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Operating manual OCA

OCA 5, OCA 10, OCA 15, OCA 15 plus, OCA 20, OCA 30, OCAH 200 and OCAH 230

Operating manual DataPhysics OCA


Version 2.03, English
Firmware-Version from 2.0
Software-Version from SCA 20.2.0 (OCA 5 and 10; SCA 10)
Release: November 2002
All Rights, also of translation reserved.
No part of this document may be reproduced in any form (print, photocopy, microfilm or any other process)
or be processed, multiplied or distributed by any electronic means without the prior written approval of
DataPhysics. This does not affect the exceptions expressly stated in 53, 54 UrhG.
DataPhysics Instruments GmbH does not accept any kind of liability for technical or printing mistakes or
defectiveness in this operating manual.
We reserve the right to make changes to the content of this operating manual without prior announcement.
The use of names, trade names, merchandise descriptions and such in this operating manual does not
justify the assumption that such names may simply be used by anyone; often we are concerned with legally
protected registered trademarks even if they are not marked as such.
Text, graphics and layout Gerhard Maier
Printed in Germany
Copyright 2002 by DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

is a registered trademark of DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

IBM and IBM-PC are registered trademarks of International Business Machine Corporation
Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation
DataPhysics Instruments GmbH
Raiffeisenstrae 34
D-70794 Filderstadt
phone ++49 (0)711-770556-0
fax ++49 (0)711-770556-99
email info@dataphysics.de

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D:\Documents\Texte\Manuals\OCA\En\OCA_203_E.doc 30.11.2002

6.3.2.1.6

Settings for the E-MD ........................................................................ 19

6.3.2.1.7

Settings for the temperature sensor (PT 100) ......................... 19

6.3.2.2

General Preferences ........................................................................ 19

6.3.3

FG-Setup ........................................................................................19

6.3.3.1

Standard frame grabber ................................................................... 19

6.3.3.2

High-speed frame grabber .............................................................. 19

6.3.4

Dynamic Tracking-Function ......................................................19

6.3.5

Movie Function ............................................................................19

6.3.6

Result Window .............................................................................19

6.3.7

Device Control Bar .......................................................................19

6.3.7.1

Device Control Maintenance....................................................... 19

Content
1
1.1

Preface
Compliance

1.2

Safety warnings

1.3

Security precautions in detail

General description

2.1

About this manual

2.2

Application

6.3.7.1.1

Maintenance Dispense unit ........................................................ 19

2.3

Devices of the OCA series

6.3.7.1.2

Maintenance Wafer table............................................................. 19

2.4

Measuring methods and results

13

6.3.7.2

Device Control Reference Run..................................................... 19

6.3.7.3

Device Control Device Control.................................................... 19

Installation and setup

14

6.3.7.3.1

Dispense parameter ........................................................................... 19

3.1

General

14

6.3.7.3.2

Electric Multiple Dosing unit (E-MD) .......................................... 19

15

6.3.8

Liquid data base ...........................................................................19

6.4

Measurement with the SCA-software

3.2

Checklist of delivered items

19

Installation of OCA

17

6.4.1

Toolbar ...........................................................................................19

4.1.1

Leveling the measuring device................................................. 17

6.4.2

Sessile Drop-Method ..................................................................19

4.1.2

Installation of the dosing bay and dosing units................... 17

6.4.2.1

Static contact angles.......................................................................... 19

4.1.3

Installation of the standard sample stage ............................ 18

6.4.2.2

Dynamic contact angle ..................................................................... 19

4.1.4

Installation of the syringe units...............................................19

6.4.3

Pendant Drop-Method ...............................................................19

4.1.5

Installation of the goniometric eyepiece (OCA 5/10) ..........19

6.4.4

Lamella method ...........................................................................19

4.1.6

Electrical connection...................................................................19

6.4.5

Manual Mode ...............................................................................19

4.2

PC setup

6.5

Analysis

4.2.1

Installation of frame grabber ...................................................19

6.5.1

Calculation of surface free energy...........................................19

4.3

Software setup

6.5.2

Dispersion and polar force contribution of SFT ....................19

6.5.3

Statistics Window........................................................................19

19
19

19

Operational instructions

19

5.1

General operations

19

Alternative and supplementary units

19

19

7.1

YZ-sample stage of OCA 30 and OCAH 230

19

7.1.1

General...........................................................................................19

7.1.2

Software control ..........................................................................19

7.1.2.1

Preferences............................................................................................. 19

7.1.2.2

Operation ................................................................................................ 19

7.1.3

Automation...................................................................................19

5.2

Use of the OCA

5.2.1

Positioning of the sample stage ..............................................19

5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4

Positioning of the dosing needle.............................................19


Adjustment of the Illumination ...............................................19
Adjustment of the zoom lens ...................................................19

Measurement

19

7.1.3.1

Settings.................................................................................................... 19

6.1

Method independent procedures

19

7.1.3.1.1

Standard measurement (YZ)........................................................... 19

7.1.3.1.2

YZ Measurement Series .................................................................... 19

7.1.3.1.3

Multimeasurement ............................................................................ 19

7.1.3.1.4

Multimeasurement Series ............................................................... 19

7.1.3.2

Automatic Measurement................................................................. 19

7.2

Tilting base devices

7.2.1

Installation ....................................................................................19

7.2.1.1

TBA 60M.................................................................................................. 19

7.2.1.2

TBA 60E.................................................................................................... 19

7.2.1.3

TBU 90E ................................................................................................... 19

7.2.2

Software control ..........................................................................19

7.2.2.1

Preferences............................................................................................. 19

7.2.2.2

Operation ................................................................................................ 19

7.2.2.2.1

Control dialog TBA 60E ..................................................................... 19

7.2.2.2.2

Control dialog TBU 90E..................................................................... 19

7.2.2.3

Automation with a tilting base device ....................................... 19

7.3

Wafer table

6.2

Manual measurement (OCA 5/10)

6.2.1

Tangent Method..........................................................................19

6.2.2

SCA 10, calculation of surface free energy.............................19

6.3

Preparations

6.3.1

Menu bars .....................................................................................19

6.3.1.1

Menu bar Drop Image Window..................................................... 19

6.3.1.2

Menu bar Result Collection Window........................................... 19

6.3.1.3

Menu bar SE Calculation Window................................................ 19

6.3.1.4

Other menu bars.................................................................................. 19

6.3.2

Preferences ...................................................................................19

6.3.2.1

Device settings................................................................................... 19

6.3.2.1.1

Selection of data base........................................................................ 19

6.3.2.1.2

Define syringe type ............................................................................. 19

6.3.2.1.3

Load/Store settings............................................................................. 19

6.3.2.1.4

General device settings..................................................................... 19

6.3.2.1.5

Settings for syringe modules.......................................................... 19

OCA Manual

19

19

19

19
page 3

7.3.1

Installation....................................................................................19

7.6.3

SD-DE..............................................................................................19

7.3.1.1

WT 200M / 300M ................................................................................ 19

7.6.4

LIA-MD............................................................................................19

7.3.1.2

WT 200E / 300E.................................................................................... 19

7.6.5

Glass Cell (cuvette)......................................................................19

7.3.2

Software control ..........................................................................19

7.6.6

Special sample holder.................................................................19

7.3.2.1

Preferences ............................................................................................. 19

7.6.6.1

SP 100........................................................................................................ 19

7.3.2.2

Operation ................................................................................................ 19

7.6.6.2

FSC-80 ...................................................................................................... 19

7.4

Temperature controlled devices

7.6.6.3

FSH-30 ...................................................................................................... 19

7.4.1

TFC 100...........................................................................................19

7.4.2

SHD .................................................................................................19

Maintenance

19

7.4.3

TPC 150 ...........................................................................................19

8.1

General

19

7.4.4

TEC 400..........................................................................................19

8.2

Cleaning of the instrument

19

7.4.5

HTFQ 1200 .....................................................................................19

8.3

Exchange of the halogen bulb

19

7.4.6

Software-control .........................................................................19

7.4.7

NHD 400........................................................................................19

Technical data

19

7.4.7.1

Software control................................................................................... 19

7.5

OCAH 200/230 high-speed measurement

10

Terms of Guarantee

19

7.5.1

Hardware Settings ......................................................................19

11

Appendix

19

7.5.2

Software Settings........................................................................19

11.1

Requirements of the mains cable

19

7.6

Special devices

11.2

Spare parts

19

7.6.1

SD-D................................................................................................19

7.6.2

SD-DM............................................................................................19

11.3

Declaration of conformity

19

page 4

19

19

19

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

1 Preface
This manual is valid for all optical contact-measuring devices of the series OCA. Therefore,
you can find chapters in this manual, which are only valid for some instruments of the
OCA series. This chapters are marked with the respective name of the instrument (for
example see chapter 4.1.5 Installation of the goniometric eyepiece (OCA 5/10) page 19).
This manual contains important advises for use of the OCA. Therefore, it must always
stick with the unit, especially if you give it to a third party!

1.1 Compliance
Products tested and found to comply with the requirements defined in the EMC
standards defined by 89/336/EEC as well as Low Voltage Directive (LVD) 73/23/EEC
identified by the CE label on the side of the unit.
For any additional information refer to the Letter of Compliance that shipped with the
unit (Declaration of Conformity).

1.2 Safety warnings


Make sure you read and understand all instructions and safety precautions listed in this
operating manual before installing or operating your unit. If you have any question concerning the operation of your unit or the information in this manual, contact your sales
partner for assistance.

Performance of installation, operation, or maintenance procedures other than those


described in this manual may result in hazardous situation and may void the warranty.

Never operate the unit for any purpose other than described in the operating manual.

Do not use any accessories other than those supplied or approved by DataPhysics.

You must not operate the unit if a fault is suspected.

Ensure that all operators are fully trained in the correct use of this unit and have
understood all safety precautions.

Connect the power supply of the OCA to a socket with protective plug reception only!
Use a three-wire power cord. No other way of protective grounding is permitted!

You must never open the casing of the power supply. The power supply can only be
exchanged complete.

The measuring results do not only depend upon the correct use and functioning of
the unit, but may also be influenced by other factors. It is advised therefore, that the
measuring results are plausibility tested before consequential actions are taken.

OCA Manual

page 5

In addition to the warnings listed above, warnings are posted throughout the manual.
These warnings are designated by a STOP sign and with text highlighted in bold. It points
out a hazard and calls attention to a procedure, practice, or the like, which, if not correctly
performed or adhered to, could result in damage of the unit, injury or loss of life. Do not
proceed beyond a WARNING sign until indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
The HINT sign points out a remark. It calls attention to any additional information, which
might be useful for the operator.

1.3 Security precautions in detail


Risk of contusion Never bring any body parts between the movable parts of the unit.
Electrical connections The unit must only be used with cables supplied by DataPhysics
or our sales partner. All cable connections must only be closed or opened when the unit is
switched off. Make sure that the voltages of the device correspond to the power source.
Unpacking Retain all cartons and packing material until the unit is operated and found
in good condition. If the unit shows external or internal damage, or does not operate
properly, contact the transportation company and file a damage claim. Under ICC
regulations, this is your responsibility.
Lifting and transport Equipment that exceeds a weight limit of 18 kilograms require a
safe lifting practice to ensure that injuries are prevented, or kept to a minimum.
The OCA is not provided with carrying handles, and is not equipped with rolling castors.
Therefore, great care must be taken when lifting or transporting the unit. Use proper
ergonomic techniques and methods of lifting and carrying this unit. Recommended
method for this unit would be two-man lift and carry, or something of the equivalent.
Temperature controlled devices Some accessible surfaces can become very hot. Therefore, please wait until the system has cooled down sufficiently and the temperature
allows you to touch the system without danger, or use specific hand protectors.
General The unit should not be used in areas with high electromagnetic fields as well as
in areas with danger of explosion.
When operating at high temperatures all inflammable materials must have a distance of
minimum 1 meter to the unit.
Use only original DataPhysics accessories and spare parts or parts approved from DataPhysics.
The OCA must never be lifted by the measuring stage, optics, video camera or
dosing units!

page 6

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

2 General description
2.1 About this manual
This manual describes the operating of the optical contact angle measuring device of the
DataPhysics OCA Series.
Make sure you read and understand all instructions and safety precautions listed in this
operating manual before installing or operating your unit. The installation should be
carried out in the same order as described in this manual. If you have any question concerning the operation of your unit or the information in this manual, contact your sales
partner for assistance.

2.2 Application
The optical contact angle measuring devices OCA are used in research and development,
quality control and product control.
Some important applications for measuring contact angle and interfacial tension with
the OCA are:

the painting, printing and coating of metals, plastics and papers,

the development of high-performance composites,

the determination of the surface cleanliness of semi-conductor wafers and glass


substrates for flat panel displays,

the development of cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, e.g. pastes and creams or
powder coatings,

the surface finishing and the cleaning of textiles,

the development of surface-active plant protective,

the optimizing of the absorption behavior of absorbent papers.

2.3 Devices of the OCA series


Whatever substances you examine, whether they are surfactant solutions, liquid phases
of micro-emulsions or molten metals and polymers, the OCA will calculate the surface
and interfacial tension from the contours of pendant and sessile drops as well as of liquid
lamellas on plates, bars and fibers. To make this possible we developed the OCA with the
most up-to-date optics, precise mechanics and a high-resolution video measuring
technique.

OCA Manual

page 7

Common features of all OCA-devices

Solid base unit

(max. 4) and the single or multiple (max. 4) needle support with vertical and
horizontal fine adjustment. The dosing needles are connected to the syringes over a
dosing tube

Dosing bay for installation of up to four manual syringe units and of a single dosing
system SD, a single dosing system direct SD-D or a multiple dosing system MD (max.
6) for the fastening of dosing needles with vertical and horizontal fine adjustment.
The dosing needles are connected to the syringes DS over a dosing tube DT

Measuring stage, adjustable in three axis (X, Y, Z) for accurate sample positioning

Lens mount with adjustable tilt

High-performance six-fold power zoom (0.7 4.5-fold magnification) with 6 mm


inner focus (adjustment of working distance) and optical distortion < 0.05 %

Halogen lighting with continuously adjustable intensity without hysteresis for a


homogeneous back lighting

Power supply with automatic voltage adjustment


Optional temperature controls and special sample stages, for instance for wafers,
foils, textiles and printing cylinders are available from the OCA construction kit.

All OCA devices are available in a L-version (e.g. OCA 20L) for bigger sample sizes and can
be upgraded to an other one (e.g. upgrade from OCA 10 to OCA 20 by UpOCA 10/20).

OCA 5
Special features of the OCA 5:

Goniometric eyepiece with diopter adjustment

Up to four manual syringe units or alternatively one direct dosing unit with one
manual syringe unit

Easy upgrading to OCA 15 (UpOCA 5/15)

The software SCA 10 offers:

The calculation of the surface free energy of solids and their components out of the
manual measured contact angles with up to four different test liquids

The analysis according to the methods of Fowkes (geometric mean), Wu (harmonic


mean), Extended Fowkes (incl. Hydrogen bond contributions), Zisman (critical surface

Figure 1: OCA 5 with multiple dosing system

tension), Owens-Wendt (dispersion & polar force contributions), van Oss & Good

MD and manual syringe units MS

(acid-base theory), Schultz I + II (two liquids method), Neumanns equation of state

page 8

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

OCA 10
Special features of the OCA 10:

Goniometric eyepiece with diopter adjustment

Up to four manual syringe units or alternatively one direct dosing unit with one
manual syringe unit

Integrated temperature measurement and display in the range from -40 to 400C

Easy upgrading to OCA 20 (UpOCA 10/20)

The software SCA 10 offers:

The calculation of the surface free energy of solids and their components out of the
manual measured contact angles with up to four different test liquids

The analysis according to the methods of Fowkes (geometric mean), Wu (harmonic


mean), Extended Fowkes (incl. Hydrogen bond contributions), Zisman (critical surface

Figure 2: OCA 10 with multiple dosing system

tension), Owens-Wendt (dispersion & polar force contributions), van Oss & Good

MD, manual syringe units MS and liquid

(acid-base theory), Schultz I + II (two liquids method), Neumanns equation of state

temperature controlled device TFC 100

(EOS)

OCA 15 plus
Special features of the OCA 15:

CCD video camera with a resolution of 752 x 582 pixel and up to 50 images per second
Up to four manual dosing units or alternatively one direct dosing unit with one
manual (MS) or electronic syringe unit (ES/2-D)

The optional electronic syringe unit ES/2 can be mounted in the socket No 1-4

Easy Upgrading to an OCA 20 (UpOCA 15/20)

The software SCA 20 offers by various expansion steps:

Static and dynamic contact angle measurement according to the Sessile and Captive
Drop method

Calculation of the surface and interfacial tension from the contours of pendant and
sessile drops as well as of liquid lamellas on plates, rods and threads

Figure 3: OCA 15 with multiple dosing system


MD, manual syringe units MS and liquid
temperature controlled device TFC 100

Calculation of the surface free energy of solids and their components (e.g. dispersion,
polar and hydrogen bond force contribution, acid and base portions respectively)
according to the theories of Wu, Zisman, Owens-Wendt, Extended Fowkes, Schultz 1 +
2, Fowkes and van Oss & Good

Statistics and measurement error analysis

OCA Manual

page 9

OCA 20
Special features of the OCA 20:

CCD video camera with a resolution of 768 x 576 pixel and up to 50 images per second

Integrated temperature measurement and display in the range from -40 to 400C

Up to four manual and/or electronic (motor driven and software controlled) dosing
units with a manual or electronic multiple dosing system or alternatively one direct
dosing unit with one manual or electronic syringe unit

Micro-controller module for control of the electronic syringe units (ES), the electronic
multiple dosing system (E-MD), the electrically driven sample stages (TBA 60E,
TBU 90E and WT 200/300E), as well as the temperature controller (TC 150 or TC 400)

The software SCA 20 offers by various expansion steps:


Figure 4: OCA 20 with multiple dosing

system MD, four electronic syringe units ES


and wafer table WT 200M

Control of the electronic syringe modules, the tilting base assemblies, wafer stages
and temperature controlled devices

Static and dynamic contact angle measurement according to the Sessile and Captive
Drop method

Calculation of the surface and interfacial tension from the contours of pendant and
sessile drops as well as of liquid lamellas on plates, rods and threads

Calculation of the surface free energy of solids and their components (e.g. dispersion,
polar and hydrogen bond force contribution, acid and base portions respectively)
according to the theories of Wu, Zisman, Owens-Wendt, Extended Fowkes, Schultz 1 +
2, Fowkes and van Oss & Good

Statistics and measurement error analysis

OCA 30
Special features of the OCA 30:

CCD video camera with a resolution of 768 x 576 pixel and up to 50 images per second

Integrated temperature measurement and display in the range from -40 to 400C

Up to four manual and/or electronic (motor driven and software controlled) dosing
units with a manual or electronic multiple dosing system or alternatively one direct
dosing unit with one manual or electronic syringe unit

Measuring stage motorized adjustable in Y- and Z- axis adjustable for accurate


sample positioning and drop pick up from the dosing needle, in X-axis manual
adjustable

Figure 5: OCA 30 with electronic multiple

Micro-controller module for control of the motorized measuring stage, the electronic
syringe units (ES), the electronic multiple dosing system (E-MD), the electrically driven

dosing system E-MD/4, electronic syringe

sample stages (TBA 60E, TBU 90E and WT 200/300E), as well as the temperature

units ES and wafer table WT 200M

controller (TC 150 or TC 400)


The software SCA 20 offers by various expansion steps:

Control of the motorized measuring stage, the electronic syringe modules, the tilting
base assemblies, wafer stages and temperature controlled devices

Static and dynamic contact angle measurement according to the Sessile and Captive
Drop method

page 10

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

Calculation of the surface and interfacial tension from the contours of pendant and
sessile drops as well as of liquid lamellas on plates, rods and threads

Calculation of the surface free energy of solids and their components (e.g. dispersion,
polar and hydrogen bond force contribution, acid and base portions respectively)
according to the theories of Wu, Zisman, Owens-Wendt, Extended Fowkes, Schultz 1 +
2, Fowkes and van Oss & Good

Statistics and measurement error analysis

OCAH 200
High-speed contact angle measuring device for the determination of fast sorption and
spreading with up to 360 images per second. Particularly to measure fast adsorption and
absorption processes on paper, textiles, membranes, filter cloth and porous solids.
Special features of the OCAH 200:

High-speed video system with CCD video camera with a resolution of 752 x 484 pixel
and up to 360 images per second

Integrated temperature measurement und display in the range from -40 to 400 C
Up to four manual and/or electronic (motor driven and software controlled) dosing
units with a manual or electronic multiple dosing system or alternatively one direct
dosing unit with one manual or electronic syringe unit

Figure 6: OCAH 200 with multiple dosing


system MD, electronic syringe units ES and
liquid temperature controlled device TFC 100

Micro-controller module for control of the electronic syringe units (ES), the electronic
multiple dosing system (E-MD), the electrically driven sample stages (TBA 60E and WT
200/300E), as well as the temperature controller (TC 150 or TC 400)

The software SCA 20 offers by various expansion steps:

Control of the electronic syringe modules, the tilting base assemblies, wafer stages
and temperature controlled devices

Static and dynamic contact angle measurement according to the Sessile and Captive
Drop method

Calculation of the surface and interfacial tension from the contours of pendant and
sessile drops as well as of liquid lamellas on plates, rods and threads

Calculation of the surface free energy of solids and their components (e.g. dispersion,
polar and hydrogen bond force contribution, acid and base portions respectively)
according to the theories of Wu, Zisman, Owens-Wendt, Extended Fowkes, Schultz 1 +
2, Fowkes and van Oss & Good

Statistics and measurement error analysis

OCA Manual

page 11

OCAH 230
High-speed contact angle measuring device for the determination of fast sorption and
spreading with up to 360 images per second. Particularly to measure fast adsorption and
absorption processes on paper, textiles, membranes, filter cloth and porous solids.
Special features of the OCAH 230:

High-speed video system with CCD video camera with a resolution of 752 x 484 pixel
and up to 360 images per second

Integrated temperature measurement und display in the range from -40 to 400 C

Up to four manual and/or electronic (motor driven and software controlled) dosing
units with a manual or electronic multiple dosing system or alternatively one direct

Figure 7: OCAH 230 with electronic multiple

dosing unit with one manual or electronic syringe unit

dosing system E-MD/4, electronic syringe


units ES and wafer table WT 200M

Micro-controller module for control of the electronic syringe units (ES), the electronic
multiple dosing system (E-MD), the electrically driven sample stages (TBA 60E and WT
200/300E), as well as the temperature controller (TC 150 or TC 400)

Measuring stage motorized adjustable in Y- and Z- axis adjustable for accurate


sample positioning and drop pick up from the dosing needle, in X-axis manual
adjustable

The software SCA 20 offers by various expansion steps:

Control of the motorized measuring stage, the electronic syringe modules, the tilting
base assemblies, wafer stages and temperature controlled devices

Static and dynamic contact angle measurement according to the Sessile and Captive
Drop method

Calculation of the surface and interfacial tension from the contours of pendant and
sessile drops as well as of liquid lamellas on plates, rods and threads

Calculation of the surface free energy of solids and their components (e.g. dispersion,
polar and hydrogen bond force contribution, acid and base portions respectively)
according to the theories of Wu, Zisman, Owens-Wendt, Extended Fowkes, Schultz 1 +
2, Fowkes and van Oss & Good

page 12

Statistics and measurement error analysis

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

2.4 Measuring methods and results


The OCA can do more than just determine the wetting angle. It permits not only to precisely determine the surface or interfacial tension of liquids, but also the surface free energies of solids. In the software developed for Windows NT, Windows 2000 or Windows
XP, beside the standard evaluation methods, e.g. Owens-Wendt, Wu, Schultz, Zisman,
also evaluations according to new and extended theories (e.g. Acid-Base, Extended
Fowkes, and Equation of State) have been implemented.
Starting point is always the simplified Young-Duprs equation for the balance of forces

Figure 8: Sessile Drop-method

in the so-called three-phase point between liquid, solid and vapor.


The most important measuring principles feasible with the OCA are listed below:

Sessile drop method

Captive drop method

Tilting plate method

Pendant drop method (not with OCA 5/10)

Optical Wilhelmy-plate and bar-/thread-method (not with OCA 5/10)

Figure 9: Pendant Drop-method

The obtainable measuring results are:

Static contact angle

Dynamic contact angle (not with OCA 5/10)

Surface and interfacial tension (not with OCA 5/10)

Surface free energy

Dispersion and polar contributions of the surface free energy

Acid and base contributions


Figure 10: Lamella-method

OCA Manual

page 13

3 Installation and setup


Make sure you read and understand all instructions and safety precautions listed in this
operating manual before installing your unit. The installation should be carried out in the
same order as described in the following pages.

