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The Final Year Projects Journal 2016 is a publication of the College of Engineering, Xavier University

Ateneo de Cagayan. It is a compilation of abstracts of the Students' Final Year Projects of the current
school year. The Final Year Projects Display and Presentation is a way of peer review and a venue for a
healthy and constructive competition among students.

Final Year Projects Journal 2016 Committee

Bonn Kleiford D. Seranilla


Adam Smith B. Vargas

Design Artist

Melrose Rae C. Talimio

Layout Artist

Text Editors:
Lorraine Eve E. Cabaeros
Jessan Miguel T. Garcia
Allura Vianca E. Panistante
Jalex F. Quinga
John Clark S. Tangara
Lucky John B. Tutor

Articles published in this journal are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the
position of the Journal Committee and of Xavier University. For further information regarding the projects,
please send them to the e-mail addresses indicated by the authors.

For general inquiries:

Final Year Projects Journal 2016 Committee
c/o XU Engineering Resource Center
3rd Floor Engineering Building
Xavier University Main Campus
9000 Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines
Tel No: +63 88 858 3116 local 1208
ISSSN 2345-833X

The Final Year Projects Journal

From the Directors Notebook:

The Final Year Projects (FYP) Display of the Xavier University College of Engineering traces back in the early 1990s. As
research activities accelerated in the following years, it was deemed necessary to publish a simple document, more like a booklet,
to list the researches and projects done during each school year; thus the FYP Journal was conceived. Through the years, the
name changed from Final Year Student Projects Journal, to Final Year Project Study Display and Presentation Journal, to the
present name Final Year Projects Journal. The earliest of these journals traces back in 2001 which can be found at the XUERC
Although the name changed, the FYP Journal has remained faithful to its purpose: to provide an annual comprehensive inventory
of the researches done by senior students of the XU College of Engineering. These projects are publicly displayed which has
now become an annual event for academe, industry and communities to converge in healthy discussions and synergize
partnerships. Indeed, the FYP Journals have become dynamic storylines of the colleges research directions, strengths and
challenges as it embraces Xaviers mission.

One of my first assignments in XUERC was to come up with the FYP Journal. With
just few weeks to prepare, while meeting the demands of a scholarly publication, it was
a mission that required sharp skills and deep commitment. Then the

universe con-

spired I was blessed to work with a team of brilliant and dedicated warriors. And this
mission continued for the past eight years where Ive had the honor to work with more
wise and brave warriors along the journey, working harder and tougher to improve the
FYP Journal each year.
(The Warrior is the official mascot of the XU College of Engineering.)

A journal could not be made possible without the brilliant writers, editors and artists who selflessly shared their talents and skills.
I wish to deeply and sincerely thank them all for generously joining forces with me in the past eight volumes of the FYP Journal.

This year, the Journal Committee is composed of new hardworking and promising warriors, equally equipped with the talents to
brave the storm and the hearts to dedicate their time. XUERC is very privileged to work and support them carry on the mission. I
am indeed very pleased with their work for this years FYP Journal!
Dexter S. Lo
Founding Director, XU Engineering Resource Center
Chair, FYP Journal Committee (2008-2015)

1. Development of a Flash Flood Guidance System for Bigaan River Basin
2. Foldable House: An Affordable and Labor-Saving Option for Natural Calamity Survivors
3. Rainfall-Induced Landslide Zonation and Risk Assessment in Zone 7 and Zone 9, Barangay Carmen, Cagayan
de Oro City
4. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Xavier University Campuses
5. Structural Seismic Risk Assessment of Selected Reinforced Concrete Hospitals in Cagayan de Oro City
6. Watershed and Floodplain Modeling of the Bitan-ag Drainage Basin
1. Application of Bokashi Balls in the Bioremediation of Water from Bitan-Ag Creek in Cagayan de Oro City
2. Continuous Adsorption of Pb2+ using Composite Membrane from Waste PET Bottles and Rice Husk
3. Design of a Residential Greywater Treatment System for Toilet Flushing
4. Development of Low-Cost Packed Bed Adsorbent from Waste Eggshells for Biosorption of Copper
5. Domestic Wastewater Treatment using Modified Nutrient-Film Technique Hydroponic System Planted with
Water Spinach (Ipomoea Aquatica)
6. Real-Time Air Monitoring of Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5
7. Safe Yield from Saltwater Intrusion in the BalulangMacasandig Well Fields
8. Soil pH Mapping System
9. Structural Model and Analysis of Fish Cage in Sea Water Environment of Milkfish
1. Electronic Diaper Monitoring System for Elderly and Paralyzed
2. Mobility Cane for Visually Impaired Person
3. Rat Trap Design: A Preventive Device to Address the Rat Infestation of Barangay Dumarait, Balingasag,
Misamis Oriental
1. An Investigation of Ferrocement Arched Beam Subjected to Flexural Loads
2. Assessment of a Water Desalination System Using Parabolic Trough with Varying Glass Thickness
3. Carica Papaya L. Peelings for Bioplastic Production
4. Cloud System-Based Reverse Vending Machine that Converts Clear Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
Bottles into Redeemable Points
5. Comparative Study in Development of Napier Grass Shredder Blade Efficiency
6. Comparative Study in Retrofitting from R12 to R134a Using the Brodhead Garret 9501 Commercial Trainer
7. Development of a Rotary Cutting Mill Blade for Napier Grass Size Reduction
8. Development of a Solar Parabolic Trough Collector for Winemaking
9. Fungal Treatment of Synthetic Pineapple-Processing Wastewater in fluidized Bed Reactor with Scotch Brite
as Support

10. Microwave-Assisted Depolymerisation of Post-Consumer PET Bottles for the Production of Rigid Thermal
Insulating Polyurethane Foams
11. Modified Bench Type Pressure Swing Adsorption
12. Utility-Interactive Solar PV System Design for Engineering Building
1. Design of a 1 Kilowatt Wind Power Generator in Bonbon, Cagayan de Oro City, Using Shrouded Wind
Turbine Technology
2. Determination of the Operating Parameters for the Fast Oxidative Pyrolysis of Napier Grass (Pennisetum
Purpureum) in a Fluidized Bed Reactor
3. Developing and Designing a Laboratory-Scaled Linear Ocean Generator
4. Development of Ducted Wind Turbine
5. Effects of Photoperiod and Photobioreactor (PBR) Configuration on the Biomass Productivity of Chlorella
6. Experimental Study in Retrofitting a Refrigeration Trainer, Brodhead Garret R01 Model, from R-12
Refrigerant to R-134a Refrigerant
7. Laboratory-Scaled Turbine Design for Micro-Hydro Power Plant in Barangay Bayanga, Cagayan de Oro
8. Modification of a Laboratory Scaled Wind Belt Generator: A Comparative Study
9. Modified Wind Farm Generator: A Comparative Study on the Development of Renewable Energy
10. Power System with Cleaner Development Mechanism for a Large-Scale Biogas Generation in Lumbia,
11. Solar-Powered Pumping System with Alternative Utility-Tied Power Source for Sitio Bugo, Barangay
12. Utilization of Exhaust Air for Power Generation
1. A Feasibility Study on Mass-Customizing a Locally Fabricated Rain Gauge
2. A Feasibility Study on the Production of Cassava Peels Vodka in Bolisong, Women Wine Makers, Inc.
3. A Systems Study in the Contreras Soy Store
4. Data Acquisition of Energy Consumption via GSM
5. Facility Design Improvement and Operation Optimization of YSU Marketing Corporation
6. Feasibility Study on Retrofitting the Luminaires in the College of Engineering Building using LED Lamps
7. Livelihood Development Feasibility Plan Through Biomass Briquette Production Using Napier Grass
8. Productivity Improvement of the Body Forming and Assembly Lines of Midanao Container Corporation
9. Quality Improvement of 4Cs Food Industries Buko Juice Product Line
Transportation Engineering
1. An Economic Study and Improvement of Cycle Rickshaw Trisikad by Mounting an Electrical Generation
2. Evaluation of Emission Levels of Dust Pollutants in Elementary Schools along Main Arterials of Cagayan de
Oro City
3. Trip Generation Modeling in the Residential Areas of Downtown Cagayan de Oro City



Ulysis B. Cruda, Leofe Grace C. Evidientes,

Daphne S. Lacida and Earl Anthony I. Lolo
Civil Engineering Department
Jefferson R. Vallente Jr.
Faculty Adviser

Flash floods result when the specific meteorological and present hydrological conditions of the river
basin exist together. Because of these two variables, forecasting and detecting these flash floods
presents a huge challenge. In order to mitigate the devastating effects of flash floods, several
methods were employed to solve the foregoing problem, and forecasting tools have been
developed; one such tool is the Flash Flood Guidance (FFG). This is a forecast model output that
reports the potential of flash floods by providing a guidance value of the amount of rainfall needed
over a given drainage area to produce flash flood conditions. This process compares the rainfall and
runoff relationship to determine the threat of flash floods, given the current soil moisture condition.
This research investigates which areas in the Bigaan River Basin would overflow. Through this,
determination of these areas should be properly zoned as for proper land use/land cover in order to
minimize the threshold runoff. Threshold computation using the bankfull flow and the peak flow of
the unit hydrograph determines the threshold runoff needed to initiate flooding. This research uses
geographic information system (GIS) techniques to generate a localized flash flood model using
historical rainfalls and present conditions of the river basin.



