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IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier

Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to


500 kHz) Associated with Power
Transmission Lines

IEEE Power and Energy Society

Sponsored by the
Power System Communications Committee

IEEE
3 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10016-5997
USA

IEEE Std C93.4-2012

28 February 2013

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012

IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier


Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to
500 kHz) Associated with Power
Transmission Lines
Sponsor

Power System Communications Committee


of the

IEEE Power and Energy Society


Approved 5 December 2012

IEEE-SA Standards Board

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Abstract: Power-line carrier (PLC) line-tuning equipment connected between the coupling
capacitors and PLC transmitter/receiver terminals operating in the frequency range of 30 kHz to
500 kHz over power transmission lines and cables or to similar line-tuning equipment in a carrier
bypass are addressed in this standard. PLC line-tuning equipment includes assemblies and
components: tuning inductor, impedance matching transformer, balancing transformer, tuning
capacitor, inductance-capacitance (LC) tuning unit, hybrid, filter, protective unit, interconnecting
cables, and enclosure. This standard includes the protective devices that facilitate the safe
operation and maintenance of the line-tuning components under normal and usual operating
conditions. This standard will develop technical definitions, performance ratings, testing methods,
and manufacturing requirements for the included line-tuning equipment.
Keywords: hybrid, IEEE C93.4, line tuners, PLC, power-line carrier, protective device

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.


3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5997, USA
Copyright 2013 by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
All rights reserved. Published 28 February 2013. Printed in the United States of America.
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Participants
At the time this IEEE standard was completed, the Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment Working
Group had the following membership:
Roger Ray, Chair
Miriam Sanders, Vice Chair
Ray Fella
Jerry Finley
Bob Ince

Jon Kellner
John Miller
Slobodan Misur

Bruce Pickett
Zoltan Roman
J. Mark Simon

The following members of the individual balloting committee voted on this standard. Balloters may have
voted for approval, disapproval, or abstention.
G. Bartok
Oscar Bolado
Robert Bratton
Gustavo Brunello
Mark Bushnell
William Byrd
Gary Donner
Randall Dotson
Gary Engmann
Dan Evans
Kenneth Fodero
Jalal Gohari
Stephen Grier
Randall C. Groves
Edward Hare
Roger Hedding
Jerry Hohn
James Kinney

Jim Kulchisky
Chung-Yiu Lam
Greg Luri
Michael McDonald
John Miller
Adi Mulawarman
Jerry Murphy
R. Murphy
Bradley Nelson
Michael S. Newman
Gary Nissen
Gearoid O'hEidhin
Robert Pettigrew
Bruce Pickett
Percy Pool
Roger Ray
Michael Roberts
Charles Rogers

Zoltan Roman
Miriam Sanders
Bartien Sayogo
Gil Shultz
J. Mark Simon
Veselin Skendzic
Jerry Smith
Gary Stoedter
Charles Sufana
Richard Taylor
Demetrios Tziouvaras
Joe Uchiyama
Eric Udren
John Vergis
John Wang
Kenneth White
Ray Young
Jian Yu

vi

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When the IEEE-SA Standards Board approved this standard on 5 December 2012, it had the following
membership:
Richard H. Hulett, Chair
John Kulick, Vice Chair
Robert M. Grow, Past Chair
Konstantinos Karachalios, Secretary
Satish Aggarwal
Masayuki Ariyoshi
Peter Balma
William Bartley
Ted Burse
Clint Chaplin
Wael Diab
Jean-Philippe Faure

Alexander Gelman
Paul Houz
Jim Hughes
Young Kyun Kim
Joseph L. Koepfinger*
David J. Law
Thomas Lee
Hung Ling

Oleg Logvinov
Ted Olsen
Gary Robinson
Jon Walter Rosdahl
Mike Seavy
Yatin Trivedi
Phil Winston
Yu Yuan

*Member Emeritus

Also included are the following nonvoting IEEE-SA Standards Board liaisons:
Richard DeBlasio, DOE Representative
Michael Janezic, NIST Representative
Don Messina
IEEE Standards Program Manager, Document Development
Erin Spiewak
IEEE Standards Program Manager, Technical Program Development

vii

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Introduction
This introduction is not part of IEEE Std C93.4-2012, IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment
(30 kHz to 500 kHz) Associated with Power Transmission Lines.

This standard was last published in 1984. It was approved on August 7, 1984, by the American National
Standards Institute, Inc. (ANSI) and published by them. At that time the Secretariat was the National
Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). The copyrights for all the ANSI C93 standards were
transferred to the IEEE on January 20, 2004. The C93 standards consist of the following four standards:
ANSI/NEMA C93.1-1999, American National Standard Requirements for Power-Line Carrier Coupling
Capacitors and Coupling Capacitor Voltage Transformers (CCVT).
ANSI/NEMA C93.3-1995, American National Standard Requirements for Power-Line Carrier Line Traps.
ANSI C93.4-1984, American National Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz
to 500 kHz) Associated With Power Transmission Lines (now this standard, IEEE Std C93.4-2012).
ANSI/NEMA C93.5-1997, American National Standard Requirements for Single Function Power-Line
Carrier Transmitter/Receiver Equipment
IEEE placed the responsibility for maintaining these standards with the Power System Communications
Committee (PSCC). In turn the PSCC assigned the responsibility to the Power Line Carrier (PLC)
Subcommittee.
This standard has been almost completely rewritten from the version last published in 1984. As well as
rewriting the requirements for PLC line-tuning equipment, the requirements for auxiliary equipment, such
as hybrids and filters, for combining multiple transmitters and receivers so that they can communicate over
one coaxial cable, have been added.

This standard is dedicated to Mr. Edo Derencinovic, posthumously, as he was an expert in the field of
power-line carrier and contributed significantly to the information in this document.

viii

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Contents
1. Overview .................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................ 2
2. Normative references.................................................................................................................................. 2
3. Definitions .................................................................................................................................................. 2
4. Service conditions ...................................................................................................................................... 7
4.1 Usual conditions .................................................................................................................................. 7
4.2 Unusual conditions .............................................................................................................................. 8
5. Ratings........................................................................................................................................................ 8
5.1 Ratings that apply to all devices .......................................................................................................... 8
5.2 Ratings and comments specific to device ............................................................................................ 9
6. Testing ...................................................................................................................................................... 15
6.1 General .............................................................................................................................................. 15
6.2 Design test procedures....................................................................................................................... 16
6.3 production test procedures................................................................................................................. 37
7. Manufacturing requirements..................................................................................................................... 38
7.1 Line tuners ......................................................................................................................................... 38
7.2 Hybrid and auxiliary devices ............................................................................................................. 38
7.3 Protective devices .............................................................................................................................. 39
Annex A (informative) Typical line tuners .................................................................................................. 40
Annex B (informative) Drain coil loading in power-line carrier coupling circuits ...................................... 44
Annex C (informative) Measurement of drain coil parameters .................................................................... 45
Annex D (informative) Hybrid and separation filter applications ................................................................ 48
Annex E (informative) Spark gaps and high-voltage protective devices...................................................... 54
Annex F (informative) Bibliography ............................................................................................................ 55

ix

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IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier


Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to
500 kHz) Associated with Power
Transmission Lines
IMPORTANT NOTICE: IEEE Standards documents are not intended to ensure safety, health, or
environmental protection, or ensure against interference with or from other devices or networks.
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This IEEE document is made available for use subject to important notices and legal disclaimers.
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Concerning IEEE Documents. They can also be obtained on request from IEEE or viewed at
http://standards.ieee.org/IPR/disclaimers.html.

1. Overview

1.1 Scope
This standard applies to power-line carrier (PLC) line-tuning equipment connected between the coupling
capacitors and PLC transmitter/receiver terminals operating in the frequency range of 30 kHz to 500 kHz
over power transmission lines and cables or to similar line-tuning equipment in a carrier bypass. PLC linetuning equipment includes assemblies and components: tuning inductor, impedance matching transformer,
balancing transformer, tuning capacitor, inductance-capacitance (LC) tuning unit, hybrid, filter, protective
unit, interconnecting cables, and enclosure. This standard includes the protective devices that facilitate the
safe operation and maintenance of the line-tuning components under normal and usual operating
conditions. This standard will develop technical definitions, performance ratings, testing methods, and
manufacturing requirements for the included line-tuning equipment.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

1.2 Purpose
This standard is vital to the application of PLC systems (30 kHz to 500 kHz) on all transmission lines. PLC
systems are used for protection systems and other communications. The line tuner is the part of the system
that allows the carrier signal to reach the power line with the minimum of loss. Requirements will be
established so that the types of tuners and their interaction with the power system are known and
performance can be predicted.

2. Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document (i.e., they must
be understood and used, so each referenced document is cited in text and its relationship to this document is
explained). For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of
the referenced document (including any amendments or corrigenda) applies.
ANSI/NEMA C93.1, American National Standard Requirements for Power-Line Carrier Coupling
Capacitors and Coupling Capacitor Voltage Transformers (CCVT) Requirements. 1, 2
ANSI/NEMA C93.3, American National Standard Requirements for Power-Line Carrier Line Traps.
ANSI/NEMA C93.5, American National Standard Requirements for Single Function Power-Line Carrier
Transmitter/Receiver Equipment.
IEEE Std 4, IEEE Standard for Techniques for High Voltage Testing. 3, 4
IEEE Std 1313.1, IEEE Standard for Insulation CoordinationDefinitions, Principles, and Rules.
IEEE Std C37.98, IEEE Standard for Seismic Testing of Relays.
NEMA 250, Enclosures for Electrical Equipment (1000 Volts Maximum).

3. Definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. The IEEE Standards
Dictionary Online [B1] and ANSI/NEMA C93.1, ANSI/NEMA C93.3, and ANSI/NEMA C93.5 should be
consulted for terms not defined in this clause. 5, 6, 7
balancing transformer: A transformer that divides the carrier-frequency power from one source equally
into two out-of-phase outputs. Syn: balanced resistive hybrid. See also: impedance matching
transformer (IMT).

ANSI publications are available from the American National Standards Institute (http://www.ansi.org/).
NEMA publications are available from Global Engineering Documents (http://global.ihs.com/).
3
IEEE publications are available from The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (http://standards.ieee.org/).
4
The IEEE standards or products referred to in this clause are trademarks of The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
5
IEEE Standards Dictionary Online subscription is available at:
http://www.ieee.org/portal/innovate/products/standard/standards_dictionary.html.
6
Information on references can be found in Clause 2.
7
The numbers in brackets correspond to those of the bibliography in Annex F.
2

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

band-pass filter: Type of filter that may be tuned to pass a group of contiguous frequencies. See Figure 1.
See also: high-pass/low-pass filter.

