39 views

Original Title: Condensation on Inclined Surfaces

Uploaded by সুতন্বী লাহিড়ী

Condensation on Inclined Surfaces

Condensation

© All Rights Reserved

- Tech Details Heat Transfer
- Bejan's Heatlines and Masslines for Convection Visualization and Analysis.pdf
- College of Engineering List of Scientific Equipmen
- Basic Thermography
- Therminol 62 - High temperature liquid phase heat transfer fluid - Asia and Pacific.pdf
- ChE370 Fall 2014
- 1-s2.0-S000925091400164X-main
- COMMON CAUSES OF OVER PRESSURE IN PRESSURE VESSEL.docx
- Kiln Temperatures RMZ53_0403-0408
- Grandest Adventure
- Models.acdc.Heating Circuit
- Thermal Energy Analysis in Reciprocating Hermetic Compressors.pdf
- 2
- Barnard, N - Thermal Mass and Night Ventilation – Utilising “Hidden” Thermal Mass
- din
- Bff3242 Heat Transfer 11617
- IPC2012-90691
- Ermal Analysis of a Solar Collector Absorber Plate With Microchannels
- Agitated Vessel
- - Biometeorology

You are on page 1of 8

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/etfs

of airvapor mixture

Fernando F. Czubinski a, Marcia B.H. Mantelli a,, Jlio C. Passos b

a

b

Departamento de Engenharia Mecnica, LEPTEN/Labtucal Centro Tecnolgico, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianpolis, SC, Brazil

Departamento de Engenharia Mecnica, LEPTEN/Boiling Centro Tecnolgico, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianpolis, SC, Brazil

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 26 September 2012

Received in revised form 7 January 2013

Accepted 10 January 2013

Available online 4 February 2013

Keywords:

Film condensation

Condensing surfaces

Noncondensable gases

Inclined smooth surfaces

Grooved surfaces

a b s t r a c t

This paper reports experimental results for lm condensation on vertical and downward inclined smooth

and grooved surfaces subjected to ascending streams of a vaporair mixture. An experimental facility was

built in order to evaluate the heat uxes for different surface inclinations, surface sub-cooling temperatures and air to vapor ratios in the mixture. Two experimental procedures were employed to evaluate the

heat absorption rate during the condensation process. The employment of grooved surfaces resulted in a

10% enhancement of the condensation rate in the case of the pure vapor condensation and a negligible

effect when noncondensable gases (NCGs) were present in the mixture.

2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The condensation heat transfer phenomenon is encountered in

a variety of engineering and industrial applications. Knowledge of

the physical mechanisms which drive condensation is important

for the design of several types of equipment.

The rst lm condensation model was proposed by Nusselt in

1916. It assumes negligible effects of the interfacial shear stress

at the vapor/liquid interface, and equates gravity and viscous

forces for a quiescent pure vapor environment in contact with an

isothermal vertical smooth plate. A linear temperature prole

was considered. Subsequently, a number of researchers improved

Nusselts model by removing some of the original restrictive

assumptions and including effects like sub-cooling, a nonlinear

temperature prole, inertial terms and interfacial stress [14].

The wettability of the condenser surface plays an important

role, as the interaction between the condensate liquid and the condensing surface dictates the mode in which condensation occurs.

The dropwise condensation mode is associated with higher heat

transfer coefcients when compared to lm condensation. Therefore, many researchers have directed their efforts to the development of suitable condensation promoters such as polymeric

lms, a monolayer of organic materials and ion-plating technology.

These techniques provide poor wettability of the substrate and

thus dropwise condensation is maintained for a longer period [5

Corresponding author. Tel./fax: +55 48 3721 9379.

E-mail address: marcia@emc.ufsc.br (M.B.H. Mantelli).

0894-1777/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermusci.2013.01.004

8]. However, as is well known, dropwise condensation is often difcult to maintain for all the period.

Wavy condenser surfaces, also known as Gregorig surfaces [9],

are used to produce better heat transfer rates for the lm condensation mode. The enhancement is caused by the variation in the

interface radius of the liquid lm over the substrate, which, together with the surface tension, produces a gradient pressure in

the condensate, driving the lm from the crest to the valley of

the surface grooves, improving the condensation performance.

The tests performed showed that this conguration results in heat

transfer coefcients up to ve times larger than those for smooth

surfaces, for the same projected area [1012].

In some practical operations, noncondensable gases (NCGs) may

be found in the condensing vapor, deteriorating the heat transfer

process. This is caused by the formation of a gas boundary layer

over the condensate liquid lm, reducing the partial vapor pressure

at the condensate interface. Several studies have been conducted

on stagnant and forced convection occurring over smooth plates

or inside and outside tubes in order to investigate the effect of

an NCG. For a quiescent condensing mixture on smooth plates,

the decrease in heat transfer rates could be around 50% with an

air fraction of only 0.5% (by mass) in the airvapor mixture. In

cases where the mixture ows, the reduction in the heat transfer

decreases since the stream disperses the gas boundary layer. This

effect is dependent on the Reynolds number of the mixture. Another effect that could spread the gas boundary layer is the undulation in the liquid lm condensation interface, which occurs in the

wavy and turbulent ow regime [1316].