Kristia Jolina B. Alde, Juricher E. Baguhin, Kristelle Antonette C. Clerigo and

Mark Anthony Fabian
Civil Engineering Department
Gerardo P. Apor
Faculty Adviser

Ranked as the 3rd most disaster-prone country, the Philippines has suffered from inexhaustible
number of natural disasters leaving a dilemma on how to provide the survivors temporary shelters.
Given this fact, the researchers have come to realize the need of a new design of a foldable house F.A.S.T. - to act as a temporary shelter. This need is not something that should be overlooked. The
present study intends to generate a complete blueprint of F.A.S.T. composed of readily available
materials which have a comprehendible installation and dismantlement process. The designs structural integrity is then tested through software modeling and simulation taking into account its ability
to support the recommended loading capacities set by NSCP, DSWD, and the Sphere Standards for
Temporary Shelter furthermore comparing the structural strength of F.A.S.T. with existing models.
And lastly, present the innovative design and idea of providing temporary housing to concerned
agencies. Before data collection and analysis can commence, a meta-analytic research design was
used to build the structure of the study followed by data processing. The final design of F.A.S.T. include a roof made of polycarbonate sheets with foil-faced glasswool insulation boards whose connections are surrounded by rubber skins to avoid leakage, a polyurethane sandwich panel skinned
with hardieflex on both sides for walls, pre-painted galvanized iron on one side for flooring, PVC
door, and windows. Complete installation and dismantlement process is also provided by the researchers. Design underwent software modeling and simulations with results showing that F.A.S.T. is
structurally capable of resisting the required structural loads. Results of weight calculations and cost
estimates placed F.A.S.T. in between the range as per comparison on existing models.


Jeff D. Duhaylungsod, Jonalyn Q. Ramos, Zaide Celeste L. Sambas and
Mae Hysel P. Yting
Civil Engineering Department
Megan M. Montuno and Gerardo P. Apor
Faculty Advisers

Residential areas, particularly in steep the areas of Zone 9 (Sitio Macanhan) are highly congested.
The residents houses range from highly built houses to houses made from salvaged materials which
are built so close to each other. The same observation was seen in Zone 7 which is adjacent to Zone
9. In the event of a landslide caused by rainfall, which historically has befallen Zone 9, there would
be a difficulty in evacuating because of narrow pathways. This study aims to generate a landslide
hazard zonation map and risk assessment map using Geographic Information System as a means of
mitigating rainfall-induced landslide risks in Zone 7 and Zone 9. The study uses the grade-two
zonation - landslide assessment (Overall Score Evaluating Method) method proposed by Mora and
Vahrson (1994) for hazard assessment, field survey in a form of questionnaire is used in exposure
and vulnerability assessment, and overall score evaluation method of hazard, exposure and vulnerability assessment is used in risk assessment. The influence of relative relief values greatly affects the
influence in determining the areas that are at risk in rainfall-induced landslides. The risk maps were
able to point out that the subzones on steep slopes (Zone 7-E, Zone 9-D, Zone 9-K, Zone 9-G, Zone
9-H, and Zone 9-N) are the ones that are most susceptible to landslides. This study is considered as a
pilot study in Philippine setting using the Mora and Vahrson method of landslide hazard assessment
so the group recommends that the method be used in other areas in the Philippines.


Trysha Mae B. Ty, Paulo Danielo M. Estao,
Val Anthony R. Calape and Abdullah M. Sultan
Civil Engineering Department
Gerardo P. Apor and Dexter S. Lo
Faculty Advisers

Earthquakes are sudden movements of the Earths crust which results to shaking of the ground and
could have damaging impacts to buildings. The Philippine Archipelago, situated within the Pacific
Ring of Fire, experiences frequent and sometimes intense seismic activities that result to large scale
disasters. And in the Philippines, many school buildings are used as evacuation or temporary shelters during emergencies. This study aims to determine the seismic vulnerability of selected reinforced concrete buildings in Xavier University campuses. The assessment method adopted the first
level screening, which is a rapid assessment level, developed by the Japan Building Disaster Prevention Association. The screening method involved physical measurements of the structural members
and ocular inspection, which served as basis for the calculation of the Seismic Index (I s) and Seismic
Demand Index (ISO). In this study, the seismic demand is based from earthquakes of magnitudes
greater than six. These indices are then compared to determine if a structure falls under low, medium or high vulnerability. Each building was assessed in both directions and in every storey. However,
the final vulnerability condition of a building is based from the lowest seismic index found in a particular direction and storey. Results show that of the 19 buildings surveyed, 18 were considered as
highly vulnerable, and one as low vulnerable. However, it should be noted that highly vulnerable
buildings per first level screening should be subjected to the second and even third level screening
to take into account the ductility and better seismic resistant behavior contributed by reinforcing
steel bars.


Frances Clare L. Alamban, Ivy Marie F. Padigos, Sesharaine A. Pedros and
Stephanie C. Secerio
Civil Engineering Department
Gerardo P. Apor
Faculty Adviser

The Philippines, being situated in the Pacific Ring of Fire, is vulnerable to frequent earthquakes and
volcanic eruption. Due to the neighboring faults and to the city located in the seismic zone four,
Cagayan de Oro City is possibly subjected to large magnitude and/or intensity. Several buildings in
the area, like hospitals, are at risk if an earthquake will occur but must remain functional after. This
study aims to assess selected reinforced concrete hospitals in Cagayan de Oro City in terms of their
respective structural seismic risk level. Seismic risk index is calculated by multiplying the hazard, vulnerability and population scores of each hospital. Vulnerability score is calculated by the use of the
rapid visual screening method applied in all buildings. Hospitals with the most and least score from
the rapid visual screening method is then assessed through an in-depth method of FEMA 310. In the
rapid screening method, most of the buildings are categorized as Moderate risk. The buildings
that were further assessed in the in-depth method showed that despite the results of the rapid visual screening method, the buildings are still structurally safe. The outcome of this study is a way of
informing the respective hospitals regarding their structural safety. The method used in this study
can also be used in assessing other critical reinforced concrete buildings.


Sam Stephen S. Mangubat, Shaira Monique C. Baang,
Janessa A. Lavin and Mark Aldrich N. Co
Civil Engineering Department
Dexter S. Lo and Jan Taat
Faculty Advisers

CM Recto Avenue in Cagayan de Oro is a major thoroughfare in the city where the Bitan-ag Creek
traverses. However, flooding along the Bitan-ag creek has been frequent in recent years during
heavy rains, affecting 16 barangays in the city. The city government organized a program called
Hapsay Sapa in order to address this problem in cooperation with the UN-Habitat, and XUERC is
tasked to do a hydrologic study of the area. The objective of the study is to determine the factors
that cause flooding along the Bitan-ag Creek. The study comprises two components: first is the watershed model, where delineation of the basin boundaries, land cover and upstream tributaries are
simulated to determine the flow rate using HEC-HMS; and the second component is the floodplain
model, developed using HEC-RAS which constitutes flood simulation using the flow rate obtained
from the watershed model. The study simulated the recent local rain event of December 15, 2015
(D2015) which caused flooding in the city. Results show that D2015 is classified as a 10-year rain,
with a calculated discharge of 30 m3/s, and an accumulated downstream sub-basin discharge of 6
m3/s. When these discharges are simulated in the floodplain model, results show that 7.6 hectares
of the downtown urban area are flooded assuming a clean condition of the creek. However, for the
real silted condition of the creek, 62 hectares are flooded. Furthermore, it is found that some segments of the creek are only capable of conveying 10 m 3/s of water if the creek is clean, and will
clearly inundate inland even at this minimal flow rate due to its present silted condition. Other prevailing factors that affect the creeks hydrology and flooding mechanism are less permeable surfaces
contributing to the increase in runoff, and the presence of many unplanned cross drains.



Joeces John A. Cual, Reymart T. Deligero and Kesha G. Jeun

Chemical Engineering Department
Maria Theresa I. Cabaraban
Faculty Adviser

This research aims to investigate bioremediation using bokashi balls. Bioremediation is a waste
management technique that utilizes organisms to neutralize the pollutants in an area. Bokashi balls
are mudballs that serve as growth and transport medium for bioremediating microorganisms. This
study hopes to use bioremediation to address the problem of water pollution in urban areas caused
by uncontrolled waste disposal from growing residential and commercial establishments. Bitan-ag
creek is the focus of this study as it flows through the growing urban areas of Camaman-an and
Lapasan in Cagayan de Oro City. The bokashi balls used in this study incorporates local raw materials
with EM microbial mixture which is developed in Japan. This technology is already utilized by some
bioremediation projects in Metro Manila but is still not tested quantitatively in the Philippines. This
study aims to quantify bioremediation in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of water samples
which are treated in batch setups. The study aims to investigate whether the bokashi balls cause
reduction in COD levels of water samples; whether the local microorganisms interfere with the EM
mixture in reducing the COD levels and to observe how COD levels respond to the treatment
throughout the bioremediation period. As of this stage, the experiments have already started but
the results are still under verification and further analysis.



Rea Mae L. Abarquez, Jebirose M. Kaamio and

Mary Eurydice O. Responte
Chemical Engineering Department
Edwin Richard R. Ortiz
Faculty Adviser

With the rapid industrialization, wasteIndustrial plants that discharge heavy metals in their waste
water streams like battery, mining, printing and pigment, metal plating, soldering material, iron and
steel manufacturing have significantly contributed to water pollution. One common heavy metal
pollutant is lead, a toxic substance that causes negative impact to the environment and to human
health. Because of this, its removal from industrial wastewater is essential before wastewater
streams are released to larger bodies of water.In this study, the simulated wastewater containing
lead will be treated by performing continuous adsorption using a composite membrane adsorbent
prepared from rice husk and waste PET bottles for three different wastewater flowrates: 1, 3 and 5
mL/min. This study aims to characterize the membrane through its thickness, ion-exchange capacity
and surface morphology, and determine its effectivity in the removal of lead by constructing a
breakthrough curve, determine its saturation point and percent removal at the end of the breakthrough curve, and determine the flowrate that will give the highest adsorption performance. For
the preliminary results, a composite membrane has been successfully produced from PET and rice


Jomari B. Maglacion, Aldon Louie O. Morales, Paul Carlo A. Mutia,
and Joyce Billie D. Valdevilla
Civil Engineering Department
Daisy D. Badilla
Faculty Adviser

To decrease the amount of waste water discharge and to provide an alternative solution of saving
water, the researchers proposed a residential gray water treatment system be used for toilet
flushing. A prototype of the design treatment was utilized to determine its efficacy. Both treated and
untreated gray water were sent for analysis and gray water parameters were determined. The
following gray water parameters for this study are Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total
Suspended Solids (TSS) and Phosphates. These parameters were chosen conforming the standards
set by the Department of Environmental and Natural Resources (DENR) for toilet flushing. As for this
study, the researchers have to achieve a Class A water quality. And the results of the analysis had
shown a significant decrease on the parameters of the treated gray water with respect to that of the
untreated gray water. Also, the results of the treated gray are in conformity with the standards sets
on this study for the specified water quality parameters. With these results, the gray water
treatment system has achieved an acceptable efficacy. As an application of this study, the
researchers proposed a larger scale of the prototype design and apply it on an existing residential
dwelling considering the monthly water consumption of the inhabitants and its location as a basis
for the up scaled proposed gray water treatment system design.