Figure 1 Band-pass separation filter


band-pass line tuner: A line tuner that, together with its associated coupling capacitor, forms an adjustable
or fixed band-pass filter in the carrier-frequency range. See also: high-pass line tuner; single-frequency
line tuner; two-frequency line tuner.
bandwidth: The frequency range within which the insertion loss and return loss requirements are achieved.
basic impulse insulation level (BIL): The electrical strength of insulation expressed in terms of the crest
value of a standard lightning impulse, which has a front time of 1.2 s and a time-to-half value of 50 s.
The tolerance range is 1.2 s to 5.0 s for the front time and 40 s to 60 s for the time-to-half value.
blocking capacitor: A capacitor connected in series between the line terminal and the impedance matching
transformer in the line tuner. This reduces the power-frequency current flowing through the impedance
matching transformer to prevent saturation while presenting a low impedance to the carrier-frequency
current. See also: compensating capacitor.
carrier bypasses: A combination of line-tuning equipment and associated coupling capacitors that
provides a path for bypassing carrier-frequency energy around discontinuities, such as power transformers,
open circuit breakers, or disconnect switches, and power lines of different voltages and at the
interconnection of overhead/cable circuits. There are two types of carrier bypasses: longA bypass using a
line tuner with each coupling capacitor and with coaxial cable interconnecting the tuners; shortA bypass
using tuning elements and carrier lead-in cable between the coupling capacitors.
carrier lead-in cable: An insulated unshielded conductor for the high impedance interconnection between
the coupling capacitor and line tuner. See also: coaxial cable; triaxial cable.
coaxial cable: A single conductor with coaxial shield for the low-impedance interconnection between a
line tuner and the transmitter/receiver or between line tuners for a carrier bypass. See also: carrier lead-in
cable; triaxial cable.
coaxial-cable-side impedance: The impedance that the line tuner is designed to match on the coaxialcable-side. See also: line-side impedance.
coaxial-cable line-tuner terminal: The terminal of the line tuner to be connected to the coaxial cable. See
also: ground line-tuner terminal; line-tuner terminal.
combiner: Multiple hybrids connected to combine, isolate, and provide redundancy paths for coupling
power-line carrier (PLC) signals to more than one phase or to more than one circuit.
compensating capacitor: A capacitor connected in series between the line terminal and the tuning inductor
unit in the line tuner. This reduces the effective capacitance of the coupling circuit to facilitate tuning at
higher frequencies. (Use of this type of capacitor is optional.) See also: blocking capacitor.
3

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

coupling methods: See: intercircuit coupling; phase-to-ground coupling; phase-to-phase coupling;


three-phase coupling.
drain coil: An inductor in the protective unit connected between the line terminal and the ground terminal
of a line tuner, presenting a low impedance to the flow of power-frequency current and a high impedance to
the flow of carrier-frequency current. See also: grounding switch; surge protection device.
filters (separation): Filters used to group and isolate multiple power-line carrier transmitters and/or
receivers at the coaxial input terminal. See also: band-pass filter; high-pass/low-pass filter.
frequencies: See: high-pass/low-pass cutoff frequency; geometric mean frequency (GMF); resonant
frequency.
geometric mean frequency (GMF): For a band-pass line tuner, the geometric mean of the bandwidth limit
frequencies. This geometric means is the square root of the products of the bandwidth limit frequencies.
See: high-pass/low-pass cutoff frequency; resonant frequency.
ground line-tuner terminal: The terminal of the line tuner to be connected to ground. See also: coaxialcable line-tuner terminal; line-tuner terminal.
grounding switch: A switch in the protective unit connected between the line terminal and the ground
terminal of a line tuner. See also: drain coil; surge protection device.
high-pass/low-pass cutoff frequency: That frequency at which the power output is attenuated 3 dB from
the input power. See: geometric mean frequency (GMF); resonant frequency.
high-pass/low-pass filter: Three port separation filter having a high-pass group of power-line carrier
(PLC) signals above the filter cutoff frequency and a low-pass group of signals below the cutoff frequency.
A typical high-pass/low-pass separation filter is shown in Figure 2. See also: band-pass filter.

Figure 2 High-pass/low-pass separation filters


high-pass line tuner: A line tuner that, together with its associated coupling capacitor, forms an adjustable
or fixed high-pass filter in the carrier-frequency range. See also: band-pass line tuner; single-frequency
line tuner; two-frequency line tuner.
hybrids: An auxiliary tuning device, often located in transmitter/receiver enclosures, that provides a high
degree of electrical isolation between two ports (ports 1 and 2), while providing a fixed loss between each
of these ports and a third port (port 3) when the termination of port 3 is twice the impedance of the
balancing network. Hybrids provide isolation between transmitters when frequencies are close together and
between transmitters and receivers where the impedance of port 3 equals the impedance of the balancing
network. See Figure 3. See also: reactive hybrid; resistive hybrid; skewed hybrid.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Figure 3 Hybrid
impedance matching transformer (IMT): A transformer that provides fixed or selectable impedance
ratios for matching the impedance magnitude of the power line to that of the coaxial cable at power-linecarrier frequencies. See also: balancing transformer.
impedances (nominal): See: coaxial-cable-side impedance; line-side impedance.
intercircuit coupling: Coupling to two power lines between one or more phase conductors of one line and
one or more phase conductors of the other line. See also: phase-to-ground coupling; phase-to-phase
coupling; three-phase coupling.
line-side impedance: The characteristic surge impedance of the transmission line that the line tuner,
together with the associated coupling capacitor(s), is designed to match on the line side. See also: coaxialcable-side impedance.
line tuners: An arrangement of elements that, together with one or more associated coupling capacitors,
provides bidirectional transmission of carrier-frequency energy between the power line and the coaxialcable terminal of the line tuner. It also provides a degree of protection both for personnel and for other
power-line carrier (PLC) terminal equipment against the effects of power-frequency voltages and transient
overvoltages. See also: band-pass line tuner; high-pass line tuner; single-frequency line tuner; twofrequency line tuner.
NOTESee Figure A.1 through Figure A.4 for examples of typical line tuners. 8

line-tuner terminal: The terminal of the line tuner to be connected to the carrier lead-in cable. See also:
coaxial-cable line-tuner terminal; ground line-tuner terminal.
losses: See: insertion loss; return loss; trans-hybrid loss.
insertion loss: The carrier-frequency power loss caused by the combination of the line tuner and associated
coupling capacitor(s) terminated by the nominal line-side and coaxial-cable-side impedances. See also:
return loss; trans-hybrid loss.
parallel LC tuning unit: An adjustable or fixed inductor and capacitor combination, with a selectable
inductance-to-capacitance ratio forming a parallel resonant circuit. See also: series LC tuning unit.
phase-to-ground coupling: Coupling to a power line between one phase conductor of the line and ground.
See also: intercircuit coupling; phase-to-phase coupling; three-phase coupling.
phase-to-phase coupling: Coupling to a power line between two phase conductors of the line. See also:
intercircuit coupling; phase-to-ground coupling; three-phase coupling.

Notes in text, tables, and figures of a standard are given for information only and do not contain requirements needed to implement
this standard.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

protective devices: See: drain coil; grounding switch; surge protection device.
protective unit: A system of components that limit the voltage on the line terminal of the line tuner.
ranges: See: tuning range; working range.
rated power capability: The average carrier-frequency power that a line tuner or coupling element will
carry continuously without damage.
reactive hybrid: A hybrid with reactance and resistance in the balancing network. See also: resistive
hybrid; skewed hybrid.
resistive hybrid: A hybrid with only resistance in the balancing network. See also: reactive hybrid;
skewed hybrid.
resonant frequency: The frequency or frequencies to which the line tuner and its associated capacitor are
tuned. See also: high-pass/low-pass cutoff frequency; geometric mean frequency (GMF).
return loss: A measure of the dissimilarity between two impedances, being equal to the number of decibels
that corresponds to the scalar value of the reciprocal of the reflection coefficient, and expressed by the
following formula:

RL = 20 log

P
Z1 + Z 2
or RL = 10 log F
Z1 Z 2
PR

where
RL
Z 1, Z 2
PF
PR

= return loss in decibels (dB)


= the two impedances
= forward power
= reverse power

See also: insertion loss; trans-hybrid loss.


series LC tuning unit: An adjustable or fixed inductor and capacitor combination, with a selectable
inductance-to-capacitance ratio forming a series resonant circuit. See also: parallel LC tuning unit.
single-frequency line tuner: An adjustable line tuner that is tuned to series resonance with its associated
coupling capacitor at one selected carrier frequency. See also: band-pass line tuner; high-pass line tuner;
two-frequency line tuner.
skewed hybrid: A hybrid in which the electrical balance altered to give a lower loss than a conventional
hybrid in one path (between ports 1 and 3) at the expense of a higher loss in the other path (between ports 2
and 3). See also: reactive hybrid; resistive hybrid.
surge protection device: Spaced electrodes (adjustable or fixed), metal oxide varistor (MOV), or gas
discharge tube in the protective unit connected between the line terminal and the ground terminal of a line
tuner for limiting the voltage impressed between those terminals. See also: drain coil; grounding switch.
three-phase coupling: Coupling to all three phase conductors of a power line. See also: intercircuit
coupling; phase-to-ground coupling; phase-to-phase coupling.
transformers: See: balancing transformer; impedance matching transformer (IMT).

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

trans-hybrid loss: A measure of attenuation between Port 1 and Port 2 of a hybrid at any single frequency.
See also: insertion loss; return loss.
triaxial cable: A type of coaxial cable that has two separate coaxial shields. See also: carrier lead-in
cable; coaxial cable.
tuning inductor unit: An adjustable inductor for use in the line tuner for canceling the reactance of the
coupling capacitor.
tuning range: The portion of the carrier-frequency band through which the geometric mean frequency
(GMF) or resonant frequency may be adjusted so that the return and insertion loss meets specification. See
also: working range.
tuning unit: See: parallel LC tuning unit; series LC tuning unit.
two-frequency line tuner: An adjustable line tuner that is tuned to series resonance with its associated
coupling capacitor at two selected carrier frequencies. See also: band-pass line tuner; high-pass line
tuner; single-frequency line tuner.
working range: The range of carrier frequencies within which the bandwidth of a coupling element can be
set. See also: tuning range.

