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JOB

HAZARD
ANALYSIS
Albert L. Asprec, M.D., M.O.H.

Occupations ...

Skin disease from

Epoxy resin

cement

Blisters

Accidents can occur when:


Work is performed incorrectly
Workers use hazardous materials
Work under hazardous conditions

The process of determining the


hazards associated with a job is
often referred to as a JHA or a
Job Hazard Analysis.

Hazards that present risks to:


Environment
Safety
Health

For proper ESH mgmt all jobs


should include a JHA

Uses of a JHA
Create / improve SOPs
Guide in observing employee
performance
Accident investigation
Safety inspection

JHA involves 3 procedures


1. Identify basic steps of a job
2. Determine associated hazards
3. Make recommendations to
control the hazards

Prioritizing JHAs
High Frequency of Accidents
Increase occurrence of Near-Misses
History of Serious Accidents / Fatalities
Potential for Serious Harm
New Jobs
Changes in Procedures or Standards

JHA Team
Supervisor
Employee most familiar with the job
Other employees who perform the job
Experts or specialists
(maintenance personnel, occupational
hygienists, ergonomists or engineers)

JHA Steps
1. Identify basic steps of a job;
2. Determine associated hazards
3. Make recommendations to
control the hazards

Identify the Basic Job Steps


1. Watch carefully as a worker
performs the entire job at least once

JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS


Department / Division

Job Location

Date Performed

Performed by

Job or Operation Title


Title of Employee Doing Job
Verified by

Special or Primary Hazards


Personal Protective Equipment Required or Recommended

Basic Job Steps

Existing & Potential Hazards

Recommended Corrective
Measures

2. As the operator performs the job


again, list the individual steps on
the left-hand column.

JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS


Department / Division

Job Location

Date Performed

Performed by

Job or Operation Title


Title of Employee Doing Job
Verified by

Special or Primary Hazards


Personal Protective Equipment Required or Recommended

Basic Job Steps

Existing & Potential Hazards

Recommended Corrective
Measures

3. Using simple action phrases that


are short and to the point

4. Steps should always be


numbered to indicate the order

JOB HAZARD
HAZARD ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS
JOB
Department / Division
.
Beater Department

Job Location

Date Performed

Performed by

6-15-01

Main Plant

Job or Operation Title


Corrugated Box Bailing

Title of Employee Doing Job


Baler Operator

Verified by

Juan dela Cruz/Roberto Reyes/Caloy SantosNelson Noypi, Dept. Supervisor

Special or Primary Hazards


Hand/eye injuries, muscle strain
Personal Protective Equipment Required or Recommended
Gloves, arm guards, eye protection
Basic Job Steps
1. Transport broken down boxes to
baler using a cart

2. Transf er boxes f rom cart to baler

3. Compress boxes

4. Tie bale with wire

Existing & Potential Hazards

Recommended Corrective
Measures

Most common errors


Describing the job in too much
detail, or
Describing the job in too little
detail.

Solution
List as steps only those tasks that
would be described to someone
being trained to perform the job

Video

Determine the Hazards


Identify all of the existing or
potential actions or conditions that
could lead to an injury or illness, or
harm to the environment.

Hazard Guide
The physical actions required for
that specific step.
The materials used.
The equipment used.
The conditions under which the
step is normally performed.

Physical Action
Force (weight)
Frequency (repetition)
Posture (prolonged)
Position (distance)

Materials
Chemicals
Corrosive
Flammable
Volatile

Equipment
Mechanical hazard
Electrical hazard

Conditions
Noisy environment
Temperatures extremes
Vibration present
Poor or high Illumination
Pressure (atmospheric force)
Prolonged hours

"What if Questions
Anticipate hazardous situations
Abnormal operating conditions
Incorrect or out of sequence
Additional attachments
Replacements / alternatives
Consequences

In Performing a Job Hazard Analysis

1.

1.1
1.2

2.