Ellen Jane Marie M. Cuervo, Marc Phillip P. Labor and

Jerome James O. Silve
Chemical Engineering Department
Christylene S. Balagtas
Faculty Adviser

Mining activities are known to affect both the surface and groundwater contributing to the severity
of water pollution. The effluent mine water can be extremely toxic containing heavy metals depending on the overburden composition affecting the survival of living organisms. Studies on the utilization of low cost adsorbents for heavy metals are gaining attention. The current study focuses on the
adsorption of Cu(II) from synthesized wastewater based from the physical-chemical characteristics
of acid mine drainage effluent using waste eggshells. Continuous adsorption in down flow method to
remove Cu(II) is performed using the designed fixed bed column with the crushed eggshell as adsorbent material. Effectiveness of the designed packed column is studied with its operating parameters;
contact time and bed height are controlled while the influent flow rate is varied. The influence of
bed height on the breakthrough curves and adsorption performance is studied. The adsorption kinetics is analyzed using Thomas and Yoon-Nelson kinetic models with the maximum adsorption capacity calculated from both models. The comparison of the experimental breakthrough curve to the
breakthrough profile obtained from Thomas and Yoon and Nelson methods would show which specific depth of crushed eggshell-composed packed bed is a satisfactory fit as adsorbent of Cu(II) in
continuous down flow adsorption.

Rene Rey B. Mondia, Al Drexie S. Basadre and Roxl Rhyann F. Fallore
Chemical Engineering Department
Dexby P. de Guzman
Faculty Adviser

This study aims to reduce the contaminants present in domestic greywater by integrating a modified
nutrient-film technique hydroponic system planted with water spinach for utilization of the
wastewater at the same time able to grow crops for human consumption. In this study, a stock of
simulated greywater is treated with a modified nutrient-film hydroponic system to reduce its
contaminants to standards set levels for disposal. The hydroponic system is planted with water
spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and its growth is also observed. A 50-L simulated greywater is
recirculated in the hydroponics system at a constant flow rate. The BOD removal kinetics of the
system is determined by determining the BOD levels of the 50-L reservoir at day 0, day 1, day 3, day
5, and day 7. After 7 days of operation, the system resulted a percent reduction of 91.8% in BOD
levels. The BOD level in the 7th day which is 18 mg/L was also able to reach the BOD level set in DAO
35 for Class C and Class D waters which is 50 mg/L and 120 mg/L respectively. Furthermore,
parameters such as TSS, TDS, pH, color and odor was also evaluated according the DAO 35 standards
during the 7-day trial duration. As of the edibility of the planted water spinach, plant tissue samples
are tested according to the Codex General Standard for Contaminants and Toxins in Food and Feed
(CODEX STAN 193-1995) wherein cadmium and lead levels in plant is evaluated. It was also
observed that there was a significant growth in terms of height and foliage in the water spinach
planted in the system during the trials duration.


Vincent Ceasar R. Ampo, Pierce M. Pepito, Miljun G. Tupos

Electronics Engineering Department
Ian Joycer Y. Uy
Faculty Adviser

Dust particles or Particulate Matter present in the atmosphere in a desired area are the target study
and research of the system. Uncontrolled air pollutants or wastes are released by stationary and
mobile sources such as industries and transportation vehicles that contribute to global warming and
give risk to the health of those people near the facility. Researchers are having difficulties of finding
any correlation to the dust particles with the effects of an area due to lack of data collected. Data
collected from stations are not accurate enough to estimated levels of dust particles and its
dispersion. The purpose of this project is to develop an instrument in inspecting and monitoring the
air quality from a particular region at a fixed altitude conveniently. These particles are being
transduced into an electrical signal by the sensor. The data will then be transmitted by a Zigbee
module to the receiver. Then the data will be sent to the PC which is responsible for processing the
data and
producing the necessary outputs of the project. Finally, the resulting output dataS
would tell the concentration levels of dust particles of the specified area which would then be
interpreted into a graphical representation.


Arvin John P. Galupo, Paul Vincent A. Jucaban,
Keith Jayson B. Gales and Aizelle J. Mendez
Civil Engineering Department
Jan Taat and Dexter S. Lo
Faculty Advisers

Government records show that Cagayan de Oro City has an increasing trend of population in the
past years, which consequently dictates a rise in the demand of water for domestic and industrial
uses. Most of the water distributed in the city is extracted from groundwater. However, the
extraction of water from the ground may have adverse consequences, one of which is saltwater
intrusion. Thus, the importance of maintaining the health of the groundwater brought about the
concept of safe yield, which is the maximum average annual pumping rate that can be safely
extracted. The objective of this study is to determine the safe yield from saltwater intrusion in the
Balulang-Macasandig well field. The study utilized the concept of groundwater flow mechanics for
predictive simulation results, using the MODFLOW Engine to generate the well fields conceptual
and numerical groundwater flow models. Six years of static water level data were used in the
calibration and validation of the groundwater flow model. After running through rigorous modeling
procedures and techniques, results show that the model can predict with an accuracy of 0.86
correlation coefficient. Simulation results also show that with the present pumping rate, saltwater
intrusion could already be happening. The safe yield from saltwater intrusion is calculated to be at a
total of 42,000 m3/day for the wells within the study area. Further simulation suggests that only by
reducing the pumping rate by 30% of the present rate and a continued groundwater recharge of at
least 20% from precipitation can saltwater intrusion be avoided.


Neil William C. Malagar, Mars Allen M. Gumisong and Camille G. Dangco

Electronics Engineering Department
Majiah S. Collado and Mark Alexis O. Sabines
Faculty Advisers

The purpose of the invention is to map the pH level of various land fields and to collect data in a
more efficient and simplified manner. The materialization of this project can be used as a tool in
increasing the crops quality; having an even quality of the harvested crop and avoiding excessive
fertilizer use. For example, setting and maintaining the pH level of the soil to the recommended
value of version the plant helps in allowing the plant to absorb the nutrients available in the soil,
which calls for a no fertilizer wastage. This system can also minimize the need of the farmers to have
soil testing in the laboratory, which can be so costly and time-consuming in the long run and will
therefore provide convenience for the future users in terms of soil pH monitoring. Lastly, this will
enable the user to view a scaled map of the given land area based on the soil pH level. The project
seeks to address in improving the way of measuring the pH level of the soil, which serves as a
limiting factor in the availability of macronutrients and other nutrients for the absorption of the
plants. The project also seeks to widen the range of pH monitoring through the use of Geographic
Information System.



Franz Cedric M. Campil, Razil O. Gempisao, and Elvie G. Ty, Jr.

Civil Engineering Department
Gerardo P. Apor
Faculty Adviser

Aquaculture nowadays is growing due to the increase of human population and the increase in the
demand of fish stock in open water. In order to meet these demands, an increase in production of
fish cages is needed. Fish cages that are not engineered properly are prone to risks and damages
due to natural hazards such as current, wave, wind, and storm. This study aims to form a structural
model and analysis that prevents the fish cages from damage due to these natural hazards. This
study also aims produce cost efficient fish cages that will help avoid losses in resources and to the
small-scale fishermen. Through the methodology of this study, data is collected which factors in the
design of the desired fish cage. The calculated Buoyant Force, Current Drag, Wave Force and Wind
Force are used to provide the best structural model of Fish Cage that can resist the damage due to
natural hazards. Based on the analysis and conclusion of the study, the following recommendations
are presented: The fishermen, especially those who culture milk fish, could use these data to
stabilize their fish cages. The data can also be used to avoid damages from natural hazards and have
lesser cost in building. The recommendation also asks BFAR to not limit their fish cages design to
rectangular/square shaped fish cages. They could include hexagonal shape fish cage design which is
proven to be more stable. Further research could extend the investigation and analysis by
determining the actual behavior of the fish cage model given the presence of the natural hazards
and building a prototype of the model in Brgy. Waterfall, Balingasag.


Marcus Ma. Antonio M. Capistrano, Enrico Efraim D. Palma,

John Mar D. Tayone and Mark Louie A. Jamis
Electronics Engineering Department
Ian Giovanni R. Pabillaran
Faculty Adviser

It is the Filipino culture to look after family members especially those who are elderly, disabled, and
paralyzed. Caregivers are family members who have to perform household chores when not
working. They have to take care of their love ones with special needs at the same time; they have to
support the needs of the family. Caregivers can also be professionals who are taking care of more
than one patient. They are not physically present in a certain room all the time to focus on one
patient. Prolonged exposure of a patient to urine and feces causes bedsores, diaper rash, and
possible discomfort according to medical research. This project aims to provide a means to inform
the caregiver that a diaper is soiled or needed replacement. An electronic system is developed to
notify the caregiver wirelessly in real time of a soiled diaper. The system is divided into three
individual processes: diaper sensing, data analyzing, and message sending. The diaper sensing
component is the detection of the presence of urine and feces using the conductivity principle.
Research has shown that feces and urine can conduct enough electricity, thus the sensor used was
to take advantage of this important property. The data analysis process uses a small computer which
reads the data from the sensors and computes for the conditions for which feces or urine is indeed
present on the diaper. With a GSM module attached, it is able to send an SMS text message alert to
the caregiver, alerting him/her of a dirty diaper. The accuracy of the sensors are tested and
improved upon further with new designs.


