You are on page 1of 1

Hardik

GTU

1
Shah ,

Prof. S.C.

2
Chaudhary

1M.E.

Production Engineering student (En No.140390728006),


2Assistant Professor, Mech. Dept. S.P.B. Patel Engineering College, Linch - Mehsana
Introduction

Conventional Sheet forming process is very costly as


higher costs are involved in hydraulic punch-press &
die.
Incremental sheet forming eliminates major cost of die
and hydraulic punch press. Also called die-less forming
CNC motion with pre-defined tool path and CAD design
of desired product are main components of process
which utilizes round ball ended tool to form sheet into
desired product.
Process parameters like step depth, Wall angle &
spindle speeds are optimized for ISF process.

Sr.
1.
2.

Parts
Frame
Base plate

3.

Column

4.

Bolt

Size
300 x 300 x 10mm
300 x 300 x 10mm
Height 150 mm
Width 10mm
length 200mm

Parametric Analysis
Analysis of variance for Surface Roughness
PROCESS
% OF
No.
VARIANCE F TEST
PARAMETER
CONTRIBUTION
A
Wall Angle
0.9884
1.57
16.97%
B
Step depth
3.7506
5.96
64.40%
C
Spindle Speed
0.455
0.72
7.81%
Error
0.6295
1
10.81%

M12
No.

Dia.

1.

8 mm

2.
3.

Material

SS304
10 mm length:
12 mm 150 mm

No.

Experimental procedure
Basic arrangement for ISF process

Analysis of variance for Wall Thickness


PROCESS
% OF
VARIANCE F TEST
PARAMETER
CONTRIBUTION

Wall Angle

0.26948

173.243

99.46%

B
C
Error

Step depth
Spindle Speed

0.00062
0.00068
0.00015

4
4.43
1

0.23%
0.25%
0.06%

Surface Roughness

NC motion control

Blank holder

Predefined tool path

Forming sheet of required

Round ball ended tool

Wall thickness

thickness.

Literature Review
Filice & Park (2002) concluded that the crack occurs
mostly at the corners, since the deformation at the
corner is greater than that of along the sides.
Jeswiet (2006) studied incremental forming of AA3003.
Faster spindle rotation speeds improved the sheet
formability significantly. Tool diameter has negligible
effect on the likelihood of forming a part.
Durante (2009) in an investigation on spindle speed
evaluated the surface roughness of the formed sheets.
ANOVA tables were observed to be satisfactory to
identify whether a process variable exerts significant
influence on the process or not.
Kurra Suresh (2013) reported that the tool path has a
significant effect on dimensional accuracy, surface
roughness, processing time and thickness variation.
Arfa (2013) in his investigation on the tool forces
required to deform plastically the sheet concluded that
the numerical simulation might be exploited for
optimization of the incremental forming process
Harshal & Deshmukh (2014), in a review on
optimization techniques during sheet metal forming,
have stated that one of the most widely used methods
is Gray Relational Analysis (GRA)

Process Parameters
INPUT PARAMETERS
SPINDLE SPEED (IN RPM)
WALL ANGLE (IN DEGREE)

OUTPUT PARAMETERS
SURFACE ROUGHNESS
WALL THICKNESS

STEP DEPTH (IN MM)

In Incremental sheet forming process, 3D shapes are


formed from sheet metal using simple rotating tool
moving downwards along defined path on the sheet
surface by progression of localized plastic deformations
The process starts from a flat sheet metal blank,
clamped on a sufficiently stiff blank holder and
mounted on the table of a CNC
Hemispherical tool is inserted in tool holder. Tool
moves on the predefined tool path by CNC to form
desired shape with progressive increment of step
depth.

Step
Sr. Wall Angle
Depth
No. (degree)
(mm)
1
45
0.2
2
45
0.5
3
45
1
4
55
0.2
5
55
0.5
6
55
1
7
65
0.2
8
65
0.5
9
65
1

Spindle
Speed
(rpm)
800
1000
600
1000
600
800
600
800
1000

RESPONSE
Surface
Roughness
(m)
4.87
4.36
6.69
4.11
4.76
5.02
4.02
4.18
5.54

Thickness
(mm)
1.16
1.17
1.19
0.73
0.77
0.75
0.98
0.97
0.99

Force Calculations & FLD


Forming Limit Diagram

Surface roughness:
Wall angle and

Step depth are

found

the

most

significant effect on surface roughness. Increase in


spindle speed rate, value of surface roughness is
decreases up to 0.2 micron after that it increases.
surface roughness.
Wall thickness
The volume of material deformed can be achieved
better when machining was done at medium Step
depth and small wall angle.
Wall angle is found the most significant effect on Wall
thickness. Increase in wall angle value,Wall thickness
increases in between and after that Wall thickness is
decreases with increase in wall angle.

References
1) Amar Kumar Behera &
path

compensation

Joost R Duflou 2013, Tool

strategies

for

SPIF

using

multivariate adaptive regression splines, ComputerAided Design, vol.45, pp.575590

Experimental Specification
A square blank of approx. 100 mm X 100 mm X
1.22mm size is used on 3-axis CNC milling machine.
Fixture is used to hold blank made from mild steel.
Hemispherical tool used is 10 mm in diameter and
length will be 150 mm made from SS304.
Varying wall angle pyramidal frustums are formed.
Sample pyramidal geometries are modelled with top
base is a square of side 100 mm and 30 mm depth with
defined wall angle

Conclusion

Spindle speed are found to have very least effect on

Design of Experiment & Results


PROCESS PARAMETERS

In multi response optimization the optimum parameter


combination for incremental forming is meeting at
experiment 6 and its parameter value is 600 rpm/min
spindle Speed and 0.5 mm depth of cut, for a wall angle
of 450.

2) Kurra Suresh, Arman Khan & Srinivasa Prakash


Regalla 2013, Tool Path Definition for Numerical
Simulation of Single Point Incremental Forming,
Procedia Engineering, vol.64, pp.536545.
Major strain = (major axis length original circle dia.) x100
Original circle dia.
Minor strain = (minor axis length original circle dia.) x100
Original circle dia.

3) Skjoedt & M.Silva, 2007,Single point incremental


forming using a dummy sheet, Proceedings of
Second ICNFT Bremen, Germany, pp.267276.

the