F.F. Czubinski et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 47 (2013) 9097

91

Nomenclature

Alphabetic

NCG

Noncondensable gase

Q

Heat transfer rate (kW)

_

m

mass ow rate (kg s1)

Cp

Specic heat (kJ kg1 K1)

Tout

Outlet cooling water temperature (K)

Inlet cooling water temperature (K)

Tin

hlv

Latent heat (kJ kg1)

h

Mean heat transfer coefcient (kW m2 K1)

g

Gravity (m s2)

L

Surface length (m)

DT

Sub-cooling temperature (K)

A

Area (m2)

T

Temperature (K)

Sc=l/qD Schmidt dimensionless number ()

W

Air mass fraction ()

M

Molecular weight (kg Kmol1)

D

Diffusivity (m2 s1)

assessments, modes of uxes and ow regimes, and the composition and type of mixture in different geometrical congurations.

In this study, experimental analysis and models presented in the

literature will be employed to investigate the downward condensation of vapor contained in airvapor mixtures, in vertical ascension, reaching the cooled surface of a condensing plate from below.

Pressure (atm)

Greek Letters

Density (kg m3)

h

Surface inclination ()

j

Thermal conductivity (kW m1 K1)

l

Dynamic viscosity (kg m1 s1)

Subscript

w

cond

liq

vap

sat

G

1

0

Cooling water

Condensate

Liquid

Pure water vapor

Saturation

Gas (liquid vapor mixture)

Bulk

Condensate interface

2. Experiment

2.1. Experimental apparatus

Fig. 1 shows a scheme of the experimental facility. It consists of

a test section and auxiliary equipment (steam generator, cooling

water system, NCG supplier and data acquisition system) which

were grouped into three main sections: boiler, vapor supply line

Condensation studies using this particular conguration have

been carried out by Gerstmann and Grifth [17] and Chung et al.

[18,19]. This phenomenon can be observed in condensers designed

for the recovery of water from humid air which is released to the

atmosphere in industrial cooling towers [20].

Gerstmann and Grifth [17] investigated the condensation of

pure Freon-113 on the underside of a smooth plate in a closed

chamber. The heat transfer rates were of the same order of magnitude as those predicted by Nusselt analysis (which considers a quiescent condensing vapor). Chung et al. [18], also used a smooth

plate as the condensing surface and showed that in the case of pure

water vapor the condensation heat transfer agreed with the Nusselt theoretical model, even though the experimental tests were

conducted under a slow ow. With NCGs, when this slow ow

reaches the surface, the NCG boundary layer is spread, so that

the effect of the NCG on the heat transfer rate is not so obvious.

Chung et al. [18] used a deector before the mixture ow hit the

cooled condensing surface within the condensing chamber, to

avoid the impact of the direct ow on the surface. They also studied congurations where the condensing chamber was closed, to

create a quiescent environment.

The main objective of the study reported herein was to investigate experimentally the condensation of the water of an upstream

airvapor mixture ow, which hits directly the downward face of a

cooled surface. It should be noted that the condensation of water

under such conditions is a subject not previously explored in the

literature. The heat transfer rate resulting from the lm condensation process was measured. Models and results available in the literature were used as benchmarks for the analysis of the physical

phenomenon involved. The effects of smooth and grooved surfaces

of electrolytic copper and aluminum alloys were also studied, varying the inclination angles, the sub-cooling temperature and the

amount of air in the airvapor mixture.

92

F.F. Czubinski et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 47 (2013) 9097

and test section. All parts of the equipment were made of galvanized carbon steel plates, of 2 mm thickness, and were thermally

insulated using 50 mm rockwool sheets in order to reduce the heat

loss to the surroundings.

The boiler, which consists of a 600 mm 500 mm 270 mm

rectangular vessel, has electrical heaters inside to supply the controlled power needed to generate the steam. The NCG employed

was atmospheric air, supplied with the aid of an air blower through

a square duct with 50 mm of internal cross section and 300 mm of

length (see Fig. 1). The air was warmed to the same temperature as

the steam using a controlled electrical power source to provide

power for the air heater, so that the resulting mixture is kept in

the dry saturated condition. The air mass ow rate can be calculated by the thermal capacity of the air times the temperature difference before and after the heater measured by thermocouples.

The air-vapor mixture is created by these two streams, which meet

at the vapor supply line. The supply line is a cylindrical vertical

tube with 147 mm of inner-diameter and 1000 mm of length.

The test section, illustrated in Fig. 2, is a box with a square base

with 250 mm of edge and 350 mm of height. One wall of the chamber is made of glass to allow the visualization of the condensing

phenomenon. The mixture formed in the vapor supply line enters

the test section from the bottom and directly reaches the condensing surface. This surface is xed by pins located in the lateral walls,

allowing inclination variations.