SandeeBheb R. Baculio, Rikka Kassandra S. Balabat,

James Kenneth P. Firmalino, and July Rey S. Jomoc
Electronics Engineering Department
Mary Jean O. Apor
Faculty Adviser

This study focuses on designing and providing an innovated cane for a visually impaired person. It
will focus more on the spatial awareness which is the ability of oneself to be aware in space or
outside his/her environment. This problem is basically in terms of mobility. The problems concerning
the outside environment of a visually impaired person, which is the main objective, is that they need
to negotiate with the obstacle in front of them, hanging objects, and the potholes in the road. This
gives the visually impaired person a real visualization of what is happening on things that are around
them. This paper addresses ways for improving the mobility cane by examining the process by which
users perform a mobility task using assistive aids. To create the device and be able to test it to
various situations that visually impaired persons are facing, to be able to solve their dilemmas in
their everyday lives and to give them enough solution to their current situations. The cane will be
embedded with sensors that could detect obstacles in front, hanging objects and even potholes that
could cause danger to a visually impaired person. If these sensors are triggered a warning would be
felt by a visually impaired person through series of beeps, long beeps and vibrations depending to
the obstacle he/she is facing. This study found that the Mobility Cane for Visually Impaired Person
functions well as intended by the group, in alerting users about the obstacles in front, hanging
obstacles and potholes.



Francis Paulo N. Cabanlet, Bel Vincent M. Estillote,

Lloyd Martin P. Luyao and Nico Jan F. Siton
Electronics Engineering Department
Eliseo B. Linog Jr.
Faculty Adviser

Rat infestation in rice fields is seasonal and at times could have insignificant damage but when an
outbreak infestation does occur, it could eat up and damage more or less 80 % of the crops or even
the entire rice field leaving farmers no income at all. Considering this problem, this study aims to
design a rat trapping device that prevents the loss of rice production in a 1/2 hectare rice field in
Barangay Dumarait, Balingasag, Misamis Oriental due to rat infestation. Moreover, our device will
provide an innovative and effective method of substantially lessening rat reproduction, which then
results to lesser chances for an infestation to occur and also translates to increased yield output of
the local farmers. Also, it presents a healthier, more environment friendly alternative compared to
the use of agricultural chemicals that get absorbed into the roots of the crops or if in the mountains,
could get washed out to the rivers thereby contaminating water life and ground water which
subsequently poses medical concerns to the people. For conducting the research, the researchers
have tested the effectiveness of the trap through different parameters such as the bait, sensors and
DC power supply. These tests would then result to the building of a prototype which is implemented
4 weekends within one cropping season since there are 5 cropping seasons in 2 years having 4
months per cropping season. The prototype is then tested in the rice fields which would determine
how effective the device is.



Junve A. Astronomo, Mark Lowill B. Almeda, Rey Antonio M. Batino,

Patrick Jeason A. Mabao and Paul A. Omongos
Civil Engineering Department
Jose Lorenzo D. Bucton
Faculty Adviser

In recent times, the high cost and general shortage of reinforcing steel in many parts of the world
has led to increased interest in the possible use of locally available alternative materials for the
reinforcement of concrete. One promising solution to this problem is to use an alternative method
such as Ferrocement - a thin reinforced concrete wall commonly constructed of hydraulic cement
and mortar reinforced with closely spaced layers of continuous and relatively small diameter of wire
mesh. This study aims to investigate Ferrocement Arched Beams flexural capacity as an alternative
structural component, as well as its cost in comparison to the Conventional Reinforced Concrete
Beam. Through the aid of the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building Code 549, (3) Ferrocement
Arched Beam were fabricated and tested to determine the actual flexural capacity using
Center-Point Loading test. A segmental arched beam has a 0.1m x 0.2m dimension of hollow with a
thickness of 15mm, a span of 2.8m and a radius of 2.08m. The researchers then theoretically design
a Conventional RC Beam with the same capacity of the fabricated Ferrocement Arched Beam and
conducted a cost benefit analysis between the two. It is evident that Ferrocement Arched Beam is a
good alternative for Conventional RC Beam considering that the design load of the structure does
not exceed its flexural capacity. Also, it is clear that Ferrocement Arched Beam cost less, including
the material and labor expenses.



Anjo R. De Jesus, Jiah M. Piloton, Mark Chester F. Rey and Rico R. Salem Jr.
Mechanical Engineering Department

Elmer B. Dollera
Faculty Adviser

Three quarters of the earths surface is covered with water. Studies have shown that the supply of
usable water available around the globe is not enough to meet our growing populations demand of
water for survival. Water is mans most basic need for survival. But its commercialization has limited
its accessibility to everyone. People pay a lot to obtain clean water. Instead of being a human right,
water has become a privilege. In the Philippines, there are various diseases every year that relates to
unsafe water. These diseases can sometimes even be fatal. The researchers want to know the effectivity of the assessed solar desalination system, how much desalinated water could this system
provide and how long does it take for this amount to be produced in a given day. This study uses a
parabolic trough which is the main means of harnessing solar energy and transferring this energy to
the saltwater container which will heat up the pre-specified amount of saline water. An evaluation
on the glass component will be made to compare its effectivity based on varying thickness. The
researchers will determine the appropriate glass thickness that should be used for the system based
on the amount of desalinated water that is provided. This study wants to help in alleviating the
water problem that our country is experiencing particularly to those who are living near the shore


Al Marjorie A. Tating, Shiela Mae U. Morillo and Rhonalou G. Abonete

Chemical Engineering Department
Dexby P. de Guzman
Faculty Adviser

Rapid increase of solid wastes especially in petroleum-based plastics is one of the environmental
problems the Philippines is currently facing. These plastics take years to degrade and just
continuously increase every year. Here in Philippines, papaya is one of the major tropical fruits. As it
is used for food or industrial applications, it generates tons of wastes every year, especially its
peelings. In response to these two problems, a bio-plastic that degrades faster than the commercial
plastics and does not harm the environment was produced in this study. Papaya peelings have the
potential to be used as the raw material to manufacture of bio-plastics since its peels contain
cellulose. Cellulose can be synthesized into a polymer to make bioplastics. Papaya peels were
powdered and went through delignification, or removal of lignin, using sodium hydroxide to extract
the cellulose. Cellulose was then acetylyzed with iodine as the catalyst. A plasticizer, acetyl triethyl
citrate, was added to cellulose acetate to improve the plasticity of the material. A variation of the
plasticizer added was done. The mixture was heated, molded and dried. The bioplastic produced
was thicker than the usual film and can pass as a sheet. Though, the color may not be appealing, it is
recommended that there be a bleaching treatment or removal of pigment before extraction of
cellulose. The bio plastic produced was subjected to biodegradability test and is to be compared to
the commercial films used today.



Vincent Paulo R. Laganao, Corina Laine M. Acedera, Michelle Anne G. Ondap

and Daryl A. Capagngan
Electronics Engineering Department
Mc Alvin N. Neri
Faculty Adviser

One of the main problems that the country is facing right now is the increase of garbage in landfills.
Waste Management Commission shows that there are 677 open dumpsites, 343 controlled dumps,
and 21 landfills in the country. According to Philippine Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Based Landfill Inventory, out of 50% of Non-Biodegradable waste in Cagayan de Oro Landfill, 22.50%
of it is plastics. With this, the Reverse Vending Machine is designed to help reduce the percentage of
improperly thrown PET Bottles in the environment and to motivate the community into recycling as
well as to help the garbage collectors in segregating PET Bottles from the other wastes. The Cloud
System-based Reverse Vending Machine is an innovated and improvised Vending Machine that
converts PET Bottles into redeemable points. This Vending Machine has a Mobile Application that is
used to access the converted points from the PET Bottle inserted in the machine. The points earned
can be redeemed to any items available in the application. During transactions, every PET bottle
inserted in the machine will be converted into points which will then be stored in the users account.
The available items are displayed in the android application for the users convenience.



Christian Bien A. Fabrea, Adrienne S. Gulde and Jeroque T. Taganas

Mechanical Engineering Department

Elmer B. Dollera
Faculty Adviser

This research study aims to compare four different shredder blade designs that has a most efficient
output on shredding a fresh Napier grass. In this study, it aims to develop a most efficient shredder
blade design for shredding a grass for multiused such as solid waste management, animal food,
vermiculture and composting. There is a shredder for Napier grass in Manresa, Cagayan de Oro City
but the result of the shredder is not that diminutive as expected results. With this problem, the
researcher opted to investigate and compare the three different shredder blades design. An
analytical model with 20 trials each to the shredder machine with different blades to collect the
desired data is conducted in this study.



AlexarLindon R. Aguilar and Ed Jasper G. Rolida

Mechanical Engineering Department
Nestor G Ipanag
Faculty Adviser

This paper deals with an energy analysis of the impact of direct replacement (retrofit) of R12 with
the zeotropic mixture R134A on the performance of a domestic vapour-compression refrigeration
system, which are the Brodhead Garret commercial trainer 9501, originally designed to work with
R12. Parameters and factors affecting the performance of both refrigerants are evaluated using an
energy analysis. In the department, no experimental data for energy efficiency are reported, so far,
for R134A. Twelve tests (six for each refrigerant), are carried out in a controlled environment. The
evaporators are modified with dividers as well as Tubes and pressure gauges are replaced and the
condenser air-flows are modified to simulate different evaporator cooling loads. The overall energy
and energy performance of the system working with R413A is consistently better than that of R12.


