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FUTURE OF LNG

TRANSPORTATION:VARIOUS
PROPULSION ALTERNATIVES
The Authors
Barun Gupta
th

4 year
Marine Engineering and Research Institute,
P-19, Taratolla Road, Kolkata-88
E-mail: Barungupta@gmail.com

Kumar Surendra Prasad


th

4 year
Marine Engineering and Research Institute,
P-19, Taratolla Road, Kolkata-88
E-mail: ravimeri2002@gmail.com

CONTENTS

CHAPTER: 1 LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS

1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.1.1 WHAT IS NATURAL GAS?
1.2 THE FORMATION OF NATURAL GAS
1.3 NATURAL GAS UNDER THE EARTH
1.4 HOW MUCH NATURAL GAS IS THERE?
1.4.1 NATURAL GAS RESOURCE ESTIMATES
1.4.2 WHERE ARE THESE RESERVES?
1.5 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES
1.6 USES OF NATURAL GAS
1.7 WHAT IS LNG?
1.8 PROPERTIES
1.9 SOME INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT LNG
1.10 NEED FOR TRANSPORTATION:

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CHAPTER: 2 MODES OF TRANSPORTATION

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2.1 PIPE LINES:26


2.1.1 INTERSTATE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES :27
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2.1.2 PIPELINE COMPONENTS:2.1.2.1 Pipes:28
2.1.2.2 Compressor Stations:29
2.1.2.3 Metering Stations:30
2.1.2.4 Valves:30
2.1.2.5 Control Stations and SCADA Systems:30
2.1.3 PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION:31
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2.1.4 PIPELINE INSPECTION AND SAFETY:2.2 CNG: A COMPETITIVE TECHNOLOGY TO LNG FOR THE TRANSPORT OF NATURAL GAS:35
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2.2.1 COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS:2.2.2 SAGA / MOSS ROSENBERG CNG DESIGN 1976:36
2.2.3 MODERN CNG CARRIER CONCEPTS :36
2.2.4 THE CNG TRANSPORT TECHNOLOGY:37
2.2.5 CNG VS. LNG
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2.2.6 ADVANTAGES OF CNG OVER LNG:40
2.2.7 DISADVANTAGES:40
2.3 TRANSPORTATION BY LNG CARRIERS:41
2.3.1 CONVENTIONAL LNG CARRIER
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2.3.2 THE BASIC SHIP STRUCTURE:42
2.3.2.2 The Market Where Time Stood Still :43
2.3.2.3 Taller Spheres:43
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2.3.2.4 The Shape Of Things To Come:2.3.2.5 To Boil Off ... Or Not?

CHAPTER 3 TRADITIONAL STEAM PROPULSION


3.1 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS:3.2. MARKET REQUIRMENTS:3.2.1 OPERATING ECONOMY
3.2.2 ENVIRONMENTAL-FRIENDLINESS:3.2.3 SAFETY:3.2.4 RELIABILITY:3.2.5 REDUNDANCY:3.2.6 MAINTANABILITY:3.2.7 CREWABILITY:3.2.8 OTHERS:3.3 WINDS OF CHANGE:3.4 ALTERNATIVE PROPULSION CONCEPT:-

CHAPTER 4 SLOW SPEED DIESEL ENGINES


4.1 SLOW SPEED DIESEL WITH BOG RELIQUEFACTION:4.2 GAS-DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATIVES:4.2.1 ME-GI -- THE DUAL FUEL ENGINE:4.2.2 ECONOMICAL EVALUATION:4.2.3 INVESTMENT COST:4.2.4 EXHAUST EMISSIONS:4.2.5 WHATS SPECIAL IN IT-A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS :4.2.6 REDUCED FUEL CONSUMPTION
4.2.7 OPERATIONAL SAFETY & FLEXIBILITY
4.2.8 FLEXIBILTY REGARDING EXHAUST GAS EMISSION
4.2.9 ADVANTAGES :-

CHAPTER 5 DUAL FUEL DIESEL-ELECTRIC PROP.


5.1 AZIPOD PROPULSION - ELECTRIC MARINE PROPULSION:5.2 CRP AZIPOD PROPULSION - HIGH-EFFICIENCY CONTRA-ROTATING PROPULSION
SYSTEM
5.3 COMPACT AZIPOD PROPULSION - MARINE ELECTRIC THRUSTER SYSTEM:5.4 FIRST LARGE SIZE DUAL FUEL ELECTRIC CARRIER:5.5 ADVANTAGES:5.6 FOUR GENERATING SETS:5.7 HIGH TOTAL EFFICIENCY:5.8 OUTLINE OF THE DF-ELECTRIC LNG CARRIER:5.8.1 OPERATING ECONOMY:5.8.2 ENVIRONMENTAL-FRIENDLINESS:5.8.3 SAFETY:5.8.4 RELIABILITY:The future of LNG transportation: Various Propulsion Alternatives by B. Gupta & K. Prasad
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5.8.5 REDUNDANCY:5.8.6 MAINTAINABILITY:5.8.7 CREWABILITY:5.8.8 OTHERS:5.9 FUTURE OPERATING PROFILES:5.10 MARKET INTRODUCTION:-

CHAPTER 6

GAS TURBINE ALTERNATIVES

6.1 AERO-DERIVATIVE MARINE GAS TURBINES:6.2 ADVANTAGES OF MARINE AERO-DERIVATIVE GAS TURBINES:6.2.1 OPERATION:
6.2.2 MAINTENANCE:
6.2.3 RELIABILITY AND AVAILABILITY:
6.2.4 ENVIRONMENT:
6.2.5 NOISE AND VIBRATION:
6.2.6 VESSEL DESIGN:
6.2.7 PROPULSION PLANT DESIGN:
6.2.8 INSTALLATION:
6.3 DISADVANTAGES OF MARINE AERO-DERIVATIVE GAS TURBINES:6.3.1 THERMAL EFFICIENCY:
6.3.2 LIQUID FUEL QUALITY RESTRICTIONS:]
6.3.3 INITIAL INVESTMENTS:
6.4 GAS TURBINE MYTHS AND MISUNDERSTANDINGS
6.5 MARINE GAS TURBINE APPLICATIONS

CHAPTER 7

GAS TURBINE ELECTRIC DRIVE

7.1 GAS TURBINE ELECTRIC DRIVE COMBINE CYCLE PROPULSION


7.2 THE ADVANTAGES ARE:
7.3 THE DISADVANTAGE ARE:
7.4 NORMAL CRUISING SPEED:
7.4.1 LOADED:
7.4.2 MANEUVERING:
7.4.3 HARBOUR LOAD:
7.4.4 CARGO DISCHARGE:
7.4.5 EMERGENCY SITUATIONS:
7.5 GAS TURBINE ELECTRIC PODDED DRIVE LNG CARRIER
7.6 GAS TURBINE ELECTRIC DRIVE COMBINE CYCLE PROPULSION
7.6.1 THE ADVANTAGES ARE:
7.6.2 THE DISADVANTAGE ARE:
7.7 NORMAL CRUISING SPEED:
7.7.1 LOADED:
7.7.2 IN BALLAST:
7.7.3 MANEUVERING:
7.7.4 HARBOUR LOAD:
7.7.5 CARGO DISCHARGE:
7.7.6 EMERGENCY SITUATIONS:
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7.8 INCREASING LNG CARRIER CARGO CAPACITY

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CHAPTER 8 RELIQUIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

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8.1 BOIL-OFF CYCLE:8.2 NITROGEN CYCLE:8.3 CONTROL SYSTEM:8.4 REDUNDENCY:8.5 LIQUIFICATION PLANT:-

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CHAPTER 9

VOYAGE ANALYSIS

9.1 SELECTION OF ALTERNATIVES


9.2 ONE-TIME INVESTMENT COSTS
9.3 RECURRING VARIABLE COSTS
9.4 WHAT AFFECTS THE VARIABLE COSTS?
9.4.1 OPERATING ROUTE
9.4.2 FUEL FLEXIBILITY
9.4.3 VALUE OF LNG
9.4.4 PRICE OF HFO
9.4.5 MEMBRANE OR MOSS?
9.4.6 SINGLE OR TWIN PROPULSOR?
9.5 SHIPYARD PREMIUM
9.6 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 10

COMPARATIVE STUDY

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10.1 COMPARISION BETWEEN STEAM, DIESEL & DIESEL-ELECTRIC118


10.2 ECONOMICAL COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT PROPULSION SYSTEMS 121
10.3 RESULTS
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10.4 CONCLUSIONS
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10.5 COMPARISON
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CHAPTER: 1

LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS


1.1 Introduction
Natural Gas is a vital component of the world's supply of energy. It is one of the
cleanest, safest, and most useful of all energy sources. Despite its importance,
however, there are many misconceptions about natural gas. For instance, the
word 'gas' itself has a variety of different uses, and meanings. When we fuel our
car, we put 'gas' in it. However, the gasoline that goes into your vehicle, while a
fossil fuel itself, is very different from natural gas. The 'gas' in the common
barbecue is actually propane, which, while closely associated and commonly
found in natural gas, is not really natural gas itself. While commonly grouped in
with other fossil fuels and sources of energy, there are many characteristics of
natural gas that make it unique. Below is a bit of background information about
natural gas, what exactly it is, how it is formed, and how it is found in nature.