4. Service conditions

4.1 Usual conditions


4.1.1 Outdoor service
a)

Ambient temperature range: 40 C to 45 C. With regard to the temperature range, see Table 1.

b) Relative humidity: Non-condensing 95% at 40 C for a period not to exceed 96 h.


c)

Maximum altitude: 1000 m (3300 ft) above sea level.

d) Power frequency: dc to 60 Hz.


e)

Atmosphere free of damaging fumes or excessive or abrasive dust, explosive mixtures of dust or
gases, steam, and salt spray.

f)

Carrier-frequency range: 30 kHz to 500 kHz.


Table 1 Outdoor service-ambient temperature limit conditions (C)
Continuous maximum
over 1 h
45

Mean over 24 h

Mean over 1 year

40

30

4.1.2 Indoor service


a)

Ambient temperature range: 20 C to 55 C. With regard to the temperature range, see Table 2.

b) Relative humidity: Non-condensing 95% at 40 C for a period not to exceed 96 h.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

c)

Maximum altitude: 1000 m (3300 ft) above sea level.

d) Power frequency: dc to 60 Hz
e)

Atmosphere free of damaging fumes, excessive or abrasive dust, explosive mixtures of dust or
gases, steam, or salt spray.

f)

Carrier-frequency range: 30 kHz to 500 kHz.


Table 2 Indoor service-ambient temperature limit conditions (C)
Continuous maximum
over 4 h
55

Mean over
24 h
45

Mean over 1 year


40

4.2 Unusual conditions


4.2.1 Altitude
For line-tuning equipment to be used at altitudes greater than 1000 m (3300 ft), the dielectric strength
correction factors given in Table 3 shall be applied.
Table 3 Dielectric strength correction factors
Altitude above
sea level (m)
Less than 1500
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000

Correction factor
1.00
0.95
0.84
0.75
0.67
0.59

4.2.2 Vibration, shock, and seismic conditions


Vibration and shock functional requirements vary with local conditions and as such should be negotiated
between the parties concerned.
Seismic functional performance specifications are considered unusual service conditions and as such
should be negotiated between the parties concerned. When these requirements are considered, seismic
testing conditions and techniques are specified in IEEE Std C37.98.

5. Ratings

5.1 Ratings that apply to all devices


Any time voltage is discussed or V is used in this standard, it is always RMS voltage unless otherwise
specified. See Table 4 and Table 5.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Table 4 Ratings for devices


Devices
Powerfrequency
insulation

5 kV for 1 min
circuit to
enclosure and
winding-towinding for the
IMT
10 kV
50, 75, 125
unbalanced or
150
balanced
2 dB over
tuning range

NA

NA

5 kV for 1 min
between windings

3 kV
50, 75, 125
unbalanced or
150
balanced
3.5 dB over
tuning range

3 kV
50, 75, 125
unbalanced

3 kV
50, 75, 125
unbalanced

See 5.2.2.3.1.

Refer to Table 5

3 kV
50, 75, 125
unbalanced or
150
balanced
0.5 dB over the
working range

20 dB in the
pass band of the
high- and lowpass sides
Manufacturer to
state
< 3 dB above
harmonic
distortion of input
signal at rated
power
< 3 dB above
intermodulation
distortion of input
signal at rated
power

20 dB in the
pass band in an
unflanked state

20 dB for both
low and high side
and for all taps

Manufacturer to
state
< 3 dB above
harmonic
distortion of input
signal at rated
power
< 3 dB above
intermodulation
distortion of input
signal at rated
power

Manufacturer to
state
< 3 dB above
harmonic
distortion of input
signal at rated
power
< 3 dB above
intermodulation
distortion of input
signal at rated
power

20 dB

Rated power

Manufacturer to
state
< 3 dB above
harmonic
distortion of input
signal at rated
power
< 3 dB above
intermodulation
distortion of input
signal at rated
power

Manufacturer to
state
< 3 dB above
harmonic
distortion of input
signal at rated
power
< 3 dB above
intermodulation
distortion of input
signal at rated
power

Manufacturer to
state
< 3 dB above
harmonic
distortion of input
signal at rated
power
< 3 dB above
intermodulation
distortion of input
signal at rated
power

Intermodulation
distortion

Auxiliary IMT

NA

>12 dB for both


terminal and line
side

Harmonic
distortion

Band pass

NA

Return loss

Insertion loss

High-pass/
low-pass

Skewed hybrid

3 kV
50, 75, 125
unbalanced or
150
balanced
0.1 to 1 dB on TX
port and 6 to 25
dB on RX port
20 dB

BIL
Input
impedance

Ratings

Balanced
hybrid

Line tuner

Table 5 Band-pass filter characteristics


Bandwidth
(kHz)

Insertion loss @
100 kHz (dB)

Insertion loss @
500 kHz (dB)

0.75

2.75

Spacing between
flanked filter
GMFs
(kHz)
10

0.65

2.5

10

0.40

1.5

24

16

0.2

1.0

48

5.2 Ratings and comments specific to device


5.2.1 Line tuners
5.2.1.1 Insulation level of line tuner
5.2.1.1.1 Power frequency
The insulation level at power frequency is between windings of the impedance matching transformer and
between circuit to enclosure of the line tuner.
9

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

5.2.1.1.2 Basic impulse insulation level (BIL)


The BIL of the line tuner refers to the line side and the impulse wave shape will be of 1.2 s 50 s. Refer
to IEEE Std 1313.1.
5.2.1.2 Nominal line-side impedance
5.2.1.2.1 Overhead power-line applications
The nominal line-side impedance of the line tuner shall be within the range of 200 to 500 for phase-toground line tuners and in the range of 400 to 800 for phase-to-phase line tuners. The nominal line-side
impedance for intercircuit, phase-to-phase, and 3-phase coupling shall be within the range of 200 to
500 phase-to-ground for each coupled phase.
5.2.1.2.2 Power cable applications
The nominal line-side impedance of the line tuner shall be within the range of 15 to 50 for phase-toground coupling and in the range of 30 to 100 for phase-to-phase coupling.
5.2.1.3 Nominal coaxial-cable-side input impedance
As stated in Table 4.
5.2.1.4 Insertion loss
The insertion loss of a line tuner cannot be standardized because of wide variations in the type of tuner,
carrier frequencies, capacitance of coupling capacitor, and line-side impedance. However, the insertion loss
should be the least possible loss compatible with the bandwidth and design requirements and, generally
shall be less than listed in Table 4.
5.2.1.5 Return loss
The line-side and coaxial-cable-side return losses are over the bandwidth of the line tuner.
5.2.1.6 Rated power capability
The rated power capability of the line tuner shall be that for which the unit has been designed and stated by
the manufacturer.

10

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

5.2.1.7 Distortion
5.2.1.7.1 Harmonic distortion as stated in the Table 4
5.2.1.7.2 Intermodulation distortion as stated in Table 4
5.2.1.7.3 Types
The types of tuning for line tuners shall be as follows:
a)

Single frequency

b) Two frequency
c)

High pass

d) Band pass

5.2.1.7.4 Working ranges


Working ranges for line tuners are given in Table 6.
Table 6 Working ranges
Type of tuning
Single-frequency
Two-frequency
High-pass
Band pass

Working range a
(kHz)
30 to 500
30 to 500
30 to 500 c
30 to 500

Coupling capacitor rated


capacitance b (F)
0.001 to 0.02
0.001 to 0.02
0.003 to 0.02
0.001 to 0.02

The tuning range may be only a part of the working range.


Capacitance values typically used for carrier coupling applications and on which tests in this
standard are based. Higher values of capacitance are available and may be applied.
c
Low-frequency limit depends on line impedance and coupling capacitor capacitance.
b

5.2.1.7.5 Frequency separation for two-frequency tuners


For a two-frequency line tuner, the frequencies shall be separated by at least 25% of the higher frequency
or 25 kHz, whichever is greater.
5.2.1.7.6 Minimum isolation for two-frequency tuners
For a two-frequency line tuner, the minimum isolation between f1 and f2 shall be greater than 15 dB.
5.2.1.7.7 Precision of tuning
A single-frequency or two-frequency line tuner shall be capable of being tuned to a selected frequency or
frequencies within the specified range with an accuracy of 0.5%.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

5.2.1.7.8 Tuning stability (variation of tuning with change in ambient temperature)


5.2.1.7.8.1 Single-frequency and two-frequency tuning
The resonant frequency shall not vary more than a total of 2% for changes in ambient temperature within
the range of 40 C to +45 C.
5.2.1.7.8.2 High-pass tuning
The low-frequency limit shall not vary more than a total of 2% for changes in ambient temperature within
the range of 40 C and +45 C.
5.2.1.7.8.3 Band-pass tuning
The geometric mean frequency (GMF) shall not vary more than a total of 2% for changes in ambient
temperature within the range of 40 C and +45 C.
5.2.1.8 Protective unit
5.2.1.8.1 Surge protection device breakdown voltage
The surge protection device breakdown voltage shall be not less than 2.5 kV at power frequency. The
impulse breakdown voltage shall not be greater than 85% of the line-tuner BIL at a standard impulse wave
shape of 1.2 s to 5 s 40 s to 60 s.
5.2.1.8.2 Drain coil
The performance of the line tuner is dependent on the value of the drain coil. The drain coil is optional in
the tuner; however, this element is required in the coupling capacitor or coupling capacitor voltage
transformer (CCVT) (see ANSI/NEMA C93.1). When it is present in both, the combined effect must be
considered. See Annex B for discussion of drain coil design for specific application.
5.2.1.9 Auxiliary IMT
5.2.1.9.1 Overhead line applications
5.2.1.9.1.1 Line-side Impedances
Selectable: 200 to 500 per coupled phase.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

5.2.1.9.2 Power cable applications


5.2.1.9.2.1 Line-side impedances
Adjustable: 15 to 50 in fixed steps to within 10% of actual line impedance.
5.2.2 Auxiliary coupling devices
5.2.2.1 Balanced hybrids
5.2.2.1.1 Trans-hybrid loss
The trans-hybrid loss shall be greater than or equal to 26 dB for balanced hybrids when terminated in
nominal impedance over the tuning range.
5.2.2.2 Skewed hybrids
5.2.2.2.1 Trans-hybrid loss
The trans-hybrid loss shall be greater than or equal to 32 dB for skewed hybrids when terminated in
nominal impedance.
5.2.2.3 High-pass/low-pass separation filters
High-pass/low-pass filters are sometimes used in place of hybrids to minimize insertion losses. There are
two types of high-pass/low-pass filters: flanked or unflanked. If the high-pass and low-pass cutoff
frequencies are separated by 10% to 25%, the high-pass and low-pass filters will interact with each other
and are considered to be flanked. If the high-pass and low-pass cutoff frequencies are greater than 25%
apart then the high-pass and low-pass filter do not have an interaction and therefore are considered to be
unflanked. Unflanked filters can be applied as two separate stand alone units.