Jerfy V. Berro, John Benedict G. Cabizon and John Patrick A. Regidor
Mechanical Engineering Department
Rogelio C. Golez
Faculty Adviser

Size reduction is a process of reducing large masses into small masses, coarse or fine particles. Size
reduction is also termed as comminution or pulverization. One of the equipments used to do this is
the Rotary Cutting Mill. The Cutting mill has its rotor together with 4 sharp blades facing horizontally
and connected to a shaft. It also has stationary knives that shear the material that is being fed when
the rotor blade rotates. In this study, Napier grass is used as the material that is being fed in the
Rotary Cutting mill. The cutting blade is vital in the production of minimum sieve size of Napier
Grass. The material that is used for the blade is mild steel since it is heavy and can withstand high
speeds. The important reasons for size reduction are easy handling and increase in surface area per
unit volume. Also, a 4 blade design are constructed to be able to cut the Napier grass and to have a
size ranges from 0.5 1mm. The study aims to produce 1kg of fine Napier grass per 20 min. The
design of the cutting blades is important since it provides high efficiency on the cutting process.


Xian Louis Patrick R. Arcayera, Andrei Antonio B. Enteria, Stephenson Nabua,
and Jaireh James U. Pahalla
Mechanical Engineering Department
Lito Ignacio Villar
Faculty Adviser

This paper deals with the design and actual testing of a solar parabolic trough collector as an
alternative method of heating for process heating, specifically in winemaking. Process heating is a
staple utility in many industrial process plants, particularly in the food and beverage industry. Its
wide array of uses in the industry include: washing, rinsing, food preparation, drying, sterilization,
and cooking. Resistance heaters and gas burners are the typical means of producing heat for process
heating. Both means utilizes electricity and fossil fuels, respectively. Electricity has a high capital cost
and is relatively more costly than direct fuel use. Fossil fuel, although cheaper than electricity,
produces carbon dioxide and other gases as by-product which harms the environment. A solution to
these drawbacks is to pursue alternative means of heating. One alternative source of heat is solar
energy. To harness this energy, the researchers came up with a parabolic trough collector design
which focuses light to a focal line, thereby concentrating solar energy to a receiver tube which
carries the heat transfer fluid in this case, water. The heated water, designed to meet a
temperature requirement of about 90 C, is then allowed to flow to a pre-designed heat exchanger
which was specifically tailored for a wine mash cooker used by the community in Bolisong, Misamis


Jacqueline Faye D. Lim, Ephrem John O. Agorob and Casey Jane P. Aguilar
Chemical Engineering Department
Hercules R. Cascon
Faculty Adviser

The growing number of crop-processing industries in Mindanao leads to the disposal of more
industrial wastewater that contains high amounts of organic matter, suspended solid and fats or oils.
Fungal treatment of wastewater will consume the organic matter and fats or oils in the wastewater,
in the case of this study, the carbohydrates in pineapple-processing wastewater. The result of this
research may lead to a more efficient biological treatment of industrial wastewater using fungal
treatment. The fluidized bed reactor has become a new and appealing method for the use of
immobilized fungi in the recent years which has gained approval as an effective alternative with
much potential for wider usage. It has its advantage which utilizes high densities of fungi that are
breaking down the organic matter in the medium. Another is that, in this study, it features the use of
a support, a ScotchBrite supports (SBS), which acts a solid attachment for fungal growth. The
general objective of this study is to determine the best hydraulic retention time and aeration rate
during fungal treatment of synthetic pineapple-processing wastewater (SPPW) in fluidized bed reactor with Scotch Brite using the fungal strain Aspergillus oryzae that reduces the COD of
wastewater. This focuses on the optimization of the process to improve wastewater treatment of
industries. The study will treat synthetic pineapple-processing wastewater using the fungal strain A.
oryzae in an aerated fluidized bed reactor with Scotch Brite as the medium at which the biomass
will grow. Scotch Brite used as a support is economical and is easily available. The synthetic
wastewaters concentration that best represents the pineapple-processing industry in terms of COD
content is 26.7 g of pineapple fruit per liter of water with a COD of 4700 mg/L.



Reymond F. Tayone, Mariza S. Silagan and Kismet Patrick T. Ong

Chemical Engineering Department
Edwin Richard Ortiz and Rose May Igdon
Faculty Advisers

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics are commonly manufactured as water and soft drink
bottles. Since these materials have poor biodegradability and high resistance to the atmosphere, it is
not appropriate to dispose them by land-filling (Sadeghi and Sayaf, 2012). These bottles contribute
to the substantial plastic waste generation. Thus, this study aims to reduce the accumulation of
waste PET bottles in the city through chemical recycling, as well as finding a waste alternative raw
material for the production of rigid thermal insulating polyurethane (PU) foams. Post-consumer PET
bottles from the campus were collected, dried and size-reduced. The PET flakes were subjected to
microwave-assisted glycolysis in an improvised microwave set-up with glycerine as depolymerising
agent to produce the glycolyzed product. The glycolysis reaction time of 15 minutes yielded the
highest percent conversion. The glycolyzed product was then transesterified with castor oil to
convert into polyester polyol. The derived polyester polyol was mixed with diisocyanate to produce
rigid polyurethane foams in a free-rise foaming process. The glycolyzed product, polyester polyol
and polyurethane foams were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to
verify the presence of the expected functional groups. The final product was then analyzed by
thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine its thermal stability. At temperatures higher than
200oC, the experimental foams were more thermally stable compared to commercial polyurethane


John Mark Abanes, Jayle Gregor Antiga, Arnil Caracho II and Joshua Manuel Manto
Mechanical Engineering Department
Nestor G. Ipanag
Faculty Adviser

The Pressure Swing Adsorption is an equipment used to extract methane from biogas. It requires the
biogas to undergo water scrubbing, iron sponge, and storage in a storage tank before being
compressed and enter the pressure swing adsorption. The end product can be used as a renewable
energy fuel source that will support the global demand of alternative fuel. The pressure swing
adsorption procedure considers regeneration wherein the cylinder cleanses the adsorbed byproduct
in the biogas to extract up to 95% methane content. The immediate objective of this research
project is to measure the efficiency with the innovation of solenoid valves, so that an advanced
procedure and instrumentation can be developed. It is made as a bench type to be used as
instrumentation in laboratory testing, so there is a reduced volume relating to the height of the
equipment up to near the eye-level of the tester. It is made with pressure sensors to reduce the
human error in opening and closing valves that pressure difference may lead to less effective
products. The solenoid valves are programmed to function when the desired pressure inside the
cylinders is reached. Experienced Chemists mainly use this as partial process in the study of biogas
energy content to provide renewable energy. In the future the pressure swing adsorption
equipment will pave the world to a new source of renewable energy.


Paolo Cua, Kirk Nio Lubguban, Franz Kriztiv Alday,
and Renier Figuracion
Electrical Engineering Department
Jolou Miraflor
Faculty Adviser

Utility-Interactive system is based on solar powered energy installed on homes or commercial

buildings connected to an electric utility. They are designed to supply all or portion of the buildings
total electricity load. This system operates in parallel with the electric utility that is synchronized by
a utility-interactive inverter. This study aims to design a Utility-Interactive Solar PV (Photovoltaic)
system that can generate enough power to be supplied at the XU Engineering Building. The site used
for this study is the Engineering Buildings rooftop that has an area of 642.13m2 which is quite good
enough to generate a huge amount of power. The researchers were able to come up with a design
putting 280 Solar Panels with a total capacity of 86,800 Watts. Each Solar Panel has a maximum
power of 310 Watts. The researchers were able to get the total connected load of the XU
Engineering Building by means of surveying the whole building and were also able to acquire the
consumption pattern of the building using a data logger that was ranged within a week. The data
that was obtained from the logger was then analyzed and translated into graph. The power
consumption graph was then compared to the output graph of the PV system that would determine
the kw-hr (kilowatt-hour) and the savings generated by the system. The study was able to
accomplish its purpose that generating this amount of power will help lessen the energy
consumption of the building. The output of the PV is optimized meaning no power is wasted
because the excess supply of the PV when the load of the building is attained is distributed to other
loads on the Substation.


Genard T. Obuta, Ali Bantuas, Jay Sean N. Banas, and Michael Mallari
Electrical Engineering Department
Jolou F. Miraflor
Faculty Adviser

Basically we are aiming to design a 1 kilowatt power output using renewable energy resource which
is the Wind. We will be designing a wind turbine. For us to start we need to know the wind speed
and its characteristics, in order for us to find out, we need to have a study. We will be observing the
wind and measure its speed using anemometer, we will be recording its result. We will do it for
almost a month, 3 times a day Morning, lunch and afternoon. We need to find out the speed of the
wind which we will need in designing the turbine. So we after we had all the results we started
searching the net for the blade design. The design of the blade is base on the results that we obtain.
After we can have all the needed things to design a wind turbine generator, its time to see the
results if can achieve our desired output which is 1 kilowatt. But according to what we have research
we need to have a certain level or a minimum wind speed to achieve our desired output. Because
the area that we have has the less wind speed according to NREL who has the wind map of the
Philippines, also as what we have observe in the results of the test that we have so its impossible to
reach our goal so we need to have a device or a technology that will double or multiply our wind
speed. Here comes the Shrouded technology, its a system that can increase the power of the Wind
Turbine by 2-5 times, for a given blade diameter and wind speed. Again we will design a Shrouded
technology that will double or multiply our output to obtain our desired output. So thats it we can
now achieved the Wind Turbine Generator that could produce a 1 kilowatt output.


