cooks 14-20cm(7 inches) filleting Knives Tranchelard Knives, Palette Knives) - Butchers saw (Tenon and
bow) - Butchers chopper - Filleting knives and palette knives - Piping bags and assorted nozzles
Peelers - fancy cutters - mandolin slicer - Wooden spoons and mushrooms (wooden mushrooms are
used for pressing food stuffs through sieves) - Cutlet bat and steak hammers (for flattening cuts of meat) Larding and trussing needles and pins(for larding and trussing joints of meat and poultry) - Lemon zesters
& decorators (for scraping and channeling lemon peel) - decorating knives and vegetable scoops (for
shaping vegetables & potatoes) Skewers - butchers hooks (for hanging joints) - Brining syringe (for
pumping brine solution into joints) - brinometer(for measuring density of brine solution) - assorted
thermometers - Assorted trays for storage of food.


Layout : Planning the layout for a garde manger department can be a complex task. Unlike other
departments that can depend on a basic menu and basic work load, the Garde Manger department is
unique in its operation. On a daily basis the Garde Manger department may handle its own butchery, its
own bakery, its own sauce making ,its own frying , smoking of fish and cold meats , all the decorating
including tallow and ice sculpture , Plus a complete line on charcuterie products such as galantines and

The Garde Manger department can relate to a food service facility in three ways:
on a pick up Basis.
on a distribution basis.

on a combination of the two bases.

When a Garde Manger department Executes food order on an ala Carte basis, this is known as Pick up
.This system operates in an unpredictable fashion ,Since the number and timing of orders is not known in
advance. Work load is set depending upon the dishes listed on the menu.
When the Garde Manger department Executes food orders in advance for a known quantity, to be
delivered at a certain time (Parties, banquets) this is known as the distribution basis. The main problem
here is workloads will be different each day depending upon booking, functions etc., For this reason it is
difficult to establish an appropriate mise-en-place on a daily basis as it is bound to vary.


Aging: Holding meats in coolers under controlled conditions to allow natural tenderizing
to take place.
AP required: As-purchased amount necessary to yield the desired EP weight. AP
required is computed as EP required divided by yield percentage.
Antipasto: Italian Hors doeuvre
Beginning inventory: The dollar value of all products on hand at the beginning of the
accounting period. This amount is determined by completing a physical inventory.
Bin card: An index card with both additions to and deletions from inventory of a given
product. To facilitate its use, the card is usually affixed to the shelf that holds the given
item. Used in a perpetual inventory system.
Canap: An hors doeuvre consisting of a small piece of bread or toast, often cut in
decorative shape, garnished with savoury spread or topping.
Carpaccio: Very thin slices of meat or fish, served raw.
Carryover: A menu item prepared for sale during a meal period but carried over for use
in a different meal period.
Casing: A synthetic or natural membrane used to enclose sausage forcemeat.
Caul: A fatty membrane that covers the stomach of a pig; used for wrapping meats for
cooking and for lining terrines.
Chitterlings: Pork intestines.
Coulis: A vegetable or fruit puree, used as a sauce.
Crepinette: A sausage patty wrapped in caul.
Crudits: A raw vegetable served as a relish.
Daily inventory sheet: A form that lists the items in storage, the unit of purchase, and
the par value. It also contains the following columns: on hand, special order, and order
Edible portion (EP): This term refers to the weight or count of a product after it has
been trimmed, cooked, and portioned.
Ending inventory: The dollar value of all products on hand at the end of the accounting
period. This amount is determined by completing a physical inventory.