ATTN (dB)

Figure 4 is an example of a low-pass/high-pass filter centered around 105 kHz.

Figure 4 Attenuation characteristic of a 10% flanked high/low-pass filter


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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

5.2.2.3.1 Insertion loss


The filter insertion loss, at 10% of cutoff, shall not exceed 0.5 dB at 30 kHz for the low-pass filter and
0.5 dB for the high-pass filter.
5.2.2.3.2 Stop band attenuation
The attenuation for frequencies above the high-pass cutoff frequency for the low-pass shall be greater than
or equal to 20 dB. The attenuation for frequencies below the low-pass cutoff frequency for the high-pass
shall be greater than or equal to 20 dB.
5.2.2.3.3 Rated power capability
The rated power capability of the filter shall be that for which the unit has been designed and stated by the
manufacturer
5.2.2.4 Band-pass filters
If hybrids contribute unacceptable loss, and series LC band-pass units require too much spectrum, the fixed
band-pass filter may be one solution for combining PLC sets.
5.2.2.4.1 Bandwidths
Band-pass filters are generally based on the bandwidths of 4 kHz, 5 kHz, 8 kHz, and 16 kHz.
5.2.2.4.2 Separation for flanking
Band-pass filters are sometimes used in place of hybrids to minimize insertion losses. There are two types
of band-pass filters: flanked or unflanked. If the cutoff frequencies of two band-pass filters are separated by
10% to 25%, the filters will interact with each other and are considered to be flanked. If the cutoff
frequencies are greater than 25% apart then the high-pass and low-pass filter do not have an interaction and
therefore are considered to be unflanked. Unflanked filters can be applied as two separate stand-alone units.
5.2.2.4.3 Attenuation at the band edge of a flanked filter
The attenuation at the pass band edge of the next flanked channel, which would be at the spacing minus the
bandwidth, shall be a minimum of 15 dB.
5.2.2.5 Auxiliary impedance matching transformers
Refer to Table 4 for the ratings of the auxiliary impedance matching transformer.
5.2.3 Carrier lead-in cable
The carrier lead-in cable shall be an unshielded single conductor power cable, AWG #8 minimum, stranded
copper conductor, rated 5 kV minimum.

14

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

6. Testing

6.1 General
6.1.1 Test Conditions
a)

The ambient temperature range for testing shall be from +10 C through +40 C, with +20 C as
the reference temperature.

b) Line-tuning equipment for application at a usual altitude service may be tested at any altitude less
than 1000 m (3300 ft).
c)

Line-tuning equipment for application at an unusual altitude service may be tested at any altitude
higher than 1000 m (3300 ft) if an appropriate altitude correction factor from Table 3 is applied.

d) The test units shall be new and in clean, dry condition.


e)

The sequence of testing shall be optional, except where otherwise noted.

6.1.2 Design tests


The following design tests shall be performed by the manufacturer on each line-tuner design and each
external equipment design to ensure that their characteristics and performance meet the requirements of this
standard as specified:
a)

Protective device sparkover (6.2.1)

b) Insulation level (6.2.2)


c)

Insertion loss line tuners (6.2.3)

d) Insertion loss hybrids (6.2.4)


e)

Return loss line tuners (6.2.5)

f)

Return loss hybrids and filters (6.2.6)

g) Rated power capability (6.2.7)


h) Harmonic distortion (6.2.8)
1)

Line tuners (6.2.8.1)

2)

Hybrids and filters (6.2.8.2)

i)

Intermodulation distortion (6.2.9)

j)

Tuning stability (6.2.10)

k) Minimum isolation between f1 and f2 (6.2.11)


l)

Trans-hybrid loss (6.2.12)

m) Input ports and output ports impedance (6.2.13)


6.1.3 Production tests
The following production tests shall be performed by the manufacturer on each line tuner, or equipment
external to the line tuner, as specified.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

6.1.3.1 Line tuners


a)

Carrier protective gap setting (6.3.1.1)

b)

Insulation level (6.3.1.2)

c)

Insertion loss (6.3.1.3)

d)

Return loss (6.3.1.4)

e)

Minimum isolation between f1 and f2 (6.3.1.5)

6.1.3.2 Hybrids and auxiliary devices


a)

Insertion loss (6.3.2.1)

b)

Input port(s) and output port impedance (6.3.1.2)

c)

Return loss (6.3.2.3)

d)

Insulation level (6.3.2.4)

6.2 Design test procedures


See Table 7.

6.2.1 Surge protection device sparkover


The surge protection device sparkover voltage shall be established for the following requirements and in
accordance with 5.2.1.8.1:
a)

The power-frequency voltage shall be applied and raised slowly from zero across the terminals of
the protective device until a flashover occurs. The sparkover value shall be noted. Repeat this
process five times and select the minimum value.

b)

The sparkover voltage of the surge protection device shall be established by application of powerfrequency voltage and by application of a standard 1 impulse voltage (as described in 5.2.1.8.1) to
the device. For a device with an adjustable gap, the gap dimension shall be recorded.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Table 7 Design test procedures


Devices

Line tuner

Balanced
hybrids

Skewed
hybrids

Highpass/lowpass

Band pass

Auxiliary IMT

Surge
protection
device
sparkover

Procedure in
6.2.1

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Powerfrequency
insulation

BIL

Insertion
loss

Return
loss
Rated
power
Harmonic
distortion

Intermodulation
distortion

Procedure in
6.2.2,
detail 1) and 2)
setup per
Figure 5
Detail 1) and
Figure 6
Detail 2)
Procedure in
6.2.2,
detail 3)
setup per
Figure 9
Procedure in
6.2.3
setup per
Figure 10
Procedure in
6.2.5
setup per
Figure 12 and
Figure 13
Procedure in
6.2.7
Procedure in
6.2.8.1
setup per
Figure 15 and
Figure 16
Procedure in
6.2.9, phase-toground setup
Figure 18
phase to phase
0

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Procedure in
6.2.2,
detail 3)
setup per
Figure 7
Procedure in
6.2.4
setup per
Figure 11

Procedure in
6.2.2,
detail 3)
setup per
Figure 7
Procedure in
6.2.4
setup per
Figure 11

Procedure in
6.2.2,
detail 3)
setup per
Figure 7
Procedure in
6.2.4
setup per
Figure 11

Procedure
6.2.2,
detail 3)
setup per
Figure 7
Procedure in
6.2.4
setup per
Figure 11

Procedure in
6.2.2,
setup Figure 7
for winding to
enclosure and
Figure 8 for
winding to
winding
Procedure in
6.2.2,
detail 3)
setup per Figure
7
Procedure in
6.2.4
setup per
Figure 11

Procedure in
6.2.6
setup per
Figure 14

Procedure in
6.2.6
setup per
Figure 14

Procedure in
6.2.6
setup per
Figure 14

Procedure in
6.2.6
setup per
Figure 14

Procedure in
6.2.6
setup per
Figure 14

Procedure in
6.2.7

Procedure in
6.2.7

Procedure in
6.2.7

Procedure in
6.2.7

Procedure in
6.2.7

Procedure in
6.2.8.2
setup per
Figure 17

Procedure in
6.2.8.2
setup per
Figure 17

Procedure in
6.2.8.2
setup per
Figure 17

Procedure in
6.2.8.2
setup per
Figure 17

Procedure in
6.2.8.2
setup per
Figure 17

Procedure 2),
6.2.9
setup
Figure 20

Procedure 3),
6.2.9
setup
Figure 21

Procedure 2),
6.2.9
setup
Figure 20

Procedure 4),
6.2.9
setup
Figure 22

Procedure 4),
6.2.9
setup
Figure 22

6.2.2 Insulation level


The insulation level of the assembled line tuner shall be verified by application of power-frequency voltage
and impulse voltage in accordance with 5.2.1.1.
a)

To test transformer winding-to-winding insulation the power-frequency test voltage shall be


applied between the line terminal and the coaxial-cable terminal as shown in Figure 5. For phaseto-phase line tuners, the power-frequency test voltage shall be applied with both line terminals
connected together.

b)

To test circuit elements to enclosure insulation, the power-frequency test voltage shall be applied
between the circuit and the enclosure as shown in Figure 6. For phase-to-phase line tuners, the
power-frequency test voltage shall be applied with both line terminals connected together.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

c)

The standard impulse test voltage (as described in 5.2.1.8.1) shall be applied to the line terminal in
accordance with the diagram in Figure 9. For phase-to-phase line tuners, the test voltage shall be
applied to each line terminal separately. The protective device shall be disconnected for this test.

A series of 5 positive and 5 negative impulse voltage waves shall be applied to the line terminal of the line
tuner. Successful completion shall be determined by the absence of visible flashover and no change in
insertion loss as measured before and after this test.
In general, this test shall be performed in accordance with IEEE Std 4.

Figure 5 Winding-to-winding insulation test

Figure 6 Tuner elements to enclosure insulation test

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Figure 7 Impulse and insulation test to enclosurehybrids, filters,


and impedance matching transformers

Figure 8 Insulation test, input to outputhybrids, filters,


and impedance matching transformers

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Figure 9 Impulse testtuner


6.2.3 Insertion loss line tuners
For the insertion loss test, the coupling capacitor (Cc) shall be replaced by a capacitor having negligible loss
and having a capacitance equal to the rated capacitance of the coupling capacitor. Figure 10 shows one
method of measuring the insertion loss, which is given by Equation (1):

V
R

IL = 20 log O + 10 log 1
2V
R2

(1)

where
IL = insertion loss in decibels (dB)
R1 = nominal line-side impedance
R2 = nominal coaxial-cable-side impedance
Vo = voltage of carrier-frequency generator
V = voltage across nominal line-side impedance

Figure 10 Insertion losstuner


R1 shall be a 300 (30 for cable units) non-inductive resistor for a phase-to-ground line tuner and a
600 (60 for cable units) non-inductive resistor for a phase-to-phase line tuner. R2 shall be a noninductive resistor whose value is equal to the coaxial-cable-side impedance. Vo shall be held constant for all
frequencies during a given test.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

a)

Single-frequency line tuner. The insertion loss shall be measured at the resonant frequency. The test
shall be performed at the upper, middle, and lower frequency of the working range and with the
minimum and maximum rated capacitance of the coupling capacitor intended for use within the
working range as shown in Table 6.

b)

Two-frequency line tuner. The insertion loss shall be measured at each resonant frequency. The test
shall be performed at the extremes of the working range and with the minimum and maximum rated
capacitance of the coupling capacitor intended for use within that working range as shown in
Table 6.

c)

For the test performed at the lowest frequency of the range, the second frequency shall be spaced so
that the lower frequency is 25% lower than the upper frequency. For the test performed at the
highest frequency of the range, the second frequency shall be spaced so that the lower frequency is
25% lower than the upper frequency.

d)

High-pass line tuner. The insertion loss shall be measured from the maximum carrier frequency to
a frequency where the insertion loss is 3 dB greater than the minimum insertion loss in the pass
band. The test shall be performed with the minimum and maximum rated capacitance of the
coupling capacitor as shown in Figure 10.

e)

Band-pass line tuner. The insertion loss shall be measured at the GMF. The test shall be performed
at the upper, middle, and lower GMF of the rated working range, and with the minimum and
maximum rated capacitance of the coupling capacitor intended for use within that working range as
shown in Table 6.