3.1 General
Please open all packages on the desired openings. Avoid all damages to the packing
material.
Keep the packing material for a later sending. The OCA is best protected in the original
packing!
Find yourself a comfortable working place where you want to set up your OCA system
with its peripheral equipment. There should be sufficient room to set up the base unit,
the substances to be measured and the peripheral equipment (e.g. printer, computer and
refrigerated and heating circulator).
For the connection of the OCA power supply to the mains, you need an grounded mains
socket with corresponding fuse protection (see technical data). You do require some
additional sockets for the connection of the peripheral equipment.
Your working environment and the place where you store your OCA should not be
extremely hot, extremely cold (see chapter 9 Technical data page 19), extremely damp or
extremely bright.
Also, avoid places in which the temperature and the atmospheric moisture greatly
fluctuate.
Because the OCA measures the shape of small droplets by a high magnifying zoom lens
avoid places with vibrations (watch out for vibrations because of steps, close of doors ).
Furthermore, make sure that the OCA electronics is not exposed to

heavy dirt or dust,

direct sun shine, or bright lights

objects which emit great heat (e.g. radiators), except the DataPhysics Temperature
controlled chambers

objects with a strong electromagnetic field (e.g. loud speaker, motors,...)

liquids or corrosive chemicals.

The instrument must be warm before you install and operate it (if it comes out of a cold
room watch out for condensed water).

page 14

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

3.2 Checklist of delivered items


Please check that all items of the delivery were unpacked and in good condition.
The OCA delivery consists of:

the basic module with linear stage, the high-performance 6x par focal zoom lens with
integrated continuous fine focus, the goniometric eyepiece (OCA 5/10) or the CCD
video camera (OCA 15+/20/30 and OCAH 200/230)

the dosing bay for installation of syringe units and needle support or the electronic
multiple dosing system (E-MD)

an high performance video digitizing board for the PC (not OCA 5/10)

the power supply with power cord

the serial cable to PC (not OCA 5/10)

tools for installation

a bubble level

this manual

a single, multiple or direct dosing unit (manual or electronic)

1 - 4 manual or electronically syringe units

Optional available are:

the software SCA 10 (surface free energy)

the software SCA 20 (controlling of instrument and measuring of contact angle)

the software SCA 21 (surface free energy)

the software SCA 22 (surface and interfacial tension)

the software SCA 23 (lamella method)

a PC-system with MICROSOFT Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000 or Windows XP

tilting base unit TBU 90E

tiling stage (manual or electronically)

wafer stage (manual or electronically)

optical standards for contact angle, drop shape and lamella method

temperature controlled chambers from -10 400 C (liquid, peltier or electrically controlled)

OCA Manual

page 15

To run the software SCA 10 (for OCA 5/10) your PC must be able to run Windows NT 4.0,
Windows 2000 or Windows XP without failure. The following specifications are our
recommendation for comfortable work with the SCA 10 (minimum requirements in
brackets):

Pentium 2 processor with 300 MHz or more (Pentium 200 MHz)

PCI-bus system Vers. 2.1 or higher

128 MB RAM or more (32 MB)

MS-WINDOWS NT 4.0 with Service Pack 5/6

17 color monitor (1024 x 768 Pixel)

a Windows conform printer.

To run the software SCA 20 your PC must be able to run Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000
or Windows XP without failure. The following specifications are our recommendation for
comfortable work with the SCA 20 (minimum requirements in brackets):

Pentium III processor with 800 MHz or more on a main board


without integrated graphics

PCI-bus system version 2.1 or higher

256 MB RAM or more; for OCAH High Speed-system 512 MB or more

CD-ROM drive (4x speed minimum)

MS-WINDOWS NT 4.0 with Service Pack 5/6, Windows 2000 with Service Pack 2/3 or
Windows XP; for OCAH systems: Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 5/6 or Windows
2000 with Service Pack 2/3

ATI Graphic Adapter XPERT/XPERT 128/XPERT 2000 with a 3D Rage Pro/ Rage 128/
Rage 128 Pro (GL) chip-set (without TV-Out) and on-board memory of 4 Mbyte or
more (not necessary OCAH systems)

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DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

4 Installation of OCA

17 color monitor with 1280 x 1024 Pixel resolution or higher (18" or above
recommended)

a Windows conform printer

The Installation of the OCA is described in the chapters below.

4.1.1 Leveling the measuring device


The base unit of the OCA should be always leveled before you start to measure. In the delivery lot, you will find a bubble level. Put the bubble level onto the stage of the
measuring device. The leveling could be carried out with the four height adjustable feet. A
good way to level is to try it with only three feet (without the one in the right front). First
turn all feet until the base unit is on the lowest height. Then turn the left back foot down

A
D

about two turns. Level the base unit along the optical axis by use of the right back foot.
Now level it diagonally to the optical axis by use of the left front foot. Finally turn down
the right front foot until it touches the base.

4.1.2 Installation of the dosing bay and dosing units


Dosing bay (8) The dosing bay, to hold the single or multiple dosing unit, and the dosing
units is dismounted in delivery state. To install the dosing bay loosen the two sliding
blocks on each side by means of the hex screws (B) (wrench size 3) and place it over the

guidance (C). Adjust the position of the dosing bay so that the hinges are congruent with
the base. Only if you use the wafer stage WT you adjust the hinges congruent with the
guiding mark. With the lever (E) you can loosen the complete dosing bay (useful when

Figure 11: Installation and position of the dosing

changing large samples to protect the installed needles).

bay and multiple dosing unit MD

The setscrew (D) is fixed at factory, and must never be used!

Single dosing unit (11) To install the SD onto the dosing bay open the upper setscrew in
the dosing bay (A). Push the axis of the single dosing unit into the dosing bay. Put on the
washer and tighten it by means of the knurled thumbscrew.
Multiple dosing unit (12) The multiple dosing unit will be delivered mounted with the
dosing bay. It should never be dismounted from the dosing bay.
Direct dosing unit (SD-D or SD-DM) (9) To install onto the dosing bay push it over the
dosing bay. Put on the washer and tighten it by means of the knurled thumbscrew. (see

Figure 12: Installation of the direct dosing


unit SD-D with a manual syringe MS

Figure 12).

OCA Manual

page 17

Electronic multiple dosing unit (E-MD/4-6) (13) The E-MD is dismounted in delivery
state. To install the E-MD open the two hinges, loosen the two sliding blocks on each
side by means of the hex screws (wrench size 3) and place it over the guidance. Adjust
the position of the dosing bay so that the hinges are congruent with the base. With
the lever, you can loosen the complete E-MD to tilt it over 90 (useful when changing
large samples to protect the installed needles).
The E-MD is controlled and supplied with power over the 15-pin Sub-D connector.
Connect the Sub-D connector to socket 6 on the bottom of the illumination unit.
Direct dosing unit for E-MD (SD-DE) (10) The SD-DE is dismounted in delivery state. It is
Figure 13: Installation of the electronic multiple

designed to be mounted on top of the E-MD. To get the needle on the SD-DE in focus

dosing unit E-MD

you must adjust the E-MD first.

Adjusting the E-MD: Tilt the E-MD about 90 and loosen the hex screws (wrench
size 3) of the sliding blocks just about one turn. Take care, not to take the screws out
of the sliding blocks, or the E-MD can fall down. Move the E-MD to the mark on the
base plate (about 30 mm). Align the E-MD in this position and tight the hex screws.
Re-tilt the E-MD back to position 0.

Installation of the SD-DE: Guide the mounting-bush of the SDDE over the holding cup
of the E-MD and tight the knurled screw (A).

Switch the OCA always off before you connect or disconnect


any cable or device!
Figure 14: Installation of the direct dosing unit
SD-DE

4.1.3 Installation of the standard sample stage


Put the standard sample stage (17) onto the sample stage. Guide the two pins on the
bottom of the adapter into the two corresponding holes of the sample stage. If available,
fix it with the two knurled screws (not on older models).
The two holes are also used for installation of the optional sample stage adapters like

Figure 15: Standard sample stage

Tilting base assembly TBA 60M and TBA 60E (23, 24)

Wafer stage WT 200M, WT 200E, WT 300M and WT 300E (21,22)

Liquid temperature controlled chamber TFC 100 (18)

Peltier temperature controlled chamber TPC 150 (19)

Electrical temperature controlled chamber TEC 400 (20)

Some of these have knurled nuts to fix, in this case please remove the two knurled
screws.

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DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

4.1.4 Installation of the syringe units


Manual syringe unit (14) Onto the dosing bay you can attach up to four manual syringe
units MS.

Open the micrometer screw (A) totally

Find the position you want the syringe unit to be mounted

The syringe holder part of the unit should be open upwards

Screw it onto the dosing bay with the both hex screws (wrench size 2.5)

The manual syringe unit is designed to be used with the standard (not gas tight) 1000 l
dosing syringe DS 1000 or with the precision, gas tight 500 or 1000 l dosing syringe DS
500GT or DS 1000GT and with the 300 mm long dosing tube DT 300/xx.

Figure 16: Dosing bay with four manual syringe


units MS

Electronic Syringe unit (ES) (15) On both sides of the OCA (not OCA 5) you can mount
two syringe units. The software SCA 20 controls the electronic syringe units by their

number, defined by their position on the OCA (the positions are labeled with their
numbers 1 - 4). The electronic syringe units were controlled and supplied with power over
the 15-pin Sub-D connector.

Position the electronic syringe unit onto the two (A, B) bolts (the upper one is
installed on the OCA, the lower one on the syringe unit) and press carefully on it (the
15-pin Sub-D connector on the OCA is a little bit adjustable)

Fix the two bolts by means of two set screws (wrench size 2.0)

The electronic syringe unit is designed to be used with the precision, gas tight 500 or
1000 l dosing syringe DS 500GT or DS 1000GT and with the 300 mm long dosing tube

DT 300/xx for the ones in position 1 and 4, and the 400 mm long DT 400/xx for position
2 and 3.
With the OCA 15 the electronic syringe unit can only be used with the single direct dosing
system (SD-D) with the delivered cable to the socket F on the bottom of the illumination
unit. With the OCA 15 plus it can be used additionally with the socket 1-4 and without the
SD-D.

Figure 17: Electronic syringe unit


front/rear view

4.1.5 Installation of the goniometric eyepiece (OCA 5/10)


The goniometric eyepiece of the OCA 5 and 10 is dismounted in delivery state. To

install onto the lens mount open the upper knurled thumbscrew (A), guide it into the
hole in the lens mount and fix it with the screw.

Figure 18: Installation of goniometric eyepiece

OCA Manual

page 19

4.1.6 Electrical connection


The OCA uses an external power supply as power source. Connect the power supply to
the socket DC-IN 12 V on the OCA. For the connection of the power supply to the mains,
you need a grounded mains socket with corresponding fuse protection (see technical
data).
Connect the power supply only to a socket with protective plug reception
only! Use a three-wire power cord.
No other way of protective grounding is permitted!

S-Video
Composite Video 1
Composite Video 0

Plug the video cable from the frame grabber board in the computer to the Video OUT

Socket on the OCA (BNC-Connector). With the standard frame grabber use the delivered
adapter (BNC to Cinch) and connect the video cable to the Composite Video 0.
The serial cable leads from the Serial PC socket on the OCA to any free serial port on the
computer.
If you have a (optional) Pt 100 connect the plug to the T1 or T2 socket.
The standard electronic syringe units ES do not need an extra cabling, because they plug
directly onto the OCA. Only the ES mounted on the direct dosing unit (SD-D or SD-DE)

Figure 19: Connectors on the standard

need to be connected to socket 5 or 6 (bottom of lighting housing) with the delivered

frame grabber board

cable.

4.2 PC setup
Information for the setup of your computer system and Windows you can take out of the
enclosed documentation.
The PC must be compliant to the EN60950.

4.2.1 Installation of frame grabber


The video camera of the OCA must be connected to a so-called frame grabber board. The
software SCA 20 supports two frame grabber boards, the standard board and the highspeed version.

To install the high-speed frame grabber board in your PC you need a empty, full-length
32-bit PCI slot, for the standard frame grabber board a half-long slot is enough.

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DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

Your PCI system BIOS must be compatible with the PCI 2.1 specification and be able to

ISA

recognize a PCI-to-PCI bridge configuration and initialize the VGA display controller

PCI

residing on the other side of the PCI bridge. For example, BIOS software based on the
Phoenix reference BIOS software (v4.05 or later), or based on the AMI BIOS software
(v10.10.94 or later), should support PCI-to-PCI bridge. The high-speed frame grabber board

AGP

includes a SVGA graphic board, so if you have any graphic board installed in your PC you
must remove it, or if it is onboard you must deactivate it (to do this see the manual of
your PC). With the standard frame grabber, you need an additional graphic board. Which
boards or VGA chips are tested is described in the inlay of the CD-ROM, as well as in the
README.TXT.

Figure 20: Identifying PCI-slots

The parallel operation of a graphic board and the high-speed frame grabber
board is not possible.

Ensure that the relative humidity of your work area is at least 50%

Remove the power cable and other connection cables from the computer

Unscrew and remove the cover of the PC housing


Discharge possible static electric from yourself by touching the power supply
housing.

Before you install the high-speed frame grabber board, ensure that the DIP switches
are set to default (single screen configuration SW1=OFF and SW2=OFF) as shown
beside

Insert the frame grabber board into an empty, full-length PCI slot and screw the
bracket tight.

DIP switch

Figure 21: DIP switch location on high-speed


frame grabber board

Some computers have a large, black-ridged heat sink that prevents long
boards from using most PCI board slots. High-speed frame grabber must not
touch this heat sink.

Replace the cover on the PC housing and screw it tight

OCA Manual

page 21

Now the connection cables and the power cable can be re-plugged into the computer

Plug the 15-pin connector of the monitor to the high-speed frame grabber board

4.3 Software setup


The installation of the SCA and the necessary drivers for the frame grabber and the database is described in the inlay of the CD-ROM, as well as in the README.TXT.
The SCA is developed as a 32-bit application for Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, Windows
2000 or Windows XP. It uses a high-speed image system (video camera plus PCI-frame
grabber).
To install the SCA, Windows should be already installed on your computer.

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DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

5 Operational instructions
In the following chapters, you learn how to prepare and how to perform a standard test.
The result of a test is always a function of the history of the sample, the condition of the
measuring unit and the way you measure. In surface chemistry, it is also a function of
cleanliness and liquid handling.
Most contact angle measurements are not a single test but a complex series of tests.

5.1 General operations


Before you start a contact angle measurement, have a look to the following points:

What is the goal of the measuring series?

How the samples will be prepared?

Which test liquids will be used?

How is the set up of the measuring device?

The first point seams to be obvious but a precise definition of the problem or the terms
relieves the single-mindedly actions by the practical realization of an experiment.
Preparation of the sample The preparation of the sample (solid surface or liquid) is
decisively important for the measuring results. Therefore, be sure to treat the samples

Figure 22: Three water drops on the same, but

always the same way, unless you want to measure the difference of different sample

different prepared, solid surface

treatments.
If the results of the test should be comparable, it is necessary to prepare the
sample (solid) always the same way.
Preparation of the test liquids The selection of the test liquids arise from the measuring
job (e.g. detection of the parts of the surface free energy according to OWRK) as well as
according to the tolerability to the sample. It must be noticed (or be tested) that the used
solvents neither react with the solid nor etch it or are absorbed.

Toxic and inflammable liquids must only be used in a fume cupboard! Be sure
to watch always the maximum working place concentration (MAK) of the
used chemical as well as the attached security datasheets! On questions
about the handling of chemicals turn to the manufacturer or supplier.
Great care and cleanliness must be taken in filling the syringes with the liquids, especially
if surface-active substances (e.g. surfactants) will be used. Smallest pollution can reduce
the surface tension of liquids, especially of water.
Note, that there exist substances, which can hardly be removed from a solid
surface (e.g. silicone oil), and smallest contamination with surfactants will
reduce the surface tension of the liquid (esp. Water).

OCA Manual

page 23

Setup of the measuring device The setup of the measuring device is also important for
good and reproducible results. Have a look to the following points:

Do you use the right sample stage adapter (tilting stage, wafer stage or temperature
control)

The brightness of the back lighting

The selection of the syringe

Is the inner diameter of the dosing tube and dosing needle adapted to the viscosity of
the liquid (see chapter 11.2 Spare parts page 19).

Is the outer diameter of the dosing needle adapted to the liquid on pendant drop
method

Positioning of the sample and of the dosing needle according to the field of view

Adjusting of zoom and inner fine focus according to magnification and working distance

Did stray light avoid the accurate contour detection

Did interfering contours affect the image of the drop

Take great care to avoid air bubbles in the complete dosing system (syringe tube
needle).

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DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

5.2 Use of the OCA


5.2.1 Positioning of the sample stage
The OCA has three hand wheels for the adjustment of the sample stage in three degrees
of freedom (see Figure 23). At the OCA 30 or OCAH 230 the adjustment of the Y- and Z-axis
will be done motorized and software controlled (for more details see chapter YZ-sample stage of
OCA 30 and OCAH 230 7.1 page 19)

Z-Position

Y-Position

X-Position

Figure 23: Controls for stage positioning

Adjustment in x-direction The x-direction corresponds with the optical axis (the look
through the lens). You can adjust the x-position of the sample stage by turning the hand
wheel at the front edge of the base unit.
Adjustment in y-direction The y-direction is horizontally right-angled to the optical axis
(x-direction). You adjust the y-position of the sample stage by turning the hand wheel at
the side of the base unit.
Adjustment in z-direction The z-direction is vertically right-angled to the optical axis (xdirection). You adjust the z-position of the sample stage by turning the hand wheel above
the wheel for the y-direction. Opposite of the hand wheel is a fixing screw, with which
you can fix the z-position of the stage. This avoids self-movement caused by heavy
weight of the sample.

OCA Manual

page 25

5.2.2 Positioning of the dosing needle


Three manual dosing units are available, a single, a direct, and a multiple dosing unit with
4 needle holders. The needle holders can be adjusted vertically (A) and horizontally (B) to

the optical axis by means of two fine adjustment screws. A movement of the needle
holder in x-direction (optical axis) is not possible.

The needle holder has a quick movement knob for a very quick adjustment in vertical (C)
direction (the direct dosing unit has no quick movement knob). It is used e.g. together
with a temperature control to adjust the measuring position exactly with the fine adjustment screws and then to allow a quick move out of the temperature control and quick

back in.
The positioning of the needles with the electronic multiple dosing unit E-MD is software

Figure 24: Controls for needle positioning with

controlled and is explained in chapter 6.3.7.3.2 page 19.

the single SD and multiple dosing unit MD

5.2.3 Adjustment of the Illumination


You can adjust the brightness of the homogenous back lighting with a knob on the back
of the illumination unit.
To get a very precise shape of the drop it is necessary to adjust a maximum contrast in
the image. Without the recognition of the drop shape, the software cannot detect the
contact angle. The look of the drop is less important than the bright-dark difference in
the so-called three phase point!

5.2.4 Adjustment of the zoom lens


You have three control elements on the zoom lens. The tilting wheel (C), the zoom
(magnification) (A) and the fine focus. (B).

Tilting of lens To determine the contact angle on a solid surface you need to see the reflection of the drop on the surface. A visible reflection is necessary for the software
SCA 20 to detect the base line and then to calculate the contact angle. To obtain a reflection, you tilt the zoom lens with the horizontal wheel (C) so you see the drop on the surface under an angle.
The observation angle should be as small as possible, but as big as necessary.

C
Figure 25: Controls of the zoom lens

The visible contact angle will be distorted, if you use a too big observation
angle.
Adjust of magnification The magnification of the image could be adjusted directly at
the zoom lens (A). The magnification should be adjusted so that the drop fills up to 2/3 of
the field of view.
Adjust the focus With the built-in fine focus (B) it is very easily to adjust the working
distance. Turn the fine focus until the image is sharp

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DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

6 Measurement
Before you start to measure, some preparations should be done. You have to

place the sample to the stage (or TBA or WT) or into the temperature controlled
chamber (only for sessile drop method)

fill all necessary syringes with test liquids and insert them into the syringe unit

position the sample and the dosing needle

adjust the illumination

adjust the drop image

setup image recognition system (adjustment of the frame grabber parameters)

if necessary heat up the sample and/or the liquid

6.1 Method independent procedures

Figure 26: Manual syringe unit MS with


syringe DS-1000 with spring

All the procedures that are independent from the measuring methods are described in
this chapter. The method dependent procedures are described in particular chapters.
Fill syringe If you use the manual syringe units MS for dosing you can put the delivered
spring over the piston (to suck liquid back to measure receding contact angles) before you
fill the syringe. Fill the syringe with the test liquid and connect the dosing tube and the
required dosing needle. The dosing tube and needle must be also filled with the liquid.

E
D

B
A

Figure 27: Controls of ES

Take great care to avoid air bubbles in the complete dosing system
(syringetubeneedle).
Insert syringe Insert the syringe into the syringe unit.
Using the manual syringe unit MS you open the micrometer screw and push the syringe
carefully into the holder. Turn the micrometer screw of the dosing unit until the piston of
the syringe gets into contact with it and a liquid drop issues from the dosing needle.

OCA Manual

page 27

Using the electronic syringe units proceed as follows (only possible if software is not yet
started or is in manual control mode):

If software is started enter the manual control mode with a click on the icon

. The

background color of the software changes to reddish brown.

move the piston down by means of the down switch (A)

push the syringe carefully into the holder (D)and fix it with the knurled screw (E)

move the piston up by means of the up switch (B) until the piston of the syringe gets
into contact with it and a liquid drop issues from the dosing needle.

fix the syringe piston with the piston holder (C)


Never turn the fixing screw (E) too tight or the syringe will brake.

Position the sample and the dosing needle Adjust the magnification to the lowest value
to see a bigger part of the image (easier to find the needle). Lift the stage up until the
surface of the sample (substrate line) is visible in the lower quarter of the image on the
screen or in the eyepiece. Bring the needle into the middle of the image. Lower the syringe
holder and adjust the desired distance between needle and surface (depending on the
drop size and if you measure equilibrium or dynamic contact angles). Now adjust the
magnification to see a good and big enough image. The needle should be visible as a
Figure 28: Piston Holder of ES

reference size). If necessary, adjust the needle and the stage again.

Take care to avoid contact between the solid surface and the dosing needle.

6.2 Manual measurement (OCA 5/10)


With the OCA 5 and OCA 10, you measure the contact angle manually with the
goniometric eyepiece. To calculate the surface free energy of solids out of the, with up to
four liquids, manually measured contacted angles the software SCA 10 is optionally
available.

6.2.1 Tangent Method


This chapter describes how to measure static (equilibrium) contact angles according to
the Tangent method with the manual, optical contact angle measuring devices OCA 5
and OCA 10.
Do all the preparations described in chapter 6.1 Method independent procedures page 19 and
the additional ones described in here.
To determine the contact angle you read the angle between the base line and the cursor
line in the eyepiece.

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DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

Place sample on stage Before placing a sample onto the stage lower the stage and lift
up the needle holder (by means of the quick movement) or tilt the dosing unit 90. If you
want to measure, contact angles under air place the sample (solid surface) directly onto
the sample stage. If you use the tilting table, you must fix the sample (for example with a
tape).
Liquid dispensing If you use a manually syringe unit dispense a drop by turning the
micrometer screw. Place the drop onto the sample by moving up the sample stage. Then
lower the sample stage again until the substrate line is congruent with the base line in
the goniometric eyepiece.
Base line adjustment If the substrate line is not parallel to the base line of the eyepiece,
you must adjust the base line:

open the knurled thumb screw (C) on the eyepiece

turn the eyepiece (A) until both lines are parallel

tighten the knurled thumb screw (C) carefully

Drop image adjustment To get good results it is important to adjust the image of the
drop in the eyepiece:

Adjust the zoom lens to lowest magnification to get the maximum field of view
Lower the dosing needle and move their end into the center of the field of view (see
chapter 5.2.2 Positioning of the dosing needle page 19), move it up so you can just see the
end of the needle in the upper field of view

Create a liquid drop and place it on the sample

Adjust the focus of the zoom lens until you see the needle and the drop shape sharp

Figure 29: Controls of the goniometric


eyepiece

Adjust the tilting of the zoom lens, the X-position of the sample stage and the illumination until you see a substrate line and the reflection of the drop on the solid
surface

Focus the base and the cursor line in the eyepiece with the diopter control ring (C) so
that you see both lines and the drop with its substrate line sharp

Adjust the magnification of the zoom lens so that the drop fills about 2/3 of the field
of view

OCA Manual

page 29

Now place a new drop at a different (move stage


measured contact

in Y-direction) position onto the sample surface.

angle = 45.8
60

70

80

90

100

110

Do all necessary fine adjustment to achieve a


12
0

50

which is congruent with the base line in the


0
14

cursor line

40

sharp drop shape and a visible substrate line,

13
0

goniometric eyepiece.

