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Six Sigma

Six Sigma: is a quality-control program developed by Motorola it is a highly

disciplined process that helps companies to focus on developing and delivering
near-perfect products and services. Sigma is a statistical term that measures how
far a given process deviates from perfection. The central idea behind Six Sigma is
that if the companies can measure how many defects they have in a process, the
employees can systematically figure out how to eliminate them and get as close to
zero defects as possible. This quality-control try to understand the customer
needs, disciplined use of facts, data, and statistical analysis, and diligent attention
to managing, improving, and reinventing business processes. To achieve Six
Sigma quality, a process must produce no more than 3.4 defects per million
opportunities. An opportunity is defined as a chance for nonconformance, or not
meeting the required specifications. This means we need to be nearly flawless in
executing our key processes. Six Sigma is a vision for companies strive toward
and a philosophy that is part of their business culture. Some Key Concepts about
Six Sigma:
Critical to Quality: Attributes most important to the costumer
Defect: Failing to deliver what the customer wants
Process Capability: What the process can deliver
Variation: What the customer sees and feels
Stable Operations: Ensuring consistent, predictable processes to improve
what the customer sees and feels

Sub-methodologies of Six Sigma

DMAIC: It refers to a data-driven quality strategy for improving processes.

This methodology is used to improve an existing business process. DMAIC

is the acronym for Define Measure Analyze Improve Control.
a) Define: Define the problem or project goal that needs to be addressed.
b) Measure: Measure the problem and process from which it was produced.
c) Analyze: Analyze data and process to determine root causes of defects and
d) Improve: Improve the process by finding solutions to fix, diminish, and
prevent future problems.
e) Control: Implement, control, and sustain the improvements solutions to keep
the process on the new course.
In addition to the 5 DMAIC steps, there is also a step zero that occurs first that is
the leadership.
DMAIC is a closed-loop process that eliminates unproductive steps, often focuses
on new measurements, and applies technology for improvement. The DMAIC
methodology should be used when a product or process is in existence at
your company but is not meeting customer specification or is not
performing adequately.

DMADV: It refers to a data-driven quality strategy for designing products and

processes. This methodology is used to create new product designs or process
designs in such a way that it results in a more predictable, mature and defect free
performance. DMADV is the acronym for Define Measure Analyze Design
a) Design: Design (detailed) the process to meet the customer needs
b) Verify: Verify the design performance and ability to meet customer needs
The DMADV methodology, should be used when a product or process is not in
existence at your company and one needs to be developed or when the existing
product or process exists and has been optimized (using either DMAIC or not) and
still does not meet the level of customer specification or Six Sigma level.
DFSS: Is a separate and emerging discipline related to Six Sigma quality
processes. This is a systematic methodology utilizing tools, training, and
measurements to enable us to design products and processes that meet customer
expectations and can be produced at Six Sigma Quality levels. DFSS is the
acronym for Design for Six Sigma. Unlike the DMAIC methodology, the phases or
steps of DFSS are not universally recognized or defined almost every company
or training organization will define DFSS differently. Many times a company will
implement DFSS to suit their business, industry and culture; other times they will
implement the version of DFSS used by the consulting company assisting in the
deployment. Because of this, DFSS is more of an approach than a defined


The implementation of Six Sigma methodology allows companies to correct errors
during manufacture of products and reduces variation between products; The
companies will optimize the time spent to review products, reducing the amount of
defects in mass production besides this ensures economic savings. It is the basis
for a continuous improvement and a better Quality Control.