Different inclinations of the cooling plate lead to variations in

the cross sectional area of the airvapor stream ow. Therefore,

the ow area beside the plate changes with the inclination, causing

different degrees of connement of the mixture. To keep approximately the same connement (same cross sectional area of the

ow) for all tested cases, plates with different lengths, which vary

according to their inclination, were constructed. Also, one of the

plates was tested with different inclinations to study the connement effect.

Smooth electrolytic copper plates with lengths of 116.2 mm,

142.8 mm and 200 mm were tested at inclinations of 30, 45,

60, respectively. This latter plate was tested at inclinations of

60 and 90 (vertical position).

To collect the condensed water, a drain was installed in the lower part of each surface, as shown in Fig. 2. Seven thermocouples

were inserted within small holes drilled in parallel and 0.1 mm below the condensing surface, in order to measure the surface temperature distribution, as can be seen in Fig. 3a.

The back face of the condensing test plate closes a small heat

exchanger, comprised of a hollow thermal insulated metallic parallelepiped box, where cooling water circulates at controlled rates

and temperatures, allowing different sub-cooling levels of the condensing surface (see Fig. 3b).

The inuence of the surface material and nishing on the condensation was tested by means of surfaces of the same length

(200 mm) and same inclination (60), made of smooth and grooved

aluminum 5052 alloy and grooved electrolytic copper plates. The

grooves were made in the longitudinal direction of a plate of the

same thickness as the smooth plate being tested, with a distance

of 2 mm between crests and 1.44 mm of depth. Fig. 4 shows the

testing surfaces with their main dimensions.

2.2. Data reduction

The experimental heat transfer rates were measured by two

methods. In the rst method, the heat absorbed by the cooling

water was calculated by multiplying the mass ux rate by the difference between the inlet and outlet water temperatures, using the

expression:

_ w T out T in

Q w mCp

where m

rotameter, Cpw is specic heat of the cooling water and Tout, Tin

are the outlet and inlet temperatures of the cooling water,

respectively.

In the second method, the condensate heat transfer rate is calculated as:

_ cond hlv

Q cond m

where m

use of a weighing scale and hlv is the latent heat of vaporization.In

order to assist the interpretation of the experimental results for the

F.F. Czubinski et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 47 (2013) 9097

93

transfer rate can be obtained by using Eq. (3). If there is no agreement, this procedure is repeated until a good agreement is reached.

In the study reported herein, these values were evaluated up to

103.

The thermophysical properties of the condensate liquid boundary layer where evaluated at the temperature suggested by Minkowycz and Sparrow [14]. The properties of the mixture were

assessed on a mass fraction basis considering the initial state of

formation. The diffusion coefcient of water vapor in air was calculated using the following equation given by Marrero and Manson

[21],

pure vapor, the theoretical heat transfer rate was determined using

the modied Nusselt model [2]:

314

4

5

h

0:943

Nusselt

Llliq DT

where qliq, jliq and lliq are the density, thermal conductivity and

viscosity of the condensed liquid density respectively, qvap is the

pure vapor density, jliq is the thermal conductivity, g is the force

of gravity, L is the surface length, h is the surface inclination from

the horizontal and DT is the difference between the temperatures

of the interface and the wall.

Thus, the heat transfer rate is obtained by:

where hNusselt is determined from Eq. (3), Asurface is the surface area

of each condensing plate and Tsat, Twall represent the temperatures

of the pure saturated steam at the interface and the surface temperature, respectively, measured by the thermocouples.

To account for the presence of NCG, the Rose model [10,13] was

used to predict the theoretical heat transfer. In this case, in contrast to the pure vapor, the saturation temperature at the interface

is not previously known, and thus the following equation is used to

estimate this parameter:

lliq qliq W 1 2 20

W0

Sc

21

lG qG w0

W1

!

8

lG qG

w0

5

w0

2

FX

W 0 28

3

F Sc lliq qliq

10FSc

100 W 1

w0

2

8Sc

21 W 0

W0

where qG and lG are the density and viscosity of the airvapor mixture, respectively, W0 is the air mass fraction at the condensate

interface, W1 is the air mass fraction of the mixture, Sc is the

Schmidt number for the gas mixture, F = jliq (T0 Twall) /lliqhlv,

where T0 is the interface temperature, w0 = W0 W1 and X =

(Mair Mvapor)/[Mair W1 (Mair Mvapor)], where Mair and Mvapor

are the molecular weight of air and water respectively.

The evaluation of the interface temperature therefore begins by

guessing a value for this parameter, which must be between the

temperatures of the surface and the initial mixture formation.

Therefore, F, in Eq. (5) can be computed and this equation is solved

for W0, the noncondensable air mass fraction at the interface. Since

the vapor mass fraction is equal to 1 W0, the partial pressure of

the vapor at the interface is evaluated by assuming equilibrium

at the interface and using Raoult and Daltons Law. With the partial

vapor pressure, the corresponding saturation temperature can be

ascertained from steam tables. If this new value for the interface

T 2:072

1

P1

The tests were carried out at atmospheric pressure with a steam

mass ow rate of 2.4 g/s. Air (NCG) was combined with the steam

resulting in mixtures with mass fractions varying from 0 to 50%.

