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Finite Element Method for Numerical


Analysis of Post-tension Anchorage Zone
Article in Procedia Engineering December 2014
DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2014.12.187

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Procedia Engineering 95 (2014) 272 278

2nd International Conference on Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and Construction Materials 2014
(SCESCM 2014)

Finite Element Method for Numerical Analysis of Post-Tension Anchorage


Zone
Angga Fajar Setiawana,*, Djoko Sulistyob, Akhmad Aminullahc
a

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika 2 , Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia

Abstract
Construction duration of cast in place segmental bridges can be accelerated by using rapid hardening concrete, so that the jacking force can be
given at earlier age. Jacking force raise high concentration stress in pre-stressing tendon anchorage zone, so that stress and deformation of the
anchorage zone should be analyzed to confirm that nothing crack happened. Finite element method is one of the solutions to analyze this case.
This study concerned bridge of Lemah Ireng II at Semarang - Solo highway (3-spans, 2-Piers). The anchorage zone of a bridge segment was
numerically modelled by using nonlinear finite element solid 3D using Abaqus. This study to get information of stress distribution and concrete
crack indication in anchorage zones due to the age of concrete jacking variation that take in 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 days. FEA analyze of
anchorage zone conclude that based on the stiffness, stress and crack contour distribution of anchorage zone, jacking force to the tendon
anchorage can be approved at one day of concrete age.

The Authors.
Authors.Published
PublishedbybyElsevier
Elsevier
Ltd.
2014
2014 The
Ltd.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review
under responsibility of organizing committee of the 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
Peer-review under
responsibility
Construction
Materials
2014. of organizing committee of the 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Civil Engineering
Structures and Construction Materials 2014
Keywords: stress, crack, jacking force, post-tension, anchorage zone.

1. Introduction
Balance cantilever is segmental construction method of bridge, start with create a cantilever structure from pier heading out
for both sides, perform tendon tensioning (post-tension) into a structure each step, make a permanent structure on which the
construction of the next segment [1]. Construction duration can be optimized by accelerating concrete curing.
Rapid Hardening Concrete compressive strength is reached at a relatively younger age than normal age. Its advantage on the
structure of segmental construction method is make construction time shorter. Information of the effect of variations in the age of
concrete when stressing tendon is useful to determine structural readiness for giving jacking force execution of each stage of
construction of segmental bridge cast in place, so it can be determined optimal construction duration of each segment.
Background from the issues mentioned above, this study will discuss about nonlinear for local numerical modeling analysis
with finite element method construction stage of concrete box girder case studies Lemah Ireng II bridge with span configuration
83.85-132.50-83.85 m located at Semarang-Solo highway, Semarang-Bawen project part.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +62-856-431-89868 ; fax: +62-274-545-676 .

1877-7058 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of organizing committee of the 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Civil Engineering
Structures and Construction Materials 2014

doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2014.12.187

Angga Fajar Setiawan et al. / Procedia Engineering 95 (2014) 272 278

273

E-mail address: angga.fajar.s@ugm.ac.id


2. Literature study
2.1. Rapid hardening concrete application in construction
Research Cangiano et al. [2] concluded that the addition of high performance concrete has a high compressive strength also in
a shorter time to achieve high compressive strength of 80 MPa at the age of 24 hours after casting are presented in Fig. 1. The use
of rapid hardening concrete successfully applied to the construction of short span bridges with heavy traffic load. Within 24
hours of casting the bridge had to be operated, based on inspections by direct loading test by truck within 24 hours after
construction, the bridge still behaves elastic.
2.2. Rapid hardening concrete application in construction
Johnson [3] conducted a study on the effect using steel fiber concrete materials in an effort to reduce reinforcing steel is very
tight on external tendon anchorage zones of post-tension. The study was conducted by analysis using the finite element model as
shown in Fig. 2. In this research the use of steel fiber concrete material is intended for general tensile stress zone is experiencing
quite large.
Oliva and Okumus [4] conducted research on the causes and ways of controlling cracking that occurs at the end of the girder
beam pretension deep wide-flange cross sections are made of precast in the Wisconsin region with the finite element method with
Abaqus software, modeling is performed as in Fig. 3.

Fig. 1. The results of compression test various mix designs [2]

Fig. 2. Finite element modeling of external tendon


anchorage zones of post-tension [3]

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Angga Fajar Setiawan et al. / Procedia Engineering 95 (2014) 272 278


Fig. 3. Comparison of the distribution of the maximum
principal strain finite element model with experimental results
on the crack pattern field [4]