Melody Kimberly D. Pitoc, Jill Carlotha P. Cajote and
Rashida Ryhanna L. Bantuas
Chemical Engineering Department
Edwin Richard R. Ortiz and Maria Theresa I. Cabaraban
Faculty Advisers

Among the many challenges that the country faces today is the promotion of sustainable energy
sufficient to the developing economy and at the same time gives minimal detrimental effects to the
environment. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) is an abundant and fast growing crop that does
not compete with food sources and can be converted to higher calorific value fuels. This research
aims to investigate the viability of Napier grass as feedstock for fast oxidative pyrolysis in fluidized
bed reactor to produce valuable bio-oil, syngas and biochar. Thirty days old Napier grass stalks were
harvested, decorticated, sun-dried and milled to obtain less than 10% moisture content and an
average particle size of 2 mm. Characterization of the stalks by proximate and ultimate analyses
showed high values of carbon and oxygen content of 45.58% and 43.31%, respectively and high
volatile matter at 68.37%. Its high heating value was 17,823 kJ/kg. These values are comparable to
other feedstocks used for fast pyrolysis. In terms of physical characteristics, the harvested stalk sizes
had an average length of 97.5 cm. Sieve analysis showed that the average particle size diameter of
the milled stalks was about 512.5 mm. The drying curve of the sun-dried stalks was also studied at
temperatures 50, 60 and 70C to determine the best temperature and time to further dry the stalks
to the target moisture. A cold fluidization test is also conducted to determine the fluidized bed
reactor operating parameters such as minimum fluidization velocity, terminal velocity and bed



Kristoffer S. Ebal, Gene Ben Ostin A. Tan,

and Lorenze B. Yecyec
Mechanical Engineering Department
Nestor G. Ipanag
Faculty Adviser

The research is all about harnessing the waves potential to create renewable energy using a linear
generator. The linear generator is a kind of generator that produces electricity by means of a
magnet moving back and forth a solenoid. The linear generator will then be encased in a buoy and
will be anchored, this will then create a linear motion of the magnet inside the buoy creating electricity. Since it is also a buoy, it can also serve as a demarcation device for marking the coastal
territories, beacon for Mariners and Sea-farers to identify and a safety floatation device in time of
accidents and calamities. The aim of this research is to provide electricity to rural coastal areas such
as Opol and Camiguin. This can provide electricity not only to their homes but also can provide
electricity for jump starting their small boat engines and for charging their electrical devices.
Another aim of the research is to provide demarcation to coastal municipal territories so that
Mariners will easily know their location due to the existing buoys. To achieve these goals, the
researchers conducted the research in a laboratory scale approach. The research is aiming for at
least 3 watts of power. The research is using a small empty tank of refrigerant R-22 as the base buoy
and an electromagnet for the linear generator. Electromagnets are chosen because of the variable
magnetic field it can give, thus improving the performance of the linear generator.


10 cm spacing
Jason Gabriel G. Gualberto, Jan Vincent C. Labajosa, Francis Jan Y. Nabor
and Francis Bien T. Victoriano
Mechanical Engineering Department
Elmer B. Dollera
Faculty Adviser

This research project aims to develop a ducted wind turbine in hopes of acquiring electricity.
Applying various theories and principles of Giovanni Battista Venturi and Daniel Bernoulli with a
variation of the wind turbine designed by Sigurd Johannes Savonius, air enters the duct in vacuum
like manner due to the way the ducting is installed. Kinetic energy of the air is absorbed by the two
turbines along the duct which consists of two parts, an entry duct and a residual duct joined by a
reducer. Wind enters the duct, moving the first turbine and slows down in velocity, the idea is to
improve output of energy by Harnessing wind energy a second time with the means of throttling the
damped wind from the entry turbine into the residual duct by a reducer. Using SOLIDWORKS in
simulating the wind flow inside the duct, AutoCAD for designing the ducting layout and turbine
mechanism, and the best of the researchers abilities to help in the pursuit of acquiring cheap,
sustainable and green energy which is really needed especially in Mindanao wherein power supply is
insufficient. The findings may have an impact on developing wind turbines. Recommendations were
made for future application of the ducted wind turbine.



Hazel Dawn B. Patica, Valerie K. Chudi-Arinze and Keenex E. Serdone

Chemical Engineering Department
Christylene S. Balagtas
Faculty Adviser

Due to the increasing demand of energy, micro-algae have received considerable interest as a
potential feedstock for producing sustainable transport fuels or biofuels. Numerous factors
influence the growth and lipid content of algae which includes lighting, mixing, water, CO 2, O2
removal, nutrient supply, temperature, and pH. Among these factors, it was focused on this study to
investigate the effects of light supply specifically the effects of different photoperiod and photo
bioreactor (PBR) configuration on the biomass productivity of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. The
cultivation of C. vulgaris was done continuously under three different photoperiods namely: 8:16,
12:12 and 16:8 (light: dark cycles) and two PBR configurations namely the airlift and bubble column.
Prior to the continuous cultivation, C. vulgaris was initially cultured in batch mode for 12 days with
continuous illumination of lights. It was found out that the specific growth rate was = 0.1168/day.
Also, 1000 ppt urea and different concentrations of stale human urine (30 % v/v, 15% v/v, 10% v/v
and 5% v/v) were used as growth media for the algal culture in the 12-day batch
The culture using urea showed apparent growth compared to the stale human urine and was used
as the growth medium for the continuous cultivation. All of the algal cultivation was illuminated with
5-W LED bulbs with an average light intensity of 5000 lux and was subjected to continuous aeration.


Ariel H. Justiniane and Mohammad Macasindil
Mechanical Engineering Department
Nestor G. Ipanag
Faculty Adviser

The R-12 refrigerant has been widely used in refrigeration systems and air conditioning since 1930.
However, Montreal Protocol, an international treaty that controls the production of ozone depleting
substances, limits the production of CFCs by 50% during 1998. In the Philippines, DENR banned the
use of R-12 in many refrigeration systems and air conditioning. The study deals with the impact of
retrofitting of R-12 with the refrigerant R-134a on the performance of a refrigeration trainer,
specifically the Brodhead garret model R01 originally designed to work with R-12. The basis of
comparison in the study is the weight of the refrigerant used in a refrigeration trainer. Tests were
made varying from fan speed of a refrigeration trainer (10 tests on each refrigerant) and COP and
other parameters, such as condensing pressure and temperature, evaporator pressure and
temperature, ambient temperature, discharge and suction pressure, and evaporator compartment
temperature, were observed during each test. Based from the results, the overall performance of
refrigerant R-134a is consistently higher than R-12.


Jennie Ann A. Robles, Genaro Paolo G. Penera,
Ralph Vincent R. Moyon and Aldwin Raphael E. Villena
Mechanical Engineering Department
Rogelio C. Golez Jr.
Faculty Adviser

A micro hydro power plant is a type of hydroelectric power that typically produces power that
ranges from 5kW up to 100 kW. The micro hydro performs as a run of river system that the water
that passes through the turbine driving the generator to produce power will go back directly to the
stream with a relatively minimal impact on the surrounding ecology. In addition, micro hydro is a
small scale harnessing of energy from falling water. This production range is calculated in terms of
its head and flow. The higher each of these are, the more power is available. The power from the
natural flow of streams and small rivers can be harnessed to bring clean, easy to maintain, affordable and reliable electricity to remote communities.In the case of Barangay Bayanga in Cagayan de
Oro, there is a suggestion to improve the method of its application in the considered area. The immediate objective of this research project is to propose a newly designed turbine that could generate enough or equal power required to supply the pump as an alternative source of energy. A newly
designed blade for the turbine has been developed that could be used as application in Barangay
Bayanga. The instrumented turbine is composed of an eight blade newly designed crossflow turbine
that will quantify the water flow and verify if it will be enough to produce the required power to
drive a pump. As the elevation is being increased, a higher value of volume flow rate will be acquired
in the experiment. Through this, we can make use of the ratio and proportion method in order to
scale the necessary mechanics that can be applied in the actual scenario. Also, the research study is
being done through a laboratory scale in Xavier University.



Jude Vincent S. Caballa, Mondel Ahmer E. Delyoden,

Christian Alfonso G. Lagumbay and Ian Jed P. Mobida
Mechanical Engineering Department
Rogelio C. Golez Jr.
Faculty Adviser

Electricity has become a major necessity for human beings to live but as the demand for energy in
the world increases, the supply for raw materials such as fossil fuels degenerates over time.
Consequently, our electric bill increases. This study aims to improve the previous design of a wind
belt generator and compare its output power and efficiency; to fabricate an improved design of a
wind belt generator; to determine the angle of the wind belt frame and air duct at which the belt
will create the maximum output; and to create a simulation analysis of the flow trajectories with its
corresponding wind velocity and generated power output. The study will only limit to a laboratory
scaled wind belt generator that uses an industrial fan as a source of wind. However, the study will
use various types of belt for the purpose of trial and error and to see which belts will be efficient. In
obtaining the necessary data and results, the researchers improved and modified the previous
design of the wind belt generator, the researchers will focus more on quantitative approach rather
than qualitative. Upon fabricating and constructing the frame, air-ducting, placement of the coil and
magnets and other necessary parts of the wind belt, the researchers encountered small problems
and differences from the proposed design but in the course of experimentation and fabrication the
researchers managed to find a much better alternative and improvement. The simulation analysis
served as one of the basis in the study to aid the researchers precision and success in obtaining the
efficiency of the wind belt generators improved design.


Elthon Marc B. Malinao, Kim Michael P. Paclar, Daniel H. Lu Jr.
and Shenn Michael Y. Torres
Mechanical Engineering Department
Nelson Corbita Jr.
Faculty Adviser

The utilization of wind energy is not a new technology. It is being used by many countries to date. In
fact, in the Philippines, the largest generating wind farm located in Burgos, Ilocos Norte, produces
150 Mega Watts of power. Wind energy will drive the wind turbines which create mechanical power
that is converted to electrical power using a generator. This study is concerned with the fabrication
and comparison of generated output between a modified and a traditional wind turbine. Moreover,
the paper aims to evaluate the economic viability of the modified wind turbine and present the
design parameters of the study. Flow design concept is used by designing a housing for the turbine
that is made out of plain steel plate that will utilize the wind flowing inside the turbine. The whole
concept has twenty-four blades. Twelve blades are steady where the generator is placed and also
direct the wind at an angle efficient for the rotor blades to turn, which also have twelve blades that
are made of steel plate. The actual wind speed in SitioMalingin was measured using an anemometer
and the total power generated was computed using the formula P=IV. Hence, the produced voltage
and current were measured by a digital multi-tester to calculate the power.