The surface temperature varied (between 35 and 85 C) for each

condition of NCG and each inclination.

The boiler heat loss through the insulation to the environment

was estimated to be around 1.7% of the power. The heat loss from

the air heating section was estimated to be between 3% and 8%,

depending on the input power.

Uncertainty analysis was performed for the experimental determination of the heat transfer. The temperatures were measured by

calibrated k-type thermocouples, which provide an accuracy of

0.25 C. 5% of uncertainty was evaluated for the air mass ow

measurement. The uncertainties observed for the heat transfer rate

using Eq. (1) varied from 10 to 50%. With Eq. (2), these uncertainties were less than 5%. Large uncertainties were associated with Eq.

(1) because the difference between the inlet and outlet cooling

water temperature is very small, and virtually the data acquisition

system shows almost the same values as temperature readings. On

the other hand, the uncertainties obtained using Eq. (2) are much

smaller because the volume of collected condensate, which was

performed in a large time frame, was much larger that the smallest

reading of the weighting scale. These heat transfer uncertainties

are presented by vertical error bars superposing the data in the

plots shown in the gures of the next section. In some of the data

presented, these uncertainties are very small and difcult to observe in these plots.

One should note that the thermocouples are inserted inside the

cooled surface at 1 mm of distance from the condensation surface,

as already mentioned, causing a maximum wall temperature measurement error of 1 C. The propagated error using Eq. (4) for the

heat transfer calculation is negligible.

3. Results and discussion

Fig. 6 shows the test results for the heat ux transferred during

the condensation of pure vapor on a vertical smooth plate, as a

function of the surface temperature. The solid line represents the

predictions provided by the Nusselt model, Eq. (4), while the solid

and open symbols show the experimental values obtained from

Eqs. (1) and (2), respectively. The heat uxes obtained from Eqs.

(1) and (2) showed a good agreement between them but not with

the Nusselt theory. As the condensing vapor is not stagnant (the inlet and outlet of the test section are fully opened), a large volume of

the vapor stream does not have contact with the condensing surface, owing freely inside the condensing chamber. In order to verify this situation, two modications were made to create a

stagnant environment. Firstly, as performed by Chung et al. [18],

a deector was used to avoid the direct impact of the upstream

94

F.F. Czubinski et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 47 (2013) 9097

400

Eq. (1)

Eq. (2)

Eq. (4) Nusselt

300

200

100

0

40

60

80

Fig. 6. Smooth plate in the vertical position using pure vapor.

section outlet was almost completely closed, as can be seen in

Fig. 5. Table 1 shows the results obtained for one testing case with

this modication, showing a good agreement with the Nusselt theory This means that the experimental apparatus is well designed

and that its testing parameters are well controlled, since the heat

ux results approach the Nusselt predictions as the ow approaches the stagnant conditions, as assumed in the Nusselt model. One should note it was not possible to obtain more data with

this set up because, as the test chamber was full of warm vapor,

more cooling power in the condensate plate would be necessary.

The thermal bath used was not able to cool down the plate to temperature levels tested in the other experiments (from 40 to 80 C),

so that only the plate temperature of around 83 C was tested.

Fig. 7 illustrates the heat transfer results observed in the condensation of vapor from a mixture of airvapor, condensing on a

vertical smooth copper plate. The line represents the theoretical

results obtained by Rose, Eq. (5), the symbols the experimental

measurements and the vertical bars the degree of uncertainty.

As can be seen in Fig. 7, the heat transfer rate decreases systematically as the surface temperature and the presence of NCG increase, both for experimental and theoretical results. Actually the

NCG tends to accumulate at the liquid interface, resulting in a

Table 1

Heat transfer results.

Surface temperature (C)

82.6

Heat ux (kW/m2)

Eq. (4) Nusselt

Eq. (1)

Eq. (2)

138.9

125.4

128.3

reduction in the partial pressure of the steam, decreasing the saturation temperature at which the condensation takes place, and,

therefore, reducing the heat ux. In other words, an additional

thermal resistance is built up, reducing the heat transfer rate. On

the other hand, the heat uxes predicted by the Rose model for

mixtures in quiescent environment are smaller than those observed in streams, where the ow hitting the condensation surface

spreads the NCG boundary layer. In the latter case, the saturation

temperature is not so strongly affected by the accumulation of

the NCG. In other words, Rose considered a stagnant environmental while in this work the mixture was in an upstream ow. For the

case with a 20% air mass fraction, the heat ux decrease, compared

with the pure vapor case, was between 15% and 22%, depending on

the surface temperature. Rose [13] reported that for a quiescent

mixture with a 0.5% air mass fraction the NCG caused a large thermal resistance, with a decrease of more than 50% in the heat ux.