3. Research method
3.1. Research material
This study analyzes the nonlinear static stress numerically with 3D solid elements using Abaqus software used to review
stress, strain, and possible cracks in the anchorage zone of prestressed tendons in the construction phase. Finite element model of
tendon anchorage zones of prestressed concrete made at the age variation age 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 days. Overview variation
tendon tension concrete age when aiming to obtain concrete information that the youngest age and meet the criteria and are safe
stress limit despite the cracks.
3.2. Research equipment
This study analyzes the nonlinear static stress numerically with 3D solid elements using Abaqus software used to review
stress, strain, and possible cracks in the anchorage zone of pre-stressed tendons in the construction phase. Finite element model
of tendon anchorage zones of pre-stressed concrete made at the age variation age 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 days. Overview variation
tendon tension concrete age when aiming to obtain concrete information that the youngest age and meet the criteria and are safe
stress limit despite the cracks.
3.3. Research data
Concrete material data obtained from laboratory test of concrete trial mix before has been used in construction. Datadependent mechanical properties approaches based on CEB-FIP MC90 [5] compared with PBI-1971 [6] is presented in Fig. 4.
Material data based on CEB-FIP MC90 approach is used as a constitutive model of concrete. Material model in Abaqus use
Damaged Concrete plasticity (CDP) [7]. Input parameters and constitutive plasticity concrete material are presented in Table 1.,
Fig. 5. and Fig. 6.
fc (MPa)
60.00
50.00
CEB-FIP-1990
CEB-FIP-1990

40.00

Laboratory
Data Uji Lab
test
PBI-1971
PBI-1971

30.00
20.00
10.00

Times (t,days)

0.00
0

20

40

60

80

100

Fig. 4. Concrete dependent mechanical properties graph.


Table 1. Plasticity parameter of concrete material model
Dilatation angle ()
Eccentricity
Fb0/fc0
K
30

0.1

1.16

Viscosity

0.67

0.005

c (MPa)
45.00
40.00
35.00
30.00

Linear

25.00
20.00

Non
Linear

15.00
10.00
5.00
0.00

total

Angga Fajar Setiawan et al. / Procedia Engineering 95 (2014) 272 278

275

Fig. 5 Concrete under compression constitutive models graph.


c (MPa)

3.50
3.00

Linear

2.50
2.00
1.50

Non
Linear

1.00
0.50
0.00

Fig. 6. Concrete under tension constitutive models graph.

3.4. Finite element modeling


Anchorage zone modeling capture at junk of the cantilever segment (segment 15) is a nonlinear 3D solid elements using
Abaqus. To save time and computer memory model is reviewed only at half of cross-section.
Anchorage zone model consists of concrete, reinforcing steel, and anchor plates. Concrete and anchor plates are modeled as
solid elements as in Fig. 7., while the reinforcing steel were modeled as truss elements as in Fig. 8. use embedded element
interaction. Boundary condition is determined by making the displacement in the direction perpendicular to the symmetry of the
cross section is zero, and the vertical direction of the base of the segment is zero. While in the axial direction box girder is
modeled as an elastic foundation according to the elastic modulus of concrete. Load acting on the finite element model of a
tendon anchorage zones are jacking force and the weight of its own structure. Increment load jacking force and self-weight work
simultaneously idealized structure. Jacking force is a pressure load acting on the anchor plate. Self-weight is modeled as a body
force structure, ie a structure input volume weight of 25 kN/m3. Distribution mesh finite element model is determined by the
convergence test, which uses 310913 elements, mesh division is presented in Fig. 9. convergence tests and graphs are presented
in Fig. 10.

Fig. 7. Modeling pressure load on the anchorage zone.

Fig. 8. Modeling of reinforcing steel in prestressed tendon anchorage zone


structure.

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Angga Fajar Setiawan et al. / Procedia Engineering 95 (2014) 272 278

Fig. 9. The division of the mesh on the model anchorage zone.

(mm)
0.71

0.71
0.70
0.70
0.69
0.69

Element
jumlah
Number
elemen(n)
(n)

0.68

Fig. 10. Mesh convergence graph.

4. Results and discussion


4.1. Stiffness character of anchorage zone
Although jacking force give up to 75% fpu, stiffness character still tend to behave linear structure, so that it can be said
structural collapse has not occurred, because the model has a large confinement due to the geometric structure of massive and
also the effect of confinement reinforcement system, which is in line with experimental by Burdet [8]. Value jacking force
relationship with deformation structure Z direction (axial) and Y direction (vertical) is presented in Fig. 11.
The Enhancement structure stiffness with the longer curing time before being given concrete jacking force, relates increasing
mechanical properties of concrete materials in line with the longer curing time. Structure stiffness increase relatively large in
curing duration of 0.5 days to 1 day curing duration than in the duration of curing after 1 day, this happens because of the
increased mechanical properties of concrete is relatively fast at the age of 0 to 1 day accordingly. Once over the age of 1 day
increased mechanical properties of concrete are not too significant. Based on the character of the model stiffness of anchorage
zones recommended jacking force carried by age over or equal to 1 day.
4.2. Stress, strain, and concrete damaged anchorage zone
Observations concrete cracked indications through the maximum principal strain parameters showed that the jacking force due
to all the variations of the duration of the curing concrete tensile cracking occurs around the front and rear anchor plate. A
decrease in the intensity of cracking in an increased duration of curing of concrete can be seen in Fig. 12., Fig. 13., Fig. 14., and
Fig. 15. The cracking intensity of the jacking force jacking force 70% fpu is smaller than 75% fpu. Spalling around the front of the
tendon anchorage zones shall be permitted as covered by the new concrete segments thereafter. Based on Fig. 12. and Fig. 13.
Crack indications also occurs on the top surface of the concrete deck on the curing duration of 0.5 days.
Based on a visualization review of concrete cracked indication, to prevent excessive tensile cracks, jacking force should be
given to the duration of the curing of concrete is more than equal to 1 day to 34.14 MPa compressive strength concrete.