1.1.1 What is Natural Gas?


Natural gas, in itself, might be considered a very uninteresting gas - it is
colorless, shapeless, and odorless in its pure form. Quite uninteresting - except
that natural gas is combustible, and when burned it gives off a great deal of
energy. Unlike other fossil fuels, however, natural gas is clean burning and emits
lower levels of potentially harmful byproducts into the air. We require energy
constantly, to heat our homes, cook our food, and generate our electricity. It is
this need for energy that has elevated natural gas to such a level of importance
in our society, and in our lives.

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Natural gas is a combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases. While natural


gas is formed primarily of methane, it can also include ethane, propane, butane
and pentane. The composition of natural gas can vary widely, but below is a
chart outlining the typical makeup of natural gas before it is refined.

In its purest form, such as the natural gas that is delivered to your home, it is
almost pure methane. Methane is a molecule made up of one carbon atom and
four hydrogen atoms, and is referred to as CH4.
Ethane, propane, and the other hydrocarbons commonly associated with natural
gas have slightly different chemical formulas, which can be seen here.

Natural gas is considered 'dry' when it is almost pure methane, having had most
of the other commonly associated hydrocarbons removed. When other
hydrocarbons are present, the natural gas is 'wet'.

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Found in reservoirs underneath the earth, natural gas is commonly associated


with oil deposits. Production companies search for evidence of these reservoirs
by using sophisticated technology that helps to find the location of the natural
gas, and drill wells in the earth where it is likely to be found. Once brought from
underground, the natural gas is refined to remove impurities like water, other
gases, sand, and other compounds. Some hydrocarbons are removed and sold
separately, including propane and butane. Other impurities are also removed,
like hydrogen sulfide (the refining of which can produce sulfur, which is then also
sold separately). After refining, the clean natural gas is transmitted through a
network of pipelines, thousands of miles of which exist in the United States
alone. From these pipelines, natural gas is delivered to its point of use.
Natural gas can be measured in a number of different ways. As a gas, it can be
measured by the volume it takes up at normal temperatures and pressures,
commonly expressed in cubic feet. Production and distribution companies
commonly measure natural gas in thousands of cubic feet (Mcf), millions of cubic
feet (MMcf), or trillions of cubic feet (Tcf). While measuring by volume is useful,
natural gas can also be measured as a source of energy. Like other forms of
energy, natural gas is commonly measured and expressed in British thermal
units (Btu). One Btu is the amount of natural gas that will produce enough energy
to heat one pound of water by one degree at normal pressure. To give an idea,
one cubic foot of natural gas contains about 1,027 Btus. When natural gas is
delivered to a residence, it is measured by the gas utility in 'therms' for billing
purposes. A therm is equivalent to 100,000 Btu's, or just over 97 cubic feet, of
natural gas.
1.2 The Formation of Natural Gas
Natural gas is a fossil fuel. Like oil and coal, this means that it is, essentially, the
remains of plants and animals and microorganisms that lived millions and
millions of years ago. But how do these once living organisms become an
inanimate mixture of gases?
There are many different theories as to the origins of fossil fuels. The most widely
accepted theory says that fossil fuels are formed when organic matter (such as
the remains of a plant or animal) is compressed under the earth, at very high
pressure for a very long time. This is referred to as thermogenic methane. Similar
to the formation of oil, thermogenic methane is formed from organic particles that
are covered in mud and other sediment. Over time, more and more sediment and
mud and other debris are piled on top of the organic matter. This sediment and
debris puts a great deal of pressure on the organic matter, which compresses it.
This compression, combined with high temperatures found deep underneath the
earth, break down the carbon bonds in the organic matter. As one gets deeper
and deeper under the earths crust, the temperature gets higher and higher. At
low temperatures (shallower deposits), more oil is produced relative to natural

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gas. At higher temperatures, however, more natural gas is created, as opposed


to oil. That is why natural gas is usually associated with oil in deposits that are 1
to 2 miles below the earth's crust. Deeper deposits, very far underground, usually
contain primarily natural gas, and in many cases, pure methane.
Natural gas can also be formed through the transformation of organic matter by
tiny microorganisms. This type of methane is referred to as biogenic methane.
Methanogens, tiny methane producing microorganisms, chemically break down
organic matter to produce methane. These microorganisms are commonly found
in areas near the surface of the earth that are void of oxygen. These
microorganisms also live in the intestines of most animals, including humans.
Formation of methane in this manner usually takes place close to the surface of
the earth, and the methane produced is usually lost into the atmosphere. In
certain circumstances, however, this methane can be trapped underground,
recoverable as natural gas. An example of biogenic methane is landfill gas.
Waste-containing landfills produce a relatively large amount of natural gas, from
the decomposition of the waste materials that they contain. New technologies are
allowing this gas to be harvested and used to add to the supply of natural gas.
A third way in which methane (and natural gas) may be formed is through a
biogenic process. Extremely deep under the earth's crust, there exist hydrogenrich gases and carbon molecules. As these gases gradually rise towards the
surface of the earth, they may interact with minerals that also exist underground,
in the absence of oxygen. This interaction may result in a reaction, forming
elements and compounds that are found in the atmosphere (including nitrogen,
oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon, and water). If these gases are under very high
pressure as they move towards the surface of the earth, they are likely to form
methane deposits, similar to thermogenic methane.
1.3 Natural Gas Under the Earth
Although there are several ways that methane, and thus natural gas, may be
formed, it is usually found underneath the surface of the earth. As natural gas
has a low density, once formed it will rise towards the surface of the earth
through loose, shale type rock and other material. Most of this methane will
simply rise to the surface and dissipate into the air. However, a great deal of this
methane will rise up into geological formations that 'trap' the gas under the
ground. These formations are made up of layers of porous, sedimentary rock
(kind of like a sponge, that soaks up and contains the gas), with a denser,
impermeable layer of rock on top. This impermeable rock traps the natural gas
under the ground. If these formations are large enough, they can trap a great
deal of natural gas underground, in what is known as a reservoir. There are a
number of different types of these formations, but the most common is created
when the impermeable sedimentary rock forms a 'dome' shape, like an umbrella
that catches all of the natural gas that is floating to the surface.

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There are a number of ways that this sort of 'dome' may be formed. For instance,
faults are a common location for oil and natural gas deposits to exist. A fault
occurs when the normal sedimentary layers sort of 'split' vertically, so that
impermeable rock shifts down to trap natural gas in the more permeable
limestone or sandstone layers. Essentially, the geological formation which layers
impermeable rock over more porous, oil and gas rich sediment has the potential
to form a reservoir. The picture below shows how natural gas and oil can be
trapped under impermeable sedimentary rock, in what is known as an anticlinal
formation. To successfully bring these fossil fuels to the surface, a hole must be
drilled through the impermeable rock to release the fossil fuels under pressure.
Note that in reservoirs that contain oil and gas, the gas, being the least dense, is
found closest to the surface, with the oil beneath it, typically followed by a certain
amount of water.
With natural gas trapped under the earth in this fashion, it can be recovered by
drilling a hole through the impermeable rock. Gas in these reservoirs is typically
under pressure, allowing it to escape from the reservoir on its own.
Natural gas is nothing new. In fact, most of the natural gas that is brought out
from under the ground is millions and millions of years old. However, it was not
until recently that methods for obtaining this gas, bringing it to the surface, and
putting it to use were developed.
Before there was an understanding of what natural gas was, it posed somewhat
of a mystery to man. Sometimes, such things as lightning strikes would ignite
natural gas that was escaping from under the earth's crust. This would create a
fire coming from the earth, burning the natural gas as it seeped out from
underground. These fires puzzled most early civilizations, and were the root of
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much myth and superstition. One of the most famous of these types of flames
was found in ancient Greece, on Mount Parnassus approximately 1,000 B.C. A
goat herdsman came across what looked like a 'burning spring', a flame rising
from a fissure in the rock. The Greeks, believing it to be of divine origin, built a
temple on the flame. This temple housed a priestess who was known as the
Oracle of Delphi, giving out prophecies she claimed were inspired by the flame.