Similar trends were observed for plate inclinations of 60, 45

and 30, as shown in Figs. 810, respectively, for smooth copper

plate

The Nusselt theory shows that the heat transfer for vertical

plates (in a quiescent environment) is larger than for tilted surfaces, as the gravity pulls the liquid lm downward. However, on

comparing Fig. 6 (vertical case) with Figs. 810 (tilted cases), it is

clear that this effect is not observed. It was noted that, as the surface approximates the horizontal position the ascending stream

tends to be more trapped by the condensing surface and the vapor

of the airvapor mixture exchanges more heat with the cooled surface, increasing the production of condensate and, therefore, the

heat transfer coefcient. It is well known that the mean liquid lm

thickness, which acts as thermal resistance, increases as the surface length increases (larger condensing area). As already explained, the length of the tested plates decreases as their

inclinations tend to the horizontal position, and therefore, the lm

thickness and the thermal resistance are expected to decrease.

Actually this is not observed. Taking Fig. 7 (vertical case) and 8

(60 case), although the tested surface is the same (and so the same

mean liquid lm thickness), the heat transfer rate for the inclined

surface is larger than for the vertical case. Therefore, the tests show

that the effect of the liquid lm thickness is less important than the

inuence of inclination. Consequently, the condensation heat

uxes were higher for an inclination of 30 (Fig. 10) than for 45

(Fig. 9) and 60 (Fig. 8).

It is interesting to note that during the experiments and for all

slopes tested, no condensate drops were observed to fall from the

cooling surface. Instead, all of the condensate liquid lm ran down

the downward condensing surface and was collected by the drain.

This means that all the condensate formed over the condensing

surface was collected in the drain, improving the quality of the

experimental data.

Also, one should note that the heat transfer calculated using Eq.

(2) is always larger than that calculated using Eq. (1) for all inclined

testing cases, although most of the data lie within the experimental

uncertainty range. This is not observed for the vertical case. Even

though it is not possible to explain exactly why this happens, it

is believed that this difference is due to the different stream congurations over the condensing plates in both positions. More investigation would be need to a deep understanding of this

phenomenon. In spite of this difference the comparison between

the heat transfer determined by Eqs. (1) and (2) is better than with

the results of the literature theoretical models.

The inuence of other surface materials was also investigated in

this study. Samples of aluminum and copper, in the smooth and

grooved surface congurations, were tested for an inclination of

60. In the following plots the theoretical results and degrees of

uncertainty are not shown, as no new information other than that

previously discussed herein can be obtained.

F.F. Czubinski et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 47 (2013) 9097

Eq.1PureVapor

Eq.2PureVapor

Eq.1 - 20% NCG

Eq.2 - 20% NCG

Rose - 20% NCG

Eq. 1 - 30% NCG

Eq. 2 - 30% NCG

Rose - 30% NCG

Eq. 1 - 40% NCG

Eq. 2 - 40% NCG

Rose - 40% NCG

Eq. 1 - 50% NCG

Eq. 2 - 50% NCG

Rose - 50% NCG

30

95

20

10

0

40

60

80

Fig. 7. Smooth plate in the vertical position.

Eq.1PureVapor

Eq.2PureVapor

Eq.1 - 20% NCG

Eq.2 - 20% NCG

Rose - 20% NCG

Eq. 1 - 30% NCG

Eq. 2 - 30% NCG

Rose - 30% NCG

Eq. 1 - 40% NCG

Eq. 2 - 40% NCG

Rose - 40% NCG

Eq. 1 - 50% NCG

Eq. 2 - 50% NCG

Rose - 50% NCG

40

30

20

10

0

40

60

80

Fig. 8. Smooth plate with an inclination of 60.

50

Eq.1PureVapor

Eq.2PureVapor

Eq.1 - 20% NCG

Eq.2 - 20% NCG

Rose - 20% NCG

Eq. 1 - 30% NCG

Eq. 2 - 30% NCG

Rose - 30% NCG

Eq. 1 - 40% NCG

Eq. 2 - 40% NCG

Rose - 40% NCG

Eq. 1 - 50% NCG

Eq. 2 - 50% NCG

Rose - 50% NCG

40

30

20

10

0

40

60

80

Fig. 9. Smooth plate with an inclination of 45.

In Figs. 1113, the heat ux is plotted against surface temperature for the condensing surfaces at 60 degrees of inclination, for

grooved copper, grooved aluminum and smooth aluminum surfaces, respectively. In the case of the grooved surfaces, the heat

uxes were evaluated based on the apparent projected surface

area.

The results for the heat uxes show that the behaviors of the

smooth and grooved surfaces follow the same trend, that is, an in-

to a decrease in the heat ux.