First-in, first-out (FIFO): Term used to describe a method of storage in which the
operator intends to sell his or her oldest product before selling the most recently
delivered product.
Forcemeat: A mixture of chopped or ground meat and other ingredients used for pates,
sausages and other preparations.
Garniture: Garnish; the act or process of garnishing.
Inventory turnover: The number of times the total value of inventory has been
purchased and replaced in an accounting period.
Lard: The rendered fat of hogs; to insert strips of fat into meats low in marbling.
Last-in, first-out (LIFO): Term used to describe a method of storage in which the
operator intends to sell his or her most recently delivered product before selling the
older product.
Par level: A system of determining the purchase point by using managementestablished minimum and maximum allowable inventory levels for a given inventory
Requisition: When a food or beverage product is requested from storage by an
employee for use in an operation.
Shelf life: The period of time an ingredient or menu item maintains its freshness, flavor,
and quality.
Tripe: The muscular stomach lining of beef or other meat animals.
Waste percentage: This formula is defined as product loss divided by AP weight and
refers to product lost in the preparation process.
Working stock: The quantity of goods from inventory reasonably expected to be used
between deliveries.
Yield percentage: This formula is defined as 1 minus waste percentage and refers to
the amount of product available for use by the operator after all preparation-related
losses have been taken into account.
Yield test: A procedure used to determine actual EP ingredient costs. It is used to help
establish actual costs on a product that will experience weight or volume loss in
If the larder is to be run effectively, efficiently and economically, it is essential that the
Chef Garde Manger exercise strict control over the foodstuff received and stored in the
This will involve:
1. Checking the quality and quantity of all food received in the department.
2. Ensuring that all food stuff is stored at the right temperature and that they can easily
be checked
3. That the food is protected from contamination by vermin.
4. That portion control is ensured.
5. That stock is regularly turned over.
6. That food is not over stocked.
7. A simple daily stock sheet to be maintained by each sub department.

8. Every possible effort is made to ensure the highest standard of hygiene.

9. Pilferage is discouraged and controlled.
The stock and order sheet should be as simple and easy to keep up to data as possible.
A complicated stock sheet requiring too much writing will defect the whole purpose as it
will be neglected during busy rush periods, the very time it is needed most. For some
sub departments, devising an easy and simple system is reasonably easy. In some
cases it is not so easy for example; also keeping of the stock of food sent in and
returned by the cold buffet can be complicated and time wasting if one is to measure
every ounce or inch. Therefore it is necessary to accept some rule of thumb providing it
is well supervised. An experienced chef Garde Manger should be able to tell at a glance
the weight, or number of Portion of a given joint or cold dish. The butchery department
also presents some Problems and the stock sheet for this department needs careful
consideration. Each establishment will devise its own system taking into account its own




Da y and date
Unit Price



Most foodservice products are delivered in the AP or As Purchased state. This refers
to the weight or count of a product, as delivered to the foodservice operator. EP or
Edible Portion refers to the weight of a product after it has been cleaned, trimmed,

cooked, and portioned. Thus, AP refers to food products as the operator receives them;
EP refers to food products as the guest receives them.
Yield % is important in the area of recipe costing. This is true because a recipe cost
must take into account the difference in price of products in their AP or EP state. In
order to determine actual recipe costs, it may sometimes be necessary to conduct a
yield test to determine actual EP ingredient costs. A yield test is a procedure used for
computing your actual costs on a product that will experience weight or volume loss in
Total Yield % =

Remaining Weight
Original Weight


Waste % is the percentage of product lost due to cooking, trimming, portioning, or

The Larder is both a storage department for most perishable foods and a preparation
department for such foodstuffs. The Larder staff, under the supervision of the Chef
Garde-Manger, are responsible for the ordering, storing and preserving of stores,
keeping stocks up to date, and accounting for such items as meat, fish, poultry, game
etc. which pass through the department on their way from the suppliers to the kitchen
and eventually to the restaurant or banqueting rooms. The bulk of such foodstuff needs
dissecting or cleaning, dressing, cutting into the required joints or portions, and
generally preparing for cooking.
To function in an effective manner, the Larder department must operate in harmony with
the Kitchen in particular, if confusion and wastage are to be avoided. A good layout of
the Larder in relation to the Kitchen will avoid undue running from place to place. Lack
of liaison between the departments could result in duplication of work, or sometimes in
certain processes not being carried out to the best advantage.