30

0
15

right three phase point

drop

170

180

substrate line

10

20

160

base line
reflection

170

160

20

10

Move the sample stage in Y-direction until the

15
0

30

14
0

40

right (or left) three phase point is congruent


with the cross point of base and cursor line. Turn
the cursor line with the ring (B) until it fits to the
tangent in the three phase point.
Read the contact angle from the upper part of the
graduated circle in the goniometric. If you use the
left three phase point you must read the contact
angle from the lower part. A good way to receive
more precise and reproducible contact angles is to
measure both values and calculate an arithmetic
mean.
Because solid surfaces are normally not

0
13
0
12

50

110

100

90

80

70

60

homogenous, we recommend that you measure


several drops on different places on the sample
surface and calculate an arithmetic mean.
Figure 30: Reading the contact angle

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DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

To measure reproducible static contact angles you must work very conscientious. Influence parameters are

quality of the test liquid

preparation of the surface

time

dosing rate

temperature

drop size

volume

drop environment

density

evaporation

gravitation

adsorption and absorption

quality of the surface

partial soluble surfaces

To measure reproducible contact angles it is important to define and obey


standard conditions. The drop should be as small as possible. Small drops fit
better to a spheroid or elliptic shape.

6.2.2 SCA 10, calculation of surface free energy


The calculation of the surface free energy of solids will be done in the SCA 10. The look of
the Window depends on the selected calculation method. You can select one of the
following methods in the menu Method or with the corresponding icon. The given applications and examples are meant as a rule. A more detailed investigation of the
applicability for the analyzed system might be necessary.

Table 1: Application examples for different analysis methods

Method

Information

Min. No. of

Application

Examples

non-polar solids

PE, PTFE, waxes

Fluids
Zisman

critical surface tension

Fowkes

disperse parts of surface energy

non-polar systems

PE, PTFE, waxes

OWRK (Owens-

disperse and polar parts of

universal

polymers, aluminum,

Wendt-Rabel and

surface free energy

coatings, varnishes

Kaelble)
Extended Fowkes

disperse, polar and hydrogen

parts of surface free energy


Wu (Harmonic

disperse and polar parts of

Mean)

surface free energy

Acid-Base Theory

disperse, acid and base parts of

specific questions of

plasma or corona treated

surface properties

polymers

2, at least one low energetic


polar fluid

organic solutions,

systems

polymers, organic

specific questions of

biological system

pigments
3

surface free energy


Equation of State

surface free energy

surface properties
1

universal

theory

coatings, varnishes

Schultz 1 (Polar

disperse and polar parts of

Drop Phase)

surface free energy

Schultz 2 (Polar

disperse and polar parts of

Bulk Phase)

surface free energy

OCA Manual

polymers, aluminum,

high energetic

metal, glass

system
2

high energetic

polymers, aluminum,

system

coatings, varnishes

page 31

Figure 31: Example SCA 10-software

With the Browse... button you can select the liquid database.
Select the liquid you measured the contact angle in the combo-box Liquid or type in the
parameters of the surface tension and their components (if not found in the liquid database). Now you must enter the measured contact angle manually.
The choice of liquids depends on the selected analysis method. Only if all the
necessary parameters for the analysis method are available the liquid is
available in the combo-box Liquid. Also only these liquids can be transferred
with all necessary parameters from the result-window.
With the + button you add the liquid with his SFT (and its components) and the contact angle to the liquid list. If you have entered enough (but not more than 4) liquids
(see table above) you can calculate the surface free energy (and its components) by a
click on the Calculate-button. After the calculation is ready, you get the surface free
energy and a corresponding graph.

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6.3 Preparations
This chapter describes how to perform a measurement with the software SCA for all the
video-based contact angle measuring devices (not OCA 5/10).
Before you can work with the SCA software, the following setups must be already done:

Frame grabber Setup

MGA Display Setup (only for High speed frame grabber)

DAO Setup

SCA20 software setup

All necessary programs and drivers are on the delivered CD-ROM. For a complete setup,
please see the README-file on the CD-ROM.
The SCA20 software recognizes all electronic components and modules like ES, TBA 60E,
WT 200E, stage control and TEC/TPC. For this manual, we assume a standard OCA 20
with three ES, an E-MD and a temperature sensor PT 100 on T1. The other components
will be explained in separate chapters. The specific features for high-speed measurement
with the OCAH 150/200/230 will be explained in chapter 9.3.

6.3.1 Menu bars


The SCA can be started with double-click to the desktop icon, or in with Start Program
files DataPhysics SCA20. In case of failure please start the software with Start
Program files DataPhysics SCA20_Service to generate a communication and error
log-file.
The appearance of the menu bar depends on the active window. The standard menu bar
is shown at activated Drop Window. In the following chapters, the different menu bars
will be explained.

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6.3.1.1 Menu bar Drop Image Window

Figure 32: Drop Window menu bar

In the following, all the menu items, which are activated when the Drop Window is active,
will be explained.

The File menu subdivide into the following items (see Figure 33):

New / Open Window To open a new windows

Open... To open a stored file in a new window depending one the file extension you
selected

Close Closes the active window

Save Stores the data in active window

Save As... Stores the data in active window under a new name

Movie Document To open, save or close a movie file

Print... To print the data in the active window

Print Preview Shows how the data will be printed

Print Setup To select and setup a printer

1-4 List of the last opened files

Exit Close the SCA software

Figure 33: File-menu

Under New/Open Window, one of the following windows can be opened:

Drop Image Window to display a live image or a stored bitmap

Result Collection Display of result table, graphic and setup

SE Calculation Calculation of the surface free energy

Statistics Statistic distribution

Figure 34: New/Open Window menu

SFT Analysis Calculation of dispersion and polar force contribution


of the surface tension

Liquid Database For changes in the liquid database

Under Movie Document one of the following functions is available:

Open... Opens a stored movie file

Save As... - Stores the active movie file under a new name (besides
the standard format *.flm you can select the *.avi format)

Figure 35: Movie Document menu

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Save - Stores the active movie file

Close/Discard Removes the active movie file from memory.

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The menu Edit:

Undo Cancels the last command

Cut Cuts the marked data and copies them into the clipboard

Copy - Copies the marked data into the clipboard

Paste Pastes the data from the clipboard

Live Image Update Updates the live image in High-speed mode

TC-Program... Open the edit control for the TC control program (s page 19)

ARCA settings Open the edit control for automatic dosing to measure Advancing
and Receding Contact Angle

Manual Mode Switches the software controlled modules to manual mode

OCA/PCA Maintenance To execute reference run of the controllable modules (see


below)

FG Setup... Settings of the frame grabber

Preferences... see below

Figure 36: Edit menu

For the following controllable modules, a reference run can be executed in the menu
OCA/PCA Maintenance (see Figure 37):

DU-Maintenance - electronic syringe modules ES

E-MD Reference run electronic multiple dosing system E-MD

TBA60e Reference run tilting base units TBA60E or TBU 90E

YZ-Table Reference run - YZ-axis of OCA 30 or OCAH 230

Wafer table reference run wafer table WT 200E/300E


Figure 37: OCA/PCA Maintenance menu

Sub-menu Preferences:

General Preferences... Software settings (see chapter 6.3.2.2 General


Preferences page 19)

Device settings - Device settings and parameters (see chapter 6.3.2.1 Device

Figure 38: Preferences menu

settings page 19)

The View menu:

Toolbar Shows toolbar with shortcut icons

Status Bar Shows a status bar with helpfully information

Zoom Zoom of the drop window up to 1:4; depending on the used frame grabber
not all active

Clear Overlay Erases all overlays and contour lines in the drop window

Drop Window Always On Top The drop window will stay on top of all windows, so
it is always visible

OCA Manual

Figure 39: View menu

page 35

The Image menu:

Start Grabbing Shows the live image of the video camera

Snap an Image Stops grabbing and shows a single image.

Detect Basis Line Determination of the base line

Extract Profile Determination of the drop contour

Get Image Dimension Determines the size of the droplet (not yet implemented)

Open... To open a stored image (BMP-file)

Save As... To store an image under another name or directory

Flip the image will be horizontally mirrored

Figure 40: Image menu

The Profile menu:

Default Determination Uses the method selected in the General Preferences

Kill Fitting Stops and deletes the calculated contour i.e. after Y-L.

Compute Contact Angle Calculation of the contact angle (according to the


settings in General Preferences )

Ellipse Fitting Calculation of the contact angle using the ellipse fitting

Circle Fitting - Calculation of the contact angle using the circle fitting (also known
as Height/Width method)

Figure 41: Profile menu

Tangent Searching - Calculation of the contact angle using by fitting the tangent
line in the three phase point on both sides of the drop image

Laplace-Young Fitting - Calculation of the contact angle using the Young-Laplace


fitting

The Option menu:

LogFiles Displays the error.log, which is usefully in any irregular behavior of the
SCA (only available if started as SCA 20 Service)

Device Information Not implemented

Reset Drop Timer To set the drop age of the actual image to zero

Dispense Unit Opens the dialog dispense unit

E-MD dosing position - Opens the dialog with the E-MD controls

YZTable - Opens the dialog YZ-Table with the controls for the motorized sample stage
(only with OCA 30/OCAH 230)

Tilting Base Device - Opens the dialog with the tilting base controls device (TBA 60E or
TBU 90E)

Figure 42: Option menu

Temperature Sensor T1 Opens the graph of the temperature sensor 1

Temperature Sensor T2 - Opens the graph of the temperature sensor 2

Wafer Table - Opens the dialog with the controls of the wafer table

Temp. Controller I-IV - Opens the dialog with the controls for the temperature
controlled units 1-4 (i.e. TEC 400)

The Window menu:

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New Window Opens a new window

Cascade Arrange all open windows

Tile - Arrange all open windows one below the other

Arrange Icons - Arrange all minimized icon bars and windows on the
lower left side

Device Control Bar Shows the device control bar


Center Device Control Dialogs To center single, or all device control
bars

Close All DC-Dialogs - Close all device control bars

1-10 To select one of the open windows (the actual active is marked)

Figure 43: Window menu

The Help menu:

Help Topics Help function (not yet implemented)

About... Information about software version

System Information... Opens the windows system information program

Figure 44: Help menu

Context menu of the Drop Window (click on the right mouse button):

Open... To open a stored file in a new window depending one the file extension you
selected

Save As... Stores the data in active window under a new name

Save Stores the data in active window

Export as EMF... To export the actual image to an Enhanced Meta File

Movie Document T open, save or close a movie file

Drop Type To define the drop type as


Sessile Drop,
Needle in Sessile Drop,
Captive Bubble,
Pendant Drop and
Lamella Method

Zoom Zoom settings

CA > 90 - not yet implemented

Show Result On Image Shows the result of the calculation in the drop image

Show vertical Cursors To set vertical restriction lines

Select a Drop To select a single drop out of a series of drops

OCA Manual

Figure 45: Drop window context


menu

page 37

6.3.1.2 Menu bar Result Collection Window

Figure 47: Menu bar in Result Collection Window

In the following, all the menu items of the Result Collection Window, which are
additional or different to the ones of the Drop Window, will be explained:

Differences in the File menu:

Export Result Data... To export results in ASCII-format to a text file

Export Option... Settings and options for the data to be exported

Transfer Result to Active SE-Window Transfers the marked result into the active

Figure 46: File menu Result

SE-Window

Differences in the Edit menu:

Copy - Copies the marked data into the clipboard

Delete Deletes all the marked data (note that there is no Undo function available)

Figure 48: Edit menu


Result

Differences in the View menu:

Define as Active Result Window Defines the actual result window as active. (the
results of the active drop window will be transferred to this result window)

Result Drop Window Always On Top The Result Window will stay on top of all
windows, so it is always visible

Figure 49: View menu Result

The Processing menu:

Cursors Displays cursor lines in the active drop window (base line, line for select the
calibration range)

Extrapolation... To extrapolate measuring data

Figure 50: Processing


menu Result

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Context menu of the Result Window (click on the right mouse button):

Copy Copies the marked data into the clipboard


Transfer Result to Active SE-Window Calculates the geometric mean of the marked
result data and transfer it to the active SE-window

Transfer Result to Active SFT-Window - Calculates the geometric mean of the marked
result data and transfer it to the active SFT-window

Export Result Data... - To export the results in ASCII-format to a text file

Options... Selection of the result display parameter

Define as Active Result Window - Defines the actual result window as active. (the
results of the active drop window will be transferred to this result window)

Graphic Display Displays the graph of the data in the Result-window

Always Update Automatic actualization of the graph

Update Now - Actualization of the graph when Always Update is off

Maximize Size To maximize the Result window

Restore Size - To restore the size of the Result window

Figure 51: Context menu of Result


Collection Window

6.3.1.3 Menu bar SE Calculation Window

Figure 52: Menu bar SE Calculation Window

In the following the menu Method of the SE Calculation Window, which is the only
additional to the ones of the Drop Window will be explained.:
In this menu you can select the calculation method of the surface free energy:

Zisman (Critical surface tension)

Fowkes

Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble

Extended Fowkes

Wu (Harmonic Mean)

Acid-Base theory

Equation of State Theory (EOS)

Schultz I (Polar drop phase)

Schultz II (Polar Bulk phase)

Wu (Geometric Mean)

Figure 53: Menu Method Calculation

6.3.1.4 Other menu bars


The menu bars of the Statistic Window, SFT Analysis Window and the Liquid Database
Window contain no other special functions. For a description of this, windows please
refer to the chapters 5.3.1.1 to 5.3.1.3.

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6.3.2 Preferences
Before you start the first measurement check the preferences described in this chapter.
Which options are available in the preferences depends from which window you click to
it. All options are only available from the Drop Window.
The Preferences are divided into two main blocks (see Figure 54):

general Preferences...

device settings... Settings for the devices and modules of the OCA

Figure 54: Preferences

6.3.2.1 Device settings


The left part of this edit control is similar to the directory structure of the windows
explorer. A click to the

icon opens the particular tree.

In the tree OCA 20 you can set all parameters and presetting for the control of electronic
syringe modules ES, temperature sensors, temperature controlled unit (like TEC 400, TPC
150 ), electronic multiple dosing unit E-MD/4, YZ-stage (only OCA 30 and OCAH 230),
electronic tilting base units (TBA 60E and TBU 90E) and electronic wafer table.
In the tree General settings, all other settings for the software can be defined (see Figure
55).
Figure 55: Device settings

6.3.2.1.1 Selection of data base


The tree General settings contain four subdirectories, which can be selected by the tabs
or by the subdirectories itself.
Select database By default the database for the test liquids
is Liquid.mdb. This database is not expandable. If you want to
add new liquids to the database please select the please select
the Liquid_editable.mdb where you can insert new data sets
(see chapter 6.3.8). You can also rename this database.
The default syringe database Syringe.mdb contains all
standard syringes, which are available at DataPhysics. In this
database, you cannot change the parameter of the standard
syringes. If you want to change the parameter of the standard
syringes, you must select the Syringe_editable.mdb database.
New syringes can be added in both databases.

Figure 56: Device settings Select database

Allow use of unknown liquids In a series of measurements, it is often necessary to use liquids without defined or
known surface tension. The surface tension of defined liquids is mostly also unknown
outside the temperature range of 20-25C. Therefore, it is recommended to allow the use
of unknown liquids. The parameters of the substitute liquid were used during the
measurement.

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OCA

6.3.2.1.2 Define syringe type


New syringe types can be defined in the subdirectory Define
syringe type. Please note, only in the database syringe_
editable.mdb the standard syringes can be edited or deleted.
To add a new syringe type click on New (see Figure 57).
If you do not have a datasheet for your syringe, you must
measure the geometry of the syringe as precise as possible, to
reduce divergence in the dosed amount of liquid.
For a new syringe type, you must define the following
parameters:
Name
Description (optional)
nominal Volume [ml]
Scale length [mm] Length of the syringe scale
i. Area [mm2] calculated by the software
Start-Pos [mm] Position of piston if syringe is full
End-Pos [mm] Position of piston if syringe is empty.

Figure 57: Device settings Define syringe type

To store the new defined syringe type in the actual selected database click on Save. If you
want to add the new syringe type also in another database, you must first select the
other database and insert it again.
The following standard syringes are available (see Figure 58):

Hamilton 500 l, DS 500/GT, standard syringe

Hamilton 1000 l, DS 1000/GT

Hamilton 100 l, DS 100/GT

Hamilton 200 l,

Hamilton 300 l

For ordering information, see chapter 11.2 Spare parts page 19.
For use with the portable contact angle system PCA select the
syringe PCA100 Type-1.

Figure 58: Device settings Selection of standard syringes

6.3.2.1.3 Load/Store settings


Under Load/Store settings you can save and load all parameter
you defined in the edit window Contact Angle Device
Preferences like liquids, syringe types, position needles and/or
stages (see Figure 59). This is helpful if more than one person is
using the instrument, or if more than one measuring preset is
used. With load all files with the extensions *.cfg; *.cfo, *.E-MD;
*.sl und *.lqs were supported. From this version only the *.cfg is
used as standard format, the other came from older software
versions.
Note. Only different Device settings can be stored, not the

Figure 59: Device settings Load/Store settings

settings defined in General preferences.

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6.3.2.1.4 General device settings


In General device settings you can set:
shut down command If you select

Transmit shutdown

command during program end sequence the OCA electronics


stores the positions of all software controlled and motorized
devices. This can take up to 60 seconds. During this time, you
must not switch off the OCA or restart the software.
Device Control Dialogs If you select

Always on top all device

control windows stay visible.


If you deselect

Always on top the device control windows are

only visible if the Drop Window is active.


Figure 60: device settings general device settings

serial connection surveillance If you select

Enabled the serial interface will be

checked permanently, so the software can detect if the OCA is switched off. A dialog
appears which tell that the instrument is switched off and the software stores all settings
and will end.

During the execution of the shut down command you


must never
switch off the OCA or restart the software!

6.3.2.1.5 Settings for syringe modules


In the tree OCA20, you see an example for 3 syringe units
installed on the position 1-3. Also connected is an electronic
multiple dosing system E-MD and a temperature sensor.
To set parameters for a syringe unit click on the

icon of the

respective unit. A tabbed dialog comes up with the tab Syringe


type and Test liquid. To select the dialog you can click onto the
respective tab or select the respective subdirectory in the tree.
In the tabbed dialog Syringe type you can select a syringe type
Figure 61: Device settings Unit 1, Syringe Type

from the actual syringe database. If you cannot find the desired
syringe type you must enter it into the actual used database (see
chapter Define syringe type page 19) or select a database which

contains it.

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In the tabbed dialog Test Liquid, (see Figure 62) you can select a
test liquid from the actual liquids database. All physical
parameters of the selected liquid, which are stored in the
database where used automatically for measurement and
calculation when you select this syringe unit for measuring. If
you cannot find the desired liquid, you must enter it into the
actual used database (see chapter Selection of data base page 19, or
chapter Liquid data base page 19) or select a database, which

contains it. In the dialog box Properties, you can verify the
parameters of the selected liquid.
Figure 62: Device settings Unit 1, Test liquid

If you decided to allow unknown liquids (see page 19) select the
name of your substitute liquid. The parameters of the substitute liquid were used during
the measurement

6.3.2.1.6 Settings for the E-MD


In the dialog E-MD-settings, (see Figure 63) you can select if the
E-MD performs a reference run after each program start. We
recommend doing a reference run every day, or if you leave the
device for a certain period and you are not sure, that anybody
else has touched the device. Please ensure that the needles,
mounted in the E-MD, can move without collision. To
guarantee that take all needles out of the E-MD before you
start the software.
Never perform a reference run with the E-MD
if the risk of collision exists!

Figure 63: Device settings E-MD

6.3.2.1.7 Settings for the temperature sensor (PT 100)


In the dialog Temperature Sensor Settings you can set the parameters for the
temperature sensors on connector T1 and T2.
In Display, you can select the temperature unit (C or F) of the
OCA display.
With act. Sens. you define which temperature sensor value will
be transferred to the active result window.
In the both Sensor # dialog boxes you can select the unit (C =
degree Celsius, F = degree Fahrenheit or K = Kelvin) of the
temperature scale (Y-axis) in the Temperature log window.
Refresh rate Time between two temperature measuring points
Observation time Is the time range how long the measured

Figure 64: Device settings Temperature Sensor Settings

temperature values where displayed (X-axis of the Temperature


log window).

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page 43

Figure 65: Example for a Temperature log


The device settings for all the other software controlled devices of the OCA like
temperature controlled unit (TEC 400, TPC 150 ), YZ-stage (only OCA 30 and OCAH 230),
electronic tilting base units (TBA 60E and TBU 90E) and electronic wafer tables were
described in the respective chapters.

6.3.2.2 General Preferences

Figure 66: general Preferences

You can reach the general Preferences in the menu Edit under Preferences, or with a click
on the icon

.
Drop Window-Appearance Image Window Setting In this tabbed
dialog you can select which of the calculated lines where shown as an
overlay on the drop image.
Extracted Drop Profile show the line of the extracted profile in red
color.
Filtered Drop Profile show the line of the filtered profile in green
color.
Result Values show the result of the calculation (e.g. the contact
angle) in yellow on a blue background.
Tangent lines (only for Sessile Drops) show the line of the extracted
profile in the three-phase point in a red color.

Figure 67: general Preferences Drop Window Appearance

The function

Auto-size window after image dimension is always

selected.

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Drop Type Set Measuring Drop Type In this tabbed dialog you can
select one of the eight drop types. This can also be done before the
measurement by a right mouse click (context menu) in the drop
window (see page 19). If you use the dynamic tracking function, you
must pre-set the drop type in this dialog. The default setting is
Normal SD (Sessile Drop).

Calculation Options In this tabbed dialog you can choose the default

Figure 68: general Preferences Drop Type

calculation steps.
Calibrate before Performing Calculation (for PDs only) will only be
used on pendant drop measurements. This means that the calibration
of the image size will be done automatically. The diameter of the
needle will be taken out of the active Result window (Ref.-Size [mm]: ).
If no Result window can be found the default reference size of the
diameter (1 mm) will be taken.
Detect substrate line automatically (for SDs only) will only be used
on sessile drop measurements. Should only be deactivated if the
software is unable to detect the base line automatically (at contact
angle around 90 or bad lighting situations). The button in the icon
line has a higher priority.
Extract Profile if not yet done
Add Result to the active Result window will copy the results of the

Figure 69: general Preferences Calculation; Calculation Options

calculation (contact angle, surface or interfacial tension, drop


volume)
Select the default calculation method: The default calculation method can only be set for
sessile drops, because pendant drop will always be calculated with a Laplace-Young Fitting. For sessile drops you can choose between Circle-, Ellipse- and Laplace-Young fitting
or Tangent Leaning.

Laplace-Young Fitting Parameters In this tabbed dialog you can select


special fitting and optimization parameters for the Laplace-Young
Fitting.
Smooth Profile will smooth the extracted profile before any
calculation will be done. Should only be deactivated if the calculation
time is not fast enough, because the fit of a smoothed profile is more
precise.

OCA Manual

Figure 70: general Preferences Calculation; Laplace-Young Fitting


Parameters

page 45

Correct Tilt will correct the tilt caused by a distorted installed camera. It will not correct
the tilt caused by a crooked needle.
Average Profile will calculate a mean profile between the profiles of the two sides of
the drop.
AR-optimization will adjust the Aspect Ratio of the image. Should only be selected
Figure 71: Extracted and smoothed profile

when necessary, because the AR-optimization will take up to a second per frame.
Fast-optimization if unchecked the calculation takes longer, but also unusable drop
shapes can be determined.

Image Processing Setting In this tabbed dialog you can set, among others, the cursor
positions for calculation of sessile drops.
Upper limit line at:

50

Cursor position (distance in pixel

between the upper border of the drop window and the upper limit
cursor. The part of the image above this cursor line will not be taken
into calculation of the sessile drop. This is helpfully in use of
temperature controlled chambers.
Base line at:

100

Position of the base line (in pixel from the

upper border of the drop window).


Automatic base line detection on activates the automatic base
line detection.
Alternative method ... activates a special calculation method for
Figure 72: general Preferences Image Processing Settings

measuring with a tilting base unit for droplets between 45 and 90


of contact angle.

Edge Extraction Gradient:

50 With the threshold for the gradient you define the

difference in brightness two neighboring pixels must have to detect an edge (white=255
and black=0). The standard value is 50 and should only be changed when the image is not
sharp enough.