These types of springs became prominent in the religions of India, Greece, and
Persia. Unable to explain where these fires came from, they were often regarded
as divine, or supernatural. It wasn't until about 500 B.C. that the Chinese
discovered the potential to use these fires to their advantage. Finding places
where gas was seeping to the surface, the Chinese formed crude pipelines out of
bamboo shoots to transport the gas, where it was used to boil sea water,
separating the salt and making it drinkable.
Britain was the first country to commercialize the use of natural gas. Around
1785, natural gas produced from coal was used to light houses, as well as
streetlights.
Manufactured natural gas of this type (as opposed to naturally occurring
gas) was first brought to the United States in 1816, when it was used to light the
streets of Baltimore, Maryland. However, this manufactured gas was much less
efficient, and less environmentally friendly, than modern natural gas that comes
from underground.
Naturally occurring natural gas was discovered and identified in America as early
as 1626, when French explorers discovered natives igniting gases that were
seeping into and around Lake Erie. The American natural gas industry got its
beginnings in this area. In 1859, Colonel Edwin Drake (a former railroad

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conductor who adopted the title 'Colonel' to impress the townspeople) dug the
first well. Drake hit oil and natural gas at 69 feet below the surface of the earth.

Most in the industry characterize this well as the beginning of the natural gas
industry in America. A two-inch diameter pipeline was built, running 5 and
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miles from the well to the village of Titusville, Pennsylvania. The construction of
this pipeline proved that natural gas could be brought safely and relatively easily
from its underground source to be used for practical purposes.
In 1821, the first well specifically intended to obtain natural gas was dug in
Fredonia, New York, by William Hart. After noticing gas bubbles rising to the
surface of a creek, Hart dug a 27 foot well to try and obtain a larger flow of gas to
the surface. Hart is regarded by many as the 'father of natural gas' in America.
Expanding on Hart's work, the Fredonia Gas Light Company was eventually
formed, becoming being the first American natural gas company.
During most of the 19th century, natural gas was used almost exclusively as a
source of light. Without a pipeline infrastructure, it was difficult to transport the
gas very far, or into homes to be used for heating or cooking. Most of the natural
gas produced in this era was manufactured from coal, as opposed to transport
from a well. Near the end of the 19th century, with the rise of electricity, natural
gas lights were converted to electric lights. This led producers of natural gas to
look for new uses for their product.
In 1885, Robert Bunsen invented what is now known as the Bunsen burner. He
managed to create a device that mixed natural gas with air in the right
proportions, creating a flame that could be safely used for cooking and heating.

The invention of the Bunsen burner opened up new opportunities for the use of
natural gas in America, and throughout the world. The invention of temperature-

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regulating thermostatic devices allowed for better use of the heating potential of
natural gas, allowing the temperature of the flame to be adjusted and monitored.
Without any way to transport it effectively, natural gas discovered pre-WWII was
usually just allowed to vent into the atmosphere, or burnt, when found alongside
coal and oil, or simply left in the ground when found alone.
One of the first lengthy pipelines was constructed in 1891. This pipeline was 120
miles long, and carried natural gas from wells in central Indiana to the city of
Chicago. However, this early pipeline was very rudimentary, and was not very
efficient at transporting natural gas. It wasn't until the 1920's that any significant
effort was put into building a pipeline infrastructure. However, it wasn't until after
the World War II that welding techniques, pipe rolling, and metallurgical
advances allowed for the construction of reliable pipelines. This post-war pipeline
construction boom lasted well into the 60's, and allowed for the construction of
thousands of miles of pipeline.
Once the transportation of natural gas was possible, new uses for natural gas
were discovered. These included using natural gas to heat homes and operate
appliances such as water heaters and oven ranges. Industry began to use
natural gas in manufacturing and processing plants. Also, natural gas was used
to heat boilers used to generate electricity. The transportation infrastructure had
made natural gas easy to obtain, and it was becoming an increasingly popular
form of energy.
1.4 How Much Natural Gas is there?
There is an abundance of natural gas in North America, but it is a non-renewable
resource, the formation of which takes thousands and possibly millions of years.
Therefore, understanding the availability of our supply of natural gas is important
as we increase our use of this fossil fuel.
This section will provide a framework for understanding just how much natural
gas there is in the ground available for our use, as well as links to the most
recent statistics concerning the available supply of natural gas.
As natural gas is essentially irreplaceable (at least with current technology), it is
important to have an idea of how much natural gas is left in the ground for us to
use. However, this becomes complicated by the fact that no one really knows
exactly how much natural gas exists until it is extracted. Measuring natural gas in
the ground is no easy job, and it involves a great deal of inference and
estimation. With new technologies, these estimates are becoming more and
more reliable; however, they are still subject to revision. A common
misconception about natural gas is that we are running out, and quickly.
However, this couldn't be further from the truth. Many people believe that price
spikes, such as were seen in the 1970's, and more recently in the winter of 2000,
indicate that we are running out of natural gas. The two aforementioned periods

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of high prices were not caused by waning natural gas resources - rather, there
were other forces at work in the marketplace. In fact, there is a vast amount of
natural gas estimated to still be in the ground. In order to understand exactly
what these estimates mean, and their importance, it is useful first to learn a bit of
industry terminology for the different types of estimates.
1.4.1 Natural Gas Resource Estimates
Below are three estimates of natural gas reserves. The first, compiled by the
Energy Information Administration (referred to as the EIA), estimates that there
are 1,190.62 Tcf of technically recoverable natural gas in the United States.

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This includes undiscovered, unproved, and unconventional natural gas. As can


be seen from the table, proved reserves make up a very small proportion of the
total recoverable natural gas resources. The following table includes an estimate
of natural gas resources compiled by the National Petroleum Council in 1999 in
its report Natural Gas - Meeting the Challenges of the Nation's Growing Natural
Gas Demand. Information on this report may be found here.

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This estimate places U.S. natural gas resources higher than the EIA, at 1,779 Tcf
remaining. It is important to note that different methodologies and systems of
classification are used in various estimates that are completed. There is no single
way that every industry player quantifies estimates of natural gas. Therefore, it is
important to delve into the assumptions and methodology behind each study to
gain a complete understanding of the estimate itself.
There are a myriad of different industry participants that formulate their own
estimates regarding natural gas supplies, such as production companies,
independent geologists, the government, and environmental groups, to name a
few. While this leads to a wealth of information, it also leads to a number of
difficulties. Each estimate is based on a different set of assumptions, completed
with different tools, and even referred to with different language. It is thus difficult
to get a definitive answer to the question of how much natural gas exists. In
addition, since these are all essentially educated guesses as to the amount of
natural gas in the earth, there are constant revisions being made. New
technology, combined with increased knowledge of particular areas and
reservoirs mean that these estimates are in a constant state of flux. Further
complicating the scenario is the fact that there are no universally accepted
definitions for the terms that are used differently by geologists, engineers,
accountants, and others.
1.4.2 Where Are These Reserves?
Most of the natural gas that is found in North America is concentrated in relatively
distinct geographical areas, or basins. Given this distribution of natural gas
deposits, those states which are located on top of a major basin have the highest
level of natural gas reserves. As can be seen from the map below, U.S. natural
gas reserves are very concentrated around Texas and the Gulf of Mexico.
1.5 World Natural Gas Reserves

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The EIA, in conjunction with the Oil and Gas Journal and World Oil publications,
estimates world proved natural gas reserves to be around 5,210.8 Tcf. As can be
seen from the graph, most of these reserves are located in the Middle East with
1,836.2 Tcf, or 34 percent of the world total, and Europe and the Former
U.S.S.R. with 2158.7, or 42 percent of total world reserves.
1.6 Uses Of Natural Gas
For hundreds of years, natural gas has been known as a very useful substance.
The Chinese discovered a very long time ago that the energy in natural gas could
be harnessed, and used to heat water. In the early days of the natural gas
industry, the gas was mainly used to light streetlamps, and the occasional house.
However, with much improved distribution channels and technological
advancements, natural gas is being used in ways never thought possible.

There are so many different applications for this fossil fuel that it is hard to
provide an exhaustive list of everything it is used for. And no doubt, new uses are
being discovered all the time. Natural gas has many applications, commercially,
in your home, in industry, and even in the transportation sector! While the uses
described here are not exhaustive, they may help to show just how many things
natural gas can do.

According to the Energy Information Administration, energy from natural gas


accounts for 24 percent of total energy consumed in the United States, making it
a vital component of the nation's energy supply.

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Natural gas is used across all sectors, in varying amounts. The graph above
gives an idea of the proportion of natural gas use per sector. The industrial sector
accounts for the greatest proportion of natural gas use in the World, with the
residential sector consuming the second greatest quantity of natural gas.
1.7 What is LNG?
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to the point that
it condenses to a liquid, which occurs at a temperature of approximately -256 deg
F (-161 deg C) and at atmospheric pressure. Liquefaction reduces the volume by
approximately 600 times thus making it more economical to transport between
continents in specially designed ocean vessels, whereas traditional pipeline
transportation systems would be less economically attractive and could be
technically or politically infeasible. Thus, LNG technology makes natural gas
available throughout the world.
Natural gas liquefaction dates back to the 19th century when British
chemist and physicist Michael Faraday experimented with liquefying
different types of gases, including natural gas.
German engineer Karl Von Linde built the first practical compressor
refrigeration machine in Munich in 1873.
The first LNG plant was built in West Virginia in 1912. It began operation
in 1917.
The first commercial liquefaction plant was built in Cleveland, Ohio, in
1941. The LNG was stored in tanks at atmospheric pressure. The
liquefaction of natural gas raised the possibility of gas transportation to
distant destinations.