For Instance:
Certain foods intended for cold service are best cooked in the Kitchen where there are
greater facilities for carrying out the operation
Pastry for pies or puddings, and various savouries served from the Larder department,
are best prepared by the Pastry staff, who will be more skilful in such work, and who are
equipped with the necessary apparatus and tools for producing such items.
Savoury fillings as are required by the Pastry chef for such items as sausage rolls,
patties, or pasties, ravioli, etc., will be prepared in the Larder and transferred to the
Pastry department as and when required.
Another important function of the Garde-Manger is to process and utilize the leftover
which is transferred from the Kitchen to the Larder at the conclusion of every meal.

A number of garnishes or accompaniments to dishes served from kitchen departments

are prepared by the Garde-Manger. Such items as stuffings, forcemeats, lardons or
bacon rashers, are naturally provided by the Larder, as well as cold sauces for the
accompaniment of hot dishes.



Butchery (including the fish mongery & ecaillage)

Marinated Products
Pickled Products Vegetables, Fruit, Fish and Meats
Brines / Cures Smoked Products.
Cold Soups and Sauces
Appetizers and Hors doeuvres
Forcemeat products
Pt, Galantine, Terrine, Sausage, Quenelle, etc.
6) Gelatin Products
Aspic, Mousse, Aspic jelly coating, Colle, Chaudfroid, etc.
7) Cold Fish and Meat Roasted, Poached
8) Pice Monte (Centerpiece)
Ice-carving, Tallow/Butter Sculpture, Salt Dough, Vegetable & Fruit Carving
9) Specialty items Cheeses, Caviar, Foie gras, etc.
10) Food Garnishes
11) Overseas pantry station
Menu Responsibilities of the Garde Manger Department
1- A la Carte : Hors doeuvres, Appetizer, Salad, Entre
2- Buffet : Cocktail receptions, Dinners, Conference breaks, Salad bars.


1. He is responsible to the Executive chef for the smooth running and operation of
his department.
2. He is also responsible for co ordination between his staff and has to make sure
that they have understood the work required from them and the production
schedule, either daily or weekly.

3. Training is another important function he has to carry out. The work of the larder
is of a highly skilled nature and involves a lot of expensive ingredients,
procedures and equipment It is therefore imperative that the staff is well trained.
4. The larder Chef is also responsible for staff scheduling and duty rotas.
5. He is also required to co ordinate with the other departments like the kitchen and
the bakery. A lot of pre preparation is done in the larder for the other departments
and satellite kitchens. Their requirements must be made available well in
6. He also has to maintain registers to record the receipts and dispatch of the
7. He is also responsible for maintaining hygiene and sanitation standards in the
department. A lot of the foodstuff being processed here is in the raw sate and
susceptible to contamination and possible food poisoning.

Pantry section of hotel kitchen:

All juices and sandwiches are prepared and served from here This section is also considered as
the service counter of the entire section This section is generally in the main kitchen and away
from the cold room as because hot sandwiches like toasted and grilled options are also served
from here
Butcher Shop / Butchery : Air conditioned pre preparation room for boning, paring and cutting,
where meats are cut according to specifications are prepared and portioned and sent to the main

Indian cuisine consists of thousands of regional cuisines which date back
thousands of years. The dishes of India are characterized by the extensive
use of various Indian spices, herbs, vegetables and fruit. Indian cuisine is
also known for the widespread practice of vegetarianism in Indian society.
Each family of Indian cuisine includes a wide assortment of dishes and
cooking techniques. As a consequence, it varies from region to region,
reflecting the varied demographics of the ethnically-diverse subcontinent.


North india cuisine include states are given below :

Jammu & Kashmir

Kashmiri cuisine has evolved over hundreds of years. The first major influence was the food of
the Kashmiri Hindus and Buddhists. The cuisine was then influenced by the cultures which
arrived with the invasion of Kashmir by Timur from the region of modern Uzbekistan.
Subsequently, it has been strongly influenced by the cuisines of Central Asian, Persia, and the
North Indian plains. The most notable ingredient in Kashmir cuisine is mutton (lamb), of which
there are over 30 varieties.
Kashmiri Pandit food is also very elaborate, and is an important part of the Pandits' ethnic
identity. One of the key differences between Kashmiri cuisine and Punjabi cuisine is that the
staple in Kashmiri cuisine is rice, whereas that in Punjabi cuisine is Chappati also known as Roti.
The Kashmiri Pandit cuisine usually uses yogurt, oils and spices as such turmeric, Red Chilli
powder, Cumin powder, Ginger powder and Fennel Powder