Image Processing Tilt base parameters In this dialog the parameters must only be set
if you have activated the Alternative method in the dialog Image Processing Image
Processing Setting.
Use non-standard parameter As non-standard parameter you can
set the upper and left margin of the image area where the calculation
of the contact angle will be carried out.
Use Command tilt angle When activated the calculation method
for the contact angle will be adapted to the tilting angle of the TBA
60E.
Tilting direction anticlockwise Must be activated if the tilting
direction is anticlockwise (depending on the mounting direction of
Figure 73: general Preferences Image Processing; Tilt base parameters

page 46

the device).

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

The dynamic tracking function detects the contact angle automatically in


predefined periods (frames/time) or as fast as possible directly from the live image.
Dynamic Tracking Setting Dynamic Tracking Setting In this tabbed dialog you can preset the following parameter:
Actions:
Save Image to file Not yet implemented.
Perform Calculation Switch the calculation on/off (type of
calculation is predefined in the category Calculation).
Collecting Result Collects all results in the active Result-window.
Reset drop age by start Resets the drop age timer at start of the
dynamic tracking function (in the Option-menu you can manually
reset this timer).
Timing:
as fast as possible The frames (or images) per second is
dependent on the used frame grabber, the calculation method and

Figure 74: general Preferences Dynamic Tracking Setting

the speed of the PC.


Using constant timing You can specify the number of frames per second, minute or
hour.
Using advanced timing You can specify an exponential number of frames per second
or minute, see the tabbed dialog Advanced Timing, by setting the times per second or
minute and the Process Speed.
Action Duration:
In this tabbed dialog, you can set the stop criteria for the dynamic tracking function.
Till user break Stop of the dynamic tracking function by user. Please note that the
icon to start and stop the dynamic tracking function is only available in the drop window.
Till to: Stops the dynamic tracking function automatically after the defined time (in
seconds, minutes or hours.
Set by Extra - Tab (only for IFT-measurement) The duration is defined in the tabbed
dialog Extra. This function can only be used with the interfacial or surface tension
measurement.

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Dynamic Tracking Setting Advanced Timing In this dialog you can set the parameter
for processes with variable frame rate. The frame rate is calculated as an exponential
sloping function.
times per To set the unit of the time to second, minute or hour.
With the vertical slider you set the maximum frame rate of the
measurement. If you selected minutes or hours frame rates will be
converted into seconds
With the horizontal slider you set the maximum frame rate of the
measurement.
Process Speed To set the gradient of the function (Fast result in a
steep drop). In all the multiplication of the frame rate with the
process speed results in the number of frames over the period of
observation. This function is useful for very long dynamic processes.
Figure 75: general Preferences Dynamic Tracking; Advanced Timing

WX The arrow keys below the diagram are used to zoom-in (or zoomout) the time interval of the diagram.

Dynamic Tracking Setting Extra In this tabbed dialog you can set the stop criteria for the
dynamic tracking function. This function can only be used with the interfacial or surface
tension measurement.
Measurement Stop Criteria:
Least measuring duration: The least measuring duration is
independent from the changes in the IFT. The shortest possible
duration is dependent from the performance of the PC-System.
Within the least measuring duration no check for stop criteria is
performed.
Measuring value alteration falling under: The measurement stops
if the difference between the actual measured IFT and the one before
is smaller than the maximum permissible alteration of the IFT in
[mN/m per Minute (d/dt)]. This is normally the case if a balance of
forces turns up.
Figure 76: general Preferences Dynamic Tracking; Extra

for at least X % of the last Y values Defines how many X


percent of the last Y measuring values must fall below the threshold
for the IFT, to fulfill the stop criterion. This is usefully to prevent

stopping because of a runaway.


By fulfilling the stop criteria:
Stop the measuring procedure immediately Stops the measurement immediately after
fulfilling the stop criterion.
Go on measuring, but inform me of it by giving out: Do not stop the measurement
after fulfilling the stop criterion, but produces

warning beeps or/and an

announcement dialog.

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Movie Control Camera Parameters In this tabbed dialog you can set the camera
format.
With the OCA 15, OCA 20 and OCA 30 you select CCIR-Standard, the
Vertically Scanning Frequency (Frame Rate): will be set automatically.
With the OCAH 200 and OCAH 230 you select Other/No-Standard
Format and set the Vertically Scanning Frequency (Frame Rate):
according to the selected camera mode (See chapter 7.5 OCAH 200/230
page 19).

Driving Mode is always set to Interlaced mode


Use reserved DMA-memory for movie-recording Use of the DMAmemory defined during setup of the software. If the DMA-memory is
too small only some seconds can be recorded at full frame rate.

Figure 77: general Preferences Movie Control; Camera Parameters

Movie Control Recording In this tabbed dialog you can set the recording parameters.
defines how many frames
were recorded per second. Because the maximum frame rate is fix,
this will be defined by how many times an image will be taken (i.e.
every second one). With the STbuttons, you can change the value
between 1 and 25; greater intervals must be directly typed in.
Recording Duration: Can be set to
predefine the duration by setting

Till user break or you can


Till to: in time in seconds or set

the number of frames. The number of frames cannot be higher than


the value in Limit the maximum frame number. With STbuttons
beside the time value, you can change the time between 1 to 100
seconds, greater values must be directly typed in.
Currently available memory: Shows the free physical memory

Figure 78: general Preferences Movie Control; Recording

(RAM) and the available virtual memory. In the line below, you see the estimated
reachable number of recordable frames.
Limit the maximum frame number to

x frames Set the maximum allowed number

of frames ( X ) in the movie. With very fast PCs it is possible to record more frames than
displayed in the estimated number of frames.
Compress Image during Recording ? To compress every stored frame will increase the
maximum reachable number of frames, but you need a fast computer. The compression
rate is dependent on the quality of the image. A very sharp and clear image with a good
black/white contrast can be compressed very high, this means you can record a lot more
frames with the same amount of memory. An image with grey shading can be nearly not
compressed. In addition, the detection of the contour is dependent on the quality of the
image. The default setting is

Auto, this means the compression is set dependent on the

speed of the PC.

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Movie Control Trigger Control In this tabbed dialog you can set
how the start of the recording will be triggered.
Using none To start the recording manually without a software
trigger.
Using software trigger To start the recording when the gray
value at the defined line:
-

As set by Substrate Line or

At y (or x)

x pixel (from the upper border of the drop

window)
is changing.
Figure 79: general Preferences Movie Control; Trigger Control

Trigger barrier

30 defines the sensitivity of the trigger, this

means the difference in brightness (white=255 and black=0).

Movie Control Playing In this tabbed dialog you can set the
playing parameters.
Full images Use full images, if deactivated frames (interlaced
images) were displayed).
Cycle Playing the movie will be played continuously.
Perform Default Calculation You can pre-select that the images
where automatically calculated during playing, using the default
calculation method (see Preferences Calculation Options at page 19).
Waiting for Interactions from Operator Plays only one image
and then opens a dialog were you can decide to continue the
Figure 80: general Preferences Movie Control; Playing

calculation for the actual image or to skip it.

Start/Stop of the calculation during playing with a click on the icon

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Result Window General Option In this tabbed dialog you can set some general
options for the result window.
Store autosnapshots in .ref file, stores the bitmap to every
measuring result in an own file. Please note that this option make
only sense in single measurements or in slow dynamic tracking
functions.

set the time in which the data in


the result window will be stored on disk.

defines the time format


for the drop age in the result window.

Figure 81: general Preferences Result Window; General Option

Result Window Display Items In this tabbed dialog you can select the items which
will be displayed in the result window.
Only the items in the To be displayed items box will be shown in the
result window.
Copy the marked item to the To be displayed items box.
Deletes the marked item from the To be displayed items box.

Figure 82: general Preferences Result Window; Display Items

Result Window Export Items In this tabbed dialog you can select the items which will
be exported from the result window.
Only the items in the To be exported items box will be exported from
the result window. The data will be stored in ASCII format in columns
separated with tabs. The selection of the data can be done in the
same way like in the tabbed dialog Display Items.
Link the to be exported items to the displayed items The
exported data will be the same as the displayed.
Link export to file save The exported data will be saved
automatically to a file in ASCII format in the same directory and the
same name but with the extension .txt
Figure 83: general Preferences Result Window; Export Items

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6.3.3 FG-Setup
6.3.3.1 Standard frame grabber
References This tabbed dialog is used to define the Contrast between 0 and max. 512 as
well as the Brightness between 0 and max. 255. Good values for the Contrast
and Brightness reference depend on various factors like the brightness of the
environment, the reflection, shape and size of the sample. Therefore, you have to
adjust these values. Standard start values are:

Contrast Reference = 250

Brightness Reference = 110

Input Channel In this tabbed dialog you select the input channel of your frame
Figure 84: Dialog Frame Grabber-Setup with standard frame
grabber

grabber on which the OCA video camera is connected. Standard- input channel
is the connector Composite Video 1.

Camera Format In this tabbed dialog you select the used video camera format. The
default setting is CCIR, 768 x 576 pixels, 8 bits, 14.8 MHz, analog.

6.3.3.2 High-speed frame grabber


References This tabbed dialog is used to define the Contrast and the Brightness
between 0 and max. 255. Good values for the Contrast and Brightness reference
depend on various factors like the brightness of the environment, the reflection,
shape and size of the sample. Therefore, you have to adjust these values.
Standard start values are:

Contrast Reference = 240

Brightness Reference = 50

Input Gain In this tabbed dialog you select the input signal gain of the frame
grabber on which the OCA video camera is connected. The standard value is
0.98.
Input Channel In this tabbed dialog you select the input channel of your frame
Figure 85: Dialog Frame grabber-Setup Setup for High-speed

grabber on which the OCA video camera is connected. The default value is

frame grabber

channel 0.
Camera Format In this tabbed dialog you select the used video camera format.
With the OCA 15 or OCA 20 select

User defined: and the file SCA.DCF.

For the settings of the OCAH 200 and OCAH 230 see chapter 7.5 22 OCAH 200/230
page 19.
The frame grabber settings must only be always done or done again if the camera is
changed or if the camera mode is changed (only OCAH 200/230). After changes of the
frame grabber settings, you should end the software immediately. Only at software start,
the frame grabber settings were taken over.
Restart the software immediately after every change in the frame grabber
setting before you produce a live image!

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6.3.4 Dynamic Tracking-Function


With the dynamic tracking function, it is possible to detect the contact angle
automatically in pre-defined periods (frames/time) or as fast as possible. It is
often used to measure dynamic contact angle (see chapter 6.4.2.2 page 19). You can stop
the dynamic tracking with a second click to the icon (in drop window) or with the
function key F2.
In the tabbed dialog Dynamic Tracking Setting in General Preferences you can pre-set the
parameter (see chapter 6.3.2.2 General Preferences page 19)
With activated option Store autosnapshots in .ref file, a bitmap of every measuring point
will be stored in an own file. Please note that this option make only sense in slow dynamic
tracking functions.

6.3.5 Movie Function


The usage of the movie function is helpful if you like to measure contact angles with a
high time resolution, as the saving of the pictures is much faster than the picture analysis. The second important applications for the movie function are dynamic measurements, where the base line detection is unstable (tilting base for example). You can record
the whole measurement (i.e. the roll-off of the droplet) and evaluate the interesting
pictures afterwards by manual adjusting the baseline. If these measurements are to long
to be recorded you can choose a lower time resolution, which can be set up in General
Preferences .
The maximum time duration of the video sequence, which can be recorded is limited by
the memory of the computer. If the computer is equipped with 64 Mbytes of RAM, at
least 10 seconds can be recorded. The maximum number of frames you can record is displayed in the preference window, if you choose the movie-recording menu. With very long
measurements, you can reduce the number of frames per second.
The control of the movie function will be made with the icons in the movie icon bar. The
icons are available only if the drop window is active and in live mode.
A new record deletes the previous one independent from the record time.

Store every record you want to keep or evaluate immediately.


The auto-save-function stores no movie records!

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To use the movie functions of the SCA 20 software follow these instructions:

Switch to the life video mode

On the right side or at the top of the software window you will now find several icons

similar to the buttons of a video or tape recorder.

icon. The life video modus

To start the recording of a movie sequence click on the

will stop during the recording time (with high-speed frame grabber), or will show
every second the actual image (with standard frame grabber). If you have selected a
trigger in the General Preferences, the recording will start immediately but when the
trigger event occurs.

To stop the recording of a movie sequence click on the icon marked with a black
.

square

To play the movie click on the icon with a green triangle

If you like to play the movie backwards click on the icon with the yellow triangle

To stop the playing of the movie click on the stop icon

To look at singular pictures of the movie click on the forward / backward icon

.
.

.
or

Figure 86: Movie icon bar

To perform an automatic evaluation of the whole movie opens a result collection window and chooses the option default calculation in the movie playing preferences. You
reach this menu by choosing General Preferences in the edit menu of the SCA
software or by clicking on the options icon of the movie control task bar

To start and stop the calculation during playing press the icon

.Single pictures can

be evaluated as normal snapshots done during a normal measurement.

If you are doing this default calculation, be sure that the preferences for the default
calculation are chosen correct (drop type, calculation method).

If you like to pause the calculation and playing of the movie sequence use the pause
icon

If you like to set the actual image time to zero use the button

To change the default values for playing or recording a movie sequence click on the
icon with the three dots

to enter the General Preferences.

You can save the movie under File->Movie Document->Save As or with a right mouse
click in the Drop Window.

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6.3.6 Result Window


The result window is used for the tabular and graphical
presentation of the measuring result. It is divided in three parts,
the table area, the parameter area and the graphical area. Several
presettings can be made in the menu General Preferences (see page
19). The settings for the different areas can be made in the

corresponding context menu (click with the right mouse key).


Before you start a measurement, you should open a result
window, because some important parameters for the
measurement must be set there.
Open a Result Window to enter the measurement
parameter!
In the context menu in the table area you can do:
Copy Copies the marked lines of the table into the clipboard.
From there you can insert them into every other Windowsapplication with paste. Possibly, you have to change the decimal
separator from comma to dot, because the SCA-software export
numbers to the clipboard with a dot as decimal separator.
Transfer Result to Active SE(SFT)-Window Transfers the marked
line into the active SE(SFT)-Window (for the calculation of the

Figure 87: Result Window

surface free energy or surface tension). If more than one line is marked, the mean value
will be transferred.
Export Result Data Stores the complete table in a file in ASCII-format.
Options Activates the menu General Preferences (see page 19). The possible variables to
display and export are:

Figure 88: Context menu Table

Base line intersection left

Left intersection of the base line with the drop contour

Base line intersection right

Right intersection of the base line with the drop contour

Calculation Error
Calculation Method

Used method to calculate the result

Comment

You can insert a comment with double click onto the


respective result

Contact Angle (left)

Not with Young-Laplace

Contact Angle (mean)

Arithmetic mean of left and right contact angle

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Contact Angle (right)

Not with Young-Laplace

Coord Type

0=XY-Coordinates; 1=Polar coordinates (i.e. of a wafer)

Coord1

Y-Position of YZ-stage or Wafer position rho

Coord2

Wafer position phi

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Figure 89: Tabbed dialogs in the parameter


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Coord3

Not yet implemented

Density Difference

Density difference between drop and surrounding phase

Drop Age

Drop age in msec

Drop Base Diameter

Drop diameter at the base line

Drop Curv. Radius at Apex Radius of the drop contour at the apex
Drop Height

Total drop height over the base line

Drop Phase
Drop Shape Parameter

Parameter of the drop shape

Drop Surface Area


Drop Type
Drop Volume
Magnification Factor

Calculated magnification factor of the image

Run Number
Solid Phase
Surface Tension
Surrounding Phase
Temperature
Tilt Base Angle

Only from software controlled tilting base devices

Define as Active Result Window Sets the actual selected result window to active. The
results from the drop window will be transferred only to the active result window.
Graphic Display Switches the graphic on/off.
Always Update Switches the automatic update of table and graphic on/off.
Update Now Updates the content of the result window if the automatic update is
switched off.
Maximize Size Enlarges the window to full screen size.
Restore Size Restores the previous window size.

With the tabbed dialog in the parameter area, you can define the following:
General Data for the whole measuring row like Measurement, Device, Customer,
Sample, Operator and Remarks.

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System Data for a single measurement like Drop Phase, Surrounding Phase, Solid Phase
and the Phase Densities [g/cm3] of drop and surrounding. To calculate the density
dependent on the actual temperature during measurement you can enter the
necessary parameters in Setup Parameters... for both phases. In this dialog you can
enter the density coefficients up to the third order (A to D). The coefficient A is the
density at 0C. The coefficients B to D (first to third order) define the linear and
polynomial density difference per Kelvin.
Drop Phase, activates the calculation of the drop density during the measuring.
Ambient Phase, activates the calculation of ambient density during the measuring
M-Info Data for a single measurement like Dosing Vol. [l] and Dosing Rate [l/s],
Temperature, Drop Age [ms], Reference Size [mm], Magnification [pixel/mm] and the
Measuring Date.

Figure 90: Calculation of density

C-Info Data for a single measurement like Analysis Method, Aspect Ratio and
Acceleration of Gravity. To calculate absolute contact angles and surface/interfacial
tensions you have to input the aspect ratio of the cameraframe grabber-system and
the acceleration of gravity. Directly onto the camera you can read the aspect ratio. The
aspect ratio lays into the range of 1.002-1.005, normally 1.0037. For the OCAH 200/230
please see chapter 7.5 page 19. The value of the acceleration of gravity can be calculated
with the button Look up after the input of the Latitude []) and the Location above Sea
Level [m]).
Result Display of the data for a single measurement like surface/interfacial tension (IFT),
Fitting Error, Contact Angle, Drop Volume, Drop Area, Shape Parameter, Curvature Radius,

Figure 91: Look Up... (Acceleration of


gravity)

Aspect Ratio, Tilt Angle and Drop Apex.

All data available in the table area can be displayed in the graphic area. With the context
menu (right mouse button) the following settings can be done:
X as You can choose the variable for the X-axis out of 4 often used variables (Run
Number, Drop Age, Temperature or Volume).
Y as You can choose the variable for the Y-axis out of 4 often used variables (Contact
Angle, Surface Tension, Drop Volume or Base Diameter).
Auto Range Automatic scaling for X- and/or Y-axis
Set Axis-Variables Selection of the Y-axis variables. With the button Parameter and
switched off automatic scaling you can set the parameters for the Y-axis.
FileSave As Metafile Stores the graphic to disk in the enhanced metafile - format.

Figure 92: Context menu in graphic area

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FilePrint Prints the graphic according to the pre-defined options to the actual
standard printer.
FilePrinting Options Setting of the printing options
FilePrinter Setup Printer setup
EditCopy Graph Copy the graphic to the clipboard
EditGraph Parameters Parameter of the graphic like Position and Size of the
graphic and plot area as well as the background color.
Figure 93: Context menu FilePrinting Options

EditPlot Parameters Plot parameter like the kind of the graphic, line attributes etc.
Maximize Size Displays the graphic area in full size window.

Figure 94: Context menu EditGraph Parameters

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6.3.7 Device Control Bar


In the Device Control Bar you can control all software controlled devices like electronic
syringe modules ES, temperature sensors, temperature controlled unit (like TEC 400, TPC
150 ), electronic multiple dosing unit E-MD/4, YZ-stage (only OCA 30 and OCAH 230),
electronic tilting base units (TBA 60E and TBU 90E) and electronic wafer table.
Open the Device Control Bar with the icon

or with the menu Window -> Device

Control Bar.
The STOP button aborts the actual action (movement) of every software-controlled

Figure 95: Device Control - Maintenance

device immediately. It is only active while any process is running (the STOP sign is red and
the toothed wheel is turning)

6.3.7.1 Device Control Maintenance


6.3.7.1.1 Maintenance Dispense unit
A click on the

Figure 96: Stop-button

icon in the window Device Control Maintenance opens the dialog

Dispense unit maintenance.


In this dialog you can control and service the position of the dispense units (electronic
syringe modules ES).
To select a dispense unit click on the respective number in
the lower area of the dialog. This control shows also the position of the syringe piston
(filling volume). If the displayed position (filling volume) does not correspond the real
position it is necessary to reset the position control of the respective dispense unit
With the both syringe icons you can reset the position control of the selected dispense
unit:
Moves the piston holder of the selected dispense unit to his lowest
position (maximum filling volume) and resets the internal position control. It is
recommended to remove the syringe before resetting the syringe position.
Moves the piston holder of the selected dispense unit to his highest

Figure 97: Dispense unit maintenance

position (minimum filling volume) and resets the internal position control. It is recommended to remove the syringe before resetting the syringe position.
Position You can set the position of the selected dispense unit by moving the slider up
and down, by entering the relative position value (0 100), or by clicking one of the icons
T or S.
Velocity You can set the velocity of the selected dispense unit by moving the slider up
and down, by entering the relative velocity value (0 100), or by clicking one of the icons
T or S.
If necessary set the preferences for the syringe type and/or the test liquids
if you change the syringe (see chapter 6.3.2.1.2 Define syringe type page 19)

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6.3.7.1.2 Maintenance Wafer table


Before you use a wafer table the first time it is necessary to set the correct table size in
the software.
A click on the

icon in the Device Control Bar opens the dialog Wafer table

maintenance.
In the dialog Wafer table maintenance, you must select the right diameter of the
mounted wafer table.
The following wafer tables are available:
Figure 98: Wafer table maintenance

Diameter 100 mm (4); WTP 4

Diameter 150 mm (6); WTP 6

Diameter 200 mm (8); WTP 8

Diameter 300 mm (12); WTP 12

Diameter 125 mm (5)

Select the correct diameter of the wafer table before you use it or before you

Figure 99: Wafer sizes

carry out a reference run.


A wrong size can damage the wafer table and/or the OCA.

6.3.7.2 Device Control Reference Run


It can happen (i.e. because of power loss or mechanical obstruction) that a motorized,
software controlled device (like E-MD) looses his position control. Then you must carry out
a reference run of the respective (better all) device with a click on the respective icon in
the dialog Device Control Reference Run. It is not possible to stop a reference run, so if
the risk of contusion or collision crops up switch off the OCA.
A reference run is available for the following devices:
Electric Multiple Dosing unit E-MD
YZ-stage of OCA 30/230 (see chapter 7.1 page 19)
Figure 100: Device Control Reference
Run

Tilting base devices TBA 60E and TBU 90E (see chapter 7.2 page 19)

Wafer tables WT xxxE (see chapter 7.3.1.2 page 19)

You will find detailed information in the particular chapters.

Please ensure that the device can move without any risk of contusion or
collision before you start a reference run!

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6.3.7.3 Device Control Device Control


In the window Device Control you see all detected software controllable devices.. These
are dispense units (electronic syringe modules ES), temperature sensors (Pt 100),
temperature controlled unit (like TEC 400, TPC 150 or NHD 400), electronic multiple
dosing unit E-MD/4 (or E-MD/6), YZ-stage (only OCA 30 and OCAH 230), electronic tilting
base units (TBA 60E and TBU 90E) and electronic wafer table (WT 200E or WT 300E).
Only the connected and working devices where shown in the device control
window.

6.3.7.3.1 Dispense parameter


A click on the

Figure 101: Device Control

icon in the window Device Control Device Control opens the

selection window and dialog Dispense parameter.


All available dispense units were shown in the selection window (the one with only
numbers in). There you can select the desired dispense unit. If an E-MD is connected you
select the needle together with the dispense unit.
The bar on the left side of the dialog Dispense parameter shows the actual filling volume

Figure 102: Selection window

of the syringe. If the shown filling volume seems not to correspond with the real filling
volume please carry out a reset of the respective dispense unit (see chapter 6.3.7.1.1 page 19).
Volume To set the dosing volume. The minimum dosing volume is 0.007 l, the
maximum the complete content of the used syringe. You can set the dosing volume by
moving the slider left and right, by entering the value, or by clicking to one of the
buttons

Continuous Dos. If set the dosing will last until the syringe is empty or the STOP
button (see page 19) is pressed.
Rate To set the dosing rate. The minimum dosing rate is 0.06 l/s, the maximum
dosing rate is 26.4 l/s. You can set the dosing rate by moving the slider left and right, by
entering the value or by selecting one of the pre-defined dosing rates:

Very Slow = 0.1 l/s

Slow = 0.5 l/s

Medium = 1.0 l/s

Fast = 2.0 l/s

Very Fast = 5.0 l/s

Figure 103: Device Control Dispense


Parameter

Needles up Moves the actual selected needle to the uppermost position (only with
connected E-MD).
Reverse dosing of the defined volume with the defined rate.
Dosing of the defined volume at the defined rate.
Syringe Shows the selected syringe type (see chapter 6.3.2.1.5 page 19)
Liquid Shows the selected test liquid (see chapter 6.3.2.1.5 page 19).