To make LNG available for use, energy companies must invest in a


number of different operations that are highly linked and dependent upon
one another. The major stages of the LNG value chain, excluding
pipeline operations between the stages, consist of the following:
Exploration to find natural gas in the earths crust and production of the
gas for delivery to gas users. Most of the time natural gas is discovered
during the search for oil.
Liquefaction to convert natural gas into a liquid state so that it can be
transported in ships.
Shipping the LNG in special purpose vessels.

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Storage and Regasification, to convert the LNG stored in specially made


storage tanks, from the liquefied phase to the gaseous phase, ready to be
moved to the final destination through the natural gas pipeline system.
1.8 Properties
Extremely low temperature: minus 260F (minus 162C).
LNG will float on water - Specific gravity of LNG is about 0.45. - Slightly
less than half that of water.
Odorless and colorless - LNG looks like boiling water. When exposed to
atmospheric temperatures and pressure, it vaporizes to about 600 times
its liquid volume.
Nontoxic, non-corrosive.
Vapor Dissipation - As the vapor warms to minus 160F (minus 107C); it
becomes lighter than air and will dissipate. The natural gas vaporized from
LNG can cause asphyxiation in an unventilated confinement.
Explosion limit of LNG: 5 to 15%.
Minimum ignition energy: 0.28mJ.
Latent heat of vapourization: 510kJ/kg.
1.9 Some interesting facts about lng
According to World Oil, for the year 2001, worldwide proven reserves
of natural gas showed an increase of 8.4 percent over year 2000.
According to LNGOne World 57, new LNG vessels were on order as
of Dec 2002.
The LNG tanker fleet size is estimated to continue to grow to 193
tankers by 2006.
India to have 10 new LNG vessels by 2010.
Orders received last year in marine shipbuilding industries, South
Korea decreased relatively for almost all kinds of ships, except those
for LNG carriers, which showed a 290% increase.
The above data shows that worlds is growing
awareness in the field of natural gases. Now the question arises why
there is so much increase in its demand. The solution can be
obtained by comparative study of various resources of energy of
which natural gas is also one.
The prevailing energy resources are fast loosing its
popularity in the modern world.
Oil has been harshly criticized as pollutant
Coal, having high sulphur content, is considered as bad as worst.
Nuclear power has lately been considered as being long-term
solution to the worlds energy problems, but even nuclear power has

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come under attack, and in many states, building programs for new
power station have been held up because of safety reasons.
Moreover, CO2 emission control from major fuels is recognized as
the essential issue related to the greenhouse effect, especially since
demand for energy increasing.
Concern over worlds diminishing energy resources coupled with a growing
awareness of the need to protect the environment, led to an upsurge
interest in natural gas and construction of special natural gas carriers.
These conflicting demands for more energy and cleaner environment
present a considerable problem and natural gas promises to solve both of
them, thus it was known as a glamour fuel of 1970s.
Until well into the 20th century, it was considered a nuisance and a byproduct of crude oil production. Only when in remote areas of Wyoming,
huge reserves of gas were discovered, nobody thought it was one of the
energies with a more than promising future. The proven reserves of natural
gas at the end of 2001 amounted to 170 trillion cubic meter, which are
equivalent to 153-milliard toe. The petroleum reserves at the same date,
amounted to 142.6 milliard toe, so, we see that the usable reserves of gas
are higher than those ones of petroleum.

1.10 Need For Transportation:


By geographic areas, it is found in particular that,
The former USSR, found particularly, the Russian Federation and
Turkmenistan have nearly one third of the world reserves.
Iran, Qatar, Australia, Papua New Guinea, the United States, and in
Africa; Algeria, Nigeria, Libya and Egypt gather more than 90% of the
proven reserves of this continent.
The OPEC countries have 45% of the world natural gas resources, much
lower that those they have in crude oil reserves, which amount to 78%.
Moreover, there are large reserves of natural gas in areas for which there
is no significant market. Such hydrocarbon reserves are stranded in North
Africa, West Africa, South America, Caribbean, the Middle East,
Indonesia, Malaysia, Northwestern Australia and Alaska. In addition,
markets for these natural gases include Japan, Taiwan, Korea, Europe
and the U.S.
Therefore, there is a need for transportation of natural gases to areas where it
is scarce from areas where it is in abundance.

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Illustration 1:According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration


(U.S. EIA), natural gas production in the U.S. is predicted to grow from 19.1
trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in 2000 to 28.5 Tcf in 2020.The total U.S. Demand for
natural gas is expected to rise from 2.8 Tcf in 2000 to about 33.8 Tcf by 2020
adjusted for forecasted gains in energy efficiency and conservation). These
projections suggest that the U.S. could face a gap of 5Tcf by 2020.
Hence, she needs to import natural gas to meet her requirements.
Where natural gas supply and the intended consumer are reasonably close,
pipelines can be used for transporting the gas. However, as most of the world
supply is remote from the consumer areas, shipboard carriage is the only
alternative. Another aspect of the carriage by pipeline is that the government and
private companies are reluctant to become involved with networks, which cross
the territory of the countries other than their own.
Illustration 2:From the Russian Federation to Portugal, it is necessary to pass
through at least four different countries.
Therefore it can be said that shipping transport of LNG is not only growing,
but taking more and more importance, as the sea transport, offers the nations the
strategic advantages such as
Non-dependence on pipelines, built over many different lands of different
nations.
The LNG trade gives more freedom and less dependence on third parties
for importers.
LNG offers greater trade flexibility than pipeline transport, allowing cargoes
of natural gas to be delivered where the need is greatest and the
commercial terms are most competitive. The figure below shows that as the
distance over which natural gas must be transported increases, usage of
LNG has economic advantages over usage of pipelines. Liquefying natural
gas and shipping it becomes cheaper than transporting natural gas in
offshore pipelines for distances of more than 700 miles or in onshore
pipelines for distances greater than 2,200 miles.

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CHAPTER: 2

MODES OF TRANSPORTATION
2.1 Pipe lines:The efficient and effective movement of natural gas from producing regions to
consumption regions requires an extensive and elaborate transportation system.
In many instances, natural gas produced from a particular well will have to travel
a great distance to reach its point of use. The transportation system for natural
gas consists of a complex network of pipelines, designed to quickly and
efficiently transport natural gas from its origin, to areas of high natural gas
demand. Transportation of natural gas is closely linked to its storage, as well;
should the natural gas being transported not be required at that time, it can be
put into storage facilities for when it is needed.

There are essentially three major types of pipelines along the transportation
route: the gathering system, the interstate pipeline, and the distribution system.
The gathering system consists of low pressure, low diameter pipelines that
transport raw natural gas from the wellhead to the processing plant. Should
natural gas from a particular well have high sulfur and carbon dioxide contents
(sour gas), a specialized sour gas gathering pipe must be installed. Sour gas is
extremely corrosive and dangerous, thus its transportation from the wellhead to
the sweetening plant must be done carefully.
Pipelines can be characterized as interstate or intrastate. Interstate pipelines
carry natural gas across state boundaries, in some cases clear across the
country. Intrastate pipelines, on the other hand, transport natural gas within a
particular state. This section will cover the fundamentals of interstate natural gas

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pipelines, but the technical and operational details discussed are essentially the
same for intrastate pipelines.
Natural gas pipelines are subject to regulatory oversight, which in many ways
determines the manner in which pipeline companies must operate.

2.1.1 Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines :The interstate natural gas pipeline network transports processed natural gas from
processing plants in producing regions to those areas with high natural gas
requirements, particularly large, populated urban areas. As can be seen, the
pipeline network extends across the entire country.

Interstate pipelines are the 'highways' of natural gas transmission. Natural gas
that is transported through interstate pipelines travels at high pressure in the
pipeline, at pressures anywhere from 200 to 1500 pounds per square inch (psi).
This reduces the volume of the natural gas being transported (by up to 600
times), as well as providing propellant force to move the natural gas through the
pipeline. This section will cover the components of the interstate pipeline system,
the construction of pipelines, and pipeline inspection and safety.

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2.1.2 Pipeline Components:Interstate pipelines consist of a number of components which ensure the
efficiency and reliability that is needed from a system that delivers such an
important energy source year round, twenty four hours a day, and consist of a
number of different components.