Himachal Pradesh
The daily diet of Himachalis is similar to the rest of north India, including lentil,
broth, rice, vegetables and bread, although non-vegetarian cuisine is preferred.
Some of the specialities of Himachal include Pateer, Chouck, Bhagjery and chutney
of Til

Cattle are common in Haryana, so dairy is a common component of cuisine in this

area. Specific dishes include Kadhi Pakora, Besan Masala Roti, Bajra Aloo Roti,
Churma, Kheer, Bathua Raita, Methi Gajar, Singri ki Sabzi and Tamatar Chutney.Lassi
and Sherbat are the two popular non-alcoholic beverages of Haryana. There are a
number of liquor shops in this Indian state, due to the traffic of many truck drivers.

Punjabi cuisine can be non-vegetarian or completely vegetarian. One of the main features of
Punjabi cuisine is its diverse range of dishes. Home cooked and restaurant Punjabi cuisine can
vary significantly, with restaurant style using large amounts of ghee, with liberal amounts of
butter and cream with home cooked concentrating on mainly upon preparations with whole
wheat, rice and other ingredients flavored with masalas.

Within the area itself, there are different preferences. People in the area of Amritsar prefer
stuffed parathas and dairy products, of which the area is well known for. There are certain dishes
which are exclusive to Punjab, such as Mah Di Dal and Saron Da Saag. The food is tailor-made
for the Punjabi lifestyle in which most of the rural folk burn up a lot of calories while working in
the fields. The main masala in a Punjabi dish consists of onion, garlic and ginger. Tandoori food
is a Punjabi speciality especially for non-vegetarian dishes. Many of the most popular elements
of Anglo-Indian cuisine such as Tandoor, Naan, Pakoras and vegetable dishes with paneer
derive from the Punjab

Uttar Pradesh
The Uttar Pradeshi cuisine consists of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes but a vast
majority of the state enjoys sober vegetarian meals with Dal, roti, sabzi and rice constituting the
essentials of daily food habits. Pooris and kachoris are relished on special occasions. Uttar
Pradesh has also been greatly influenced by Mughal (Mughlai cuisine) cooking techniques which
is very popular worldwide. The samosa and pakora, among the most popular snacks in all of
India, are also originally from Uttar Pradesh. Awadhi is a type of West-Central Uttar Pradeshi
cuisine found in the state's Awadh Region

The food from Uttrakhand is known to be wholesome to suit the high-energy necessities of the
mountainous and wintry region. It is traditionally cooked over wood fire. The cuisine mainly
consists of food from two different sub regions Garhwal and Kumaon, though the basic
ingredients of both Garhwali and Kumaoni cuisine are the same, there are some basic differences
that tell apart the two. The distinctive trait of the Kumauni cuisine is the tightfisted use of
especially milk and milk-based products as cows from hilly areas do not yield high-quality or
amount of milk. The similarity between both of them is the liberal use of Ghee and charcoal
cooking. Both Garhwalis and Kumaunis are fond of lentil or pulses and Bhaatt or rice. To
combat the extreme winters and possible exhausting of food, they also use Badi (sun-dried Urad
Dal balls) and Mangodi (sun-dried Moong Dal balls) as substitute for vegetables at times. Main
dishes from Uttarakhand include Chainsoo, Kafuli, Jholi, Thechwani, Baadi, etc.
The dishes prepared by the people of Uttarakhan are similar to Uttar Pradesh. They eat rice,
pulses, chapatis, vegetable. Tomatoes, onions and spices are used to make the food delicious.