On comparing Figs. 1113 with Fig. 8 (all experimental data for

surfaces with the same inclination) it can be observed that the

highest heat uxes were obtained for the pure vapor with the

grooved copper surface. The heat transfer was enhanced by around

10% compared with the smooth copper surface. This result is much

lower than that observed by Markowitz et al. [11], where an

96

F.F. Czubinski et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 47 (2013) 9097

Eq.2PureVapor

Eq.1 - 20% NCG

Eq.2 - 20% NCG

Rose - 20% NCG

Eq. 1 - 30% NCG

Eq. 2 - 30% NCG

Rose - 30% NCG

Eq. 1 - 40% NCG

Eq. 2 - 40% NCG

Rose - 40% NCG

Eq. 1 - 50% NCG

Eq. 2 - 50% NCG

Rose - 50% NCG

50

40

30

20

10

0

40

60

80

Fig. 10. Smooth plate with an inclination of 30.

50

Eq. 1PureVapor

Eq. 2PureVapor

Eq.1 - 20% NCG

Eq. 2 - 20% NCG

Eq.1 - 30% NCG

Eq. 2 - 30% NCG

Eq.1 - 40% NCG

Eq. 2 - 40% NCG

Eq.1 - 50% NCG

Eq. 2 - 50% NCG

40

30

20

10

0

40

60

80

Fig. 11. Grooved copper surface at an inclination of 60.

40

Eq. 1PureVapor

Eq. 2PureVapor

Eq.1 - 20% NCG

Eq. 2 - 20% NCG

Eq.1 - 30% NCG

Eq. 2 - 30% NCG

Eq.1 - 40% NCG

Eq. 2 - 40% NCG

Eq.1 - 50% NCG

Eq. 2 - 50% NCG

30

20

10

0

40

60

80

Fig. 12. Grooved aluminum surface at an inclination of 60.

enhancement of around 150% was achieved for ascending Freon113 (comparing grooved with smooth surfaces). In the study reported herein, the vapor ows upwards and the grooves are not

able to hold the vapor for long and, therefore, the improvement observed is due to an increase in the condensing area, while Markowitz et al. [11] attributed the improvement to the surface tension

and the augmentation of the liquid vapor lm curvature.

For different types of surfaces, it is observed that with an increase in the NCG in the airvapor mixture the heat uxes for

the four different surfaces tend to assume the same value. This

can be clearly observed, for instance, in the case of 50% of NCG.

In other words, copper and aluminum with a grooved or smooth

surface showed the same behavior for high amounts of NCG. As explained by Markowitz et al. [11], the NCG tends to accumulate in

the grooves, blocking the access of the condensate liquid to the valley regions, reducing the efciency of the surfaces.

In summary, when airvapor mixture ascending ows reach

condensing surfaces, the enhancement provided by the channels

F.F. Czubinski et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 47 (2013) 9097

97

40

Eq. 1PureVapor

Eq. 2PureVapor

Eq.1 - 20% NCG

Eq. 2 - 20% NCG

Eq.1 - 30% NCG

Eq. 2 - 30% NCG

Eq.1 - 40% NCG

Eq. 2 - 40% NCG

Eq.1 - 50% NCG

Eq. 2 - 50% NCG

30

20

10

0

40

60

80

Fig. 13. Smooth aluminum surface with an inclination of 60.

was observed only in the case of the pure vapor. With NCG, the values for the heat transfer rate are similar for different condensing

surfaces.

4. Conclusions

Film condensation of ascending ows of airvapor mixtures

was experimentally investigated on vertical and downward inclined surfaces, in relation to the effects of different inclination angles, sub-cooling levels and the presence of NCG in the upstream

ow, for smooth and grooved surfaces of copper and aluminum.

The test results were evaluated based on the Nusselt and Rose

theories as benchmarks. Although the presence of NCG had an effect on the decrease in the heat transfer rate, the conguration of

the condensation system plays the main role since the mixture

ows upstream freely inside the condensing chamber.

Reverse trends were observed in the heat transfer rates for the

test results and the theory predictions, considering the effect of

inclination. The experimental results show that the heat uxes increase as the plate inclination decreases from the vertical to an

inclination of 30. As the amount of NCG increases, a systematic

reduction of the heat transfer rate is observed. Due to the mixture

ow, the formation of the NCG boundary layer over the condensate

liquid is disturbed and the decrease in the heat transfer rate was

not so strongly affected by the NCG, as observed in the literature

for quiescent mixtures. The heat transfer variation with the condenser surface sub-cooling level follows the same trend as predicted by the theoretical models.

Furthermore, the enhancement of the heat transfer rates for

grooved surfaces was small and observed only in the case of the

pure vapor, especially for the copper samples. The effect of grooves

was negligible for streams with NCGs.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to acknowledge the nancial support

provided by Petrobras and CNPq for this research.

References

[1] L.A. Bromley, Effects of heat capacity of condensate, Industrial and Engineering

Chemistry 44 (1952) 29662969.

[2] W.M. Rohsenow, Heat transfer and temperature distribution in laminar lm

condensation, Journal of Heat Transfer 78 (1956) 16451648.

condensation, Journal of Heat Transfer 8 (1959) 1318.

[4] M.M. Chen, An analytical study of laminar lm condensation: Part 1 at

plates, Journal of Heat Transfer 81 (1961) 4854.