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ARCA-measurement Run Starts an automated dosing process to measure the


Advancing and Receding Contact Angle. Ensure that

Continuous Dosing is deactivated

before you start the ARCA-program, otherwise the complete content of the syringe will be
dosed and reverse dosed.
ARCA-measurement Edit/Load Opens the dialog Advancing/Receding Angle settings in
which you can set the parameters for automated measurement.
new ARCA settings creates a new ARCA-procedure.
save new ARCA stores the actual defined parameters
load new ARCA loads a stored procedure.
OK Takes the actual defined procedure as measuring procedure, and the
button Unload in the dialog Dispense Parameter will be activated. If you
close the dialog without the OK button (but with the ) no measuring

Figure 104: ARCA Advancing/Receding Angle settings

procedure will be created.


For the advancing (adv. angle) and the receding (rec. angle) contact angle you can define
the dosing volume and the dosing rate. The duration (time) is calculated automatically.
The delay time is the time of the break between dosing and re-dosing.
Symmetric settings, uses the same dosing volume and rate for the receding angle than
defined for the advancing angle

6.3.7.3.2 Electric Multiple Dosing unit (E-MD)


To control the E-MD you use two control dialogs, the selection window to select a needle
(together with the doing unit) and the dialog Needle-Position to set position of the
needle. After the selection of the needle (incl. The dosing unit), the E-MD moves the
needle to defined position. The default position for the needle tip is horizontally 0 and
vertically 50.
You can position the needle tip with the both sliders or by clicking on one of the four
icons S, T, W or X. Every click moves the needle position about 2. If the dialog NeedlePosition is active (blue headline) you can also move the needle with the cursor keys on the
Figure 105: Dialog Needle-Position

keyboard. The needle moves as long as you hold the cursor key pressed. It is not possible
to move in more than one direction, so pressing more than one cursor key has no
function.

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6.3.8 Liquid data base


The liquid database is a very helpful tool to obtain all the necessary parameters of the
liquid used for the measuring of the surface free energy of solids in the SE Calculation
Window.

Figure 106: Liquid database

You open the liquid database with the menu File New/Open Window. In the left part of
window, you select the liquid and in the right part you get the parameters depending
what method you have selected with the tab ruler.
There are not all parameters for all methods available.
To avoid an unintentionally destroy of the liquid database it is not possible to edit the
standard database liquids.mdb. Edit and add is only possible in the database
liquids_editable.mdb (see chapter 6.3.2.1.1 page 19).

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6.4 Measurement with the SCA-software


6.4.1 Toolbar
Acquaint yourself with the toolbar before you start the first measuring. Especially at very
fast absorbing processes and spreading contact angles it is often essential to use the
icons of the toolbar very quick.

8 9 10 11 12

Open a saved file (but no movies)

Store the data in the active window

Cut marked areas

Copy the marked area into the clipboard

Paste the content of the clipboard

13 14

15 16

17

18 19

20 21 22

6 Switch live image mode on and off


7

Snap the actual image as a still frame

Determination of the base line of a sessile drop

9 Determination of the drop shape


10 Calculation of the contact angle according to the defined method
11 Carry out the last three steps (8-10)
12 Switch to the manual calculation mode
13 Scaling of the image window
14 Calculation after Young-Laplace
15 Start and Stop of the dynamic tracking function
16 Start and Stop of the automatic base line detection
17 Erase all overlay lines
18 Opens the device control bar
19 Switch the software controlled devices to manual mode
20 Shows the Error.LOG-File (when started in Service mode)
21 Shows information about the SCA version and the used drivers
22 Online-Help (not yet implemented)

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6.4.2 Sessile Drop-Method


In this chapter, the measurement of equilibrium and dynamic contact angles of sessile
drops is described.
The sessile drop method is the standard method to measure contact angles. For that a
sessile drop is illuminated from one side with a diffuse light source and from the other
side the contour of the drop is observed. The SCA 20 can determine the contact angle
based on four different methods.

Circle (Height/width) fitting; fastest but most inaccurate

Tangent leaning; leans a tangent to the curve at the three phase point

Ellipse fitting; quick standard method

Young-Laplace fitting; slowest but most accurate

The most accurate results you get with the Young-Laplace fitting, so if you have time
enough use this method.
Figure 107: Context menu Drop

6.4.2.1 Static contact angles

Type

Do all the preparations described in chapter 6.1 Method independent procedures page
19 and the additional ones described in here.
Requirements First you must choose the basic drop form. With a right mouse click
youll get a context menu where you can choose one of the possible drop forms by click
with the left mouse key.
In the System register of the result-window, you can select the Drop Phase and the
Ambient Phase from the liquid database, the Solid Phase must be entered manually.
The knowledge of the density and the force of gravity are not necessary for the
determination of the contact angle. Under certain marginal conditions (great drops with

Figure 108: System dialog in result window

big contact angles), the surface tension can be calculated by means of the Young-Laplacemethod, if the density and gravity values are known.
Place sample on the stage Before placing a sample onto the stage lower the stage and
lift up the needle holder (with the MD by means of the quick movement knob), or tilt the
dosing bay or the E-MD. If you want to measure contact angles under air, place the
sample (solid surface) directly onto the sample stage. If you use the tilting base device,
you must fix the sample (for example with a tape).
Liquid dispensing If you use a manually syringe unit dispense a drop by turning the
micrometer screw. If you use the -recommended- electronic syringe units the liquid
dispensing can be adjust in the dialog Device control Dispense parameter (see chapter
6.3.7.3.1 page 19). First select the dispense unit with the dosing needle you want to use (No 1 -

4). Dose a drop with the desired size (volume). A small droplet will hang on the needle tip
a big drop will fall down to the sample due to his weight.
If the drop did not fall down to the sample move the sample stage carefully up (without
touching the needle) until the drop will set down to the sample. Now move the sample
stage down again until the substrate line is in the lower third of the drop window.

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Adjust the drop image The first step you have to do is to focus the
dosing needle. Move the dosing needle into the center of the visible
area by means of the fine adjustment screws of the MD or SD-D or by
means of the controls (i.e. cursor keys with activated dialog NeedlePosition) of the E-MD (see page 19). Zoom in the dosing needle by
turning the zoom of the lens). Focus the dosing needle by means of
the inner fine focus. Dose a liquid drop and place it onto the surface.
Adjust the magnification (turn the zoom of the lens) until the drop
has a minimum of 2/3 of the visible area.
If the reflection of the drop on the surface is not clear enough to
detect the base line you have to do additional adjustments:

tilt the lens

adjust the brightness

re-focus the drop with the fine focus

To get a very precise shape of the drop it is necessary to adjust a


maximum contrast in the image. Without the recognition of the drop

Figure 109: Good image of a sessile drop

shape the software cannot detect the contact angle. The look of the
drop is less important than the bright-dark difference in the so-called three phase
point!
Snap the image If you get a good drop then snap the image by means of the
camera icon. To reduce errors out of vibrations and wind effects all calculations should be
done with this still frame.
Determination of the base line The base line will be detected automatically in
most cases. If not readjust the tilt of the lens, adjust the brightness and re-focus the drop
with the fine focus. With contact angles about 90 or non-reflecting materials, you must
adjust the base line manually. For that deactivate the Detect substrate line automatically
function in the tabbed dialog Calculation Options in General Preferences (see page 19) or
click on the icon

. It is not necessary that the base line is absolute horizontal, because

the SCA 20 detects the base line by the gradient of the contour line of the drop.
To adjust the base line manually you must select it with left mouse click. Now you can
adjust the base line with four arrow keys on the keyboard. The keys
base line vertically up and down and the keys

and

and

move the

changes the gradient. A double

click sets the base horizontal. The base line must not be absolute horizontal.
Determination of the drop shape The drop shape will be detected by the
contrast (bright-dark difference) of the drop to his surrounding.
Calculation of the contact angle The contact angle will be calculated
according to the pre-set fitting (see Calculation Options page 19). The contact
angle can be calculated according to a not pre-set fitting with the menu
ProfileCompute Contact Angle using X.
With the icon
Figure 110: Compute Contact Angle using X

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the last three explained steps (

and

) were

carried out automatically one after the other.

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

Calculation of contact angle or surface tension The contact angle (of sessile
drops) or the surface tension (of pendant drops) will be calculated according to the
Young-Laplace equation.

To measure reproducible static contact angles you must work very conscientious. Influence parameters are

quality of the test liquid

preparation of the surface

time

dosing rate

temperature

drop size

volume

drop environment

density

evaporation

gravitation

adsorption and absorption

quality of the surface

partial soluble surfaces

To measure reproducible contact angles it is important to define and obey


standard conditions. The drop should be as small as possible. Small drops fit
most of all to a spheroid or elliptic shape.

6.4.2.2 Dynamic contact angle


Dynamic contact angles can be measured on different ways. Please test the absorbing or
spreading characteristics of your test liquids and samples in a pretest.
For fast absorbing or spreading liquids you can use the movie function of the software
(see chapter 6.3.5 page 19). Especially with the high-speed contact angle systems OCAH
200 and OCAH 230, you can detect very fast processes. The calculation and analysis will
be done after the movie is stored.
Slower processes can be measured with the dynamic tracking function

(see chapter

6.3.4 page19). For using this function, you must have an active result window to which the
results will be transferred automatically.
All data of a dynamic tracking measurement will be lost without an active
result window.
The sample preparation can be done in the same way like for static contact angles.
Choose the drop size so that the drop will just hanging on the needle tip. Move the
sample stage with the sample carefully up so the sample is not yet touching the hanging
drop. On reflecting samples, you will see the reflection of the drop. In the middle between
the reflection and the drop, you set the base line manually. With contact angles smaller
than 80 you can use the automatic base line detection

. With contact angles bigger

than 80, the automatic base line detection should be switched off. The automatic base
line detection takes some extra time during the calculation of the contact angle so if you
want to detect the contact angle as fast as possible switch it off and set the base line

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manually. Also, please note that every taken image where the software cannot detect the
base line automatically is lost as a result. If you use a slow dynamic tracking (1 frame per
10 second) and have activated the option Store autosnapshots in .ref file every taken
image will be stored, so you cannot loose a measuring point.
To save time during calculation and to reduce the risk of loosing measuring
points switch the automatic base line detection off when using the dynamic
tracking function.
Now you can add on (dispense) a small amount of liquid, so the drop get in contact with
the sample (normally it settle down then) or fall down. Immediately after or before you
click the icon to start the dynamic tracking function. If there is no more change in the
contact angle the dynamic process is ended. Similar you can test high viscose liquids to
their stable (equilibrium) contact angle.
Also the ARCA (Advancing and Receding Contact Angle)-function can be used to measure
dynamic contact angles (see chapter 6.3.7.3.1 page 19). If the drop volume is increased by
adding liquid to it, the interface will advance on the sample and you can measure the
advancing contact angle. If the drop volume is decreased by sucking off liquid, the
Figure 111: Menu
ARCA

interface will recede on the sample and you can measure the receding contact angle.

Change the drop type to

Needle in Sessile Drop because to dose/reverse-dose

liquid to the drop the needle must stay in the drop.

Set all necessary parameters for the ARCA function (see chapter 6.3.7.3.1 page 19).

Prepare the needle so that she has a contact angle of 90 to the test liquid. If this is
not the case, the drop shape will deform because the liquid will rise up or pushed off
the needle.

Position the needle near the drop surface.

Dose a droplet small that it just moistens the sample. Adjust the needle again, if she is
not in the middle of the drop.

Now you can start the ARCA- function and the dynamic tracking (or movie) to
measure the advancing and receding contact angle.

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6.4.3 Pendant Drop-Method


In this chapter, the measurement after the pendant drop method is described.
The Pendant Drop Method is the universal method to measure surface and interfacial
tensions. To measure the interfacial tension you can use a glass cell (cuvette). A drop of
the test liquid will be formed out at the lower end of the dosing needle. The surrounding
medium can be gaseous or liquid but the density of the surrounding liquid must be
smaller, otherwise you need special formed dosing needles (e.g. SNC 052/026). The shape
of the drop results in two forces. The gravitation elongates the drop and the surface
tension is endeavoring to hold the drop in spherical form to minimize the surface.
Characteristically for the equilibrium state is the curvature of drop shape. This force
equilibrium is mathematically exactly defined with the Young-Laplace equation. So if the
drop shape can be determined the surface or interfacial tension can be calculated.
Do all the preparations described in chapter 6.1 Method independent procedures page
19 and the additional described in here.
The detection of the drop shape by the software SCA 20 is the better the greater the drop
image is (the greater the drop the greater the influence of the gravitation to it). The
maximum image size is 768 x 576 square pixels with the OCA 20/30 (752 x 582 for the 1/2
camera of the OCA 15) and a pendant drop is thinner than high. Therefore, turn the video
camera about 90, so the image of the drop on screen will hang from the right to the left
or from the right to the left.
The measurement of the surface and interfacial tension by the drop shape will be done in
the software SCA 20/22. In the following, you will get a short introduction how to
measure surface and interfacial tension with the SCA 20/22.
Requirements First you must choose the basic drop form. With a right mouse click
youll get a context menu where you can choose one of the possible drop forms by click
with the left mouse key.
For the mathematical analysis of the drop shape the gravitation, which influence the
drop, must be calculated. Therefore, the knowledge of the density difference between the
drop phase and the surrounding medium is necessary. In the System register of the

Figure 112: Context menu Drop


Form

result-window, you must define the phase densities (the drop and the ambient). If the
selected media are in the liquid database, the density will be taken out there.
Furthermore, the absolute drop volume must be known. Therefore, a scaling of the window part is necessary.
Needle selection For the measurement of pendant drops you should use needles where
the drop will not form out too spherical. It is recommended to use needles as big as
possible (use the SNP needles like the SNP 165/119 Part no: 6 000 027).

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Liquid dispensing If you use a manually syringe unit dispense a drop by turning the
micrometer screw. If you use the -recommended- electronic syringe units the liquid
dispensing can be adjust in the dialog Device control Dispense parameter (see chapter
6.3.7.3.1 page 19). First select the dispense unit with the dosing needle you want to use (No 1 -

4). Dose a drop as big as possible. The best way to do is to dose with a very slow dosing
rate and

continuous dosing on.


Adjust the drop image The first step you have to do is to focus the dosing
needle. Move the dosing needle tip into the visible area so it by means of
the fine adjustment screws of the MD or SD-D or by means of the controls
(i.e. cursor keys with activated dialog Needle-Position) of the E-MD (see
page 19) into the visible area so that she is visible in about 10 20 % of the
whole image. Zoom in the dosing needle. Focus the dosing needle by
means of the inner fine focus. Dose a liquid drop so that it just not falls
down. Adjust the magnification until the drop has a minimum of 3/4 of the
visible area.
If the image of the drop is too bad for calculation, you have to do additional
adjustments:

Figure 113: Good image of a pendant drop

adjust the brightness

re-focus the drop with the fine focus


Snap the image If you get a good drop then snap the image by

means of the camera icon. To reduce errors out of vibrations and wind effects all
calculations should be done with this still frame.
Scaling of the image window To calibrate the absolute image size the
software needs a reference value. For this, the needle will be used. In the M-Info
register of the result-window, you type in the diameter in mm of the used dosing
needle (Ref. - Size [mm]). Set the upper (with turned camera the left or right)
boundary line near the end of the dosing needle (the needle must not be wetted
with liquid). The scaling of the image will be calculated automatically when the
calculation of the surface tension starts. By pressing the
Figure 114: M-Info dialog in the result window

icon you can calibrate

the image window manually.


Determination of the drop shape The drop shape will be detected out of
the contrast (bright-dark difference) of the drop image. The second boundary line defines
the area from which the drop will be taken. The easiest way to set this line (especially
with liquids that wets the needle) is, to set the line without a drop some millimeter (app.
20 pixel) below the end of the needle.
Calculation of surface tension The surface tension will be calculated according
to the Young-Laplace equation.
With the icon

the last three explained steps (

and

) were carried out

automatically one after the other.

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6.4.4 Lamella method


The lamella method developed from DataPhysics is a new way to determine the surface
tension of high-viscous materials, especially of polymer and metal melts or pressure sensitive
adhesives very fast and with much less effort than with the traditional methods, even at high
temperatures up to 400C.
0 < < 90

The traditional method with gravimetric tensiometers is mostly restricted to a temperature


range up to 100C. The pendant drop method is possible with suitable temperature
controlled devices, but the handling (dosing with heatable syringes and the cleaning) of highviscous materials (melts) is very problematically. In addition to this, the formation of gas
bubbles makes the dosing of drops with a defined volume very tricky or impossible. The new
developed lamella method avoids all this difficulties, because all components that could get

= 90

in contact with the material are easy to clean and the sample vessel is open so that no gas
inclusion can happen.
The lamella method is based on the balance of power between the surface tension and the
force of gravity, just as the pendant drop method. A liquid lamella will shape if we bring a
vertical test piece in contact with a liquid. Based on the Young-Laplace differential equation the
surface tension can be calculated if the contour of the lamella and the force of gravity is

90 < < 180

known.
Figure 115: Lamella at different

At a contact angle of 90, no lamella will shape with a cylindrical test piece (see opposite figure). contact angles
Therefore, a spherical test piece is used to produce the lamella.
The measurement of the surface tension by the lamella shape will be done in the soft-

Needle of test piece

ware SCA 20/23. In the following, you will get a short introduction how to measure surSphere on test piece

face tension with the SCA 20/23.


Sample

Filling of sample vessel First you have to fill the sample vessel. The vessel must be
filled right up (see Figure 116). The surface of the sample should wet the complete vessel
surface and must be as flat as possible. Lower the sample stage. If you use a thermal

Sample vessel

chamber (TEC 400, TPC 150 or TFC 100) open the cover, place the vessel in the middle of
the stage and close the cover.
Fix the test piece Connect the spherical test piece to a Luer-Lock adapter and fix it in the
needle holder (SD or MD). Adjust the needle holder (see chapter 5.2.2 Positioning of the

Figure 116: Filled sample vessel with spherical test


piece

dosing needle page 19) so that you see the sphere of the test piece in the life picture on
the software.
Adjust the image Move the test piece into the left part of the visible area. Adjust the
magnification by turning the zoom until the needle of the test piece is about 1/3 of
the visible area (see opposite figure). The left side of the test piece needle must be
minimum 30 pixels apart from the left border of the image window, and minimum
50 pixel of the needle part must be visible. Focus the test piece by means of the inner
fine focus. It is usually necessary to cover the upper right part of the illumination to
prevent too strong reflections on the flat wetted part of the lamella.

Figure 117: Reduced reflection on the right flat part of


the lamella

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Requirements First you must choose the basic drop form. With a right mouse click
youll get a context menu where you can select the lamella forms by click with the left
mouse key.
For the mathematical analysis of the lamella contour the force of gravity, which influence
the lamella, must be known. Likewise, the knowledge of the density of the sample and the
surrounding medium is necessary. In the System register of the result-window, you define
the phase density of the drop and the surrounding. If the selected media are in the liquid
database, the density will be taken out there.
Furthermore, the absolute size of the image must be known. Therefore, a scaling of the
Figure 118: Context menu Drop Form

window part is necessary.


Snap the image If you get a good lamella then snap the image. To reduce
errors out of vibrations and wind effects all calculations should be done with this still
frame.
Scaling the absolute size To calibrate the absolute image size
the software needs a reference value. For this, the test piece will be
used. In the M-Info register of the result-window you type in the diameter in mm of the used test piece (Ref. - Size [mm]). You have to adjust
the both upper horizontal boundary lines manually to define the needle
part of the test piece. The both lines must have a distance of min. 50
pixels. The scaling of the image will be calculated automatically when
the calculation of the surface tension starts.
Adjust the lamella size You have to adjust the lower horizontal line
manually to define the upper border of the lamella. With the vertical

Figure 119: Good lamella with border lines

line you define the right border of the lamella.


Determination of the lamella shape The lamella shape will be
detected out of the contrast (bright-dark difference) of the image.
Calculation of surface tension The surface tension will be calculated according
to the Young-Laplace equation.

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6.4.5 Manual Mode


To activate the manual mode, you have to click on the button, which is next on the right
side of the calculation button:

The following new menu bar is activated then:

Icon 1 to 3 is to define the type of base line, 4 to 6 to define the shape of the drop. Icon 7
starts the contact angle calculation.
Straight base line (Button 1):
To set a straight base line, defined by two points in the drop image window.
Points are defined with a mouse click in the drop image window. If more than two points
are defined, a linear regression line is calculated.
To remove a single point press the SHIFT-KEY ( ) and click on the point, to remove all
points press the STRG-KEY and click on one point
Circular shaped base line (Button 2):
To set a circular shaped base line, defined by three points at least.
Points are defined with a mouse click in the drop image window. If more than three
points are defined, a best fit is calculated.
To remove a point press the SHIFT KEY ( ) and click on the point, to remove all points
press the STRG KEY and click on one point.
Ellipse shaped base line (Button 3):
To set an ellipse shaped base line, defined by five points at least.
Points are defined with a mouse click in the drop image window. If more than five points
are defined, a best fit is calculated.
To remove a point press the SHIFT-KEY ( ) and click on the point, to remove all points
press the STRG-KEY and click on one point

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Straight line as tangent (Button 4):


To select a straight line as tangent, defined by two points in the drop image window.
Points are defined with a mouse click in the drop image window. If more than two points
are defined, a linear regression line is calculated.
To remove a point press the SHIFT-KEY ( ) and click on the point, to remove all points
press the STRG-KEY and click on one point
Circular shaped contour (Button 5):
To select a circular shaped contour of the liquid drop, defined by three points at least.
Points are defined with a mouse click in the drop image window. If more than three
points are defined, a best fit is calculated.
To remove a point press the SHIFT-KEY ( ) and click on the point, to remove all points
press the STRG-KEY and click on one point
Ellipse contour (Button 6):
To select an ellipsoid contour of the liquid drop, defined by five points at least. If more
than five points are defined, a best fit is calculated.
To remove a point press the SHIFT-KEY ( ) and click on the point, to remove all points
press the STRG-KEY and click on one point
Calculate (Button 7):
To calculates the contact angle. Click on the button, it is shown as pressed then. Next click
on the drop image, in the area, where the liquid is present. This will give you the
calculated contact angle, which is displayed in the upper left corner of the drop image
window.

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OCA

6.5 Analysis
6.5.1 Calculation of surface free energy
The calculation of the surface free energy of solids
will be done in the SE Calculation Window. You open
a new one with the menu File New/Open
Window. The look of the Window depends on the
selected calculation method. You can select one of
the following methods in the menu Method. The
given applications and examples are meant as a
rule. A more detailed investigation of the
applicability for the analyzed system might be
necessary.

Figure 120: Example of SE-Calculation window


Table 2: Application examples for different analysis methods

Method

Information

Min. No. of

Application

Examples

Fluids
Zisman

critical surface tension

non-polar solids

PE, PTFE, waxes

Fowkes

Disperse parts of surface energy

non-polar systems

PE, PTFE, waxes

OWRK (Owens-

disperse and polar parts of

universal

polymers, aluminum,

Wendt-Rabel and

surface free energy

coatings, varnishes

Kaelble)
Extended Fowkes

disperse, polar and hydrogen

parts of surface free energy


Wu (Harmonic

disperse and polar parts of

Mean)

surface free energy

specific questions of

plasma or corona treated

surface properties

polymers

2, at least one low energetic


polar fluid

systems

organic solutions,
polymers, organic
pigments

Acid-Base Theory

disperse, acid and base parts of

surface free energy


Equation of State

specific questions of

biological system

surface properties

surface free energy

universal

polymers, aluminum,

Schultz 1 (Polar

disperse and polar parts of

high energetic

metal, glass

Drop Phase)

surface free energy

Schultz 2 (Polar

disperse and polar parts of

Bulk Phase)

surface free energy

theory

coatings, varnishes
system
2

high energetic

polymers, aluminum,

system

coatings, varnishes

With the Browse... button you can select the liquid database.
Select the liquid you measured the contact angle in the combo-box Liquid or type in the
parameters of the surface tension and their components (if not found in the liquid database). Now you must enter the measured contact angle manually or transfer it form the

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result window (a right-mouse-click opens the context menu where you click on Transfer
Result to Active SE-Window). If more than one result is marked, the geometric mean is
calculated and transferred to the SE-Window. By manual input, it can happen that a
message box appears Please enter more than 5 characters. This message has no
influence to the calculation it came from missing values in the liquid database. Confirm
the message with OK and check if the entered value is ok.
The choice of liquids depends on the selected analysis method. Only if all the
necessary parameters for the analysis method are available the liquid is
available in the combo-box Liquid. In addition, these liquids only can be
transferred with all necessary parameters from the result-window.
With the + button you add the liquid with his SFT (and its components) and the contact angle to the liquid list. If you have entered enough liquids (see table above) you
can calculate the surface free energy (and its components) by a click on the Calculatebutton. The calculate button is set inactive if any of the necessary data is missing.
After the calculation is ready, you get the surface free energy and a corresponding
graph.