South india cuisine include states are given below :

Kerala cuisine is a blend of indigenous dishes and foreign dishes adapted to Kerala
tastes. Coconuts grow in abundance in Kerala, and consequently, grated coconut
and coconut milk are widely used in dishes and curries as a thickener and flavouring
ingredient. Kerala's long coastline, numerous rivers and backwater networks, and
strong fishing industry have contributed to many sea- and river-food based dishes.
Rice is grown in abundance, and could be said, along with tapioca
(manioc/cassava), to be the main starch ingredient used in Kerala food. Having been
a major production area of spices for thousands of years, black pepper, cardamom,
cloves, ginger, and cinnamon play a large part in its food. Most of Kerala's Hindus
eat fish except the Brahmin community and because Kerala has large minorities of
Muslims and Christians that are predominantly non-vegetarians, Kerala cuisine has a
multitude of both vegetarian and dishes prepared using fish, poultry and meat. Rice
and fish along with some vegetables is the staple diet in most Kerala households.
Kerala also has a variety of breakfast dishes like idli, dosa, appam, idiyappam,
puttu, and pathiri.

Tamil Nadu
Tamil food is characterized by the use of rice, legumes and lentils, its distinct aroma
and flavour achieved by the blending of spices including curry leaves, tamarind,
coriander, ginger, garlic, chili, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, cumin,
nutmeg, coconut and rosewater. The word "curry" is derived from the Tamil word
'kari' which means "an additive to the main course or a side dish" Rice and legumes
play an important role in Tamil cuisine. Lentils are also consumed extensively, either
accompanying rice preparations, or in the form of independent dishes. Vegetables
and dairy products are essential accompaniments. Tamil Nadu is famous for its spicy
non vegetarian dishes. The southern regions in Tamil Nadu, namely; Madurai,
Kaaraikudi or Chettinaadu are famous for their spicy non vegetarian dishes

The cuisine of Karnataka includes many vegetarian and non-vegetarian cuisines. The varieties
reflect influences from the food habits of the three neighbouring South Indian states, as well as
the state of Maharashtra and Goa to its north. Some typical dishes include Bisi bele bath, Jolada
rotti, Chapati, Ragi rotti, Akki rotti, Saaru, Huli, Vangi Bath, Khara Bath, Kesari Bath,
Davanagere Benne Dosa, Ragi mudde, and Uppittu. Masala Dosa traces its origin to Udupi
cuisine. Plain and Rave Idli, Mysore Masala Dosa and Maddur Vade are popular in South
Karnataka. Coorg district is famous for spicy pork curries while coastal Karnataka has seafood
specialities. Among sweets, Mysore Pak, Dharwad pedha, Chiroti are well known. Although the
ingredients differ regionally, a typical Kannadiga Oota (Kannadiga meal) includes the following

dishes in the order specified and is served on a banana leaf: Uppu(salt), Kosambari, Pickle,
Palya, Gojju, Raita, Dessert, Thovve, Chitranna, Rice and Ghee.

Andhra Pradesh
Cuisine of the southern state of Andhra Pradesh is referred to as Telugu and
Hyderabadi cuisine. Rice is the staple starch and is usually consumed with a variety
of curries and lentil soups or broths. Although many people here are vegetarian,
people living in the coastal areas are known for their seafood dishes. Food of Andhra
Pradesh is known for its heavy use of spices and chillies. One of the most important
parts of the Andhra cuisine are the various pickles, such as avakaya, a pickle made
from green mango, and gongura, a pickle made from the leaves of the gongura
plant. Curds are a common addition to meals to neutralize the spiciness of the food.
Another popular Andhra Pradesh dish is Hyderabadi biryani, a mixture of rice,
yogurt, onions, meat and spices. Hyderabadi Biryani is popular for its exquisite taste
and is derived from Persian style of slow cooking. While a small chunk of the
populace are vegetarians, vegetarian food is still quite popular. Vegetarian food is
generally served for breakfast and lunch. Breakfast items like Dosa, Vada have
origins in Udipi, Karnataka but are influenced by spices native to Andhra Pradesh

The union territory of Pondicherry in the country of India was a French settlement for a long
time. The French way of life has left a deep impact on the lifestyle of the people in the union
territory of Pondicherry, and French cuisine has become a large influence in cuisine in the
territory. The French and the Indo style have given birth to an innovative taste. The influence of
the neighboring areas like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala is also visible.
Some of the hot favorite cookery items in Pondicherry are Coconut Curry, Tandoori Potato, Soya
Dosa, Podanlangkai, Assad, Curried Vegetables, Stuffed Cabbage, Baked Beans