6.2.4 Insertion loss hybrids, filters, and impedance matching transformers


Insertion loss expressed in dB is calculated by Equation (2) (see Figure 11):

IL = 20 log

VO
2V

(2)

where
IL = insertion loss in decibels (dB)
Vo = voltage of carrier-frequency generator
V = voltage across nominal line-side impedance

Figure 11 Insertion losshybrids, filters, and impedance matching transformers


For balanced hybrid, perform the test by applying the signal generator to Input 1 with Input 2 terminated by
its nominal impedance. Repeat the test by switching the signal generator and Vo voltmeter to Input 2 and
terminate Input 1 with the nominal impedance.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

For skewed hybrid, Input 1 is the transmitter input terminal and Input 2 is the receiver output terminal.
Perform the test as shown on Figure 10 for the transmitter port. Connect the input generator, voltmeter, and
the RNOM resistor to the output terminals, terminate the transmitter port by the nominal impedance, and
measure the voltage across the receiver port.
For low-pass/high-pass filter, Input 1 is the low-pass port, and the frequency of the signal generator must be
set to the frequency equal to 10% below the low-pass cutoff frequency. The test must be repeated for the
Input 2 (high-pass port) with the frequency set to 10% above the high-pass cutoff frequency and Input 1
terminated in a nominal impedance of the filter.
Band-pass filter does not have two inputs. Input 2 must be ignored when performing the test on the bandpass filter. The frequency of the signal generator must be set to the center frequency of the filter.
The impedance matching transformer is a two-port device. Input 2 is not present. Measurement must be
made using Input 1.
6.2.5 Return loss line tuners
For the return loss tests, the coupling capacitor (Cc) shall be replaced by a capacitor having a negligible loss
and having a capacitance equal to the rated capacitance of the coupling capacitor. Both Figure 12 and
Figure 13 show two methods of measuring the return loss, which is given by Equation (3):

V
RL = 20 log 1
V2

(3)

where
RL
= return loss in decibels (dB)
V1, V2 = voltages measured by voltmeter V with the switch S in the open and closed positions,
respectively, with the voltmeter Vo being kept at equal levels in both switch positions
= nominal line-side impedance
R1
= nominal coaxial-cable-side impedance
R2

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Method 1

Method 2

Figure 12 Return losscoaxial side

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Method 1

Method 2

Figure 13 Return lossline side


R1 shall be a 300 (30 for cable units) non-inductive resistor for a phase-to-ground line tuner and a
600 (60 for cable units) non-inductive resistor for a phase-to-phase line tuner. R2 shall be a noninductive resistor whose value is equal to the coaxial-cable-side impedance. Resistor values shall have 1%
tolerance.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

a)

Single-frequency line tuner. The return loss shall be measured at the resonant frequency. The test
shall be performed at the upper, middle, and lower frequency of the working range and with the
minimum and maximum rated capacitance of the coupling capacitor intended for use within that
working range as shown in Table 6.

b) Two-frequency line tuner. The return loss shall be measured at each resonant frequency. The test
shall be performed at the extremes of the working range and with the minimum and maximum
rated capacitance of the coupling capacitor intended for use within that working range as shown in
Table 6.

c)

For the test performed at the lowest frequency of the range, the second frequency shall be
spaced so that the lower frequency is 25% (or 25 kHz, whichever is greater) lower than the
upper frequency. For the test performed at the highest frequency of the range, the second
frequency shall be spaced so that the lower frequency is 25% (or 25 kHz, whichever is
greater) lower than the upper frequency.

High-pass line tuner. The return loss shall be measured over the frequency limits as determined
and with capacitance values as specified in Table 6.

d) Band-pass line tuner. The return loss shall be measured over the frequency limits as determined
and with capacitance values as specified in Table 6.
6.2.6 Return loss hybrids and filters
The following frequencies are used for the tests described below:
a)

30 kHz

b)

150 kHz

c)

500 kHz

Figure 14 shows the method of measuring return loss, which is given by Equation (4):

V
RL = 20 log 1
V2

(4)

where
RL
= return loss in decibels (dB)
V1, V2 = voltages measured by voltmeter V with the switch S in the open and closed positions,
respectively, with the voltmeter Vo being kept at equal levels in both switch positions

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Measurements for balanced hybrid must be repeated for Input 2 with Input 1 terminated in RNOM.

Skewed hybrid measurements must be made with Input 1 being the transmitter port.

Low-pass/high-pass filter must have measurements done on both ports, one at a time.

Band-pass filter and impedance matching transformer have only one input port.

Figure 14 Return Loss measurements for hybrids and filters


6.2.7 Rated power capability
The rated power capability of the line tuner, hybrid, filters and impedance matching transformer shall be
demonstrated by applying rated power to the coaxial-cable-side or input terminal(s). The rated temperature
of the individual components shall not be exceeded and the equipment under test shall fully meet all
requirements as outlined in this standard at maximum ambient temperature.
For the line-tuner test, the coupling capacitor shall be replaced by a capacitor (Cc) having negligible loss
and having a capacitance equal to the rated capacitance of the coupling capacitor.
The line-side impedance shall be a 300 (30 for cable units) non-inductive resistor for a phase-toground line tuner and a 600 (60 for cable units) non-inductive resistor for a phase-to-phase line tuner.
The test shall be performed at the frequencies and with the coupling capacitor values as described in
Table 6.
6.2.8 Harmonic distortion
The signal/voltage source should be any PLC transmitter terminal (or equivalent equipment) meeting
minimum harmonic distortion specification at maximum rated power output (refer to ANSI/NEMA C93.5)
that must be equal to the power rating of the device under test (DUT). The harmonic output of this voltage
source terminated into its nominal terminating non-inductive resistive load should be measured and
recorded. This measured quantity becomes the reference.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

The voltage source should then be connected to the DUT and the harmonic distortion should be measured
at the output termination of the DUT. The measured harmonic distortion cannot increase by more than the
value stated in Table 4 from the measured reference levels.
6.2.8.1 Line tuners
For this test, the coupling capacitor shall be replaced by a capacitor (Cc, Ccp) having negligible loss and
having a capacitance equal to the rated capacitance of the coupling capacitor.
The line-side impedance shall be a 300 (30 for cable units) non-inductive resistor for a phase-toground line tuner and a 600 (60 for cable units) non-inductive resistor for a phase-to-phase line tuner.
The test shall be performed at the frequencies and with the coupling capacitor values as described in
Table 6.
a)

For single-frequency and two-frequency line tuners, the resonant frequency(s) shall be applied.

b)

For high-pass line tuners, a frequency two times the low-frequency limit shall be applied.

c)

For band-pass line tuners, the GMF shall be applied.

Figure 15 shows the test diagram for the phase-to-ground tuner, and Figure 16 shows the test diagram for
the phase-to-phase line tuner.
Test procedure for phase-to-ground line tunerWith SW1 and SW2 in POS 1, record the harmonic
distortion readings on the selective voltmeter (or on a spectrum analyzer). These become reference
readings. Place SW1 and SW2 in POS 2 and record readings on the selective voltmeter (or on a spectrum
analyzer). For a two-frequency line tuner, repeat the test on the second frequency. When testing a twofrequency line tuner with two coaxial line inputs, the unused input must be terminated in the nominal
coaxial-side impedance.
The unit passes the test if the readings on the selective voltmeter with SW1 and SW2 in POS2 are not
greater then 3 dB from the readings on the selective voltmeter with SW1 and SW2 in POS1.
Test procedure for phase-to-phase line tunerwith SW1 and SW2 in POS 1, record the harmonic
distortion readings on the selective voltmeter (or on a spectrum analyzer). These become reference
readings. Place SW1 and SW2 in POS 2 and record readings on the selective voltmeter (or on a spectrum
analyzer).
The unit passes the test if the readings on the selective voltmeter with SW1 and SW2 in POS2 are not
greater than 3 dB from the readings on the selective voltmeter with SW1 and SW2 in POS1.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

where
RNT = nominal input impedance of the tested line tuner (50 , 75 , or 125 )
RL = nominal line impedance (300 )

Figure 15 Harmonic distortionphase-to-ground line tuner

where
RNT = nominal input impedance of the tested line tuner (50 , 75 , or 125 )
RL = nominal phase to phase line impedance (600 )

Figure 16 Harmonic distortionphase-to-phase line tuner

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

6.2.8.2 Hybrids, filters, and impedance matching transformer


Figure 17 shows the test diagram for hybrids, filters, and impedance matching transformers.

Figure 17 Harmonic distortionhybrids, filters, and impedance matching transformer


Test procedureWith SW1 and SW2 in POS 1, record the harmonic distortion readings on the selective
voltmeter (or on a spectrum analyzer). These become reference readings. Place SW1 and SW2 in POS 2
and record readings on the selective voltmeter (or on a spectrum analyzer).
The unit passes the test if the readings on the selective voltmeter with SW1 and SW2 in POS2 are not
greater then 3 dB from the readings on the selective voltmeter with SW1 and SW2 in POS1.
RNT is equivalent to nominal input or output impedance of the unit under test. Band-pass and impedance
matching transformer do not have two inputs. For those terminals Input 2 is ignored.
6.2.9 Intermodulation distortion
Two PLC transmitter terminals (or equivalent equipment), each rated per ANSI/NEMA C93.5, and each
delivering voltage levels at the input of the DUT equal to one-half of rated voltage and whose frequencies
are within the bandwidth of the tuner, should be used. The two transmitters should be connected to a
resistive hybrid. The output terminal of the hybrid should be terminated with its nominal rated noninductive resistive load. All intermodulation product levels should be measured and recorded. This
measured quantity becomes the reference.
6.2.9.1 Line tuners
The nominal rated non-inductive resistive load should be replaced with the DUT (line tuner) and any
intermodulation product level should be measured across the line impedance. The measured
intermodulation product levels must not increase by more than 3 dB from the reference.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

For this test, the coupling capacitor shall be replaced by a capacitor (Cc, Ccp) having negligible loss and
having a capacitance equal to the rated capacitance of the coupling capacitor.
The line-side impedance shall be a 300 (30 for cable units) non-inductive resistor for a phase-toground line tuner and a 600 (60 for cable units) non-inductive resistor for a phase-to-phase line tuner.
The test shall be performed at the frequencies and with the coupling capacitor values as described in
Table 6.
The intermodulation tests shall be applied to high-pass, band-pass, and single-frequency line tuners as
follows:
a)

For high-pass line tuners, the frequencies at 1.9 and 2.0 times the low-frequency limit shall be
applied.

b) For band-pass line tuners, the frequencies 2 percent above and below the GMF shall be applied.
c)

For single-frequency line tuners the frequencies should be at the edges of the pass-band of the line
tuner.