6.5.2 Dispersion and polar force contribution of SFT


Out of the surface or interfacial tension, the dispersion and polar force contribution of
the surface tension according to Owens-Wendt can be calculated. For this the surface
tension of a pure dispersive liquid i.e. Hexane must be measured.
Do the measurements as described in chapter 6.4.3 Pendant Drop-Method page 19.
Open a new SFT Analysis in the menu New/Open Window and enter the measuring
results.
Dispersive Liquid Select the pure dispersive liquid used for measurement of the
interfacial tension. You must enter the surface tension if the selected liquid is not in
the database.
Liquid to Analyze Enter the name of the examined liquid (or search it with Browse in
the liquid database.
SFT (total) Enter the result of the surface tension measurement, directly out of the
Result Window (a right-mouse-click opens the context menu where you click on
Figure 121: SFT-Window

Transfer Result to Active SF-Window) or entered manually.


IFT versus disp. Liquid Enter the result of the interfacial tension measurement,
directly out of the result window (a right-mouse-click opens the context menu where you
click on Transfer Result to Active SF-Window) or manually.
Select for Select if you want to use the SFT or IFT
Calculate A click to the button Calculate starts the analysis of the dispersion and polar
force contribution of the surface tension according to Owens-Wendt.

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6.5.3 Statistics Window


In the statistics window, measurement results can be analyzed according to
statistic methods. You can calculate the mean value of a series and the
distribution according to the Gaussian law of error distribution. The statistics
can be used with the results or the Contact Angle, Surface Tension) and the
Calculation Error.

Figure 122: Statistics-Window

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7 Alternative and supplementary units


7.1 YZ-sample stage of OCA 30 and OCAH 230
Every OCA 30 and OCAH 230 has a motorized and software controllable YZ-stage

mounted. For upgrade an OCA 20 or OCAH 200 with a motorized and software
controllable YZ-stage please turns to the service departments of our representations or to
us directly at DataPhysics Instruments GmbH.

7.1.1 General
The motorized YZ-stage has two movable axes. The Y-axis is horizontally right-angled to
the optical axis (X-axis). The Z-axis is vertically right-angled to the optical axis.
The Y-axis exists in two designs, the standard one with a maximum travel of 100 mm and
the Long-Version with a maximum travel of 150 mm.
The Z-axis has a maximum travel of 50 mm.
The following vertical positions were defined in the software preferences:

Y
Figure 123: motorized YZ-stage

Ground Level Normally the vertical position of the stage after the reference run.

Focus Level Measuring position.

Working Level Vertical position to pick-up the drop from the needle.

7.1.2 Software control


If an additional electronic wafer table is installed the motorized YZ-stage will appear as
wafer table everywhere in the software. The difference in the software dialogs will be
explained later in chapter

7.1.2.1 Preferences
Before you start the first measurement, you should enter the
preferences. In the menu Edit> Preferences>device settings...
you will find the tree YZ-table with the register YZ-Table
Settings, DIP-Mode and Coordinate System.
In the register

YZ-Table Settings, you can set:

Perform reference run at program start Carry out a


Reference Run every time the software starts.
Figure 124: General settings - YZ-Table Settings

Length unit Defines the length unit in mm or inch.

Moving mode The stage can be moved in two different ways.

With

the stage will first move vertically to the ground

position (Ground level) before it moves to the new horizontal position and then to the
vertical position it had before.

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With

the stage will move directly to the new

horizontal position.

The Moving Mode is only active in the Y-Step- mode (see page 19).
Never use the L-movement mode if the risk of collision of the needle with
the sample exists!

Y Key-Velocity Here you can set how fast the motorized YZ-stage will move horizontally
(Y-direction). You can change the velocity with the slider or by entering a value.
Z Key-Velocity Here you can set how fast the motorized YZ-stage will move vertically
(Y-direction). You can change the velocity with the slider or by entering a value.
If you use the cursor keys to control the position, the stage always move with
its maximum velocity!
In the register DIP-mode you can set the parameters to pick-up the drop from the needle
automatically by moving the stage up and down again.
Enable DIP-Mode, Activates the DIP-Mode.
Z-velocity To set the speed [mm/sec] for the stage movement
in vertical direction while it picks-up the drop. You can change
the velocity with the slider or by entering a value.
Dip-time Time, which the stage will pause at the Working
level to give the drop enough time to settle down on the
sample.
E-MD needle up Moves the needle completely up after the
drop is picked up (Note: Only with a connected E-MD).
Figure 125: General settings DIP-mode

In the register Coordinate System, you can set the coordinate


system for the motorized YZ-stage. You can choose between an absolute or relative
coordinate system.
In the absolute coordinate system the position zero is in the
middle of both axis.
In the relative coordinate system, you must define the position
zero. You can change the value of the position zero with the
slider or by entering a value. The zero position is shown as two
blue lines in the diagram.
Default Set the position zero of both axes back to the default
value middle of the axis.
center Y Set the position zero of the Y-axis to the middle of the
axis.

Figure 126: General settings Coordinate System

center Z Set the position zero of the Z-axis to the middle of


axis.
Apply Accept the defined position as Zero position.

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7.1.2.2 Operation
Before you control the position of the motorized YZ-stage the first time, it is
recommended to start the Reference Run. Open the Device Control window and select
the register

. Click on the icon

to start the reference run.

Please ensure that the device can move without any risk of contusion or
collision before you start a reference run!

Select the register


Figure 127: Device Control

and click to the icon

to open the dialog YZ-

table for the control of the motorized YZ-stage.


Y-Position Shows the actual Y-position of the motorized YZ-stage. You can change the
value of the Y-position with the slider or by entering a value. The stage does
not move immediately, but only when you click to the button Apply.
Y-Step You can define a step size for the Y-movement of the stage by
entering a value or with the buttons

. With a click to the button W the stage

move one step to the left wit a click to the button X one step to the right.
Depending on the Moving mode you had pre-defined in Preferences the stage
moves directly to the new Y-position (L-movement mode), or the stage first
move vertically to the ground position (Ground level) before it moves to the
new horizontal position and then back to the vertical position it had before

Figure 128: Control dialog of YZ-table

(U-movement mode).
Z-Position The actual Z-position of the motorized YZ-stage. You can change
the value of the Z-position with the slider or by entering a value. The stage does not move
immediately, but only when you click to the button Apply.
Z-Level You can define the following vertical positions:

Ground Normally the vertical position of the stage after the reference run (i.e. used
by the U-movement mode).

Focus Vertical measuring position.

Working Vertical position to pick-up the drop from the needle.

You can enter the values for the three Z-Levels or you can move the stage to the desired
vertical position and click the button accept Z-pos. to store this position as one of the new
Z-Level.
Normally you should not set the Focus and /or GroundLevel higher than the Working-Level!
If the dialog YZ-table is active (blue headline) you can also move the stage directly with
the cursor keys on the keyboard. The stage moves as long as you hold a cursor key
pressed. It is not possible to move in more than one direction, so pressing more than one
cursor key has no function.

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7.1.3 Automation
With the motorized YZ-stage, the electronic syringe units ES and the (optional)
electronic multiple dosing system E-MD you can automate series measurements.
You can create a new automation program in the menu File New/Open Window
new DCP file (Device Control Program). Then depending on the connected devices, you
can select one of the four measuring methods.
The following measuring methods are available (depending on the used devices):

standard measurement (YZ) Usable with a motorized YZ-stage and electronic syringe
units ES

YZ measurement series Usable with a motorized YZ-stage and electronic syringe


units ES

multimeasurement Usable with a motorized YZ-stage, electronic syringe units ES

Figure 129: Setup of a new automation program

and an electronic multiple dosing system E-MD

multimeasurement series Usable with a motorized YZ-stage, electronic syringe units


ES and an electronic multiple dosing system E-MD

7.1.3.1 Settings
Before you can measure automatically, you must create an automation program. In this
automation program, you must pre-define all parameter like the selection of syringe
modules, the dosing, the needle positioning and the travel of the motorized YZ-stage. You
can select one of the four automation methods:
standard measurement (YZ) Single measurement to measure the contact
angle at exactly one position of the sample with one test liquid.

YZ measurement series Multiple measuring points on different positions


of the sample with one test liquid.

multimeasurement Single measuring point with multiple test liquids on


the sample . This is a helpful method to measure the surface free energy
of a sample.
multimeasurement series Multiple measuring points on different
positions of the sample with multiple test liquids. Helpful method for the
statistical covering of the result, to inspect the homogeneity of the
surface and for measurements after DIN EN 828 (adding liquid to the
same drop and measure again).
Figure 130: Selection of automation method

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7.1.3.1.1 Standard measurement (YZ)


After the selection of the automation method the following tabbed
dialog DC Program # (where # is the number of the actual opened
program) comes up:
The tree standard measurement (YZ) contains six subdirectories,
which can be selected by the tabs on the right part of the dialog or
by select the subdirectory itself.
If you have entered all settings explained below, you can store them
with a click to the button OK. Enter a file name for the automation
Figure 131: Tabbed dialog DC Program1 for the standard measurement (YZ)

program; the file extension will be .dhl by default.


Execute DCP starts the automation program.

set title string, you can enter a title for this automation program.

In the register

In the register

set Z-Level, you can set the control parameter for the vertical axis.

copy current device settings A click on this button copies the values defined in the
device control dialog (see dialog YZ-table page 19).
Use host device parameter Uses the actual Z-Level values, defined in the dialog device
control of the YZ-stage, when starting the automation program. If you change the values
for the Z-Level in the dialog device control of the YZ-stage the new values where used for
the next automation program. If activated ( ) the other controls in this dialog will be
deactivated (grey).
Figure 132: Register tab Set Z-Level

working, focus and ground You can set the three Z-Level of the vertical axis (Change the
values of the Z-Level position with the slider or by entering a value). A click to one of the
copies the value of the actual position of the Z-axis to

three buttons
corresponding Z-Level.

Working level is upper boundary Defines the value of the Working Level as the upper
limit of the travel. With that, the travel range is limited (i.e. to avoid damaging the
needles)

In the register

disp. unit param you can set the control parameter for the dispense

unit.
copy current device settings A click on this button copies the values defined in the
dialog device control Dispense parameter (see chapter 6.3.7.3.1 Dispense parameter page 19).
Use host device parameter Uses the actual control parameter of the active dispense
unit in the dialog device control Dispense parameter. If activated ( ) the other controls in
this dialog will be deactivated (grey).
Click on one of this syringe-icons to select the dispense unit you want to use.
Figure 133: Register tab dispense unit
parameter

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You will find as much syringe icons as you had electronic syringe units ES installed, all
signed with their number (1 6).
DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

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Volume [l] To set the dosing volume. The minimum dosing volume is 0.007 l, the
maximum the complete content of the used syringe. You can set the dosing volume by
moving the slider left and right, by entering the value, or by clicking to one of the buttons
.
Rate [l/s] To set the dosing rate. The minimum dosing rate is 0.06 l/s, the maximum
dosing rate is 26.4 l/s. You can set the dosing rate by moving the slider left and right, by
entering the value, or by clicking to one of the buttons
Forward

or reverse

In the register

Defines the dosing direction.

timing you can set delay times.

working delay Time which the stage will pause at the Working level to give the drop
enough time to settle down on the sample. You can set the working delay by moving the
slider left and right, by entering the value, or by clicking to one of the buttons

focus delay Time which the program will pause when reached the Focus level before the
measurement starts. You can set the focus delay by moving the slider left and right, by
entering the value, or by clicking to one of the buttons
no working delay and

In the register

Figure 134: Register tab Timing

no focus delay The program runs without any delay.

E-MD param. you can set the control parameter for the E-MD.

copy current device settings A click on this button copies the values defined in the
dialog device control Needle-Position (see chapter 6.3.7.3.2 Electric Multiple Dosing unit (E-MD) page
19).

Use host device parameter Uses the actual control parameter of the active needle in
the dialog device control Needle-Position device. If activated ( ) the other controls in this
dialog will be deactivated (grey).
dosing pos. To set the horizontal and vertical position of the needle during dosing the
liquid. You can set the horizontal and vertical position by moving the slider, by entering
the value, or by clicking to one of the buttons

Figure 135: Register tab E-MD parameter

post dosing pos. To set the horizontal and vertical position of the needle after dosing
the liquid. You can set the horizontal and vertical position by moving the slider, by
entering the value, or by clicking to one of the buttons

link horizontal positions To set the horizontal position after the dosing equal the
position during the dosing. If activated ( ) the control for the horizontal position after
the dosing in this dialog will be deactivated (grey).

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In the register

Load configure File you can load a stored configuration file which

contains all parameter of the automation program.

To edit a stored automation program open the file in the menu File open, change the
Figure 136: Register tab Load configure file

desired parameters and store it again.

7.1.3.1.2 YZ Measurement Series


The automation program YZ measurement series is for measure multiple measuring
points on different positions of the sample with one test liquid. This automation program
has one additional register tab, the Y-Series parameter tab.
In the register

Y-Series parameter you can set the horizontal positions of the

measuring points by defining the number of points and the start and end position. The
measuring points will be set in equal distances between the start and end position.
Start position Horizontal position of the first measuring point. You can set the Start
position by entering the value, or by clicking to one of the buttons

End position Horizontal position of the last measuring point. You can set the End
position by entering the value, or by clicking to one of the buttons

use current Y-Pos. A click on this button sets the value of the actual horizontal of the
Figure 137: Register tab Y-Series
Parameter

motorized YZ-stage as Start position or End position.


Number of break points Sets the total number of measuring points including the first
and the last.

7.1.3.1.3 Multimeasurement
The automation program multimeasurement is for measure a
single measuring point with multiple test liquids. This is a helpful
method to measure the surface free energy of a sample. This
automation program has one additional register tab, the multi.
parameter tab. Depending on the number of drops defined you will
see additional trees run01, run02 in the left part of the tabbed
dialog. In this trees, the dispense, timing and E-MD parameters will
be defined.
In the register

multi. Parameter, you can define the number of

drops and their arrangement.


number of measurements Sets the total number of measurements.
You can set the number of measurements by entering the value, or
Figure 138: Tabbed dialog DC Program1 for the multimeasurement

by clicking to one of the buttons

. For every measurement a n

additional tree run## will appear in the left part of the tabbed
dialog (i.e. for three measurements three trees will be added, run01, run02 and run03).

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drop distance Defines the horizontal distance between two neighboring drops. You can
set the distance by moving the slider, by entering the value, or by clicking to one of the
buttons

Drop arrangement Defines the arrangement of the drop positioning.

Center Set the drops so that they are centered around the actual Y-position of the

stage (zero position). With an uneven number of points, for example 3 drops the second
drop will be set to the zero position the first drop will be set to the left, the third drop to
the right. With an even number of points, for example 4 drops the zero position lays
between drop 2 and 3.

Left Set the first drop to the zero position and every additional one to the right,

because the stage moves to the left.

Right Set the first drop to the zero position and every additional one to the left,

because the stage moves to the right.

7.1.3.1.4 Multimeasurement Series


The automation program multimeasurement series measures multiple measuring points
on different positions with multiple test liquids. Helpful method for the statistical
covering of the result, to inspect the homogeneity of the surface and for measurements
after DIN EN 828 (adding liquid to the same drop and measure again).
This automation program has one additional register tab, the Y-Series parameter. There
the number of breakpoints (zero positions for the dosing of different drops) and their
positions will be defined.

Figure 139: Register tab Y-Series


Parameter

7.1.3.2 Automatic Measurement


For an automatic measurement you must define or load an automation program (see
chapter 7.1.3.1). After that you start the measurement directly with a click on the button
Execute DCP. You can also start the automatic measurement in the menu Edit
Automation Items execute DCP file.

Figure 140: Menu Automation Items

Here you can find two other menu items.


Add Automation Items To add a stored automation program to the dialog Device
Control Automation.
Delete /Rename Automation Item To delete or rename an Item in the dialog Device
Control Automation.
After adding the program, it will appear in the dialog Device Control. You can start the
program directly with a click to the new icon.
The STOP button aborts the program immediately. It is only active while the program
is running (the STOP sign is red and the toothed wheel is turning).
Figure 141: Dialog Device control - Automation

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7.2 Tilting base devices


7.2.1 Installation
7.2.1.1 TBA 60M
Manual Tilting Base Assembly 60 Used to measure advancing and receding contact
angles, as well as the contact angle hysteresis of a sessile drop.
Features of the TBA 60M:

Size of the sample stage: 100 x 100 mm

Weight: 0.9 kg

Tilting range: 060; 0.1


Installation If any other sample stage adapter is already installed, take it apart from
the sample stage. Position the TBA 60 over the sample stage with the hand wheel to
the front. Guide the two pins on the bottom of the TBA 60 into the two corresponding

holes of the sample stage. Fix the TBA 60M with the two knurled nuts.
Operation Move up the dosing needle by means of the quick movement knob on the
needle holder of the MD or SD-D or by means of the controls (e.g. cursor keys with
activated dialog Needle-Position) of the E-MD (see page 19). Move down the stage.

Place the sample onto the tilting plate and fix it (e.g. with an adhesive tape). Move up
the stage by means of the height adjustment knob B and down the needle. Adjust the
tilting angle according to the desired application with front wheel A. Now you can perform the measurement.

Figure 142: Attaching the TBA 60M

7.2.1.2 TBA 60E


Electronic tilting base assembly 60 Used to measure advancing and receding contact
angles, as well as the contact angle hysteresis of a sessile drop.
Features of the TBA 60E:

motor-driven and software controlled

size of the sample stage: 100 x 100 mm

weight: 1..3 kg

tilting range: 060; 0.1

Installation If any other sample stage adapter is already installed, take it apart from the
sample stage. Position the TBA 60E over the sample stage with the motor to the backside
of the OCA. Guide the two pins on the bottom of the TBA 60E into the two corresponding
holes of the sample stage. Fix the TBA 60E with the two knurled nuts. Connect the control
cable to the TBA 60E and to the socket No. 5 or 6 on the bottom of the illumination
housing.
Operation The TBA 60E is motor driven and software controlled. Move up the dosing
needle by means of the quick movement knob on the needle holder of the MD or SD-D or
by means of the controls (e.g. cursor keys with activated dialog Needle-Position) of the EMD (see page 19). Move down the stage. Place the sample onto the tilting plate and fix it
(e.g. with an adhesive tape). Move up the stage by means of the height adjustment knob
B and down the needle. Adjust the tilting angle according to the desired application with
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front wheel A. Adjust the tilting angle according to the desired application. Now you can
perform the measurement.

7.2.1.3 TBU 90E


For mounting the contact angle measuring instruments of the OCA series.
The unit allows the motor-driven and software controlled inclination of the
instrument up to an angle of 90. To measure advancing and receding contact
angles as well as the roll-off angle of sessile drops.
In combination with the SCA 20 software (from version 2.0):

Automatic base line detection

Tilt angle and advancing & receding contact angle recording (CA = 0...180)

The TBU 90E is fixed with two safety plates to prevent damage by transport

Figure 143: TBU 90E

shocks.
The safety plates must not taken off until the OCA is mounted onto the
TBU 90E and is standing on the place where it should stay.
If the TBU 90E is not delivered together with the OCA you must carry out the following
preparations:
Preparations on the OCA (if not already prepared!)

Take off all electronic syringe modules ES and the multiple dosing unit MD or E-MD/4
from the OCA.

Lay the OCA carefully to the backside (not onto the hand wheel of the Y-axis) onto a
soft base! The OCA 30/230 must be laid to his front side, because the motor housing
juts out to the backside.

35
67

110

160

Set screws for

11

Set screws for

M5 threads

tenon block

67

110

M5 threads

tenon block

270

112

35

11

593

Figure 144: TBU 90 - Installation

Loosen the hexagon screws (Size 6) in the 4 feet of the OCA and move them to the
positions shown in the drawing beside.

Insert the four tenon blocks into the outer channels and move to the described
positions. Fix the four tenon blocks with the setscrews (Size 2). See to it that the M5
threads in the tenon blocks are positioned in the middle of the channels.

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Installation

Mount all electronic syringe modules ES and the multiple dosing unit MD or E-MD/4
to the OCA.

Put the complete OCA over the TBU 90E and lower it carefully.

Risk of contusion
Never bring any body parts between the movable parts of the unit!
Especially when inserting the OCA into the TBU 90E.

Figure 146: TBU 90E

Guide in the four feet of the OCA, as shown in the figure above. Fix the OCA on the
TBU 90E by means of the four knurled screws.

DC-IN 12V

Electrical connection

Lead the cable for connection to the socket DC-IN 12V on the OCA as shown in the
figure beside. The cable for connection to address 5 or 6 on the bottom of the
illumination housing will be connected later.

m
Fro

u
er s
pow
pp

To adress 5 or 6

The cable from the power supply leads into the only free socket on the bottom of
the TBU 90E motor housing.

ly

Connect the serial and video (BNC) cable from the PC to the OCA.

Switch on the OCA and start the software SCA 20 (must be Version 2.0 or higher).

Carry out a reference run at first (see chapter 7.2.2.2 page 19).

Figure 145: TBU 90E

7.2.2 Software control


The control of the TBA 60E and the TBU 90E in the software SCA 20 is nearly the same.

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7.2.2.1 Preferences
Before you start the first measurement, you should enter the preferences.
In the menu Edit> Preferences>device settings... you will find the tree
TBA60E or TBU 90E.
Perform reference run at program start Carry out a Reference Run
every time the software starts.
Use slow mode Only available for the TBU 90E (not for TBA 60E). The
movement of the TBU 90E will be carried out in a so called Micro step

Figure 147: Tilting base device - preferences

mode in which very slow movement is possible.

7.2.2.2 Operation
Before you control the angle of the motorized tilting base devices TBA 60E and TBU 90E
the first time it is recommended to start the Reference Run. Open the Device Control
. Click on the icon

window and select the register

to start the

reference run.

Please ensure that the device can move without any risk of contusion or
collision before you start a reference run!
Figure 148: Reference Run

Select the register

and click to the icon

to open the dialog

Tilting base device TBA60e/TBU90e for the control of the motorized tilting base devices.

7.2.2.2.1 Control dialog TBA 60E


Angle [] You can change the value of the Y-position with the slider or by entering a
value. The stage does not move immediately, but only when you click to the button
Apply/Start.
The STOP button aborts the actual action (movement) of every software-controlled
device immediately. It is only active while any process is running (the STOP sign is red and
the toothed wheel is turning).
Figure 149: Control dialog of TBA 60E

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7.2.2.2.2 Control dialog TBU 90E


Angle [] You can change the value of the Y-position with the slider or by entering a
value. The stage does not move immediately, but only when you click to the button
Apply/Start.
rel. Velocity You can change the velocity of the tilting base unit with the slider. The
velocity is set in percent of the maximum velocity and is depending if you had selected
to

Figure 150: Control dialog of TBU 90E

Use slow mode or not.

7.2.2.3 Automation with a tilting base device


You can create a new automation program in the menu File New/Open Window
new DCP file (Device Control Program). If a tilting base unit TBU 90E is connected to the
OCA you will find an additional automation program, namely rolling CA measurement.
The settings for the automation are the same as for the motorized YZ-Stage except the
additional register tab rolling CA.

Figure 151: Selection of automation method

In the register

rolling CA you can set the control parameter for the tilting base

device.
working angle [] To set the angle where the drop is dispensed
and set down to the sample. You can set the working angle by
moving the slider left and right, by entering the value, or by clicking
to one of the buttons

start angle [] To set the angle when measurement shall start. You
can set the start angle by moving the slider left and right, by
entering the value, or by clicking to one of the buttons

end angle [] To set the angle when measurement shall stop. You
can set the end angle by moving the slider left and right, by entering
the value, or by clicking to one of the buttons

working velocity [%] The velocity (in percent of the maximum


velocity) with which the tilting base device moves to his working
angle. You can set the working velocity by moving the slider left and
Figure 152: Register tab rolling CA

right, by entering the value, or by clicking to one of the buttons

The absolute velocity is depending on the used tilting base device


and if slow mode is activated or not.
measuring velocity [%] The velocity (in percent of the maximum
velocity) with which the tilting base device moves during the measurement. You can set
the measuring velocity by moving the slider left and right, by entering the value, or by
clicking to one of the buttons

. The absolute velocity is depending on the used tilting

base device and if slow mode is activated or not.


The slow mode is only available with a connected TBU 90E not with a TBA 60E.