West india cuisine include states are given below :

Rajasthani cooking was influenced by the availability of ingredients in this arid region. In
Rajasthan water is at a premium, and hence the food is generally cooked in milk or ghee, making
it quite rich. On the other hand, Besan or gram flour is a mainstay of Marwari food mainly
because of the scarcity of vegetables in this arid land.
There is a distinctness in the Rajasthani cuisine which comes from a tradition that is old and
tranquil, and from a culture that has churned the best from its neighboring states of Gujarat,
Haryana and Punjab. Food that could last for several days and could be eaten without heating
was preferred. Scarcity of water and fresh green vegetables have all had their effect on the
cooking. Major dishes of a Rajasthani platter includes Daal-Baati, Tarfini, Raabdi, ghewar, BailGatte, Panchkoota, Chaavadi, Laapsi, Kadhi and Boondi, and snacks like Bikaneri Bhujia,
Mirchi Bada and Pyaaj Kachori.

Gujarati cuisine is primarily vegetarian. The typical Gujarati Thali consists of Roti (a flat bread
made from wheat flour, and called Rotli in Gujarati), daal or kadhi, rice, and sabzi/shaak (a dish
made up of different combinations of vegetables and spices, which may be stir fried, spicy or
sweet). Cuisine can vary widely in flavor and heat, depending on a given family's tastes as well
as the region of Gujarat they are from. North Gujarat, Kathiawad, Kachchh, and South Gujarat
are the four major regions of Gujarati cuisine. Many Gujarati dishes are distinctively sweet, salty,
and spicy at the same time. The cuisine changes with the seasonal availability of vegetables. In
mango season, for example, Keri no ras (fresh mango pulp) is often an integral part of the meal.
The spices used also change depending on the season. Garam Masala and its constituent spices
are used less in summer. Regular fasting, with diets limited to milk and dried fruits, and nuts, is a
common practice.

Maharashtrian cuisine covers a range from being mild to very spicy dishes. Bajri, Wheat, rice,
jowar, vegetables, lentils and fruit form important components of Maharashtrian diet. Popular

dishes include puran poli, ukdiche Modak and batata wada. The staple dishes of Maharashtrian
cuisine are based on Bajri, Jowar and Rice(Tandul). The cuisine of Maharashtra has its own
distinctive flavors and tastes. It can be divided into two major sectionsthe coastal and the
interior. A part of Maharashtra, which lies on the coast of the Arabian Sea, is loosely called the
Konkan and boasts of its own Konkani cuisine, which is a homogeneous combination of
Malvani, Gaud Saraswat Brahmin, and Goan cuisines. Besides the coastal cuisine, the interior of
Maharashtrathe Vidarbha area, has its own distinctive cuisine known as the Varadi cuisine. As
in many states of India, rice is the staple food grain in Maharashtra. Like the other coastal states,
there is an enormous variety of vegetables in the regular diet and lots of fish and coconuts are
used. Grated coconuts spice many kinds of dishes, but coconut oil is not very widely used as a
cooking medium. Peanuts and cashew nuts are widely used in vegetables and peanut oil is the
main cooking medium. Another feature is the use of kokum, a deep purple berry that has a
pleasing sweet and sour taste. Kokum, most commonly used in an appetizer-digestive called the
sol kadhi, is served chilled. During summer another drink called panha made from boiled raw
mango is consumed. Rest of the Maharashtra apart from Konkan, uses ground nuts, jaggary,
wheat, jowar and bajra extensively. Maharashtrian meal consists of rice and bread both along
with 'varan'/'aamtee' a type of lentils and spiced veggies. Maharashtrian dishes for 'Upwas'
have a special mention as most of them are favourites for life time e.g. sabudana khichadi.

