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Optimal placement of multiple-Type FACTS devices to maximize

power system loadability using a generic graphical user interface
Flexible AC transmission systems, so-called FACTS devices, can help reduce power flow on overloaded lines, which
would result in an increased loadability of the power system, fewer transmission line losses, improved stability and
security and, ultimately, a more energy-efficient transmission system. In order to find suitable FACTS locations more
easily and with more flexibility, this paper presents a graphical user interface (GUI) based on a genetic algorithm (GA)
which is shown able to find the optimal locations and sizing parameters of multi-type FACTS devices in large power
systems. This user-friendly tool, called the FACTS Placement Toolbox, allows the user to pick a power system
network, determine the GA settings and select the number and types of FACTS devices to be allocated in the
network. The GA-based optimization process is then applied to obtain optimal locations and ratings of the selected
FACTS to maximize the system static loadability. Five different FACTS devices are implemented: SVC, TCSC, TCVR,
TCPST and UPFC. The simulation results on IEEE test networks with up to 300 buses show that the FACTS
placement toolbox is effective and flexible enough for analyzing a large number of scenarios with mixed types of
FACTS to be optimally sited at multiple locations simultaneously.

2.A novel Energy Management System using Ant Colony Optimization for micro-grids
Micro-grids have spread in many distribution systems worldwide. They offer safe and reliable operation for their
consumers by managing the micro-grids' power generation and trading with the main grid. Furthermore, micro-grids
can help in integrating and promoting for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and reducing the environmental impacts
of traditional centralized generation. This paper proposes a novel Energy Management System (EMS) in micro-grids
using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) technique to solve the generation dispatch problem. A combined cost
optimization scheme is investigated to minimize both operational cost and emission levels while satisfying the microgrid's load demand. Furthermore, the proposed EMS is used to evaluate promoting RES implementation in microgrids despite of their high capital cost using the combined economic emission dispatch problem. The proposed EMS
was implemented using MatLab and tested on two case studies with and without RES-WindTurbine (WT). The
obtained results from the proposed technique are compared with those calculated using two other Techniques;
Lagrange and Gradient to evaluate the proposed method. The outcomes are evaluated and discussed. Finally,
conclusions are reported.

3.Optimal planning and design of Distributed Generation based micro-grids

Spiraling power demand, huge transmission and distribution (T&D) losses, providing quality and reliable power to the
far-flunged, remote, dispersed populations have been a challenge and apparently has triggered research about
alternative solutions. Against this backdrop, Distributed Generation (DG)/Renewable Energy (RE) based micro-grids
are considered as one of the feasible options. Distributed Energy Resources (DER) can, not only deliver power to the
local areas (where it is installed and distributed) more efficiently and reliably, but it can also feed excess power, if any,
to the utility grid. In a micro-grid setup, the optimum planning and control of the micro-grid is a key to maximizing the
potential benefits of the real world micro-grid installation. In this paper, the authors attempt to develop an optimal
design and planning of a micro-grid considering various distributed energy technology options such as solar
Photovoltaic (SPV), small wind electric generator, biomass gasifier system, diesel generator and battery storage for
different applications and with realistic inputs on their physical, operating and economic characteristics. The objective
of this paper is to come out with many such optimal micro-grids with various combinations of renewable energy
resources with optimal dispatch strategies for different applications while minimizing the cost. The paper also
presents the findings of the performance profiles of various micro-grid configurations under different operational
scenarios and also determines break-even distance for connecting the micro-grid with the main grid, and compares
that with the cost of the isolated micro-grid.

4.Power management of an isolated hybrid AC/DC micro-grid with fuzzy control of

battery banks

This study focuses on the development of a supervisory control scheme for power management and operation of an
isolated hybrid AC/DC micro-grid, which consists of an AC micro-grid and a DC micro-grid. In the proposed hybrid
micro-grid, wind and diesel generators and AC loads are connected to the AC micro-grid, whereas photovoltaic array
and DC loads are tied to the DC micro-grid. Moreover, the authors consider two independent battery banks in the AC
and DC micro-grids. Furthermore, the AC and the DC micro-grids are coupled through a bidirectional converter, which
can act as an inverter or rectifier. The objectives of the proposed supervisory controller are listed as follows: (i)
maximum utilisation of renewable energy sources along with satisfying the load power demand in both AC and DC
micro-grids, (ii) maintaining state of charge (SOC) of battery banks in both AC and DC micro-grids and (iii) managing
the power exchange between the AC and the DC micro-grids while the reliability of the whole system is taken into
account. The supervisory controller is formalised using a state machine approach. For these purposes, 15 distinct
operation modes are considered. Furthermore, in order to extend the battery life cycle, a fuzzy controller manages
the desired SOC controlling the charge and discharge currents. The effectiveness of the proposed supervisory
controller is evaluated through extensive numerical simulations