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slow mode The slow mode can be activated fro both the working velocity and the
measuring velocity. If activated the movement of the TBU 90E will be carried out in a so
called Micro step mode, in which very slow movement is possible.
Stop if drop not visible or dropgauge fails Stops the Automation if the drop rolls out
of the field of view or is no longer measurable.
No start delay The measurement will start immediately after reaching the working
position. If activated ( ) the control start delay will be deactivated (grey).
start delay Time the automation program waits after the drop was dispensed. Usefully
to let the drop settle down.

7.3 Wafer table


7.3.1 Installation
7.3.1.1 WT 200M / 300M
Manual wafer stage Used to measure on 8-wafers (app. 200 mm diameter) or 12Wafer (app. 300 mm diameter)
Features of the WT 200M / 300M:

fastenings for wafers with Flat or Notch

size of the wafer stage: 200 / 300 mm

weight: 1.8 kg / 2.4 kg

revolving range: 0360; 0.1

Figure 153: Wafer table WT 200M

Installation If any other sample stage adapter is already installed, take it apart from the
sample stage. Position the WT over the sample stage with the hand wheel to the front.
Guide the two holes on the bottom of the WT over the two corresponding holes of the
sample stage. Fix the WT by means of the two fixing screws.
Install the attachment lens WTL onto the zoom lens (it adjusts the working distance).
Loosen the two hinges on each side of the dosing bay by means of the hex screws (see
chapter 4.1.2 Installation of the dosing bay and dosing units page 17) and adjust the position of the

dosing bay so that the hinges are congruent with the guiding mark.
Operation The WT is easy to use. Move up the dosing needle by means of quick movement knob on the needle holder. Move down the stage. Place the wafer onto the wafer
stage. Move up the stage and down the needle. Adjust the position on the wafer where
you want to measure. Now you can perform the measurement.

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7.3.1.2 WT 200E / 300E


A

Electronic wafer stage Used to measure on wafers with a diameter from 100 mm to
300 mm. The WT is motor driven and software controlled.
Features of the WT 200E / 300E:

Figure 154: Wafer table WT 200E

fastenings for wafers with Flat or Notch

Easily exchangeable wafer top plates with sizes of 100 to 300 mm

weight: 2.1 kg / 2.7 kg

revolving range: 0360; 0.1

Installation If any other sample stage adapter is already installed take it apart from the
sample stage. Position the WT over the sample stage with the motor to the back. Guide
the two holes on the bottom of the WT over the two corresponding holes of the sample
stage. Fix the WT by means of the two knurled nuts.
To change the wafer top plate opens the hex screw in the middle of the top plate. Take
the top plate apart, center the new top plate over the motor axis, and fix it with the hex
screw.
Install the attachment lens WTL onto the zoom lens (it adjusts the working distance).
Loosen the two hinges on each side of the dosing bay by means of the hex screws (see
chapter Installation of the dosing bay and dosing units page 17) and adjust the position
of the dosing bay so that the hinges are congruent with the guiding mark.
Connect the control cable to the socket No. 5 or 6 on the bottom of the illumination
housing.

7.3.2 Software control


7.3.2.1 Preferences
Before you start the first measurement, you should enter the
preferences. In the menu Edit> Preferences>device settings...
you will find the tree Wafer Table.
Angular velocity Here you can pre-define the angular velocity.
You can set the angular velocity by moving the slider left and
right.
Perform reference run at program start Carry out a
Reference Run every time the software starts.
Figure 155: Wafer Table Preferences

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With an OCA 30 or 230 (with a motorized YZ-stage) the preferences for the YZ-stage are
included into the controls of the wafer table and are named wafer table.

wafer table YZ-Settings you can set the parameters for the

In the register
motorized YZ-stage.

Length unit Defines the length unit in Meter or Inch.

radial key-Velocity Here you can set how fast the motorized YZ-stage will move
horizontally (Y-, or radial-direction). You can change the velocity with the slider.

Z key-Velocity Here you can set how fast the motorized YZ-stage will move vertically
(Y-direction). You can change the velocity with the slider.

Enable DIP-Mode Activates the DIP-Mode (pick-up the drop from the needle
automatically by moving the stage up and down again).

dip-time Time which the stage will pause at the Working level to give the drop enough
time to settle down on the sample.

dip velocity To set the speed [mm/sec] for the stage movement in vertical direction
while it picks-up the drop. You can change the velocity with the slider or by entering a
value.

E-MD needle up Moves the needle completely up after the drop is picked up (Note:
Only with a connected E-MD).
In the register

wafer metrics, you can set the wafer centre position. You can set the

radius of the wafer centre position by moving the slider left and right, by entering the
value, or by clicking to one of the buttons

. A click onto the button use actual position

will take over the value for the centre position from the actual position of the wafer stage.
Additionally the area, which is not accessible by the needle, is displayed.
Before you use a wafer table the first time it is necessary to set the correct table size in
the software.
A click on the

Figure 156: Wafer Table Preferences,


additional registers with an OCA
30/230

icon in the Device Control Bar opens the dialog Wafer table

maintenance.
In the dialog Wafer table maintenance, you must select the real diameter of the
mounted wafer top plate.

Figure 157: Wafer Table Maintenance

The following wafer top plates are available:

Diameter 100 mm (4); WTP 4

Diameter 150 mm (6); WTP 6

Diameter 200 mm (8); WTP 8

Diameter 300 mm (12); WTP 12

Diameter 125 mm (5)

Select the correct diameter of the wafer table before you use it or before you
carry out a reference run.
A wrong size can damage the wafer table and/or the OCA.

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7.3.2.2 Operation
The electronic wafer table is very easy revolving when you touch it while the OCA is
switched off. When changing the top plate it is also possible to de-adjust the position
control of the wafer table. So before you control the angle of the electronic wafer table
the first time, it is recommended to start the Reference Run. Open the Device Control
window and select the register

. Click on the icon

to start the

reference run.
If the wafer table is mounted on an OCA 30 or OCA 230 the reference run will
automatically also carry out a reference run for the Y-axis and the Z-axis.

Please ensure that the wafer table can move without any risk of contusion
or collision before you start a reference run (especially when mounted on
the motorized YZ-stage)!

Select the register

and click to the icon

to open the dialog

wafer table to control the wafer table.


You can change the angle of the Y-position with the dot on the circumference of the circle
or by entering a value. The wafer table does not turn immediately but only when you click
to the button Apply.
Figure 158: Wafer Table Positioning

The STOP button aborts the actual action (movement) of every software-controlled
device immediately. It is only active while any process is running (the STOP sign is red and
the toothed wheel is turning).
With an OCA 30 or 230 (with a motorized YZ-stage) the dialog for the wafer table is
included into the dialog of the YZ-stage and is named wafer table.

Angle To define the angle of the wafer table. You can change
the angle of the wafer with the dot on the circumference of the
circle or by entering a value. The wafer table does not turn
immediately but only when you click to the button Apply.

Y-Position Shows the actual Y-position of the motorized YZstage. You can change the value of the Y-position with the slider
or by entering a value. The stage does not move immediately, but
Figure 159: Wafer Table Positioning with an OCA 30/230

only when you click to the button Apply.

Y-Step You can define a step size for the Y-movement of the
stage by entering a value or with the buttons

. With a click to the button W the stage

move one step to the left wit a click to the button X one step to the right.

Z-Position The actual Z-position of the motorized YZ-stage. You can change the value of
the Z-position with the slider or by entering a value. The stage does not move
immediately but, only when you click to the button Apply.

Z-Level You can define the following vertical positions:


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Ground Normally the vertical position of the stage after the reference run.

Focus Vertical measuring position.

Working Vertical position to pick-up the drop from the needle.

You can enter the values for the three Z-Levels or you can move the stage to the desired
vertical position and click the button accept Z-pos. to store this position as one of the new
Z-Level.
A click to

opens the dialog wafer position editor.

The red dot

shows the actual position (where the needle is over the

wafer).
The green dot

shows the target position (where you want to move

to). You set the target position with a click on the virtual wafer, or by
entering the coordinate values. The target position cannot lay in the
inaccessible area (see register wafer metrics, page 19).

Coordinate sys. To change the coordinate system between POLAR


and CARTESIAN coordinates.

Figure 160: wafer position editor

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7.4 Temperature controlled devices


Dependent on the application you will need to control the temperature of your sample in
different temperature ranges. Therefore, different temperature-controlled devices are
available.
All temperature-controlled devices can be controlled manually and by software, except
the TFC 100. The temperature in the TFC 100 depends on the temperature of the

7.4.1 TFC 100


Liquid temperature controlled device For measurements below or above room
temperature, e.g. for measuring of temperature coefficients, as well as under protective
atmosphere. For use with a liquid circulator, e.g. the liquid cryostat F25 MV. The
temperature setting can be done only manually at the circulator.
Features of the TFC 100:

Thermal chamber with 3 windows made of special optical glass

Two resistance thermometers Pt 100 as measuring and control sensor

Cover plates for the optimization of the needle entry gap for varying problems

Temperature range: -10 100 C

Maximum sample size (L x W x H): 93 x 93 x 24 mm

Size of the unit (L x W x H): 125 x 111 x 63 mm

Weight: 0.6 kg

Installation If any other sample stage adapter is already installed, take it apart from the
sample stage. Tilt the dosing unit to prevent the needles from damaging. Put the distance
plate onto the sample stage and then the TFC 100 over the distance plate, so that the
Figure 161: Liquid temperature controlled
device TFC 100

liquid connectors show to the illumination. Guide the two pins on the bottom of the TFC
100 into the two corresponding holes of the distance plate. Plug the Pt 100 cable to the
corresponding sockets on the OCA. Connect the quick fitting couplings to a liquid
thermostat.

Operation Before you start with the measuring be sure that the desired temperature is
balanced. Tilt the dosing unit to prevent the needles from damaging. Move down the
stage. Now you can open the housing of the TFC 100. Place the sample into the housing.
Move up the stage and re-tilt back the dosing unit. Wait, until sample and needle has
reached the desired temperature. Now you can perform the measurement in the usual
Figure 162: TFC 100 Diffuser

way. If you measure below room temperature, the glasses could show condensation. To
prevent the glasses from condensation you can use a diffuser, connected to a nitrogen
source, instead of the distance plate.

Some accessible surfaces can become very hot. Therefore, please wait until
the system has cooled down sufficiently and the temperature allows you
to touch the system without danger, or use specific hand protectors.

page 98

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

7.4.2 SHD
Syringe heating device For measurements below or above room temperature, e.g. for
measuring of temperature coefficients, as well as under protective atmosphere. For use
with a liquid circulator, e.g. the liquid cryostat F25 MV. The temperature setting can be
done only manually at the circulator.
The SHD is designed to be used with the TFC 100 and one of the single direct dosing units
SD-D, SD-DM or SD-DE.
If you use it with a TEC 400 the PT 100 sensor must be taken out.
Features of the SHD:

Thermal chamber for mounting on an ES-D

Resistance thermometer Pt 100 as measuring sensor

Temperature range: -10 100 C

Installation Tilt the dosing unit and guide the pin on the back of the ES-D into the corresponding hole of the single direct dosing unit. Plug the Pt 100 cable to the corresponding
sockets on the OCA. Connect the quick fitting couplings to a liquid thermostat (if
necessary in a row with the TFC 100).

Operation Fill the syringe with the test liquid and mount the needle. Open the lid of the
SHD by means of the knurled screw and put in the syringe. Before you start with the
measuring be sure that the desired temperature is balanced. Tilt the dosing unit to
prevent the needles from damaging. Move down the stage. Now you can open the
housing of the TFC 100. Place the sample into the housing. Move up the stage and re-tilt
back the dosing unit. Wait until sample, syringe and needle have reached the desired

Figure 163: SHD

temperature. Now you can perform the measurement in the usual way.

Some accessible surfaces can become very hot. Therefore, please wait until
the system has cooled down sufficiently and the temperature allows you
to touch the system without danger, or use specific hand protectors.

OCA Manual

page 99

7.4.3 TPC 150


Inert gas connector

Peltier temperature control chamber For measurements below or above room


temperature, e.g. for measuring of temperature coefficients, as well as under

Pt 100 to OCA

protective atmosphere. Needs the temperature controller TC 150. The


temperature setting can be done manually or software controlled.
Features of the TPC 150:

Connectors for liquid circulator

Pt 100 to TC 150
Power connector to TC 150

Thermal chamber with 3 windows made of special optical glass

Connectors for water cooling of plate

Connector for inert gas

Two resistance thermometers Pt 100 as measuring and control sensor

Temperature range: -10 150 C

Maximum sample size (L x W x H): 94 x 94 x 24 mm

Size of the unit (L x W x H): 140 x 155 x 86 mm

Weight: 1.5 kg (without controller)

Figure 164: TPC 150 Peltier temperature control chamber

Installation If any other sample stage adapter is already installed, take


it apart from the sample stage. Tilt the dosing unit to prevent the
needles from damaging. Position the TPC 150 over the sample stage.
Guide the two holes in the bottom of the TPC 150 over the two
corresponding holes of the sample stage. Fix the TPC 150 by means of
the two knurled nuts. Plug the control-Pt 100 cable to the corresponding
socket on the TC 150. If you want to measure the temperature in the
Power LED

chamber, you need an additional Pt 100 connected to the OCA. Connect

Alarm LED

the connection cable to the corresponding socket on the TC 150 and the

Pt 100 Connector

cooling water to the plate. If you need, you can connect the inert gas

from TPC 150

onto the back of the TPC 150.

Operation Be sure that the water-cooling is on. The manual


Serial connector to OCA
Fuse for controller

temperature setting will be done directly on the temperature controller


TC 150. Below the display with the actual value and the setting value,
there are four buttons. The left button is out of function. The next both
buttons (

and

) are to define the set-value. If you press and release

quickly the set-value increase

or decrease

by one digit, if you

press it longer the change of the value becomes faster and faster. Before
you start with the measuring be sure, that the desired temperature is
balanced. Move up the dosing needle by means of quick movement
knob on the needle holder. Move down the stage. Now you can open the
Power connector

housing of the TPC 150. Place the sample into the housing. Move up the

with fuse

stage and down the needle into the housing. Wait until sample and

Connector from TPC 150

needle have reached the desired temperature. Now you can perform the
measurement in the usual way.

Figure 165: Front and rear view of temperature controller TC 150

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DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

If the red alarm LED gets on it indicates that the controller states an irregular condition

OUT1

OUT2

OUT3

OUT4

and is switching of the heating power. If you have eliminated the fault, you need to reset
the controller by switching off and on.

PV
MAN
AUX
REM

SV

At all temperatures, it is necessary that you use water-cooling to prevent


the peltier from destruction.
Some accessible surfaces can become very hot. Therefore, please wait until

Figure 166: Temperature controller

the system has cooled down sufficiently and the temperature allows you
to touch the system without danger, or use specific hand protectors.

A Peltier element works to the principle of a heat pump. The possible temperature
difference lay in the range of 40K to 80K. To reach the desired temperature it could be
necessary to adjust the temperature of the cooling liquid (see table below).
Table 3: Relation between temperature of cooling liquid and measuring temperature

Temperature of cooling liquid

Minimum temperature

Maximum temperature

20 C

- 20 C

110 C

70 C

15 C

150 C

It could take some minutes to reach a stable temperature, because the


controller has a continuous auto-tune function to set the optimum PID
parameters for the desired set-temperature.

OCA Manual

page 101

7.4.4 TEC 400


Inert gas connector

Electrical temperature control chamber For measurements below


or above room temperature, e.g. for measuring of temperature

Pt 100 to OCA

coefficients, as well as under protective atmosphere. Needs the


temperature controller TC 400. The temperature setting can be
done manually or software controlled.

Pt 100 to TC 150

Features of the TEC 400:

Thermal chamber with 3 windows made of special optical glass

Connectors for air cooling of plate and cover

Connectors for inert gas

Two resistance thermometers Pt 100 as measuring and control


sensor

Liquid cooling connectors

Power cord to TC 150

Cover plates for the optimization of the needle entry gap for
varying problems

Figure 167: TEC 400 Electrical temperature control chamber

Temperature range: 40 400 C

Maximum sample size (L x W x H): 94 x 94 x 24 mm

Size of the unit (L x W x H): 140 x 155 x 86 mm

Weight: 1.5 kg (without controller)

Installation If any other sample stage adapter is already installed, take it apart from the
sample stage. Tilt the dosing unit to prevent the needles from damaging. Position the TEC
400 over the sample stage. Guide the two holes in the bottom of the TEC 400 over the
two corresponding holes of the sample stage. Plug the control-Pt 100 cable to the corresponding sockets on the TC 400. If you want to measure the temperature in the chamber,
you need an additional Pt 100 connected to the OCA. Connect the connection cable to the
corresponding socket on the TC 400. Connect the cooling air (reduces the time needed to
cool down) to the plate and/or cover and the inert gas onto the back of the TEC 400.
Power LED
Alarm LED
Pt 100 connector

Figure 168: Front view of TC 400

Operation The manual temperature setting will be done directly on the temperature

temperature controller

controller TC 400. Below the display with the actual value and the setting value, there are
is for selecting the operation mode and

three silicone rubber buttons. The left button


Serial connector
Fuse for controller

to program and is normally out of function.


If a KS20 controller is build in the other both buttons (

and

) has a double function. If

you press and release quickly you select the digit of the setting value, if you press it longer
Power-connector,

or decrease

-selector and -fuse

the selected digit will increase

Connector from

the set temperature (if you press it longer the change of the set value becomes faster and

If a KS20i controller is build in the button


TEC 400

will increase and the button

will decrease

faster).
Before you start with the measuring be sure that the desired temperature is balanced. Tilt

Figure 169: rear view of TC 400


temperature controller

the dosing unit to prevent the needles from damaging. Move down the stage. Now you
can open the housing of the TEC 400. Place the sample into the housing. Move up the
stage and down the needle into the housing. Wait until sample and needle has reached
the desired temperature. Now you can perform the measurement in the usual way.

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DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

If the red alarm LED gets on it indicates that the controller states an irregular condition

A1

A2

PV

C F

and is switching of the heating power. If you have eliminated the fault, you need to reset
the controller by switching off and on.
SV

At temperatures higher than 200 C, it is highly recommended that you

OUT

use an air-cooling to prevent too high temperatures on the sample stage.


Some accessible surfaces can become very hot. Therefore, please wait until

Figure 170: Build in temperature

the system has cooled down sufficiently and the temperature allows you

controller KS 20 or KS 20i

to touch the system without danger, or use specific hand protectors.

7.4.5 HTFQ 1200


The installation and manual operation of the high temperature furnace HTFQ 1200 is
described in a separate manual.

7.4.6 Software-control
The software control of the temperature control devices TEC 400, NHD 400 an HTFQ 1200
is nearly identical. Therefore, in this manual only the control of the TC 400 is described.
Before you start the first measurement, you
should enter the preferences. In the menu Edit>

Preferences>device settings... you will find the


tree Temperature controller with the register

KS20 (PMA). If you had also the connected the TC


400/NHD (with the Y-cable) you will find two
registers. To decide which one is for the TEC 400
or the NHD 400 click to the button mark
controller, and the corresponding one will start to
blink the display.

Controlled device To select the name of the


controller.

Figure 171: Preferences for Temperature controller TC 400 and NHD 400 (KS20)

Idle Temp To set the idle temperature of the controller.


Temp. unit To select the unit (C = degree Celsius, F = degree Fahrenheit or K = Kelvin)
for all software controls.

Disp. Unit To select the unit (C = degree Celsius or F = degree Fahrenheit) for the
controller display.

Figure 172: Preferences for NHD 400 (KS20)

OCA Manual

page 103

To control the temperature-controlled units by software you must build a TC-control


program (see Figure 173). Open the edit control with Edit TC-Program...

new Program To define a new temperature control program.

T=const. To enter a constant temperature for the controller.

ramp To enter a temperature ramp for the controller.

save Program Stores the actual TC-program.

load program Load a stored TC-program.

Temperature unit To select the temperature unit (C = degree Celsius, F = degree

Fahrenheit or K = Kelvin).
Figure 173: Dialog Edit TC-Program

A click to new Program enlarges the dialog and shows a graph for the TC program (in the
middle) and (on the right side) the controls.

Insert new ramp To define a new control segment


(Ramp) behind the actual displayed (light blue) segment.
You can define the new segment by entering the Start

Temperature, the End Temperature and the ramp time?.


The start temperature is only necessary for the first
segment.

actual ramp List box to select the segment, which you


want to edit.
You can enter segments as many as you like. For any
further segment only the End Temperature and the ramp
Figure 174: Edit New Program

time? must be entered.


Delete ramp Deletes a segment.
Temperature Shows the start temperature of the actual segment.
Gradient [K/min] To show or edit the temperature gradient in Kelvin

Figure 175: Controls for defining a new segment

per minute. It will be calculated out of ramp time and the temperature difference. If you
enter a value the ramp time remain the same, and the temperature will be calculated out
of the gradient and the ramp time.

Ramp time To show or edit the time or a condition for the actual segment.
means that the new segment (ramp) will not start until the actual temperature
is inside the range of the start temperature. The range for this condition is entered in the
edit box below

means that this setting will stay until abort.

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DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

Figure 176: Device control

Figure 178: Examples for a TC Program (with 3 and 4 segments)

After creation of a TC Program you can open the dialog for the temperature controller in

Device Control.
In the upper control you can select a stored TC Program with a click to the button

Single step mode If selected the program stops at the end of every segment. To
continue the program you must click to Run again.

Run Starts the selected TC Program.


Stop Stop the running TC Program (only available if a program is running).
Reset Resets the running TC Program (Stop and restart).

Figure 177: Dialog TC-TEC400

const. Temperature To define a constant temperature. You can set the constant
temperature by moving the slider left and right, by entering the value, or by clicking to
one of the buttons

Figure 179: Dialog Determine


Temperature

OCA Manual

page 105

7.4.7 NHD 400


Electrical needle heating device For pendant and sessile drop measurements at
high temperatures (polymer and hot melts, molten metals etc.), dosing of highly
viscous liquids. The system is heating a small volume of liquid/melt that is contained

in a cannula and can be re-dosed as a droplet, hanging on the cannula or positioned

on a solid sample. Initial pick-up of the liquid amount from an aluminum sample
vessel with a liquid/melt reservoir.
Manually or software controlled temperature setting with PID controller
TC 400/NHD
Consisting of:

Temperature measuring and controlling sensor for the electrically heated cover

Cannula adapter in three parts

3 dosing cannulas made from stainless steel (outer diameter = 1.65 mm)

1 aluminum sample vessel

Figure 180: NHD

Heating carrier with fine adjustment screws for the axial and horizontal cannula
positioning

TC 400/NHD Temperature controller

Serial connection cable in Y-form for two controllers (NHD 400 and TEC 400).

Installation If any other dosing unit is already installed, take it apart from the OCA. To
install the NHD 400 dosing bay loosen the two nuts on each side by means of the hex
screws (wrench size 3) and place it over the guidance. Adjust the position of the dosing
bay so that the hinges are congruent with the base. Plug the sensor cable to the
corresponding socket on front of the TC 400/NHD. Connect the power connection cable
to the corresponding socket on the back of the TC 400/NHD. Connect the cooling air to
the NHD 400 cooling air connectors (C).
Power LED
Alarm LED
Pt 100 connector

Never use the NHD 400 without the air-cooling. Without cooling some
bearings and seals can be damaged.

Figure 181: TC400/NHD

Some accessible surfaces can become very hot. Therefore, please wait until
the system has cooled down sufficiently and the temperature allows you

Serial connector
Fuse for controller

Power-connector,
-selector and -fuse

to touch the system without danger, or use specific hand protectors.

Connect the serial connection cable to the OCA, to the TC 400/NHD and if available to the
TC 400. Move the heating device up using the fast adjusting screw (E). Put the cannula

Connector from

adapter (made of three parts) and the cannula into the heating device. Mount the piston

NHD 400

of the cannula into the movable dosing holder and fix it with the knurled screw (F).

Figure 182: Back of the TC400/NHD

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DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

Exchange of piston and cannula Open the fast adjustment screw (F) and move the

piston holder (pull and turn on knob A) in his highest position. Open the knurled screw (E)
of the piston holder and take the piston out.

If you want to take out the cannula, you must open the knurled nut (H). Take out the
cannula by pressing a tool (i.e. a small screwdriver) to the cannula from the bottom of the
heating carrier (D).

Manual operation The manual temperature setting will be done directly on the

temperature controller TC 400/NHD. Below the display with the actual value and the
setting value, there are three silicone rubber buttons. The left button
the operation mode and to program and is normally out of function.
If a KS20 controller is build in the other both buttons (

and

is for selecting

) has a double function. If

Figure 183: NHD 400

you press and release quickly you select the digit of the setting value, if you press it longer
the selected digit will increase

or decrease

If a KS20i controller is build in the button

A1

will increase and the button

A2

PV

C F

will decrease

the set temperature (if you press it longer the change of the set value becomes faster and
faster).