Joel Marco D. Comendador, Thomas Allan O. Cuarteros,
Jerick James L. Fermano and Lanz Marion R. Ong
Electrical Engineering Department
Gunnar Marc Shane C. Cabaraban
Faculty Adviser

Energy shortage has always been a major problem in the Philippines, especially in Mindanao. One of
the best solutions being addressed to this problem is the addition of renewable energy resources.
An example of a unutilized source of energy is pig manure which could be used to produce biogas.
Biogas is a mixture of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (NH4), nitrogen (N2) and other trace gases.
Methane is the main combustive gas component making up 50-70% of the biogas. This study is
focused on designing a power system that will utilize the power created by a biogas technology
using pig manure. This study will also give awareness to the people to promote a greener
environment by explaining the process of Cleaner Development Mechanism or also known as
Carbon Trading. The objective of the study is to design the components of the power system that
will utilize the 1MW source of biogas and aims to answer the power shortage in Libona, Bukidnon.
As the advancement of technology and economy continues, the Cleaner development Mechanism
will also be a good source of income or benefits by selling the carbon emissions of the biogas system
straight thru the buyer. The proposed design will also be economical by showing its payback period
and the net-present value. This project is beneficial for both producer and consumer of electricity.
Awareness of using a renewable source of energy will help address the power shortage in



Genesis C. Concillo, Jerald Jake T. Dalde,

Melanie Bianca G. Jabiguero and Peter Paul R. Perez,
Electrical Engineering Department
Eliseo B. Linog Jr.
Faculty Adviser

Barangay Pagalungan experiences the need of water supply in their household. Although, the
Barangay administration has accommodated the residents a main common water source. But still,
families have to travel in schedule for them to collect water for household use. The project directed
its purpose to the communitys main concern on lack of water supply. As the Barangay officials
claimed that government offices have committed to help the communitys problem, but failed to
implement for some major concerns. The research introduces renewable energy for better efficiency
and sustainability of the project. Renewable energy is best recommended in most remote areas. It is
dependent from the grid and provides substantial benefits for our climate, our health, and our
economy. Solar power is the best recommended type of renewable energy in plain and
highly-located remote areas in tropical countries. Communities settled in such areas can
independently rely on the utility since solar insolation can be achieved at the peak hours of the day.
Thus, in relation to solar energy, this research project aims to design a solar water pumping system,
provide efficient materials used for the system, and orient beneficiaries of proper preservation of
the proposed unit. The study involved demographic profiling, and surveying for data gathering. With
the aid of the City Engineers Office, structural and technical design was provided. The study resulted
to better advantages in terms of demand-supply issues, cost analysis, and return of investment in
years. The research project looks forward for the residents in maintaining the preservation of the


Jerick Khim K. Pinotes, Delinger Pajela, Paul Maglunsod,

and Davey Nuez
Electrical Engineering Department
Gunnar Marc Shane C. Cabaraban
Faculty Adviser

An innovative system to utilize the energy from man-made wind resources is introduced. A ducted
savonius vertical-axis-wind-turbine (VAWT) coupled with an axial flux permanent magnet generator
is attached into the outlet of the ventilation system, which is the condenser unit to harness wind
energy and to generate electricity. The duct enhances the performance of the VAWT. The generator
is designed according to the chosen condenser unit wind speed. The onsite field test results met the
desired output which is to be able to charge a 12v battery. This system is retrofit-able to other
existing exhaust air outlets and has high market potential due to abundant exhaust air resources



Elaine Grace D. Del Rosario, Mikee Kristine Y. Ong

and Louisse Marie B. Urbina
Industrial Engineering Department
Glenn B. Paclijan
Faculty Adviser

Rainfall data is very important for the planning, development, operation and management of water
resources schemes as well as for flood early warning systems. Tipping bucket rain gauges are
frequently used in local rainfall measurements because of their simplicity and robustness. Rain
gauges can be used in a lot of areas, gardening, meteorology, agricultural needs and most importantly for on-site flood prevention warning system. This study is a product development study.
This paper presents that the fabricated Rain Gauge by the last years proponents is both technically and economically feasible. In this paper, the proponents evaluate if the user requirements are
fit to the design of the Rain Gauge. The study also aimed to determine the market demand of the
Rain Gauge, compute for the costing and material requirements of the recommended Rain Gauge,
and lastly to know whether the Rain Gauge is financially feasible. The study showed there is something to be improved upon the design of the rain gauge with regards to its quality and physical features. The rain gauge is cheap to construct, light, durable and suitable for remote sites. The costing
of the rain gauge resulted to P7, 475.93 which includes the mark-up profit of 10%. The financial aspect proved that investing in the production resulted to high profits.



Feli Jan Wenson K. Bagares, Lady Dawn P. Montil and Richydine P. Paradero
Industrial Engineering Department
Glenn B. Paclijan
Faculty Adviser

Bolisong Women Wine Makers, Inc (BWWMI) is a cooperative owned enterprise that produces fruit
wines (especially duhat wines). The cooperative wants to expand their market so this paper is dedicated in production of 111 bottles of cassava peels vodka. The researchers gathered their data for
marketing aspects and technical aspects in producing the cassava peel vodka. The researchers also
included the waste management for proper disposal of the waste. Lastly, the researchers computed
the financial aspects for the production. The total project cost is Php 136, 248.85. The calculations
had an internal rate of returns (IRR) of 91%, average return of investments (ROI) of 117% and a payback period of 0.8536 or 10 months and 7 days. With these results, the new product line is desirable
for the cooperative.


Junelle Ronet A. Booc, Jill Dylan Y. Calamba, Ronn Jezza Christy V. Magdayao
and Lloyd B. Pagalan
Industrial Engineering Department
Glenn B. Paclijan
Faculty Adviser

The global soy beverage market continues to grow, offering plenty of opportunities for the
development of products with new health benefits and/or taste experiences, as well as concepts for
specific age and lifestyle-related target groups. There exist many different applications for soy.
Regarding to the Contreras Store, they can adapt their soy products to the different consumer preferences. To present all existing soy milk applications in detail would go beyond the scope of this
abstract. Therefore we present only soy milk and Tofu which are the base for the most soy food they
produce. Tofu, also known as soybean curd, is a soft, cheese-like food made by curdling fresh, hot
soymilk with a coagulant. Tofu is a bland product that easily absorbs the flavors of other ingredients
with which it is cooked. In today's economic climate, the need to cut costs can be the difference
between success and failure. The most significant decisions relating to the planning and control of
projects concern the trade-off between the time and cost parameters. Possible solutions for the
problems identified for Contreras' Soy Store by the researchers addresses two basic things:
maximizing production time and minimizing cost. The proponents also came up with various
strategies for their vision of expansion resulting to having them propose a fully automated machine
for a long term investment and also suggest new techniques for their current process I.E.
customizing their current facilities and optimizing their existing layout.



Jose Leonard K. Cinco, Michael Rey S. Maulion, Cliff D. Montilla,

and Shane John D. Sabunod
Electrical Engineering Department

Gunnar Marc Shane C. Cabaraban

Faculty Adviser

Power shortage has been a very critical issue especially here in Mindanao. To alleviate this concern,
there are two simplified ways to solve it. One is to increase supply of power. And the other is to conserve energy by decreasing power consumption of consumers, which means consumers use
electricity efficiently. This paper will focus on the latter. The study will come up with a monitoring
system where it could measure and display energy consumed using a microcontroller and a GSM
shield then, views the data through a smart phone. To put it in simplicity, it aims to develop a
convenient way of monitoring power consumed. In the first phase of this study, a monitoring device
will be developed by using a current transformer and potential transformer as sensors of the load
voltage and the load current, this data is then read through the analog inputs of the Gizduino
Atmega 328p microcontroller. The microcontroller would be programmed to interpret the said analog input into energy consumed by the user. In the second phase, the data from the microcontroller
is then converted into a text message and will be sent to the smart phone through GSM shield.
Finally, the last phase of the study will deal with developing a smart phone application that will
interpret the text message from the remote Gizduino microcontroller and GSM shield and display it
in a user-friendly interface to be 2 viewed by the user. With further studies, an additional feature of
remote switching can be done.


Albrina Gabrielle D. De Mesa, Kate Lourence D. Ellano, Xavier Angelo G. Escao
and Mary Ann Jingle D. Palmero
Industrial Engineering Department

Glenn B. Paclijan
Faculty Adviser

YSU Marketing Corporation is a repacking and distribution company all over Northern Mindanao.
The purpose of studying this company is to evaluate its current state, hence the group identified
aspects that can be addressed and resolved by applying Industrial Engineering tools and methods.
These areas of concern include workstation design, material handling of loading and unloading of
goods and placement of truckload. To address these areas of concern, ergonomics, proper material
handling, proper truckload placement and optimization, further research were used and applied.
Also, since the company will be transferring to a new location and constructing a new warehouse
with their own preferred specifications, the group also assessed and evaluated the existing
proposed warehouse facility design. The whole project cost for the proposals (i.e. modern
equipment) was calculated. If implemented, these proposals can contribute a huge amount of
improvement and efficiency YSU, for their new warehouse, workstations and systems for material
handling and truckload placement.