Angga Fajar Setiawan et al. / Procedia Engineering 95 (2014) 272 278


Pj (%fpu)
100.00%

0,5D-Z

90.00%

1D-Z

80.00%

1,5D-Z

70.00%

2D-Z

60.00%

3D-Z

50.00%

0,5D-Y
1D-Y

40.00%

1,5D-Y

30.00%

2D-Y

20.00%

3D-Y

10.00%
(mm)

0.00%
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Fig. 11. Graph showing the relationship of deformation and jacking force
anchorage zone model (Z is the axial direction and Y is the vertical direction of
the box girder).

Fig. 12. Contours of maximum principal strain (tensile) age of 0.5 days concrete anchorage
zone of prestressed tendon jacking force 70% fpu.

Fig. 13. Contours of maximum principal strain (tensile) age of 0.5 days concrete anchorage
zone of prestressed tendon jacking force 75% fpu.

Fig. 14. Contours of maximum principal strain (tensile) aged 1 day concrete anchorage zone
of prestressed tendon jacking force 70% fpu.

Fig. 15. Contours of maximum principal strain (tensile) aged 1 day concrete anchorage zone of
prestressed tendon jacking force 75% fpu.

277

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Angga Fajar Setiawan et al. / Procedia Engineering 95 (2014) 272 278

5. Conclusions and recommendation


5.1. Stress, strain, and concrete damaged anchorage zone
It can be concluded that:
x The stiffness of anchorage zone models with jacking force until 75% fpu, result near linear stiffness behavior. Occurs relatively
large stiffness difference in the age before 0.5 days after the first day due to an increase in mechanical properties of concrete
materials that occur in the life span of concrete from 0 to 1 day, while the increase in mechanical properties of concrete
materials after 1 day of age is relatively small.
x Anchorage zone fractured tensile strain based on parameters the maximum principal tension and damaged the rear anchorage
zone , around the anchor plate , and a bottom surface of the deck for all variations of the duration of the curing concrete and
jacking force . Cracks on the surface of the upper deck position parameters damaged by tension variations only occur in the
concrete curing time of 0.5 days with 75 % fpu jacking force , while based on the maximum principal strain tensile cracks
occur in the concrete curing time variation of 0.5 days both on jacking force 70 fpu % fpu and 75 % fpu. Anchorage zone of prestressed tendons undergo compression indication damaged on position coincides with anchor plates for all variations of the
duration of the curing concrete and jacking force, but an indication of the damaged compression occurs only on the surface
and in the number of small intensity.
x Based on observations stiffness of anchorage zone are still approaching the condition of the existence of a linear crack and
push pull is not expected to cause collapse of the structure in the zone. Allowable tensile cracks occur because the reinforcing
steel is still in a state of elastic, so that by the time after grouting is done due to the stress on the tendon jacking force
distributed along the tendon path and cracks will be closed again. While in the zone on the perimeter of the anchor plate
spalling is allowed to experience as it will be closed with new concrete construction segments thereafter.
x The optimum time of tendon tensioning is 1 day concrete age with compressive strength of 34.14 MPa for jacking force both
70 % fpu and 75 % fpu.
5.2. Recommendations
The following suggestions for research related to this study are:
x Future studies related to such research could include the modeling of the overall bridge structure with nonlinear 3D solid
element to determine the ultimate capacity of the structure.
x Future studies related to such research can perform finite element modeling anchorage zone in accordance with the standard
geometric by ETAG [9] anchorage zone testing and can also perform laboratory experiments as a comparison analysis of the
finite element method.
References
[1] Souvegeot, Segmental Concrete Bridges Bridge Engineering Handbook. Boca Raton, CRC Press. 2000
[2] Cangiano,S., Meda, A., dan Plizzari, A., Rapid hardening concrete for the construction of a small span bridge. Bergamo, University of Bergamo. 2008
[3] Jhonson, S., Analytical modelling of fiber reinforced post-tensioned concrete anchorage zones. Thesis, Florida. Florida State University. 2006
[4] Olivia and Okumus, P., Finite element analysis of deep wide-flanged pre-stressed giders to understand and control end cracking. Dissertation. 2011
[5] Telford, T., CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. London, Comite Euro-International du Beton. 1991
[6] Departemen Pekerjaan Umum dan Tenaga Listrik., Peraturan Beton Bertulang Indonesia. Bandung, Yayasan Lembaga Penyelidikan Masalah Bangunan.
1971
[7] Dassault Systemes, Abaqus Analysis Users Manual. RI, USA, Dassault Systemes Dassault System Corp. 2011
[8] Burdet,. Analysis and Design of Anchorage Zones in Post-Tension Concrete Bridges. Dissertation. Texas, University of Texas. 1990
[9] ETAG 013,. Guideline for European Technical Approval of Post-Tensioning Kits for Prestressing of Structures. Brussels, EOTA.
Wiskonsin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2002