2.1
2.2

Basic Job Steps


1. Transport broken down boxes to
baler using a cart

Existing & Potential Hazards


1A. Muscle strain f rom pushing heav y cart
1B. Collision with v ehicles/obstacles

2. Transf er boxes f rom cart to baler


1C. Body parts caught between cart baler
3. Compress boxes
4. Tie bale with wire

2A. Hands/f ingers caught in baler doors


2B. Hands caught between doors and boxes
2C. Cuts f rom edges of cardboard

3A. Hands/f ingers caught in baler doors


3B. Struck by unlatched doors
4A. Hands/Fingers caught in baler doors
4B. Cuts/punctures f rom wire

Recommended Corrective Action

Recommending Corrective
Measures
should be developed at the job
site whenever possible
should be developed in sequence,
beginning with the first hazard
must be specific

Correcting the hazards


Engineering control
Administrative control
Personal Protective Equipment

4 factors to control hazards


Physical action
Material
Equipment
Condition

Physical Actions

Modifying
Rearranging
Combining actions
Change the process
Training
Use of PPE

Physical Actions
List possible PPE even if
engineering controls have been
recommended

Materials

Substitution of materials
Machine guarding
Safeguarding
Limit employee exposure
Use of PPE

Equipment
Installation of machine guards
Use automatic safeguard devices,
Replacement of a particular piece
of equipment.
Training, experience, skills
Use of PPE should also be
considered

Work Area Conditions


Improved housekeeping procedures
Installation of additional lighting
Use ventilation system
Noise reduction systems
Vibration damping
Provide machine guarding

Work Area Conditions


Relocation (isolation by place)
Rescheduling (isolation by time)
Redesign of the work area.
Height
Weight
Distance

In Performing a Job Hazard Analysis

1.1.1
1.1.2
1.

1.1
1.2

1.1.3

2.

2.1
2.2

1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3

Basic Job Steps


1. Transport broken down boxes to
baler using a cart

Existing & Potential Hazards


1A. Muscle strain f rom pushing heav y cart

1A1. Prov ide motorized cart/tug


1B. Collision with v ehicles/obstacles

1A2. Palletize f lattened boxes

1C. Body parts caught between cart baler

1B1. Install ov erhead mirrors at


intersections

2. Transf er boxes f rom cart to baler

3. Compress boxes
4. Tie bale with wire

Recommended Corrective
Measures

1B2. Require daily remov al of all obstacles


2A. Hands/f ingers caught in baler doors
2B. Hands caught between doors and boxes
2C. Cuts f rom edges of cardboard

1C1. Paint f loor to identif y where to park cart


1C2. Wear heav y glov es
2A1. Wear heav y glov es

3A. Hands/f ingers caught in baler doors


3B. Struck by unlatched doors
4A. Hands/Fingers caught in baler doors
4B. Cuts/punctures f rom wire

2A2. Extend door handles away f rom


pinch-point
2B1. Wear heav y glov es
2C1. Wear heav y glov es, arm protection,
saf ety glasses
3A1. Wear heav y glov es
3A2. Extend door handles
3B1. Install automatic latches/interlock
sy stem
4A1. Wear heav y glov es
4A2. Extend door handles
4B1. Wear glov es, arm protection, saf ety
glasses

USING A JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS


Developing or updating SOPs
Training employees
Observing employee performance
Conducting inspections
Investigating accidents

Develop / improve SOPs


To constantly improve / develop
written procedures to perform the
job in the safest & healthiest way
possible.

Employee Training
Ensuring that each job step is
performed safely & efficiently
To point out particular job steps /
hazards that require special
precautions.
Refresher training (infrequent jobs)
Increase awareness on hazards

Employee Observations
Guide in employee performance
observations
Allows supervisors to focus on
especially hazardous steps
Ensures employee is performing
steps according to SOP

Inspections
When developing inspection
checklists, supervisors can use
JHAs to help identify hazardous
conditions that may need to be
included.

Accident Investigations
To determine if the job was being
performed incorrectly
To tell if a hazard was overlooked
in the initial analysis.

Summary
JHAs improve ESH management

To perform an accurate & complete


JHA :
Select the job to be analyzed;
Assemble a team

Step 1
Observe the job as it is performed
to break it down into basic steps;

Step 2
Analyze each step to determine
what, if any, hazards could
possibly occur; and

Step 3
Develop recommendations for
eliminating or controlling the
hazards associated with each step.

ESH

JHAs - a simple step to safety

!
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r
Grr

As you leave for work today, you discover that your car has a flat tire.
The car is parked on level ground, and the parking brake is already
set. The bumper jack and spare tire are both in good condition and
stored in the cars trunk.

Job Steps
1. Remove jack, spare tire, and lug wrench from
trunk.
2. Loosen lug nuts.
3. Raise jack.
4. Remove flat tire.
5. Install spare tire.
6. Lower jack.
7. Tighten lug nuts.
8. Place tire, jack and lug wrench in trunk.