2.1.2.1 Pipes:Pipelines can measure anywhere from 6 to 48 inches in diameter, although


certain component pipe sections can consist of small diameter pipe, as small as
0.5 inches in diameter. However, this small diameter pipe is usually used only in
gathering and distribution systems. Mainline pipes, the principle pipeline in a
given system, are usually between 16 and 48 inches in diameter. Lateral
pipelines, which deliver natural gas to or from the mainline, are typically between
6 and 16 inches in diameter. Most major interstate pipelines are between 24 and
36 inches in diameter. The actual pipeline itself, commonly called 'line pipe',
consists of a strong carbon steel material, engineered to meet standards set by
the American Petroleum Institute (API).
Pipelines are produced in steel mills, which are sometimes specialized to
produce only pipeline. There are two different production techniques, one for
small diameter pipes and one for large diameter pipes. For large diameter pipes,
from 20 to 42 inches in diameter, the pipes are produced from sheets of metal
which are folded into a tube shape, with the ends welded together to form a pipe
section. Small diameter pipe, on the other hand, can be produced seamlessly.
This involves heating a metal bar to very high temperatures, then punching a
hole through the middle of the bar to produce a hollow tube. In either case, the
pipe is tested before being shipped from the steel mill, to ensure that it can meet
the pressure and strength standards for transporting natural gas.
Line pipe is also covered with a specialized coating to ensure that it does not
corrode once placed in the ground. The purpose of the coating is to protect the

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pipe from moisture, which causes corrosion and rusting. There are a number of
different coating techniques. In the past, pipelines were coated with a specialized
coal tar enamel. Today, pipes are often protected with what is known as a fusion
bond epoxy, which gives the pipe a noticeable light blue color. In addition,
cathodic protection is often used; which is a technique of running an electric
current through the pipe to ward off corrosion and rusting.

2.1.2.2 Compressor Stations:As mentioned, natural gas is highly pressurized as it travels through an interstate
pipeline. To ensure that the natural gas flowing through any one pipeline remains
pressurized, compression of this natural gas is required periodically along the
pipe. This is accomplished by compressor stations, usually placed at 40 to 100
mile intervals along the pipeline. The natural gas enters the compressor station,
where it is compressed by a turbine, motor, or engine.

Turbine compressors gain their energy by using up a small proportion of the


natural gas that they compress. The turbine itself serves to operate a centrifugal
compressor, which contains a type of fan that compresses and pumps the natural
gas through the pipeline. Some compressor stations are operated by using an
electric motor to turn the same type of centrifugal compressor. This type of
compression does not require the use of any of the natural gas from the pipe,
however it does require a reliable source of electricity nearby. Reciprocating
natural gas engines are also used to power some compressor stations. These
engines resemble a very large automobile engine, and are powered by natural
gas from the pipeline. The combustion of the gas powers pistons on the outside
of the engine, which serves to compress the natural gas.
In addition to compressing natural gas, compressor stations also usually contain
some type of liquid separator, much like the ones used to dehydrate natural gas
during its processing. Usually, these separators consist of scrubbers and filters
that capture any liquids or other undesirable particles from the natural gas in the
pipeline. Although natural gas in pipelines is considered 'dry' gas, it is not
uncommon for a certain amount of water and hydrocarbons to condense out of

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the gas stream while in transit. The liquid separators at compressor stations
ensure that the natural gas in the pipeline is as pure as possible, and usually
filters the gas prior to compression.

2.1.2.3 Metering Stations:In addition to compressing natural gas to reduce its volume and push it through
the pipe, metering stations are placed periodically along interstate natural gas
pipelines. These stations allow pipeline companies to monitor and manage the
natural gas in their pipes. Essentially, these metering stations measure the flow
of gas along the pipeline, and allow pipeline companies to 'track' natural gas as it
flows along the pipeline. These metering stations employ specialized meters to
measure the natural gas as it flows through the pipeline, without impeding its
movement.

2.1.2.4 Valves:Interstate pipelines include a great number of valves along their entire length.
These valves work like gateways; they are usually open and allow natural gas to
flow freely, or they can be used to stop gas flow along a certain section of pipe.
There are many reasons why a pipeline may need to restrict gas flow in certain
areas. For example, if a section of pipe requires replacement or maintenance,
valves on either end of that section of pipe can be closed to allow engineers and
work crews safe access. These large valves can be placed every 5 to 20 miles
along the pipeline, and are subject to regulation by safety codes.

2.1.2.5 Control Stations and SCADA Systems:Natural gas pipeline companies have customers on both ends of the pipeline the producers and processors that input gas into the pipeline, and the consumers
and local distribution companies that take gas out of the pipeline. In order to
manage the natural gas that enters the pipeline, and to ensure that all customers
receive timely delivery of their portion of this gas, sophisticated control systems
are required to monitor the gas as it travels through all sections of what could be
a very lengthy pipeline network. To accomplish this task of monitoring and
controlling the natural gas that is traveling through the pipeline, centralized gas
control stations that collect, assimilate, and manage data received from
monitoring and compressor stations all along the pipe.
Most of the data that is received by a control station is provided by Supervisory
Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essentially
sophisticated communications systems that take measurements and collect data
along the pipeline (usually in a metering or compressor stations and valves) and
transmit them to the centralized control station. Flow rate through the pipeline,
operational status, pressure, and temperature readings may all be used to
assess the status of the pipeline at any one time. These systems also work in

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real-time, meaning that there is little lag time between the measurements taken
along the pipeline and their transmission to the control station.
This information, relayed to a centralized control station, allows pipeline
engineers to know exactly what is happening along the pipeline at all times. This
allows quick reactions to equipment malfunctions, leaks, or any other unusual
activity along the pipeline. Some SCADA systems also incorporate the ability to
remotely operate certain equipment along the pipeline, including compressor
stations, allowing engineers in a centralized control center to immediately and
easily adjust flow rates in the pipeline.

2.1.3 Pipeline Construction:As natural gas use increases, so does the need to have transportation
infrastructure in place to supply the increased demand. This means that pipeline
companies are constantly assessing the flow of natural gas across the U.S., and
building pipelines to allow transportation of natural gas to those areas that are
underserved.

Constructing natural gas pipelines requires a great deal of planning and


preparation. In addition to actually building the pipeline, several permitting and
regulatory processes must be completed. In many cases, prior to beginning the
permitting and land access processes, natural gas pipeline companies prepare a
feasibility analysis to ensure that an acceptable route for the pipeline exists that
provides the least impact to the environment and public infrastructure already in
place.
Assuming a pipeline company obtains all the required permits and satisfies all of
the regulatory requirements, construction of the pipe may begin. Extensive

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surveying of the intended route is completed, both aerial and land based, to
ensure that no surprises pop up during actual assembly of the pipeline.
Installing a pipeline is much like an assembly line process, with sections of the
pipeline being completed in stages. First, the path of the pipeline is cleared of all
removable impediments, including trees, boulders, brush, and anything else that
may prohibit the construction. Once the pipeline's path has been cleared
sufficiently to allow construction equipment to gain access, sections of pipes are
laid out along the intended path, a process called 'stringing' the pipe. These pipe
sections are commonly from 40 to 80 feet long, and are specific to their
destination. That is, certain areas have different requirements for coating material
and pipe thickness.

Once the pipe is in place, trenches are dug alongside the laid out pipe. These
trenches are typically 5 to 6 feet deep, as the regulations require the pipe to be at
least 30 inches below the surface. In certain areas, however, including road
crossings and bodies of water, the pipe is buried even deeper. Once the trenches
are dug, the pipe is assembled and contoured. This includes welding the sections
of pipe together into one continuous pipeline, and bending it slightly, if needed, to
fit the contour of the pipelines path. Coating is applied to the ends of the pipes
(the coating applied at a coating mill typically leaves the ends of the pipe clean,
so as not to interfere with welding), and the entire coating of the pipe is inspected
to ensure that it is free from defects.
Once the pipe is welded, bent, and coated, it can be lowered into the previously
dug trenches. This is done with specialized tracked construction equipment
acting in tandem to lift the pipe relatively uniformly and lower it into the trench.
Once lowered into the ground, the trench is filled in carefully, to ensure that the
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pipe and its coating do not incur damage. The last step in pipeline construction is
the hydrostatic test. This consists of running water, at pressures higher than will
be needed for natural gas transportation, through the entire length of the pipe.
This serves as a test to ensure that the pipeline is strong enough, and absent of
any leaks of fissures, before natural gas is pumped through the pipeline.
Laying pipe across streams or rivers can be accomplished in one of two ways.
Open cut crossing involves the digging of trenches on the floor of the river to
house the pipe. When this is done, the pipe itself is usually fitted with a concrete
casing, which both ensures that the pipe stays on the bottom of the river, and
add an extra protective coating to prevent any natural gas leaks into the water.
Alternately, a form of directional drilling may be employed, in which a sort of
'tunnel' is drilled under the river through which the pipe may be passed. The
same techniques are used for road crossings - either an open trench is dug up
across the road and replaced once the pipe is installed, or a tunnel may be drilled
underneath the road.
Once the pipeline has been installed, and covered up, extensive efforts are taken
to restore the pipeline's pathway to its original state, or to mitigate for any
environmental or other impacts that may have occurred during the construction
process. This often includes replacing topsoil, fences, irrigation canals, and
anything else that may have been removed or upset during the construction
process.