Figure 18 shows the test diagram for the phase-to-ground tuner, and 0 shows the test diagram for the phaseto-phase line tuner.
Test procedure for a phase-to-ground line tunerWith SW1 and SW2 in POS 1, record the harmonic
distortion readings on the selective voltmeter (or on a spectrum analyzer). These become reference
readings. Place SW1 and SW2 in POS 2 and record readings on the selective voltmeter (or on a spectrum
analyzer).
The unit passes the test if the readings on the selective voltmeter with SW1 and SW2 in POS2 are not
greater than 3 dB from the readings on the selective voltmeter with SW1 and SW2 in POS1.

where
RNT = nominal input impedance of the tested line tuner (50 , 75 , or 125 )
RL = nominal line impedance (300 )

Figure 18 Intermodulation distortionphase-to-ground tuner


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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

where
RNT = nominal input impedance of the tested line tuner (50 , 75 , or 125 )
RL = nominal phase to phase line impedance (600 )

Figure 19 Intermodulation distortionphase-to-phase tuner


Test procedure for phase-to-phase line tunerWith SW1 and SW2 in POS 1, record the harmonic
distortion readings on the selective voltmeter (or on a spectrum analyzer). These become reference
readings. Place SW1 and SW2 in POS 2 and record readings on the selective voltmeter (or on a spectrum
analyzer).
The unit passes the test if the readings on the selective voltmeter with SW1 and SW2 in POS2 are not
greater than 3 dB from the readings on the selective voltmeter with SW1 and SW2 in POS1.
6.2.9.2 Hybrids and high-pass/low-pass filters
The balanced hybrid and high-pass/low-pass filter intermodulation test is shown in Figure 20.
A pair of frequencies within 30 kHz to 500 kHz frequency band that are 20 kHz apart should be used.
The test procedure first establishes reference intermodulation levels using a resistive network exhibiting the
similar attenuation between Input 1 and Input 2 as it is expected to exist between Input 1 and Input 2 of the
balanced hybrid (approximately 32 dB). If the intermodulation levels are measured on the high-pass/lowpass branching filters only one 500 resistor should be used representing only 25 dB of signal attenuation
between two sources. This is achieved by connecting Signal Generators 1 and 2 to Inputs 1 and 2,
respectively of the resistive network. A spectrum analyzer or a selective voltmeter is connected to Output 1
and then to Output 2 and the intermodulation levels are measured. The higher intermodulation levels are
used as a reference.
After completing measurements of the referenced levels, the generators are connected to the inputs of the
balanced hybrid under test. RL represents a nominal output impedance of the hybrid (50 , 75 , or
125 ). A spectrum analyzer or a selective voltmeter is used to measure intermodulation levels across RL.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

The equipment under test passes the test if the measured intermodulation levels are less than 3 dB higher
then the reference levels.

Figure 20 Intermodulation test balanced hybrid and high-pass/low-pass filter


6.2.9.3 Skewed hybrids
The skewed hybrid intermodulation test is shown in Figure 21.

Figure 21 Intermodulation test skewed hybrid


Reference intermodulation levels are measured across the RL resistive load at the output of the balanced
hybrid with the two signal sources set to the level equal to half of the maximum input voltage to the
balanced hybrid.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Test procedure 1Remove RL from the balanced hybrid output and connect Line terminal of the skewed
hybrid to the output terminal of the balanced hybrid. Measure intermodulation levels across the resistive
load connected to the Rx terminal of the skewed hybrid.
Test procedure 2Terminate Line terminal of the skewed hybrid with RL. Disconnect RL from Tx
terminal of the skewed hybrid and connect that terminal to the output of the balanced hybrid. Measure
intermodulation levels across RL connected to the Line terminal of the skewed hybrid.
The equipment passes the tests if the intermodulation levels are less then 3 dB higher than the reference
intermodulation levels.
6.2.9.4 Band-pass filters and Impedance matching transformers
The band-pass filter and impedance matching transformer intermodulation test is shown in Figure 22.
A pair of frequencies that are within the pass band of the band-pass filter and separated by 4 kHz should be
used for this measurement. The impedance matching transformer should be tested using a pair of
frequencies within the 30 kHz to 500 kHz frequency band that are 20 kHz apart (arbitrary selectionto be
discussed).
Reference intermodulation levels are measured across the RL resistive load at the output of the balanced
hybrid with the two signal sources set to the level equal to half of the maximum input voltage to the
balanced hybrid.
Remove RL from the balance hybrid Output terminal and connect Input terminal of the equipment under
test to the Output terminal of the balanced hybrid. Measure intermodulation levels across RL connected to
the Output terminal of the equipment under test.
Repeat the test by connecting the output terminal of the equipment under test to the output terminal of the
balanced hybrid and RL load to the Input terminal of the equipment under test. Measure intermodulation
levels across RL.
The equipment passes the tests if the intermodulation levels are less then 3 dB higher than the reference
intermodulation levels.

Figure 22 Intermodulation test band-pass and impedance matching transformer

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

6.2.10 Tuning stability (variation of tuning with change in ambient temperature)


The variation in the resonant frequency(s) of a single-frequency or a two-frequency line tuner, the GMF of
a band-pass line tuner, or the lower frequency limit of a high-pass line tuner shall be determined over the
whole of the ambient temperature range of 40 C to +45 C.
For the tuner stability test, the coupling capacitor(s) shall be replaced by a capacitor (Cc) having negligible
loss and having a capacitance equal to the rated capacitance of the coupling capacitor. This capacitor (Cc)
shall be located outside the environmental test facility for this test.
The resulting variation of tuning shall meet the requirements of 5.2.1.7.8 and shall be calculated by using
Equation (5):

f h fl
100
Variation in percent =
1 / 2( f h + fl ) )

(5)

where
fh = highest frequency measured
f l = lowest frequency measured
6.2.11 Minimum isolation between f1 and f2

where
R1 = nominal line-side impedance
R2 = nominal coaxial-cable-side impedance

Figure 23 Test diagram for minimum isolation between f1 and f2


For this test, the coupling capacitor shall be replaced by a capacitor (Cc) having negligible loss and having a
capacitance equal to the rated capacitance of the coupling capacitor.
A two-frequency resonant tuner is used to connect two PLC terminals, operating at f1 and f2 frequencies, to
a power line.
Frequency f1 is defined as the low frequency, and f2 is defined as the high frequency.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Connect the low-frequency leg from a line tuner as per Figure 23 to measure insertion loss. Terminate the
high-frequency leg from a line tuner with non-inductive resistance equal to coaxial-side impedance. Apply
high-frequency PLC signal into low-frequency leg. Calculate insertion loss as per Equation (6). This value
is isolation f2 to f1.

Insertion Loss = 20 log

VO

(6)

Connect the high-frequency leg from a line tuner as per to measure insertion loss. Terminate the lowfrequency leg from a line tuner with non-inductive resistance equal to coaxial side impedance. Apply lowfrequency PLC signal into high-frequency leg. Calculate insertion loss as per Equation (6). This value is
isolation f1 to f2.
Measured insertion loss must be at least 15 dB.
6.2.12 Trans-hybrid loss
The following frequencies are used for the tests described below:
a) 30 kHz
b) 150 kHz
c)

500 kHz

For the trans-hybrid loss test, terminate all ports as per Figure 24 with its rated terminal impedance per
Figure 24 using a non-inductive resistors. The trans-hybrid loss is given by Equation (7):

TL = 20 log

V1
V2

(7)

where
TL= trans-hybrid loss in decibels (dB)
V1= voltage on Port 1
V2= voltage on Port 2
and input and output impedances are equal.
Insert the test frequency at rated voltage signal in Port 1, measure the voltage with a frequency selective
voltmeter at Port 2. The Port 2 voltage shall be lower than Port 1 by the rating in 5.2.2.1.1.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Figure 24 Trans-hybrid loss


6.2.13 Input ports and output ports impedance
Input and output port(s) impedance shall be measured according to the following procedure and test setup
as shown in Figure 25.

Figure 25 Input/output impedance measuring


The following frequencies should be used for this test:
a)

30 kHz

b) 150 kHz
c)

500 kHz

The input impedance of the unit under test shall be calculated using Equation (8):

(8)
where
RDUT
RNOM
V1
V2

is input impedance of the DUT


is a nominal input impedance of the DUT
is the voltage measured with switch S open
is the voltage measured with switch S closed

The test shall be repeated for Port 2 and for Port 3.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

6.3 production test procedures


6.3.1 Line tuners
6.3.1.1 Surge protection device sparkover
The protective sparkover rating shall be verified by application of power-frequency voltage to the gap and
shall be in accordance with 5.2.1.8.1. Alternatively, if the gap setting has been established by test then it
may be verified by mechanical gauging.
6.3.1.2 Insulation test
Every line tuner shall be subjected to power-frequency withstand tests and shall meet the requirements of
5.2.1.1.1.
The tests shall be performed in the manner outlined in 6.2.1.
6.3.1.3 Insertion loss
The insertion loss of each line tuner shall be measured in accordance with the method in 6.2.3 using a value
of capacitance (Cc) within the rated range, as follows:
a)

For single-frequency and two-frequency line tuners, measurements shall be made at a resonant
frequency(s) within the working range.

b) For high-pass line tuners, measurements shall be made at a frequency near cutoff and at twice the
cutoff frequency.
c)

For band-pass line tuners, measurements shall be made at a GMF within the working range and at
the associated bandwidth limit frequencies.

6.3.1.4 Return loss


The return loss shall be measured in accordance with the method in 6.2.5.
6.3.1.5 Minimum isolation between f1 and f2
Minimum isolation between f1 and f2 shall be measured in accordance with the method in 6.2.11.
6.3.2 Hybrid and auxiliary devices
6.3.2.1 Insertion loss
Insertion loss shall be measured in accordance with method in 6.2.4.
6.3.2.2 Input output impedance
Input/output impedance shall be measured in accordance with method in 6.2.13.