5.Effect of grid-connected solid oxide fuel cell power generation on power systems
small-signal stability

This study investigates one of the most fundamental issues of integrating fuel cell (FC) generation into power
systems - its effect on power system small-signal stability when it operates jointly with conventional power generation.
The study first presents a comprehensive mathematical model of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant
integrated with the single-machine infinite-bus power system. Based on the model, conventional damping torque
analysis is carried out to study the effect of SOFC power generation on power system small-signal stability. The
analysis concludes that system small-signal stability can be affected either positively or negatively by the SOFC
power plant when system operating conditions change. Two examples of power systems with gird-connected SOFC
power plants are presented. Small-signal stability of the first example of single-machine power system was examined
when the power system operated at different load conditions and levels of mixtures of conventional and FC power
generation. The second example is a four-machine two-area power system where the power supplied by the girdconnected SOFC power plant is variable. Results of simulation using full non-linear model of the power systems and
the SOFC power plants are given. All the results from the example power systems confirm and further demonstrate
the analysis presented and conclusions obtained

6.Frequency Prediction of Power Systems in FNET Based on State-Space Approach

and Uncertain Basis Functions
In this paper, we discuss the modeling and prediction of power frequency. Power frequency is one of the most
essential parameters in the monitoring, control, and protection of power systems and electric equipments because
when a significant disturbance occurs in a power system, the frequency varies in time and space. It is critical to
employ a dependable model in order to optimize the efficiency and reliability of power systems in the Frequency
Monitoring Network (FNET ), and thus, prevent frequency oscillation in power grid. This paper describes the use of a
state-space model and basis functions to predict power frequency. In the state-space method, expectation
maximization (EM) and prediction error minimization (PEM) algorithms are used to dynamically estimate the model's
parameters. In the basis functions method, we employ random basis functions to predict the frequency. The
algorithms are easy to implement online, having both high precision and a short response time. Numerical results are
presented to demonstrate that the proposed techniques are able to achieve good performance in frequency

7.Transient Stability and Voltage Regulation in Multimachine Power Systems Vis--Vis

STATCOM and Battery Energy Storage

This paper examines the application of STATCOM and battery energy storage to enhance the transient stability of
large-scale multimachine power systems with synchronous and doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs). A passivitybased control design method [interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control (IDA-PBC)] is
developed for multimachine power systems and its performance is evaluated on a two-area system consisting of two
synchronous generators (SGs) and two DFIG along with STATCOM/battery energy storage system. The main
contributions of this paper are threefold: 1) use of a STATCOM and battery energy storage system to enhance
transient stability and provide voltage regulation with SG and DFIG; 2) demonstrating the application of nonlinear
control theory (specifically the IDA-PBC methodology) for the design of a stabilizing feedback controller in large-scale
power systems to improve transient system performance; and 3) developing a methodology that can use the
additional degrees of freedom in large-scale power systems in order to further improve system performance, in
particular the transient stability margin [measured through critical clearing time (CCT)] and the dynamic transient
performance of the system. In order to achieve power angle stability along with the simultaneous regulation of
frequency and voltage, the performance of the proposed control scheme after the occurrence of large disturbances is
evaluated and compared with a conventional power system stabilizer and a feedback linearizing controller

8.A Cooperative Multi-Area Optimization With Renewable Generation and Storage


With the rising number of intermittent renewable energy sources and growing energy demand, transfer capabilities
are very close to their limits. Consequently, redispatch events occur more frequently and flexibility of conventional
generation and storage devices will become increasingly important. The cooperative multi-area optimization strategy
presented here enables transmission system operators (TSOs) to dispatch/redispatch interconnected networks
securely, while reducing dispatch/redispatch costs. Schedules for storage devices, conventional- and renewable
generation are obtained considering network constraints and ramping rates. An optimal schedule for several control
areas is attained, including storage operation to achieve congestion relief. The distributed approach preserves control
area responsibilities. All participating control areas attain a schedule close to the global optimum. TSOs implement
agreements to share resulting profits. The functionality was shown successfully using stressed 14- and 118-node
systems. A cross border dispatch with use of storage devices is realized to maintain a high share of renewable
energy source (RES) feed-in, while reducing overall dispatch costs.


Converter control is an important aspect of voltage-source-converter high-voltage dc (VSC-HVDC) based multiterminal dc grids. Variants of power drooped against dc voltage control have previously been proposed for this
purpose. However, there is at this time no clear methodology available on how to select the size of the droop
constants for distributing a power mismatch, following, e.g., a converter trip, on several converters. This paper
proposes a methodology for establishing droop constants for a variant of power drooped against dc voltage called
pilot voltage droop control. The methodology is derived from the basic control laws in a straight forward fashion and
the accuracy is exemplified by time domain simulations in Digsilent's Powerfactory platform.