2.1.4 Pipeline Inspection and Safety:-

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In order to ensure the efficient and safe operation of the extensive network of
natural gas pipelines, pipeline companies routinely inspect their pipelines for
corrosion and defects. This is done through the use of sophisticated pieces of
equipment known as pigs. Pigs are intelligent robotic devices that are propelled
down pipelines to evaluate the interior of the pipe. Pigs can test pipe thickness,
and roundness, check for signs of corrosion, detect minute leaks, and any other
defect along the interior of the pipeline that may either impede the flow of gas, or
pose a potential safety risk for the operation of the pipeline. Sending a pig down
a pipeline is fittingly known as 'pigging' the pipeline.
In addition to inspection with pigs, there are a number of safety precautions and
procedures in place to minimize the risk of accidents. In fact, the transportation of
natural gas is one of the safest ways of transporting energy, mostly due to the
fact that the infrastructure is fixed, and buried underground. According to the
Department of Transportation (DOT), pipelines are the safest method of
transporting petroleum and natural gas. While there are in excess of 100 deaths
per year associated with electric transmission lines, according to the DOT's
Office of Pipeline Safety in 2001, there were 2 deaths associated with
transmission pipelines, and 5 deaths associated with distribution systems. To
learn more about pipeline safety, visit the DOT's Office of Pipeline Safety here.
A few of the safety precautions associated with natural gas pipelines include:
Aerial Patrols - Planes are used to ensure no construction activities are taking
place too close to the route of the pipeline, particularly in residential areas.
Unauthorized construction and digging is the primary threat to pipeline safety,
according to INGAA
Leak Detection - Natural gas detecting equipment is periodically used by
pipeline personnel on the surface to check for leaks. This is especially important
in areas where the natural gas is not odorized.
Pipeline Markers - Signs on the surface above natural gas pipelines indicate the
presence of underground pipelines to the public, to reduce the chance of any
interference with the pipeline.
Gas Sampling - Routine sampling of the natural gas in pipelines ensures its
quality, and may also indicate corrosion of the interior of the pipeline, or the influx
of contaminants.
Preventative Maintenance - This involves the testing of valves and the removal
of surface impediments to pipeline inspection.
Emergency Response - Pipeline companies have extensive emergency
response teams that train for the possibility of a wide range of potential accidents
and emergencies.

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The One Call Program - All of the states have instituted what is known as a 'one
call' program, which provides excavators, construction crews, and anyone
interested in digging into the ground around a pipeline with a single phone
number that may be called when any excavation activity is planned. This call
alerts the pipeline company, which may flag the area, or even send
representatives to monitor the digging.
These are but a few of the efforts undertaken by the pipeline industry to ensure
the safety of the public and the environment, and to protect the integrity of their
pipelines

2.2 CNG: A Competitive Technology to LNG for the Transport of


Natural Gas:Existing means of transporting natural gas consist primarily of pipelines and
LNG. Pipelines account for 75%, with LNG making for the rest. Pipelines are the
obvious means for the onshore transport of natural gas. But for offshore
transport, as the water depth and distance between sources and users increase,
pipelines become economically unattractive. LNG provides then an appropriate
way of delivering natural gas from offshore. However, because of the large
upfront investment, LNG requires large reserves of natural gas near the facilities
to support a LNG project and get acceptable returns capital investment
Compressed natural gas (CNG) technology provides an effective way for shorterdistance transport of the gas. The technology is aimed at monetizing offshore
reserves, which cannot be produced because of unavailability of pipeline or
because the LNG option is very costly. Technically the technology is easy to
deploy with less requirements for facilities and infrastructure.

2.2.1 Compressed Natural Gas:Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a mode of transport of natural gas is now
pursued with renewed interests. Earlier attempts in the 1960s to commercialize
the technology were made with technical difficulties and along with the
requirement of heavy investments made the commercial application of the
technology unfeasible.
Ocean Transport Pressure System 1968

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CNG at 80 bar and -600C


Approved by USCG
Prototype built and tested in New Jersey, but not found to be commercial

2.2.2 Saga / Moss Rosenberg CNG Design 1976: CNG carrier capable of carrying a mixture of gas and oil at 100 bar Idea
conceived by Saga Petroleum in 1976
Concept drawings developed by Saga and Moss Rosenberg yard of Norway
Loading directly from sub-sea wells using well pressure for loading and water for
discharging the cargo.
18,000 m3in 280 bottles

2.2.3 Modern CNG Carrier Concepts :With present developments in materials and their applications and CNGs
promising outlook in handling and marketing associated gas and the exploitation
of stranded reserves, have renewed the interest in commercializing the
technology. One of the proponents of the CNG technology in the early 1990s was
Cran & Stennings Technology Inc. that proposed a wellknown concept,
Coselletm. The idea seeks to reduce the manufacturing cost of the gas
containment system. Spooling small diameter (6 inch) coiled tubing into large
carrousels achieves the purpose. The gas is pressured up to 3000 psi at ambient
temperatures. Similar methodology is used by others namely Trans Ocean Gas,
a Canadian enterprise, and Knutsen O.A.S Shipping of Norway with varying
characteristics of the containment system7. Another approach to CNG is
espoused Enersea Transport LLC, They developed the VOTRANStm concept
in which the natural gas is compressed and cooled to lower temperatures6. This
reduces the volume of the compressed gas compared to just compressing it at
ambient temperatures. At the lower temperatures of 0 to 40oF the process
works at lower pressures than at ambient temperatures.
Many concepts are proposed for transportation of CNG but most of them are
based on transportation in pipeline/pressure vessels
EnerSea(steel, vertical pipes, 130 bar, -29C)
Coselle(Williams) (steel, coiled, 275 bar, ambient)
Knutsen (steel, vertical pipes, 250 bar, ambient)
CETech: (Statoil, Teekay, Hegh) steel, horizontal pipes, 200-250 bar,
ambient)
TransCanada(wrapped steel liner)
Trans Ocean Gas (composite)

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2.2.4 The CNG Transport Technology:The technology is relatively simple. Natural gas, originally at certain temperature
and pressure is compressed to higher pressures and chilled to lower
temperatures. Specially designed ships, which have a containment system made
of stacked horizontal or vertical pipes, transport the cold compressed gas. The

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technology can be divided into three parts namely, compression, refrigeration


and transportation. Transportation includes the loading, the voyage using the
CNG carriers and unloading
CNG Cargo Containment System

2.2.5 CNG vs. LNG


In comparing CNG with LNG the same transporting ship real-volumetric capacity
is used. However, in making the comparison it is worth remembering the disparity
in the actual standard volume of the gas transported. For the same ship volume,
LNG transports 2.1 Bcf of natural gas compared to a maximum volume of 1.2 Bcf
transported as CNG.
Keeping aside the difference in standard volumes, a proper comparison between
the two technologies warrants a review of the requirements and the respective
costs involved for both. For any LNG project to be economically viable a
throughput of 0.5 to 1 Bcf/d of natural gas is required. Typically a LNG plant of 3
MMtpa needs a gas at rate of 400-450 MMscf/d5. This translates into gas
reserves of 5 to 8 Tcf for a project life of 20 years, depending on the amount of
condensates in the gas5. CNG projects, on the other hand, do not require such
amount of reserves for the same throughput12. Fields with modest reserves and
ga s rates can support CNG projects10 For LNG projects, the liquefaction plant
is the most capital intensive. They make for almost 50% of the total investment
for a LNG project13. Taking an industry estimate of production cost of $200/ton
of LNG per annum, a project handling 500 MMscf/d (3.8 million tonnes of LNG
per annum) requires an investment of 750 million. A CNG plant with loading
facilities including compressors, pipelines and buoys costs $30 to 40 million8 The
lower investment along with simplicity of the operations helps, in effect, in faster

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planning and commissioning of a CNG project. For CNG the shipping of the
compressed gas is the most capital intensive. The ships cost approximately $230
million8 while for LNG the ships cost approximately $160 million15. Offloading of
the LNG requires special facilities namely a regasification terminal.
Regasification facilities cost $500-550 million depending upon terminal
capacity13. CNG offloading facilities consisting of separators , scrubbers and
heaters cost from $16 to 20 million8. Overall for CNG the total investment can
range from $1-2 billion mainly depending upon the number of ships required. For
LNG the investment can range from $1.5 to 2.5 billion depending on the market
needs and number of ships required.