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IEEE Std C93.4-2012


IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

6.3.2.3 Return loss


Return loss shall be measured in accordance with method in 6.2.6.
6.3.2.4 Insulation level
Insulation level shall be measured in accordance with method in 6.2.2.

7. Manufacturing requirements

7.1 Line tuners


7.1.1 Enclosure
The assembled line-tuning elements shall be housed in an enclosure suitable for outdoor use. The type of
enclosure shall be designated in accordance with NEMA 250.
7.1.2 Nameplate markings
A nameplate shall be attached to each enclosure and shall list the following minimum information:
a)

Manufacturers name

b) Type designation
c)

Serial or identification number

d) Rated power capability


e)

Coupling-capacitor capacitance range

f)

Nominal line-side and coaxial-cable-side impedances

g) Carrier working range


h) Type of tuning

7.2 Hybrid and auxiliary devices


7.2.1 Nameplate markings
a)

Manufacturers name

b) Type designation
c)

Serial or identification number

d) Rated power capability


e)

Carrier working range

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Associated with Power Transmission Lines

7.3 Protective devices


7.3.1 Grounding switch
A grounding switch, which may be used to short circuit the carrier lead-in from the coupling capacitor,
shall be provided and be connected between the line terminal and ground terminal.
7.3.2 Protection unit
As defined in 6.2.1, a protective unit shall be provided between the line terminal and the ground terminal to
limit voltage surges or high-voltage conditions.
7.3.3 Line-tuner ground terminal
A ground terminal shall be provided on the external surface of the line-tuner enclosure to give a convenient
grounding means. The tuner circuit ground shall be connected to this terminal.

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IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Annex A
(informative)
Typical line tuners

Figure A.1Single-frequency line tuner for phase-to-ground coupling

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Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Figure A.2Two-frequency line tuner for phase-to-ground coupling

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Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Figure A.3Wideband line tuner for phase-to-ground coupling (band pass)

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IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Figure A.4Wideband line tuner for phase-to-ground coupling (high pass)

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Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Annex B
(informative)
Drain coil loading in power-line carrier coupling circuits
The carrier drain coil is required in all coupling capacitors with carrier accessories and is an option in line
tuners for safety purposes. This device provides a low-impedance path for power-frequency currents and
will limit the power-frequency voltage measured at the carrier lead-in terminal. Refer to Figure B.1. The
drain coil (LD) is connected to the carrier lead-in terminal of the coupling capacitor at the center of a series
tuned circuit formed by the tuning inductance (LT) and the coupling capacitor capacitance (CC). The
shunting effect of this connection should not severely alter the characteristics of the line tuner in the
frequency range of the tuner. The shunting effect of the drain coil acts like stray capacitance to ground in
the carrier lead-in connection, or resistive losses in the insulation. The variation of line-tuner circuits
frustrates attempts to attach a dB loss value to this connection. A more definitive measurement is to record
the effect of the drain coil inductive loading on the return loss, or reflected power measured when adjusting
the line tuner.
The drain coil inductive reactance in the carrier-frequency band of the tuner should be sufficiently high to
appear transparent to the line tuner. Tests with various line-tuner types have shown that the inductance of
the carrier drain coil in the coupling capacitor should be at least 13 times the inductance of the tuning
inductor when the coupling capacitor is resonated at the tuning frequency. This ratio of drain coil
inductance to tuning inductor inductance translates into a requirement for a higher drain coil inductance at
the low end of the PLC-frequency range (below 70 kHz). Lower values of inductance may be used for
higher frequency ranges. Coupling capacitors for EHV applications used on long lines at low PLC
frequencies should be considered carefully since the capacitance of the coupling capacitor decreases and
the tuning inductance increases with increased voltage, therefore requiring a high drain coil inductance for
these units. Higher capacitance coupling capacitors will minimize the effects of the drain coil.
This ratio of inductances will minimize the inductive loading of the drain coil. The user should also be
aware that if an optional drain coil is placed in the line tuner, the parallel combination of the two drain coils
should be considered when applying the coupling capacitor and carrier line tuner.

where Cc is in F, f is in kHz, and L is in mH

Figure B.1Typical line-tuner coupling capacitor connection

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IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Annex C
(informative)
Measurement of drain coil parameters

C.1 Definition
An inductor in the carrier-frequency accessory unit connected between the line terminal and the ground
terminal of a coupling capacitor, or a coupling capacitor voltage transformer, or a line tuner, presenting low
impedance to the flow of power-frequency current and a high impedance to the flow of carrier-frequency
current

C.2 Ratings
The current-carrying capability at power frequency should be specified to offer maximum guarantee of
continuity of connection to the ground terminal and should be as per Table C.1. Other values should be
agreed upon between manufacturer and purchaser.
Table C.1Current-carrying capabilities
0.5 A continuous
25 A for 200 ms

1 A continuous
50 A for 200 ms

Maximum
capacitance (pF)

Maximum
capacitance (pF)

69

27 000

55 000

115

15 500

34 000

138

13 500

29 000

161

11 600

26 000

230

7 700

17 400

345

5 100

11 600

500

3 700

7 600

765

2 400

5 500

Nominal system
voltage
(kV)

Power-frequency impedance: The impedance of the drain coil at power frequency shall not exceed 30 .
Drain coil inductance: Theoretically calculated should be at least 13 times the tuning coil inductance
when the coupling capacitor (Cc) is resonated at the tuning frequency (f) or can be calculated by the
following formula:

L 329.3 ((f) Cc)


where Cc is in F, f in kHz, L in mH.
Experience shows that value for inductance of drain coil as per Table C.2 satisfies requirements.

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IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Table C.2Drain coil inductance


10 mH
If capacitance of Cc
and
is 0.006 F

45 mH
If frequency
is 70 kHz

If capacitance of Cc
is 0.006 F

and

If frequency
is 70 kHz

Insertion loss: Less then 0.5 dB over the PLC range.


Insulation level: The basic impulse insulation level (BIL) of the drain coil shall be a minimum of 10 kV at
a standard impulse wave of 1.2/50 s.

C.3 Design test


Current-carrying capability test: A power-frequency voltage shall be applied between the terminals of
the drain coil (Figure C.1). The test voltage shall be adjusted to achieve a rated current capacity of 0.5 A or
1 A. During the test the temperature rise shall be measured and the test shall be continued until the
temperature has reached a steady state. The temperature rise shall not exceed the appropriate value for class
of insulation material used in drain coil.

Figure C.1Drain coil connection for current-carrying capability test


Power-frequency impedance: Drain coil impedance shall be measured at power-frequency and shall not
exceed 30 .
Test procedure:

Connect the drain coil as per schematic shown in Figure C.1.

Increase the voltage until current reaches rated current capacity.

Hold the voltage for 1 min and record V in volts, and I in amperes.

Impedance of the drain coil: Z = V/I []

Drain coil inductance: The inductance of the drain coil shall be measured at power frequency or 1 kHz (if
impedance analyzer is used) and should be in tolerance 10 % of specified value.

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IEEE Standard for Power-Line Carrier Line-Tuning Equipment (30 kHz to 500 kHz)
Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Test procedure:
a)

Measurement can be done by direct method using any impedance analyzer.

b) Alternative method at 60 Hz
Measure resistance R of drain coil using any ohm-meter
Use measured value for impedance Z from power-frequency impedance test.
Calculate inductance as per the following formula:
L = 1000

(Z )2 (R)2 / 2f

where L is in mH, Z in , R in , f in Hz, = 3.14


Insertion loss: Drain coil insertion loss test shall be performed as described in 6.2.3 and at the frequencies
of the PLC range. Insertion loss of the drain coil shall be determined by measurement of the losses with and
without the drain coil in Figure 10 and shall meet the requirements of less than 0.5 dB.
Insulation level: Drain coil insulation level shall be tested by application of the 10 kV at a standard
impulse wave of 1.2/50 s.
Test procedure:

Apply ten 1.2/50 s voltage impulses of 10 kV in sequence, 5 negative and 5 positive in accordance
with Figure C.2.

No voltage limiting device shall be placed across the drain coil.

Record the peak and the wave shape of the impulse voltage.

The drain coil passes the test for each polarity if:

No disruptive discharge and no internal or external breakdown shall occur

No other evidence of insulation failure is detected (e.g., no variations in the recorded wave shape as
seen on the oscilloscope)

Figure C.2Insulation levels

C.4 Production test


Power-frequency impedance: Same as design test.
Drain coil inductance: Same as design test.
AC test: Same as current-carrying capability test, except duration of test is 1 min.

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Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Annex D
(informative)
Hybrid and separation filter applications

D.1 Paralleling carrier equipment


Depending on the application, one or more carrier transmitters and receivers may be required. It will
usually be necessary to parallel these transmitters and receivers with each other in order that only one
coaxial cable is run to the switchyard. There are several approaches to paralleling PLC equipment, and the
one used will depend on the type of equipment, the number of channels, and the frequencies of these
channels.
Before considering the equipment needed to parallel carrier sets, let us consider why we need to apply
anything between the various sets of carrier. The requirement may be to parallel transmitter to transmitter,
transmitter to receiver, receiver to receiver, or various combinations of the above. First, consider paralleling
two or more receivers. This does not present a problem since most receivers have input filters with high
input impedance to isolate channels from one another, and all received signals are about the same level.
Therefore, it is accepted practice to directly parallel receivers at the input terminals of the equipment. One
factor that may prevent the direct paralleling of receivers is if each receiver being used is designed to
terminate the line. In this case, hybrids or matching transformers will have to be used to parallel the
receivers so that the line is not terminated in too low of an impedance. It is best that the receivers used have
high input impedance so that they may be paralleled directly and then, if it is required to terminate the
coaxial cable, a non-inductive resistor may be placed in parallel with the receiver combination.
When two or more transmitters are paralleled then the results may be considerably different from
paralleling receivers. The outputs of the transmitters are high levels, which cause problems when the
energy from one transmitter flows into the output stages of another transmitter. If a large signal flows into
the output amplifier stage of a transmitter, it will cause the amplifier to operate in a nonlinear region, which
will result in mixing of the two primary frequencies and all harmonics that may exist at that point. The
result can be very severe intermodulation distortion with many unwanted frequencies that can interfere with
other carrier channels on the same line or other lines. Therefore, it is an absolute must that transmitters be
paralleled using some type of isolating equipment. This equipment may take the form of hybrids, simple
LC units, band-pass filters, or high-pass/low-pass filters.
Some transmitters have simple series LC units after their output stage, so that the LC unit will attenuate any
return energy from another transmitter. The magnitude of the attenuation depends on the frequency spacing
of the two transmitters. If they are far enough apart then the transmitters may be paralleled directly as
shown in Figure D.1. The actual spacing must be obtained from the manufacturers information. Figure D.2
shows the use of an external series LC unit to isolate transmitters that do not have the unit internal. The
principles are, of course, the same as for paralleling transmitters with internal LC units. The spacing
required depends on the LC unit and transmitter being applied. If one wants to space the transmitters closer
than an LC unit will allow, then a more complex band-pass filter may be used. A band-pass filter will
provide a faster roll-off for out-of-band frequencies than a simple LC filter. It may be desired to space the
carrier frequencies very closely. In that case, hybrids must be used to isolate the PLC transmitters.