Seafood, coconut milk, rice and paste are main ingredients of Goan delicacies. The area is
located in a tropical climate, and spices and flavors are intense. Use of Kokum is a distinct
feature. Goan cuisine is mostly seafood based; the staple foods are rice and fish. Kingfish (Vison
or Visvan) is the most common delicacy, others include pomfret, shark, tuna and mackerel.
Among the shellfish are crabs, prawns, tiger prawns, lobster, squid and mussels. The cuisine of
Goa is influenced by its Hindu origins, four hundred years of Portuguese colonialism, and
modern techniques. The state is frequented by tourists visiting its beaches and historic sites, so its
food has an international aspect. Goan Saraswat Brahmin and Daivajna Brahmins can be
considered facultative vegeterians, as they eat fish and chicken most days, reverting to
vegetarianism occasionally for religious reasons, although Brahmins belonging to Pancha
Dravida are strictly vegetarian

Daman and Diu

Daman and Diu is a union territory of India which, like Goa, was a former colonial possession of
Portugal. Consequently, both native Gujarati food and traditional Portugese food are available.
The neighbouring state of Gujarat has prohibited alcohol, and as a result, dining and wining is

the most popular pleasure in the territory, with almost all popular brands of foreign liquor

Madhya Pradesh
The cuisine in Madhya Pradesh varies from region to region, with the north and west of the state
being mainly based around wheat and meat, and the wetter south and east being dominated by
rice and fish. Gwalior and Indore abound in milk and milk-based preparations. The street food of
Indore is renowned, with shops which have been selling the fare for generations. The Sarafa
[Gold Market] converts into a food market in the night with Bhutte ka kees, Sabudane ki khicri,
Aaloo Patis from Vijay Chat house, and many more delicacies served for the vegetarian and nonvegitarian palette. The Bhopal is known for meat and fish dishes, such as rogan josh, korma,
keema, biryani pilaf and kababs such as shami and seekh. There is street named "Chatori Gali" in
old Bhopal where one can find traditional Muslim non-veg fare like Paya Soup, Bun Kabab,
Nalli - Nihari to name a few local specialities.
One other popular dish in the region is the Dal bafla. Bafla is a steamed and grilled wheat cake
dunked in rich ghee which is eaten with daal (a pungent lentil broth). It is followed by sweet
ladoos. Another popular dish in Malwa region (central M.P) is poha (flattened rice), it is mostly
a breakfast item served with Jalebi.
Indore, Ujjain and Ratlam are world famous for their savory snacks that are made from chick-pea
flour. The city restaurants also serve tasty chaats (snacks), kachoris and samosas.
In summers, the meals tend to end with fruits such as mangoes (dusseharis), melons and
watermelons, custard apples, bananas, papayas and guavas.

East India cuisine

South india cuisine include states are given below :

Oriya cuisine is rich and varied, while relying heavily on local ingredients. The
flavors are usually subtle and delicately spiced, quite unlike the fiery curries
typically associated with Indian cuisine. Fish and other seafood such as crab and
shrimp are very popular. Chicken and mutton are also consumed. Panch phutana, a
mix of cumin, mustard, fennel, fenugreek and kalonji (nigella) is widely used for
tempering vegetables and dals, while garam masala (curry powder) and haladi
(turmeric) are commonly used for non-vegetarian curries. Pakhala, a dish made of

rice, water, and yoghurt, that is fermented overnight, is very popular in summer,
particularly in the rural areas. Oriyas are very fond of sweets and no Oriya repast is
considered complete without some dessert at the end. Vegeterian foods also include
foods prepared without onion and garlic as in temple prasadam and bramhin cuisine

West Bengal
Bengali cuisine is a style of food preparation originating in the eastern India which
includes states of Tripura, Barak Valley of Assam and West Bengal. With an
emphasis on fish and lentils served with rice as a staple diet, Bengali cuisine is
known for its subtle flavours, its confectioneries and desserts, and has perhaps the
only multi-course tradition from India that is analogous with French and Italian
cuisine in structure. The nature and variety of dishes found in Bengali cooking are
unique even in India. Fish cookery is one of its better-known features and
distinguishes it from the cooking of the landlocked regions. Bengal's many rivers,
ponds and lakes teem with many kinds of freshwater fish that closely resemble
catfish, bass, shad or mullet. Bengalis prepare fish in innumerable ways steamed
or braised, or stewed with greens or other vegetables and with sauces that are
mustard-based or thickened with poppyseeds