From Figures 2 and 3, one of the main attractions of CNG is that the bulk of the
investment is in movable assets, while for LNG a very large of the investment is
in fixed assets. The investment breakdown lowers the CNG investment risks, by
providing a way to recover most of the investment and allow its deployment in
other projects or applications. The next step is to estimate and compare the unit
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price of gas delivered as CNG or LNG. For LNG the typical chain value per
MMBTU of gas is15: Exploration and Production: $0.5- 1.0/MMBTU,
Liquefaction: $0.8-1.2/MMBTU, Regasification and Storage: $0.3-0.5/MMBTU.
Shipping of LNG is a function of distance of transport and the discount factors.
Assuming the ships for transporting LNG are newly built the unit cost of shipping
range from $0.4-1.5/MMBTU for distances from 500 to 5000 miles16. Thus, the
total cost of producing and transporting LNG can range from $2 to $4.2
per MMBTU for the distances considered. For CNG, keeping the same unit cost
for exploration and production, the chain value per MMBTU is: Exploration and
Production: $0.5- 1.0/MMBTU, Processing and Transportation: $0.883.82/MMBTU for distances from 500 miles to 5000 miles. This translates into a
unit cost of $1.38 to $4.82 per MMBTU. Taking a gas price of $0.75/MMBTU for
both CNG and LNG and liquefaction cost of $1.0/MMBTU with regasification cost
of $0.4/MMBTU, the unit price of LNG delivered is shown in Table 5.
Transport
Distance cost17
Unit cost
miles
$/MMBTU $/MMBTU
500
0.4
2.55
1000
0.5
2.65
1500
0.6
2.75
2000
0.7
2.85
2500
0.8
2.95
3500
1.1
3.25
5000
1.5
3.65
Table 5- Estimated unit cost of transporting the

2.2.6 Advantages of CNG over LNG:!


!
!
!
!

Requirement of lower throughput of gas for a project


Involvement of lower capital
Ease of deployment faster implementation of a project
Ability to access stranded reserves and monetize them
Majority of the investment is in the shipping, making the assets movable
and reducing the risk involved

2.2.7 Disadvantages:Inability to transport large volumes of gas such LNG


Disparity in the volume transport hinders commercial possibility of CNG

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The future of LNG Transportation: Propulsion alternatives by B. Gupta & K. Prasad
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2.3 Transportation By LNG Carriers:LNG carriers have been used to transport liquified natural gas overseas on a
commercial basis since the late 1960s. Nowadays, a fleet of about 130 vessels
transports 5% of the world annual gas consumption from producer to consumer.
Over the years, there have been many improvements in the designs, but the
main propulsion system is still the same. In all other sectors of commercial
shipping, the steam turbine has been replaced by much more efficient diesels,
but LNG carriers stick with steam turbines. The main reason is for this is the
steam turbine propulsion system's unique capability to running on two cheap
fuels simultaneously: Heavy Fuel Oil and Boil-off Gas. This feature, combined
with a very high reliability, ensured the survival of the steam turbine in spite of its
very low thermal efficiency until now.
In 2002, Chantiers de l'Atlantique in France recieved the first order from Gaz de
France for a 74,000 cubic meter diesel-electric driven LNG carrier. Diesel
manufacturer Wrtsil in Finland will deliver the dual-fuel diesel gensets. The
choise to select diesels instead of the conventional steam turbine indicated that
there are owners and/or charterers in the LNG shipping community who are
willing to try new technology, which increases thermal efficiency of the propulsion
plant. A few LNG carrier operators have indicated they are interested in a more
fuel efficient vessel, but charterers so far have been unwilling to consider
engaging anything other than steam turbine driven LNG carriers.
Due to the small size of the LNC carrier ordered at Chantiers de l'Atlantique, its
power requirements are too low to lend itself for gas turbine drive. However,
larger vessels, such as "K Freezia", with propulsion power requirements between
24 and 30 MW, are ideally suited for the use of aero-derivative gas turbines. It is
these vessel that will be used in this review of alternative propulsion plants for
LNG carriers.

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2.3.1 Conventional LNG Carrier


Name / Owner
Builder / Delivery
Dimensions
Cargo capacity (100%)
Speed
Fuel consumption
Propulsion machinery

SK Summit / SK Shipping Co., Korea


Daewoo HI, Korea / 1999
277 x 43.4 x 11.3 m (L x B x D)
138,000 cubic meter
20.3 kn
2,400 kg/h HFO + 3,950 kg/h BOG
1 Kawasaki UA-400 steam turbine, 29,830 kW

SK Summit represents the current standard in LNG carriers, 138,000 cubic meter
cargo capacity and a cruising speed of around 19 knots. As of November 2002,
there are approximately 60 vessels rather similar to SK Summit on order, with
about 25 options. SK Summit is therefore a great example to be used as a
benchmark when determining the relative merits of alternative LNG carriers
propulsion systems. Prices for these vessels hover between USD. 165M and
170M. Total project cost per vessel can reach USD. 200M as a result of
financing, delivery, project management, insurances, bank guarantees, etc.

2.3.2 The Basic Ship Structure:-

All LNG ships are double hulled and rely on insulation to keep LNG liquid at 260F (-162.2C). The cargo is carried at atmospheric pressure in specially
insulated tanks, referred to as the cargo containment system, inside the inner
hull.

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The tanks can be either of the Moss spherical type, or the prismatic, membrane
type which conforms to the shape of the ship's hull. Or again, in a development,
they could be of a new pyramid type (see illustration) from Conoco Phillips, which
has just received Approval in Principle from ABS.
The Moss type is the design emblematic of the LNG ship in that the tops of the
spheres protrude above the hull making the ships instantly recognizable.
Pioneered by Norway's Moss Rosenberg in the 1970's, the design is now owned
by Moss Maritime a.s., Lysaker, Norway, a unit of Italy's ENI SAIPEM.
There are three types of membrane containment systems, the Gaz Transport and
Technigaz systems and a self-supporting prismatic membrane design from IHI,
Japan. Gaz Transport and Technigaz are now one company, whose latest
containment system, CS1, incorporates features from the existing Gaztransport
No 96 and Technigaz Mk III systems. CS1 uses reinforced polyurethane foam
insulation and two membranes, the first one 0.7 mm thick made of Invar (low
thermal contraction coefficient metal and high nickel content), the second made
of a composite aluminum-glass fiber called triplex. The system has been
rationalized to make assembly easier and is prefabricated allowing quick
assembly on board.

2.3.2.2 The Market Where Time Stood Still :To marine industry veterans, today's LNG boom is deja vu all over again. There
was supposed to be this sort of LNG boom some 30 years ago. But in 1979,
things soured when pricing disputes between U.S. buyers and Sonatrach of
Algeria eventually led to the termination of contracts, the laying up of six LNG
ships (three of which were later scrapped) and the mothballing of two out of four
LNG terminals.
There was still growing LNG demand in other areas, but international LNG ship
construction slowed until it got a further impetus in the 1990's. What's different
this time around is that the newbuilding market is dominated by South Korea,
with China already entering the market. And the technology is advancing. For the
first time, some ships are being specified with diesel, rather than steam turbine,
propulsion, there are improvements in insulation of cargo containment systems,
established containment systems are being twitched and new containment
systems are being offered.

2.3.2.3 Taller Spheres:When is a sphere not a sphere? When it's a vertically stretched sphere.
Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Ltd. ("K" Line), in partnership with Osaka Gas
International Transport Inc. ) and Nippon Yusen Kaisha (NYK), has concluded a
contract for a new 153,000 m3 LNG carrier with Kawasaki Shipbuilding
Corporation.

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The future of LNG transportation: Various Propulsion Alternatives by B. Gupta & K. Prasad
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The ship will be mainly used to carry LNG for Osaka Gas from the Qalhat LNG
Project in Oman from 2009. It will have four spherical LNG tanks three of which
are being given a 2 m vertical stretch. This advantage enables tank capacity to
be increased by about 5.5 percent but within almost the same ship dimensions
and with the same fuel oil consumption.

2.3.2.4 The Shape Of Things To Come:A new entrant in the containment system market is Ocean LNG, Inc., Houston. It
has developed a "more construction friendly LNG carrier" that can be built in
"non-traditional LNG shipyards."
ABS has issued Approval In Principle (AIP) to Ocean LNG's tank containment
system and carrier design.
The tank design is cylindrical with spherical dished ends. The 180,000 m3
version of Ocean LNG's ship design features five of these large 36 m diameter
and 40 m high cylinder tanks each holding a volume of 36,000 m3 of LNG.
Compared to the spherical containment system, the Ocean system is expected to
increase cargo capacity within the same main hull dimensions by an estimated
25 percent, while still providing full access for inspections of both the insulation
and tank structure.
A key aspect of transporting LNG is the ability of the containment system to
withstand dynamic sloshing loads of the LNG cargo when a tank is partially filled.
Membrane systems are particularly sensitive to sloshing loads.
The Ocean LNG tank design is fashioned according to IMO Type B independent
tank design and based on the "leak before failure" principle.
The tanks are designed to minimize filling restrictions due to sloshing effects. A
detailed sloshing analysis of the tank and pump tower designs was recently
completed by ABS.