SV
OUT

If the red alarm LED gets on it indicates that the controller states an irregular condition
and is switching of the heating power. If you have eliminated the fault, you need to reset
the controller by switching off and on.

Figure 184: Build in temperature


controller KS 20 or KS 20i

Before you start with the measuring be sure that the desired temperature is balanced
in the TEC 400 and in the NHD 400.
Fill the aluminum sample vessel. The vessel must be filled right up. The surface of the

Cannula

Piston

sample should wet the complete vessel surface and must be as flat as possible. Put
the aluminum sample vessel with the sample into the TEC 400 chamber. Give the

Sample

sample enough time to melt. Bring the piston in the cannula down to its lowest
position using the dosing screw (A). Lower the NHD 400 by means of the fine

Aluminium

adjustment screw (B) down to the surface of your sample. Soak up the sample

sample vessel

moving the piston up by turning the dosing screw (A). Now you can dose a droplet
out the cannula for a pendant or a sessile drop measuring.

Figure 185: Filling of vessel

7.4.7.1 Software control


The software control of the temperature control device NHD 400 is nearly identical to the
TEC 400.
If you had also the connected the TEC 400 (with the Y-cable) you will find two registers.
To decide which one is for the TEC 400 or the NHD 400 click to the button mark
controller, and the corresponding one will start to blink the display.
Both controllers can be set independent of each other.

Figure 186: NHD 400 Device Control

OCA Manual

page 107

7.5 OCAH 200/230 high-speed measurement


7.5.1 Hardware Settings
The use and software settings of the OCAH-200/230 are the same than of the OCA-series.

Dip switches

Additional you must set one of the possible camera modes.


The high-speed camera has dipswitches on the rear side of the housing. In the following
table, you find the switch setting, aspect ratio and the name of the corresponding camera
format (DCF) file.
Figure 187: Location of the dip

Switch the OCA always off before you change the dipswitch setting of the

switches on the high-speed camera

high-speed camera!

Table 4: Switch settings, resolution, speed and used DCF file for the high-speed cameras

Double Speed Camera


Resolution

752 x 484 @ 60 fps

752 x 484 @ 30 fps

752 x 240 @ 120 fps

752 x 110 @ 240 fps

Aspect ratio

1.167

1.167

1.167

1.167

all OFF

5 ON, rest OFF

6 ON, rest OFF

4 ON, rest OFF

H2S752x484 60i.DCF

H2S750x484 30i.DCF

H2S752x240 120n.DCF

H2S752x110 240n.DCF

Switch settings
DCF-file

Triple Speed Camera


Resolution

752 x 484 @ 90 fps

752 x 240 @ 180 fps

752 x 110 @ 360 fps

Aspect ratio

1.167

1.167

1.167

all OFF

6 ON, rest OFF

4 ON, rest OFF

H2S752x484 90i.DCF

H2S752x240 180n.DCF

H2S752x110 360n.DCF

Switch settings
DCF-file

fps = frames per second

7.5.2 Software Settings


Select the corresponding DCF file after changing the dipswitches on the
camera. In the menu Edit > FG-Setup > Camera Format you can set the video
camera format (mode). Click on Browse and change to the directory:

program files\dataphysics\sca20\dcf\
In the subdirectories double or triple, you will find the necessary DCF files.
Before you start to measure must close and restart the software.

Figure 188: Dialog Frame grabber-Setup Setup Camera Format

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DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

7.6 Special devices


7.6.1 SD-D
Single direct dosing unit Used for dosing the test liquids without a dosing tube
(directly). On it a manual (MS) or electronic syringe unit ES can be adapted. For use with
the OCA devices without master electronics (OCA 5/10/15+) you can adapt the direct electronic syringe unit ES/2-D.
Features of the SD-D:

Easy installation on the dosing bay

Adjustable in Y- and Z-direction

Weight: 0.5 kg

Installation See chapter 4.1.2Installation of the dosing bay and dosing units page 17.

Figure 189: Single direct dosing unit SD-D


with electronic syringe unit ES

7.6.2 SD-DM
Single direct dosing unit New version of the SD-D. Used for dosing the test liquids
without a dosing tube (directly). On it a manual (MS) or electronic syringe unit ES can be
adapted. For use with the OCA devices without master electronics (OCA 5/10/15+) you can
adapt the direct electronic syringe unit ES/2-D.
Features of the SD-DM:

Easy installation on the dosing bay

Adjustable in Y- and Z-direction

Weight: 0.8 kg

A
B
C

The electronic syringe unit ES can be mounted on three different positions in the SD-DM:
Upper position (A) For use with the longer captive bubble needles SNC.
Figure 190: SD-DM

Middle position (B) For use with the standard needles SNS or SNP.
Lower position (C) For use with the shorter disposable needles SNP-D.

OCA Manual

page 109

7.6.3 SD-DE
Single direct dosing unit for use with an E-MD Used for dosing the test liquids without a
dosing tube (directly). On it a manual (MS) or electronic syringe unit ES can be adapted.
For use with the OCA devices without master electronics (OCA 5/10/15+) you can adapt
the direct electronic syringe unit ES/2-D.
Features of the SD-DE:

Easy installation onto the E-MD

Adjustable in Y- and Z-direction

Weight: 0.8 kg

Figure 191: SD-DE

7.6.4 LIA-MD
Liquid Injection unit Used for dosing liquids inside an existing drop to detect the
interfacial tension.
Features of the LIA-MD:

For two electronic syringe units ES-D

Easy installation onto the E-MD

Adjustable in Y- and Z-direction

Weight: 0.9 kg

7.6.5 Glass Cell (cuvette)


Figure 192: -Liquid injection unit LIA-MD

Glass cell Made of special optical glass for measuring the interfacial tension between
two fluids according to the Pendant and Captive (GC20) Drop method. For temperatures
up to 70 C, you can use the standard cells GC 10 and GC 20. For temperatures in the
range of 70 350 C you must use the special cells GC 10HT and GC 20HT made of
temperature inert glass.
Dimensions:
GC 10 and GC 10HT: 20 x 20 x 20 mm (Inner-L x W x H)
GC 20 and GC 20HT: 40 x 20 x 20 mm (Inner-L x W x H)

page 110

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

7.6.6 Special sample holder


7.6.6.1 SP 100
Suction plate For holding thin flexible samples flat against the stage surface with

adjustable suction area


Technical data:
Size of the sample stage: 100 x 100 mm

Installation If any other sample stage adapter is already installed, take it apart from the
Vacuum-connector
Adjustment screw

sample stage. Tilt the dosing unit to prevent the needles from damaging. Position the SP
100 over the sample stage. Guide the two pins on the bottom of the SP 100 into the two
corresponding holes of the sample stage.

Figure 193: Suction plate SP 100

Operation Place the sample onto the SP 100. With the adjustment screw, you can adjust
the size (size A, B or complete) of the suction area by turning the screw in or out.

7.6.6.2 FSC-80
Film sample clamp (Parallel clamping jaws) For fixing of flexible samples like films,
paper, leafs
Technical data:
Size: 100 x 80 mm

Installation If any other sample stage adapter is already installed, take it apart from
the sample stage. Tilt the dosing unit to prevent the needles from damaging. Lay the
FSC 80 onto the sample stage.

Operation Clamp the sample into the both parallel clamping jaws A and fix it with
the four knurled screws. To stretch the sample, turn the knurled screw B clockwise.

Figure 194: Film sample clamp FSC-80

7.6.6.3 FSH-30
Film sample holder (Ring) For fixing of flexible samples, like films, textile .
Technical data:
Size: 40 x 15 mm

Installation If any other sample stage adapter is already installed, take it apart from the
sample stage. Tilt the dosing unit to prevent the needles from damaging. Lay the FSH 30
onto the sample stage.

Operation Clamp the sample between the both rings to stretch the sample.

Figure 195: Film sample holder


FSH-30

OCA Manual

page 111

8 Maintenance
8.1 General
The OCA is continuously rated.
However, in spite of this, we recommend a regular maintenance once a year
by a service engineer from DataPhysics or the respective representation.

Internal work on the unit must only be done when the power
supply is disconnected and the mains cable has been pulled out!
The verification of the measuring is possible using the optical contact angle standards:

OCAS/HW

optical contact angle standard Height/width method

OCAS/YL

optical contact angle standard Young/Laplace method

OCAS/PD

optical drop shape standard Pendant Drop method

If the unit has a fault, please turn to the service departments of our representations or to
ourselves directly at:
DataPhysics Instruments GmbH
Raiffeisenstrae 34
D-70794 Filderstadt
Tel. ++49 (711) 770556-0
Fax ++49 (711) 770556-99
email info@dataphysics.de

8.2 Cleaning of the instrument


The coat of varnish of the OCA is resistant to the most common solvents and weak acids.
To clean the housing, use a dry, clean, soft, and fluffiness cloth.
With heavy dirt on the housing, use a neutral cleaning liquid on a soft cloth.

Do not use any chemical products like strong solvents or acids to clean the
housing, in particular, the switches, lamps and sockets. Make sure that no
liquids get into the inside of the housing (for example by means of the
connecting sockets on the side of the OCA electronic housings). This leads to
the destruction of the unit and can lead to a hazardous short circuit.

page 112

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

8.3 Exchange of the halogen bulb

Move the sample table down and away from the illumination.

Open the 4 screws (A) (metric hex 2.0) on the inner lid. Remove the lower screws
first.

Carefully7 take off the illumination lid.

Take out the old halogen bulb.

Attention: the bulb could be very hot!

Put in the new bulb.

Attention: Never touch the new bulb with bare hands.

Carefully put on again the illumination lid.

Attention: All cables should be under the black metal sheet.

Figure 196: Illumination housing on OCA

Screw on all 4 screws.

Be aware that no cable gets caught when putting on the lid.

Danger of hazardous short circuit!

OCA Manual

page 113

9 Technical data
Technical data valid for all devices of the OCA series:

Maximum sample size

220 x x 70 mm, 8"-Wafer on WT 200M/E

(L x W x H)

330 x x 60 mm; 12-Wafer on WT 300 M/E 1)

Size of sample stage

100 x 100 mm

(L x W)

160 x 160 mm 1)

Range of contact angle measuring

0.. 180

0.1 accuracy of the video system, or reading accuracy

Size of device

590 x 220 x 550 mm

(L X W x H)

700 x 280 x 550 mm 1)

Weight

18 kg / 20 kg 1)

Power supply

90 264 VAC; 43 60 Hz; 55 VA

Environmental specifications

Temperature

Operating

0 to 40 C

Non-operating

-10 to 60 C

Relative humidity (non condensing)

Operating

10% to 80%

Non-operating

10% to 90%

Maximum wet bulb temperature

26C

1) OCA L

Additional technical data valid for OCA 5:

Optics

powerful 6-fold zoom lens (0.7...4.5-fold magnification) with integrated


continuous fine focus ( 6 mm)

Measuring methods

Goniometric eyepiece with 3.8 ... 25 mm field of view

Sessile & Captive Drop method

Tilting Plate method

Additional technical data valid for OCA 10:

Optics

powerful 6-fold zoom lens (0.7...4.5-fold magnification) with integrated


continuous fine focus ( 6 mm)

Measuring methods

Temperature measuring

Goniometric eyepiece with 3.8 ... 25 mm field of view

Sessile & Captive Drop method

Tilting Plate method

2 x Pt100-inputs for -60 ... +450 C (Pt100 optional), 0.1 K resolution; accuracy: 1/3
DIN IEC 751 ( 0.03 %), class B

page 114

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

Additional technical data valid for OCA 15 and OCA 15 plus:

Range of surface and interfacial

110-2...2103 mN/m

tension

resolution: min. 0,05 mN/m

Optics

powerful 6-fold zoom lens (0.7...4.5-fold magnification) with integrated


continuous fine focus ( 6 mm)

Video system

CCD-camera with a resolution of max. 752 x 582 square pixels

field of view: 1.31 x 1.05 ... 8.77 x 6.75 mm

distortion: < 0,05 %

High performance image processing system with 132 Mbytes/s data transfer rate
(compatible to European-standard CCIR and US-standard RS-170)

Measuring methods

Up to 25 images/s digitizing speed

Sessile & Captive Drop method

Tilting Plate method

Pendant Drop method

Optical Wilhelmy-Plate and Rod-/Thread-method (for the measuring of polymer


melts and threads for composite materials)

Additional technical data valid for OCA 20 and OCA 30:

Range of surface and interfacial

110-2...2103 mN/m

tension

resolution: min. 0,05 mN/m

Optics

powerful 6-fold zoom lens (0.7...4.5-fold magnification) with integrated


continuous fine focus ( 6 mm)

Video system

CCD-camera with a resolution of max. 768 x 576 square pixels

field of view: 1.75 x 1.4 ... 11.7 x 9 mm

distortion: < 0,05 %

High performance image processing system with 132 Mbytes/s data transfer rate
(compatible to European-standard CCIR and US-standard RS-170)

Measuring methods

Up to 50 images/s digitizing speed

Sessile & Captive Drop method

Tilting Plate method

Pendant Drop method

Optical Wilhelmy-Plate and Rod-/Thread-method (for the measuring of polymer


melts and threads for composite materials)

Temperature measuring

2 x Pt100-inputs for -60 ... +450 C (Pt100 optional), 0.1 K resolution; accuracy: 1/3
DIN IEC 751 ( 0.03 %), class B

OCA Manual

page 115

Additional technical data valid for OCAH 200 and OCA 230:

Range of surface and interfacial

110-2...2103 mN/m

tension

resolution: min. 0,05 mN/m

Optics

powerful 6-fold zoom lens (0.7...4.5-fold magnification) with integrated


continuous fine focus ( 6 mm)

Video system

high-speed CCD-camera with a resolution of max. 752 x 484 square pixels

field of view: 1.31 x 1.05 ... 8.77 x 6.75 mm

distortion: < 0,05 %

high performance image processing system with 132 Mbytes/s data transfer rate
(compatible to European-standard CCIR and US-standard RS-170)

Measuring methods

60, 120 or 240 images/s digitizing speed (optional 90, 180 or 360 images/s)

Sessile & Captive Drop method

Tilting Plate method

Pendant Drop method

Optical Wilhelmy-Plate and Rod-/Thread-method (for the measuring of polymer


melts and threads for composite materials)

Temperature measuring

2 x Pt100-inputs for -60 ... +450 C (Pt100 optional), 0.1 K resolution; accuracy: 1/3
DIN IEC 751 ( 0.03 %), class B

page 116

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

10 Terms of Guarantee
DataPhysics guarantees the faultless functioning of this unit provided it is used and serviced appropriately and is connected and handled in accordance with these operating
instructions.
The guarantee is for two years from the date of delivery.
The place of the guarantee fulfilling is the respective representative or DataPhysics in
Filderstadt.
All guarantee and damage claims of the customer are forfeited if he has improperly
treated the supplied unit or has supplemented or worked on it or given it to a third party
for subsequent reconditioning without our prior approval.
DataPhysics entire liability and your exclusive remedy shall be at DataPhysics option,
either a) return of the price paid or b) repair or replacement of the unit that does not
meet DataPhysics limited guarantee and is returned to DataPhysics together with a copy
of the receipt. This limited guarantee is void if failure of the unit has resulted from accident, abuse, or misapplication. Any replacement delivery will only be warranted by DataPhysics for the remainder of the original guarantee period or 30 days, whichever is longer.
DataPhysics disclaims all further warranties with respect to the unit, and the accompanying manuals and written materials.
DataPhysics and its suppliers shall not be liable for any damages whatsoever (including,
without limitation, damages for loss of business profits, business interruption, loss of
business information, or other pecuniary loss) arising from the use or inability to use this
DataPhysics product, even if DataPhysics has been advised of the possibility of such damages. In any case, DataPhysics entire liability shall be limited to the amount actually paid
by you for this product. This limitation does not apply to damages, which were caused by
DataPhysics on intent or by gross negligence. Likewise, claims remain unaffected which
are based on mandatory legal rules regarding product liability.
Furthermore, the guarantee conditions of the " General conditions of supply for products
and services of the electrical industry" of the Zentralverband Elektrotechnik- und Elektronikindustrie (ZVEI) e. V., Stresemannallee 19, D-60596 Frankurt am Main apply.

OCA Manual

page 117

11 Appendix
11.1 Requirements of the mains cable
The power supply of the OCA enable operation at a voltage supply with 90 264 Volts
Alternating Current (43 60 Hz).
The mains cable delivered with your OCA may not meet the requirements of the country
in which you are using the system.

You must, without fail, use a mains cable which meets the requirements of
the relevant country or the local Electricity Board.
The following information explains the requirements which are to be taken into account
when choosing a mains cable.

General information

The mains cable must be permitted (authorized) for the country in which it is used.

The mains cable should be at least 2m and at most 3m long.

USA and Canada

The mains cable must have the UL release and the CSA certificate

For the cable, the following minimum requirements apply:

No. 12 AWG; 3.2 mm2; outer 10.9 mm2

Type SV or comparable

3 phase

The cable must have a nominal current-carrying capacity of at least 20 A.

The mains plug must be shockproof plug of the type NEMA 5-15P (15A, 125V) or NEMA
6-15P (15A, 250V).

Other countries

The connectors of the mains cable must carry the approval certificate of the respective country (see table below):
BSI (Great Britain)

NEMKO (Norway)

CEBEC (Belgian)

OVE (Austria)

DEMKO (Denmark)

SEMKO (Sweden)

EANSW (Australia)

SETI (Finland)

IMQ (Italy)

SEV (Switzerland)

KEMA (Netherlands)

UTE (France)

VDE (Germany)

The cable must be a three-phase HAR cable of the type HO5VV-F3 with a minimum
phase-diameter of 2.5 mm2 .

The mains cable must have a minimum current-carrying capacity of 20 A, and according to the country, have a nominal voltage of 125 V or 250 V Alternating current.

page 118

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

OCA

Japan
In Japan, the following cable types and connected loads are required:

All parts of the cable (cable, box, and plug) must have the trademark and the registry
number according to the Japanese Dentori Law.

The following minimum requirements apply to the cable:

3.2 mm2

Type VCT or VCTF

3 phase

The cable must have a nominal current-carrying capacity of at least 20 A

The mains plug must be a 2 pin shock-proof plug according to the Japanese Industrial
Standard (15A, 125V).

11.2 Spare parts


6 000 004

DS 1000; 1000 l syringe (not for ES)

6 000 005

DS 500/GT; Gas tight 500 l precision syringe

6 000 006

DS 1000/GT; Gas tight 1000 l precision syringe

6 000 007

SNS 052/026; Dosing needle Outer- 0.52 mm; Inner- 0.26 mm; Length
51 mm; viscosity up to 120 mPas (e.g. Dipropylene glycol)

6 000 011

SNS 107/069; Dosing needle Outer- 1.07 mm; Inner- 0.69 mm; Length 51
mm; viscosity up to 3000 mPas (e.g. Glycerin)

6 000 027

SNP 165/119; Dosing needle Outer- 1.65 mm; Inner- 1.19 mm; Length 51
mm; viscosity up to 3000 mPas (e.g. Glycerin)

6 000 028

SNP 277/069; Dosing needle Outer- 2.41 mm; Inner- 1.80 mm; Length 51
mm; viscosity up to 3000 mPas (e.g. Glycerin)

6 000 015

SNC 052/026; Dosing needle Outer- 0.52 mm; Inner- 0.26 mm; Length
50 mm; Width 15 mm; Upwards 7 mm; viscosity up to 50 mPas (e.g.
Diethylene glycol)

8 000 360

DT 300/03; PTFE dosing tube Inner- 0.3 mm; Length 300 mm; For fluids
up to 50 mPas viscosity (e.g. Diethylene glycol)

8 000 431

DT 300/10; PTFE dosing tube Inner- 1.0 mm; Length 300 mm; For fluids
up to 3000 mPas viscosity (e.g. Glycerin)

8 000 432

DT 400/03; PTFE dosing tube Inner- 0.3 mm; Length 400 mm; For fluids
up to 20 mPas viscosity (e.g. Ethylene glycol)

8 000 361

DT 400/05; PTFE dosing tube Inner- 0.5 mm; Length 400 mm; For fluids
up to 150 mPas viscosity (e.g. 1.5-Pentane diole)

8 000 433

DT 400/10; PTFE dosing tube Inner- 1.0 mm; Length 400 mm; For fluids
up to 3000 mPas viscosity (e.g. Glycerin)

8 000 502

OCA Manual

Luer lock adapter

page 119

8 000 149

HL 20; Set of 3 Halogen bulbs

6 000 017

GC 10; Glass cell 20 x 20 x 20 mm (Inner-L x W x H); Glass cell made of special optical glass for measuring the interfacial tension between two fluids
according to the Pendant Drop method; up to 70 C

6 000 021

GC 10HT; Temperature inert glass cell 20 x 20 x 20 mm (Inner-L x W x H);


Glass cell made of temperature inert special optical glass for measuring
the interfacial tension between two fluids according to the Pendant Drop
method; 70 350 C

6 000 018

GC 20; Glass cell 40 x 20 x 20 mm (Inner-L x W x H); Glass cell made of


optical special glass for measuring the contact angle of a fluid drop or a
gas bubble in a fluid (e.g. Schultz method) ; up to 70 C

6 000 022

GC 20HT; Temperature inert glass cell 40 x 20 x 20 mm (Inner-L x W x H);


Glass cell made of temperature inert optical special glass for measuring
the contact angle of a fluid drop or a gas bubble in a fluid (e.g. Schultz
method); 70 350 C

8 000 136

GE; Goniometer eyepiece with diopter adjustment and a deviating prism


for the manual measurement of the contact angle; with certificate

page 120

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt

11.3 Declaration of conformity


EG-KONFORMITTSERKLRUNG
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
DCLARATION DE CONFORMIT
Wir besttigen, dass das Produkt / We confirm that the product / Nous confirmons que le produit

Contact Angle Measuring System


OCA 5, OCA 10, OCA 15, OCA 15 plus, OCA 20, OCA 30, OCAH 200, OCAH 230
den Schutzanforderungen entspricht, die in der EU-Richtlinie 89/336/EWG zur Angleichung der Rechtsvorschriften der
Mitgliedsstaaten ber die Elektromagnetische Vertrglichkeit festgelegt sind. / is in conformity with the EC directive
89/336/E.E.C. according to the Electromagnetic Compatibility. / est conforme aux obligations de protection dfinies dans la
directive C.E. 89/336/C.E.E. pour une harmonisation des prescriptions des tats membres relatives la compatibilit
lectromagntique.
Diese Erklrung gilt fr alle Exemplare, die nach den anliegenden technischen Unterlagen - die Bestandteil dieser Erklrung
sind - hergestellt werden. / This declaration is valid for all products, which are produced in accordance with the technical
documentation which is part of this declaration. / Cette dclaration est valable pour tous les exemplaires qui ont t
fabriqus selon les documents techniques ci-joints faisant parties intgrantes de cette dclaration.
Zur Beurteilung des Erzeugnisses hinsichtlich der Elektromagnetischen Vertrglichkeit wurden die folgenden Vorschriften
angewendet: / For verification of conformity with regard to Electromagnetic Compatibility the following standards are
applied: / Pour la vrification du produit en regard de la compatibilit lectromagntique, les prescriptions suivantes ont t
appliqus:

EN 50081-1 (1992)

Fachgrundnorm Straussendung (Wohnbereich)


Generic emission standard, residential environment
Norme gnrique mission, environnement rsidentiel

EN 50082-1 (1993)

Fachgrundnorm Strfestigkeit (Wohnbereich)


Generic emission standard, residential environment
Norme gnrique mission, environnement rsidentiel

Diese Erklrung wird verantwortlich fr den Hersteller: / This declaration is given under sole responsibility of: / Cette
dclaration engage le constructeur:

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH


Raiffeisenstrasse 34
D-70794 Filderstadt
abgegeben durch: / from: / mis par:

Herrn /Mr. /M. Torsten Holz


Entwicklungsleiter / Development Manager / Directeur dveloppement

D-70794 Filderstadt 20 - 04 - 1998 Unterschrift / Signature

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt OCA Manual

Page 121

DataPhysics Instruments GmbH Raiffeisenstrae 34 D-70794 Filderstadt


phone ++49 (0)711 770556-0 fax ++49 (0)711 770556-99
email info@dataphysics.de internet http://www.dataphysics.de

is a registered trademark of DataPhysics Instruments GmbH. TD/ O C A - 2 . 0 / E

Copyright 1998 DataPhysics Instruments GmbH, Filderstadt.

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Technical information in this document is subject to change.

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