Marc Anthony Cainoy, Herald C. Laglario,
Mark Oliver A. Partoza and Limon Jay J. Sumpingan
Electrical Engineering Department
Dondanon A. Bajarla
Faculty Adviser

Luminaire retrofitting in Xavier University - College of Engineering building is to give an overview to

consider the benefits of having sufficient illuminance to a specific area or in a room. The output
which consist of a design of proper illumination in full and detailed specification is hoped to be replicated throughout the other buildings in the campus and promote money-efficient and health management program. The luminaire inventory projected a total amount of 597 lamps, it is categorized
to 400 assorted fluorescent lamps and 197 LED lamps. In an average daily usage, the building utilizes
66.75% of fluorescent lamps powered at 192 hours a day and 97.46% of these LED lamps powered at
70 hours a day. The fluorescent lamp, when compared to the LED lamp, consumes more power than
the latter device at the same rated lumens. The main objective of our project is to provide a revised,
retrofitted lighting plan on all the rooms and hallways in the College of Engineering building with accord to the IIEEELI Manual of Practice on Efficient Lighting and IESNA standards. As the economy and
technology kept on progressing, the state-of-the-art LED lighting device is more capable of producing light at the equivalent power rating of a fluorescent lamp. Hence in the energy consumption
analysis between these lamps, LED lamps could save the cost of consumption in the establishment.
In addition to this paper, payback period, cost-benefit analysis and the net-present value will be analyze to better portray the economical vantages upon employment. This project will be beneficial for
the consumer of electricity which includes the XU administration and personnel as well as the students.



Nicolo Lorenzo P. Cano, John Carlos F. Nacague and Keanu Henri S. Yu

Industrial Engineering Department
Glenn B. Paclijan
Faculty Adviser

The objective of the study aims to seek an additional source of income for farmers in Manolo
Fortich, Bukidnon by processing Napier grass into biomass briquettes which can be sold as fuel for
power generation companies. The marketing, technological, and financial aspects of the proposal
will be used as basis for evaluating its feasibility. Collection of data was conducted through research
on related literature and interviews with resource persons who are experienced with the topic. The
proposal will use a pilot land area of 10 hectares for supply of the material and a production process
which will convert the grass into briquettes at an annual output of 2,500 tons. The product will be
sold to a target power plant for PHP 2,500 per ton yielding an expected profit at 22% during the first
year of operations with a payback period of 1 year and 8 months. These findings support this
concept as a source of livelihood which can be proposed to farmers as an additional or alternative
means of income.



Mary Loudette U. Entrampas, Althea Farah A. Mangubat,

Ma. Genevie Rose A. Ong and Jason A. Rempillo
Industrial Engineering Department
Glenn B. Paclijan
Faculty Adviser

Mindanao Container Corporation (MCC) is a steel container drum manufacturing company

producing five drum types. The proponents aim to identify possible solutions on improving productivity of the companys body-forming and assembly lines. Through interviews, observations, and
gathered data, it was identified that the body-forming line cannot meet its expected daily output.
Fishbone diagram and WOT-SURG matrix were used to identify probable causes/factors: inappropriate production scheduling, frequent downtimes due to constant machine parts readjustment, and
poor machine/equipment performance due to old age. Recommendations include alteration of
MCCs current layout, new raw materials and finished products stockrooms, and changing the schedule to one-drum-type-per-day production. It has been the companys plan to standardize their products, narrowing it down to two drum types; some machines can then be eliminated or combined to
reduce travels, follow a straight pattern process flow, and minimize double-handling. This suggestion
though still needs further study to determine what machines to eliminate or combine; it can be
based on a group technology called cellular manufacturing. Overall, the proposed system is estimated to increase companys efficiency from 69.88% to 85.71%..


Johnray S. Asinero, Demae A. Dolores and Harlene Mae R. Neri
Industrial Engineering Department

Glenn B. Paclijan
Faculty Adviser

4Cs Food Industries is a leading producer of pure buko juice product in the locale. Yet, since its
entry in the business, the company has been mired by problem on fast product spoilage which
happens due to product sensitiveness. The proponents found out that the product is prone to cross
contamination. The quality also quickly deteriorates when exposed to open air and is not stored in a
4C cool environment according to the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). With this being the
pressing problem the company needs to resolve, the proponents zoomed in into the problem
specifics through a descriptive evaluation of the current methods and practices the company
employs, with basis on the FAO manual on Small-scale Production of Bottled Coconut Water.
Accordingly, storage practices, material handling methods and facility layout plan were determined
as most contributory to the problem. In resolve, the proponents recommend 1) improving the
facility layout, particularly closing the production area to ensure no extraneous matters to
contaminate the product; 2) storing the product in a 4C environment on the whole activities the
product undergoes prior to consumption and 3) providing material handling equipment to facilitate
transportation, considering the preservation of the quality of the raw materials. It is projected that
through the solutions abovementioned the product life would increase from just three days to at
least a week.



Jamie Daisylette S. Dapal, Manny Fabian, Gerard James M. Oraiz

and Lester C. Siman
Electrical Engineering Department
Eliseo B. Linog Jr.
Faculty Adviser

Most of us today rely heavily on electricity and we use it practically for everything in our daily lives.
It may not be an exaggeration to say that we are that much dependent on electricity that it may as
well be considered a basic need. Now, how would you feel if suddenly when you are well on your
work the electricity cuts off? On the recent times here in the Philippines, we have been experiencing
brown-outs on multiple areas. Some of which happen simultaneously with one or two major areas.
Much to our dismay this is happening because we are seriously in need of that much electricity
which is more than what our power plants can provide us. With this project we are aiming to
provide what may help us with the current predicament that we are facing. Much more we are
doing this by improving one of the oldest and most used public utility vehicle here in the Philippines,
and that is the Cycle Rickshaw or what is locally known as the Trisikad. With this everyday vehicle,
we are planning to mount an electrical generation system which will generate electricity while it is
being used in its everyday work and store that energy in a battery for later use. Whats more is that
it will be designed in such a way that the generation system may also be used as a motor to assist
the driver to move the vehicle faster and easier when it is needed. As mentioned, among the uses of
the electricity stored in the battery is to provide an electrical source for lighting and small appliances
for hours on end after the drivers days work. And whats more is that we are aiming to provide an
economic analysis which we hope to have a feasible result for application. Now imagine if this
project vehicle is used by a community? Would it help lessen the energy consumption? Now imagine
if it is used by the entire country? We would be able to supply ourselves with that much electricity
that we would be able to help or even solve the electricity crisis we have today.


Ivan Christopher C. Ladica, Harriet Jahzeel E. Lara,
Mohammad Hassan B. Lucman and Marjun Odtojan
Civil Engineering Department
Anabel A. Abuzo
Faculty Adviser

Air quality is a vital to humanity and the environment. However, as air pollution escalate, the
ambient air quality is compromised. Dust particles such as Particulate Matter (PM 10 and PM2.5) are
by-product pollutants from mobile, area, and point sources. This study examines the PM 10 and
PM2.5 concentrations in selected public school environment in the City of Cagayan de Oro as
children are more susceptible to the adverse effect of air pollution. More specifically, the study aims
to determine PM10 and PM2.5 concentration; to evaluate the in-facility and road-side air quality; and
to assess the students health. The methodology of the study includes the following activities: (1)
Traffic surveys: volume count, vehicle classification, and spot speed; (2) Dust monitoring: PM 10 and
PM2.5; and (3) students health survey. The results of the of the PM 10 concentrations in the schools
revealed that generally the average hourly concentrations along these sites are lower than or are
within the acceptable limits of the WHO and the NAAQGV standards. However, a few PM 10 exceed
the 150 g/m3 level during the morning peak-hours On the other hand, the results of the average
PM2.5 concentrations of these schools revealed that, the average hourly concentrations or dust level
during the morning peak-hours are higher than the average acceptable level of the WHO. However,
the average hourly concentration of the PM 2.5 during the morning peak-hours are lower than or are
within the NAAQGV standards. It is highly recommended that school administration efforts, local
government initiatives, and community involvement address and lower the PM emission level in the
school zone areas and will adopt continuous PM 10 and PM2.5 monitoring for the entire City as well.


Chris Lawrence O. Edulan, Kirt Mufty S. Isnani, Theodore Nikko G. Lauron,
Anna Louise V. Saballa and Leasusana C. Ty
Civil Engineering Department
Anabel A. Abuzo
Faculty Adviser

Cagayan de Oro city is currently facing a rapid increase in terms of economy, infrastructure and land
use development alongside the increase in the demand for shelter, facilities and access due to the
increasing population which continues to change its urban landscape. The economic boom of the
City also increases the demand for mobility of people, goods, and services which further increase
the demand for transport. Without careful planning and intervention, rapid urbanization will create
an adverse effect on the community and its environment. The increasing commute of people will
impact on current and future traffic and transportation issues in the community. Therefore, there is
a need to examine the current trend of commuters and transport, and forecast future these in order
to advance the overall transportation plan for the City. Therefore, solutions must be formulated
through a baseline empirical study. This study will investigate the travels generated by people in
residential communities in the downtown area of Cagayan de Oro. Consequently, the study aims to
generate commuter models that describe the independent variables that affect the individuals
movement in the area. In order to achieve this objective, a household survey was conducted to
profile the demographic, socio-economic, and commuter characteristic variables for the model. A
correlation and multiple regression analysis were then employed to generate the commuter
generation model. The developed model will then be useful in forecasting future transport.
Moreover as a tool, the model will serve as a valuable reference for regional and urban planners in
the formulation of policies and recommendations that will advance the land use and transportation
setting of the City.

About The Cover

The cover is composed of images related to the
following keywords such as "engineering",
"community", "industry" and "work". It shows
the different involvement of Engineering in
shaping the world through the acts of the
aspiring engineers in the community.

Around the world, whatever race, whatever

time, our engineers has been a key in resolving
and continuous development of the world in its
different industries-technology, livelihood, food,
machinery, etc. As one community, the engineers tend to "hold and handle" the world in
achieving a single goal-advancement in any

Designed by: Adam Smith B. Vargas