[5] X.H. Ma, J.B. Chen, D.Q. Xu, J.F. Lin, C.S. Ren, Z.H. Long, Inuence of processing

conditions of polymer lm on dropwise condensation heat transfer,

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 45 (2002) 34053411.

[6] S. Vermuri, K.J. Kim, B.D. Wood, S. Govindaraju, T.W. Bell, Long term testing for

dropwise condensation using self-assembled monolayer coatings of noctadecyl mercaptan, Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 421429.

[7] L. Zhong, X.H. Ma, W. Sifang, W. Mingzhe, L. Xiaonan, Effects of surface free

energy and nanostructures on dropwise condensation, Chemical Engineering

Journal 156 (2010) 546552.

[8] A.B. Kananeh, M.H. Rausch, A. Leipertz, A.P. Froba, Experimental study of

dropwise condensation on plasma-ion implanted stainless steel tube,

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 49 (2006) 50185026.

[9] V.P. Carey, Liquid-Vapor Phase Change Phenomena: An Introduction to the

Thermophysics of Vaporization and Condensation Process in Heat Transfer,

Taylor & Francis, USA, 1992.

[10] L.C. Burmeister, Convective Heat Transfer, second ed., John Wiley & Sons, USA,

1993.

[11] A. Markowitz, B.B. Mikic, A.E. Bergles, Condensation on a downward-facing

horizontal rippled surface, Transaction of ASME, Journal of Heat Transfer 94

(1972) 315320.

[12] M. Izumi, S. Kumagai, R. Shimada, N. Yamakawa, Heat transfer enhancement of

dropwise condensation on a vertical surface round shaped grooves,

Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 28 (2004) 243248.

[13] J.W. Rose, Condensation of a vapor in the presence of a non-condensable gas,

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 12 (1968) 233237.

[14] W.J. Minkowycz, E.M. Sparrow, Condensation heat transfer in the presence of

noncondensables, interfacial resistance, superheating, variable properties, and

diffusion, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 9 (1966) 1125

1144.

[15] A.M. Zhu, S.C. Wang, J.X. Sun, L.X. Xie, Z. Wang, Effects of high fractional

noncondensable gas on condensation in the dewvaporation desalination

process, Desalination 214 (2007) 128137.

[16] S.K. Park, M.H. Kim, K.J. Yoo, Effects of a wavy interface on steamair

condensation on a vertical surface, International Journal of Multiphase Flow 23

(1997) 10311042.

[17] J. Gerstmann, P. Grifth, Laminar lm condensation on the underside of

horizontal and inclined surfaces, International Journal of Heat and Mass

Transfer 10 (1967) 567580.

[18] B.J. Chung, S. Kim, M.C. Kim, Film condensations of owing mixtures of steam

air an inclined at plate, International Communication of Heat and Mass

Transfer 32 (2005) 233239.

[19] B.J. Chung, S. Kim, Film condensations on horizontal and slightly inclined

upward and downward facing plates, Heat Transfer Engineering 29 (11) (2008)

936941.

[20] R. Zimmermann, M.B.H. Mantelli, T.P. Borges, C.A. Costa, Viability Study Of

Retrieving The Evaporated Water In A Mechanical Draft Cross Flow Cooling

Tower, Proceedings of The 14th International Heat Transfer Conference Ihtc14

August 813, Washington D.C, USA, 2010.

[21] T.R. Marrero, E.A. Mason, Gaseous diffusion coefcients, Journal of Physical

and Chemical Reference Data 1 (1972) 3118.

- Tech Details Heat TransferUploaded bysach.pareek9912
- Bejan's Heatlines and Masslines for Convection Visualization and Analysis.pdfUploaded byandysarmiento
- College of Engineering List of Scientific EquipmenUploaded byDark_roger
- Basic ThermographyUploaded byRavinder Gupta
- Therminol 62 - High temperature liquid phase heat transfer fluid - Asia and Pacific.pdfUploaded byWilbert James Futalan
- ChE370 Fall 2014Uploaded byTheYidIsEnough
- 1-s2.0-S000925091400164X-mainUploaded byCita Ka Widuri
- COMMON CAUSES OF OVER PRESSURE IN PRESSURE VESSEL.docxUploaded byToni
- Kiln Temperatures RMZ53_0403-0408Uploaded byDWWillson
- Grandest AdventureUploaded byChadt Montague I'gautte
- Models.acdc.Heating CircuitUploaded byvenalum90
- Thermal Energy Analysis in Reciprocating Hermetic Compressors.pdfUploaded bypancawawan
- 2Uploaded byJoshua Sam Simanjuntak
- Barnard, N - Thermal Mass and Night Ventilation – Utilising “Hidden” Thermal MassUploaded bySérgio Gnipper
- dinUploaded byMarco Della Pelle
- Bff3242 Heat Transfer 11617Uploaded bynadiyaxx
- IPC2012-90691Uploaded byMarcelo Varejão Casarin
- Ermal Analysis of a Solar Collector Absorber Plate With MicrochannelsUploaded byAbubakkar Siddiq
- Agitated VesselUploaded byBharatSheth
- - BiometeorologyUploaded bywicak_sp
- 2011 Polezhaev Ablation ConceptsUploaded byDavid Acosta
- Mcp401 Report-3 Template v1 (1)Uploaded byRakesh Sharma
- Fidan2011Uploaded byesraates44
- heat transfer techniquesUploaded byRajneesh Katiyar
- drying and heat transferUploaded bykharintia
- Transfer Operations (CH-515)Uploaded bySourav Panda
- 51.IJMPERDFEB201851Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- AssignmentUploaded byJackson Teoh
- Density Pressure WindUploaded byAntonietteSopinoCempron
- QUES3Uploaded byMúrtåzâ Lãxmīdhâr