Traditional Jharkhand cuisine is equally vegetarian as well as non-vegetarian. These
traditional dishes are not available at the restaurants as they have not been
commercialised. However on a visit to a tribal village or a tribal wedding in a remote
area one can get a chance to taste such exotic food. All preparation except the
pickles and festive ones are low on oil and spices

The cuisine of Bihar is similar to North Indian cuisine, the food culture in Hindi Belt,
and with Oriya cuisine. Bihari society is not strictly vegetarian, but people avoid
eating non-vegetarian food daily. Religious people avoid eating non-vegetarian food
on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. Bihari people typically eat boiled rice and daal
with cooked vegetables for lunch, and roti with cooked vegetables for dinner. Roti
and boiled rice are not usually eaten together. Due to this area's strong HinduMuslim heritage, river fish, chicken and goat are popular meats. Mutton is
considered offensive by many people. Meat-based dishes are eaten mainly with
boiled rice. Fish curry is made using mustard paste, a similar technique to the Oriya
way of cooking fish. Dairy products, such as yoghurt (known as dahi), buttermilk
(called mattha), butter, ghee (clarified butter), and lassi, are consumed throughout
the year. Watery foods such as watermelon and sherbet made of pulp of the woodapple fruit are consumed mainly in the summer months, and dry foods and
preparations made of sesame or poppy seeds mainly in the winter months. People

generally eat roti soaked in milk. There is a custom of eating poha (flattened rice)
with yoghurt and sugar. Bihar is famous for Sattu Parathas, which are parathas
stuffed with fried chickpea flour, Chokha (spicy mashed potatoes), Fish curry, Litti,
Bihari Kebab, and Postaa-dana kaa halwaa. Another common dish is alu-bhujia (not
to be confused with Bikaneri Bhujia, also known as rajasthani bhujia), made from
potatoes cut like French-fries and cooked in mustard oil and mild spices, and eaten
with roti or rice-daal. Tangy raita made from lauki (winter melon) or unripened
papaya, yoghurt, and spices, often a paste of green chilli, ginger, garlic and
mustard, is popular in many parts of Bihar

Arunachal Pradesh
The staple food of Arunachal Pradesh is rice, along with fish, meat and green
vegetables. Different varieties of rice are available. Lettuce is the most common
vegetable, prepared by boiling with ginger, coriander and green chillies. Boiled rice
cakes wrapped in leaves is a popular snack. Thukpa is a kind of noodle soup
common among the Monpa tribe of Arunachal

Assamese cuisine, from Assam, a state in North-East India, is a mixture of different indigenous
styles with considerable regional variations and some external influences. Although it is
characterized by the limited use of spices, the flavors are still strong due to the use of endemic
exotic herbs, fruits and vegetables that are either fresh, dried or fermented. Fish is widely used,
and so are birds like duck or pigeon. Preparations are rarely elaborate; the practice of bhuna, the
gentle frying of spices before the addition of the main ingredients, so common in Indian cooking,
is absent in the cuisine of Assam. A traditional meal in Assam begins with a khar, a class of
dishes named after the main ingredient, and ends with a tenga, a sour dish. The food is usually
served in bell metal utensils. Pann, the practice of chewing betel nut, generally concludes the

Chattisgarh has many cuisines not found in the rest of India, although the staple diet, like much
of the rest of India, is rice. Many Chattisgarhi people consume liquor brewed from the Mahuwa
flower. The tribal peoples of the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh eat whatever is available,
choosing food which would not be eaten by people of other states and regions. Red ant chutney
is a favorite dish. Flying ants, mushrooms, squirrels, and rats are considered delicacies, but fish
and pork constitute a large part of Chhatisgarhi cuisine. Pork forms a major item in their diet and
almost every major ceremony starts with the sacrifice of a pig.