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Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Figure D.1Internal series LC units

Figure D.2External series LC units


In most applications it is a requirement to parallel transmitters and receivers. The receiver cannot harm the
transmitter if the receiver input impedance is high. However, the transmitter energy can interfere with the
operation of the receiver. The receiver isolates itself from unwanted signals by the use of a sharp roll-off
band-pass filter in the receiving circuits. The amount of interference a transmitter will cause to a receiver
depends on frequency spacing, roll-off characteristics of the receiver filter, the transmitter power, and the
type of modulation the channel is using. Keep in mind that this interfering energy coming into the receiver
takes away from the amount of noise the receiver can tolerate from the transmission line and still make a

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Associated with Power Transmission Lines

correct decision. Therefore, it is desirable not to rely solely on the receiver filter for all the required
isolation, especially in long line applications. The added isolation is usually obtained by the use of hybrids.

D.2 Hybrids
There are many forms of hybrids, such as resistive hybrids, reactance hybrids, and skewed hybrids to name
the most popular types. Simply stated a hybrid is a bridge network. The complete bridge is made up of
components internal to the hybrid and the external circuits connected to the hybrid. It is best to explain how
a hybrid operates by using the resistive hybrid as the example. Refer to Figure D.3. The hybrid, in this case,
is made of a resistor of 25 and a transformer with a center tap on the primary. The transformer turns ratio
is 1.414/1 with the 1.414 turns on the center tapped primary. Let us assume the secondary of the
transformer is terminated with a 50 resistor and a voltage (V) is applied to input port #1. The 50 load
will be reflected in the primary of the transformer as a 25 quantity from point (a) to the center tap (ct).
This is because there is one turn on the primary, (a) to (ct), and 1.414 turns on the secondary. The
impedance will be transferred as the square of the turns ratio, which in this case is 2 to 1. The voltage V
will divide equally between the 25 resistor and the 25 reflected load into the primary. Thus each
voltage has a value of V/2, and in the direction as shown. Since the center tapped primary of the
transformer will act as an autotransformer, a voltage V/2 will also appear on the other half of the primary
between point (ct) and (b). The voltage appearing across input port #2 due to the voltage V at input port #1
is the sum of the voltages around the loop from (g) to (y). Thus, this resultant voltage is 0 V, and the hybrid
isolates the voltage at one input port from the other input port. However, a price must be paid for this
isolation, and that is an attenuation of the carrier signal from either of the two inputs to the output. This loss
is the ratio of the input voltage V and the output voltage V/1.414, expressed in dB, the result of this
calculation will be 3 dB. However, the transformer will have some losses and the loss from input to output
will be on the order of 3.5 dB for most hybrids of the type shown in Figure D.3. If the reader were to go
through an analysis of the hybrid shown in Figure D.3 using a termination of 45 , the results would be
different than previously discussed. That is, the voltage will not divide equally between (a) to (ct) and (ct)
to (g) and a voltage will appear across input port #2. Thus the hybrid can only provide the best isolation
when it is properly terminated, in this case, with a 50 resistor. It is then appropriate to apply a
nonadjustable hybrid in an area of known termination.

V
2

Figure D.3Example of a resistive hybrid


When a hybrid is connected to the power line through a line tuner and coupling capacitor, the termination
impedance varies from one application to the next. Therefore, the hybrid, which is connected to the tuner,
must be an adjustable type and must be designed to handle non-resistive terminations in order to obtain the
best performance. This type of hybrid is called a reactance hybrid and is shown in Figure D.4. Note that the
transformer has impedance matching taps to adjust to different magnitudes of termination. The balance
network is no longer a simple resistor, as in the resistance hybrid, but a resistor, inductor, and capacitor.
This is to enable the hybrid to adjust to non-resistive loads. The reactance hybrid will also use an
impedance matching transformer.
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Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Figure D.4Example of a reactance hybrid


It is most desirable to use balanced hybrids in all applications, but there may be other factors to consider on
long lines where losses may be high. Balanced hybrids have equal losses from each input port to the output
port. The success of a PLC channel will depend on the received SNR, and this can be obtained by
maximizing the amount of transmitter signal that is coupled to the phase wire. Another type of hybrid must
be used in an application of this type. It is called a skewed hybrid. Its name comes from the fact that the
losses from input port #1 to the output are not the same as the losses from port #2 to the output. The skewed
hybrid may be designed with different magnitudes of unbalance, but the most common is 0.5/12 dB. That
is, the loss from input port #1 (transmit port) and the output is 0.5 dB and the loss from input port #2
(receive port) to the output is 12 dB. The skewed hybrid then allows the transmitter to be isolated from the
receiver with only a 0.5 dB loss instead of the 3.5 dB loss of the balanced hybrid. Thus twice (3 dB) as
much transmitter power is applied to the line and the SNR will be improved by 3 dB. The high losses in the
receive path do not affect the SNR since the noise is attenuated by the same amount as the signal. The
skewed hybrid will generally have an impedance matching adjustment with a fixed balance network.
Several typical applications of hybrids are shown in Figure D.6, Figure D.7, and Figure D.8. A summary of
some of the more important application rules are as follows:
a)

All hybrids in a chain should be resistive-type hybrids except the last hybrid, that is, the one
connected to the line tuner.

b) The last hybrid in the chain should be a reactance-type hybrid or a skewed type hybrid.
c)

When applying transmitters to reactance-type hybrids, the frequency spacing between the widest
spaced transmitters is about 4% if the frequencies are below 50 kHz and 6% above 50 kHz. If this
rule is not followed, then the hybrid cannot be adjusted to provide good isolation between all
transmitters.

d) When applying transmitters and receivers to a reactance-type hybrid, the frequency spacing
between the transmitters and receivers is of no concern; however, all the transmitter frequencies
must meet the preceding rule c).
e)

When the last hybrid is a skewed type then the receiver port should be terminated with a 50
resistance to obtain proper isolation.

Figure D.5 shows two curves for paralleling transmitters. For any frequency spacing above the line, the
transmitters may be paralleled directly if they have internal series LC units or external LC units, and for
any frequency spacing below the line, the spacing is close enough to use hybrids with a reactance hybrid at
the end of the chain. The shaded area of Figure D.5 is no mans land. Neither direct paralleling nor
reactance hybrids can be used. Frequencies spaced in this area will require special treatment such as bandpass filters or high-pass/low-pass filters. Another solution to the problem of the shaded area is to use a
skewed hybrid at the end of the chain, especially if receivers are part of the PLC system.

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Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Figure D.5Curves showing paralleling transmitters with LC units vs. hybrids


One will find that when a system is being designed there is more than one way to put the hybrid chain
together. The question, of course, is which approach is best. A few guidelines are listed as follows, in order
of importance:

The hybrids should be arranged with the lesser losses in the transmitter path and the greater losses
in the receiver path.

Transmitters that are used with wide bandwidth channels should be arranged with lower losses and
those of narrower bandwidths should have the higher losses.

If possible transmitters used for common applications should be arranged for equal attenuation.
This would apply to systems which use dual channels.

Sample applications

Figure D.6Example of combining an ON-OFF channel with a


single bi-directional FSK channel

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Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Figure D.7Example of a narrowband dual channel bi-directional FSK and a wide band
single channel bi-directional FSK channels being combined

Figure D.8Example of combining a on-off channel with


dual channel bi-directional FSK system.

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Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Annex E
(informative)
Spark gaps and high-voltage protective devices
High-voltage protection devices are used in PLC applications as protective devices. The protectors
breakdown voltage must act before the dialectic breakdown voltage of the weakest devices downstream
electrically. There are two types of high-voltage protection devices, gap and electronic.
In the gap type, the flashover voltage is related to the gap separation itself and the gas between the gaps.
Spark gaps that use a dielectric gas will arc over at a defined voltage on a repeatable basis as long as the
gas is intact. Since the gas cannot be seen, the only way to validate the quality of the gap is to test it. A
spark gap that uses an air dielectric will have a variable flashover voltage based on the humidity and
temperature; however with enough protection margin, this variability does not present a problem. With
both types there is a limit on how much energy over time that the gap can withstand before it is degraded
due to heating. Once a spark gap flashes over, the voltage must be decreased to a reduced level before the
ionization is released and the flashover ceases. In some cases with a dielectric gas, the voltage must be
reduced to near zero.
Electronic protection typically uses a metal oxide varistor (MOV), designed to conduct, or breakdown, at a
certain voltage. This conduction voltage is repeatable as long as the rating of the MOV, in Joules, is not
surpassed. Additionally, the voltage where the device resets is near breakdown voltage, thus having less of
an effect on the signal passing through the protected path.
Testing a spark gap flashover can be done with a voltage generator and a current limiting device. The test
voltage can come from a variable ac voltage generator often called a hi-pot kit. The current limiting can be
done with a resistor, however care must be taken in assuring proper voltage rating of the components and
wiring of the test circuit. Limiting the current allows the test to be repeated in a short time period. If the
current can not be limited sufficiently, then an adequate cooling time should be provided between tests.
The test circuit consists of the voltage source, current limiting resistor and the DUT connected in series. A
high-voltage probe and meter is used across the DUT. The voltage is increased until the protector begins to
clamp as determined by a sudden change in the protector voltage. The breakdown voltage of the protector
is the highest voltage it will withstand before the device either breaks down or flashes over.

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Associated with Power Transmission Lines

Annex F
(informative)
Bibliography
Bibliographical references are resources that provide additional or helpful material but do not need to be
understood or used to implement this standard. Reference to these resources is made for informational use
only.
[B1] IEEE Standards Dictionary Online. 9
[B2] IEEE Std 643-2004, IEEE Guide for Power Line Carrier Application. 10, 11

IEEE Standards Dictionary Online subscription is available at:


http://www.ieee.org/portal/innovate/products/standard/standards_dictionary.html.
10
IEEE publications are available from The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (http://standards.ieee.org/).
11
The IEEE standards or products referred to in this clause are trademarks of The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
Inc.

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