- Economics Basics TutorialUploaded byAlice Wijnen
- Laser in Chem ProcessingUploaded byসুতন্বী লাহিড়ী
- Comsol Leaching ultrasonic.pdfUploaded byসুতন্বী লাহিড়ী
- Thorium fuel cycle - potential benefits for India - IAEA publication (2005)Uploaded bykalyan974696
- Bellow Design 1Uploaded byzingalala
- Failure AnalysisUploaded bymuki10
- Banking Basicsmini (1)Uploaded byসুতন্বী লাহিড়ী
- Revised SOCUploaded byসুতন্বী লাহিড়ী
- Magnetic Particle TestingUploaded bymnaseemiqbal4200
- Intro to Welding TechnologyUploaded byRama Krishna Reddy Donthireddy
- SIRD FormatUploaded byসুতন্বী লাহিড়ী
- DU Dissolution Kinetics Report IMPUploaded byসুতন্বী লাহিড়ী
- ReadmeUploaded byDaniel Fonseca
- Liquid Penetrant TestingUploaded byFDS_03
- Andaman Fact SheetUploaded byসুতন্বী লাহিড়ী
- 1525431933 IcelandUploaded byসুতন্বী লাহিড়ী
- Learn MarathiUploaded byapi-3710677
- Pump SelectionUploaded bySIVAPATHASEKARAN
- Sound ThesisUploaded byসুতন্বী লাহিড়ী
- Cost of CentrifugeUploaded byসুতন্বী লাহিড়ী
- 14Uploaded byসুতন্বী লাহিড়ী
- 2_1Uploaded byসুতন্বী লাহিড়ী
- 08yb0700Uploaded byসুতন্বী লাহিড়ী
- Bubble Energy and Sonochemical ParametersUploaded byসুতন্বী লাহিড়ী
- Radioactive PackagesUploaded byসুতন্বী লাহিড়ী

- Course Outline ECON6027Uploaded byMisbahul Islam
- TMH-6 -ST1Uploaded byATHOLSCHWARZ
- Advanced Marine StructuresUploaded byJorge Cipriano
- Conceptual Design of Plem Structure Labuhan DeliUploaded byFandy Sipata
- BredelUploaded byrodolfocv92359
- Email GuidelinesUploaded byVaibhav Karpe
- 03 Remembering the Duration of Joyful and Sad Musical ExcerptsUploaded byMind Reading
- TK5P50D DatasheetUploaded byJosé Bosa
- A Guide to HACCP System in the Seafood IndustryUploaded bycysauts
- EntrepreneurshipUploaded byLiza Lazaga Obeso
- 201172-HUAWEI HG655b Home Gateway Quick Start(V100R001_01,General,English).pdfUploaded byvizlat
- astm-f442f442m-13-6943Uploaded byBinodh Daniel
- Maths ShortcutsUploaded byFateh Singh
- CommissioningUploaded byRagab Tolba
- STA_9_1Uploaded byJayaprakash Polimetla
- Boathouse Group v. Tiger Logic Corp., 10-12125-NMG (D. Mass.; Mar. 7, 2011)Uploaded byVenkat Balasubramani
- Cs 401 Midterm Paper Shared UnsolvedUploaded byRonald Pascual
- Contouring 2Uploaded bySureshKumar
- Associate or Manager or CoordinatorUploaded byapi-121459913
- ParkerElectronicsTechnicalBulletin.pdfUploaded byAloysius Julindra
- Hai-O storyUploaded bykamaruddin@mesiniaga.com.my
- Ductile MaterialsUploaded byaditya2053
- Lesson Plan LiA Yr3Uploaded byAzrawati Abdullah
- 108056140 DESCON Internship ReportUploaded byTanzeel Ur Rehman
- Review of Literature and Research MethodologyUploaded byPratik Khimani
- Analysis and Application of Discrete Halbach Magnet Array With Unequal Arc Lengths and Unequally Changed Magnetization DirectionsUploaded byAminMoghadasi
- vinegar and baking soda argument guideUploaded byapi-310228653
- Viscosity of Bituminous Materials – Measurements and FactorsUploaded byOctavian Stoichita
- Lecture 2-Verbal CommunicationUploaded byKhawaja Haseeb Ur Rehman
- homework 1Uploaded byapi-367762411