2.3.2.5 To Boil Off ... Or Not?


Since LNG tankers rely on insulation rather than refrigeration to keep their cargo
refrigerated, a small percentage will "boil off." Traditionally, LNG tankers have
utilized this boil off as fuel in steam turbine based propulsion plant.
That's changing. One way or another, the diesel is coming on board. One
approach is to reliquefy the boil off gas, so that it remains as valuable cargo.
Shipboard reliquefaction technology has matured considerably in recent years,
making use of experience from land-based and LPG carrier installations. Among

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The future of LNG transportation: Various Propulsion Alternatives by B. Gupta & K. Prasad
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others Hamworthy KSE's patented Moss RS closed nitrogen cycle system for
reliquefying boil-off gas offers a solution for pumping LNG back to the cargo
tanks and hence the opportunity to deliver more cargo to the buyers.
MAN B&W Diesel has produced a paper that thoroughly examines operating
costs and additional income from the transport and sale of LNG. The paper,
"LNG Carrier Propulsion by ME Engines and Reliquefaction," analyzes fuel oil,
lube oil and maintenance costs for both propulsion and electrical power
generation under various operating conditions on a comparison basis for a
diesel-based solution against a steam plant. The evaluation shows that
substantial economic benefits can be gained from diesel propulsion in
conjunction with gas reliquefaction over the steam turbine-powered option,
simply because of the big difference in thermal efficiencies while the first cost of
the various propulsion systems is virtually the same.
Overseas Shipholding Group (OSG) has ordered four 216,000 m3 LNG ships
from Hyundai and Samsung. Each vessel utilizes two MAN B&W ME engines for
main propulsion. Each yard will deliver two vessels for the Rasgas II project for
shipping Qatari gas to the U.K.
Main propulsion will be by two 6S70ME-C engines in each vessel. The engines
for the Hyundai vessels will be built by Hyundai Heavy Industries, and for the
Samsung vessels by HSD. The engines will be heavy fuel burning, and the boil
off gas will be returned to the tanks via onboard reliquefaction plants.
Apart from the reliquefaction solution, another means of utilizing the diesel is by
using the boil off gas as fuel. MAN B&W's ME-GI engine is a gas injection, dual
fuel low speed diesel engine, which can burn any ratio of fuel and gas desired.
Wrtsil, meanwhile, has had considerable success with its DF dual-fuel
engines. The first dual fuel electric LNG carrier, the 75,000 m3 Gaz de France
Energy, was recently completed by Chantiers de l'Atlantique of France and is in
service with Gaz de France.
Furthermore, Wrtsil has now made a breakthrough into the Korean market with
an order from Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. to supply four sets of Wartsila
50DF dual-fuel engines to power a series of 155,000 m3 dual-fuel-electric LNG
carriers, with an option on four more sets.
The ships were ordered by BP Shipping of the U.K. and each ship will be
equipped with two 12-cylinder and two nine-cylinder Wrtsil 50DF dual-fuel
engines with an aggregate power of 39.9 MW, as prime movers in a dualfuel/electric machinery arrangement. ML

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CHAPTER 3

TRADITIONAL STEAM PROPULSION:After having been predominantly flared off or re-injected for decades, natural gas
is playing an increasingly important role in global energy consumption today.
Clean combustion properties and abundant reserves are the main benefactors
for this evolution from unsolicited by-product of oil production to preferred energy
source. With natural gas reserves often located far away from energy
consumers and pipelines expensive or impractical to build, seaborne
transportation of natural gas is on the rise as well. The most economic and
common way to transport natural gas by sea is in liquefied form. Liquefied
Natural Gas (LNG) is today transported by a fleet of some two-hundred
dedicated LNG carriers. With seaborne transportation of LNG expected to double
within this decade, a vast expansion of the LNG carrier fleet is imminent. At the
same time, increasing cargo volumes offer the possibility to apply economies of
scale, and ships are about to significantly grow in size. These circumstances
create the need to verify the technical solutions that have been applied in LNG
carriers so far.
The LNG trade has traditionally been based on long-term shipping contracts
and dedicated fleets of ships sailing on fixed routes and schedules between the
worlds rather limited number of LNG terminals. The LNG supply chain does not
have much buffer capacity and it is very important that the cargo is delivered on
time. For the past forty years, steam turbine installations have dominated
onboard LNG carriers. The ease with which steam turbine installations can burn
boil-off gas and their apparent reliability have kept them in the controlling position
that has been taken over by diesel engine installations a long time ago in all
other segments of the shipping industry. Steam turbine installations are however
not very efficient. This has a negative impact on the operating economy and
exhaust gas emissions of the ship. Exactly these issues play an increasingly
important role in LNG shipping these days. Encouraged by the latest
developments in its gas engine technology, Engine builders started looking for a
more economic and environmentally friendly way to power LNG carriers.
Machinery alternatives with two- and four-stroke diesel, high pressure gas-diesel
and low-pressure dual-fuel engines, in mechanical and electric propulsion
arrangements, with and without boil-off reliquefaction, were studied. Dual-fuelelectric installations were found to be the most attractive alternative to steam
turbine installations.
3.1 Basic Characteristics:Steam turbine propulsion dominates todays global LNG carrier fleet. The original
reasons for this have been the availability of high power output and the possibility
of using low-grade fuels as well as cargo boil-off gas. Maintenance of the
turbines is relatively low-cost and infrequent and the systems are considered

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proven and reliable. Boil-off gas is a key issue. It must be disposed of in some
way and for many years of LNG carrier construction the steam boiler was the
simplest solution. This feature has long been an obstacle to other propulsion
systems entering the LNG carrier market and made steam turbine the standard
choice for LNG carriers. The available quantity of boil-off gas depends on the
ship design and its operating conditions. Today, a natural boil-off rate of 0.15 %
per day is typically considered as a design point. However, this is a nominal
value and actual values as low as 0.10 % have been reported. During ballast
voyages the amount of available boil-off gas can be 10-50 % of the amount
prevailing during laden voyages depending on how many tanks will contain a
small quantity of LNG for tank cooling. Whatever propulsion plant is chosen,
there has to be some way of handling this boil-off gas either by utilising it as fuel,
or reliquefying it. The composition of the boil-off and thus its energy value also
varies during the voyage and is an important consideration for alternative power
plants. As nitrogen has a lower boiling point than methane, the nitrogen content
of the boil-off gas is high at the beginning of the laden voyage and decreases
during the voyage. In ballast, boil-off gas is mainly generated from the tank
cooling spray; the heavier hydrocarbons evaporate, thereby giving the boil-off a
higher energy content. The same result applies to forced boil-off gas. Safety is of
utmost importance in gas shipping, and LNG carriers have an excellent safety
record. The reliability of steam turbine propulsion has helped to achieve this
together with strict terminal regulations and procedures, and robust ship designs.
For example, propulsion power has to be available at all times whilst in port

3.2. Market Requirments:An attractive alternative should be outperforming the steam turbine installation
with respect to its apparent disadvantages, while at the same time at least
matching it with respect to its advantages. It is therefore important to study these
advantages and disadvantages. The main reason to remain faithful to the steam
turbine installation in LNG carriers is the ease with which they can burn boil-off
gas. Boil-off gas is an unavoidable by-product of the seaborne LNG
transportation concept. A small amount of cargo, approximately 0.13% per day in
laden condition, is left to evaporate in order to control temperature and pressure
in the ships cargo tanks. Both quantity and quality of the boil-off gas are subject
to variation.

3.2.1 Operating Economy


Although steam turbine installations can utilize boil-off gas very easily, they do
not use it very efficiently. Losses in the boilers, steam turbine, high-speed
reduction gear and shafting bring the efficiency of the propulsion
machinery to a level below 29% at full load. The efficiency of the electric
power generation machinery is below 25% at full load. Part-load efficiencies of
both the propulsion and electric power generation machinery are even lower.
Such low machinery efficiencies lead to a substantial amount of HFO being

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The future of LNG transportation: Various Propulsion Alternatives by B. Gupta & K. Prasad
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required for complementing the available boil-off gas. In laden conditions, some
50% of the ships energy requirement is covered with HFO. In ballast condition,
this share grows to 80%. Also for LNG carriers, like for any other kind of ship,
fuel costs are one of the most important components of the ships operating
costs.

3.2.2 Environmental-Friendliness:The low efficiency and the need to use large amounts of HFO have a negative
impact on the ships CO2 and Sox emissions. CO2 emissions are already the
focus of attention these days, and can be expected to get even more attention in
the near future.

3.2.3 Safety:Gas tankers attract lots of attention from safety regulators worldwide. The safety
of crew, ship and environment is of utmost importance. Onboard LNG carriers,
steam turbine installations have a very decent safety record. No major calamities
have been reported.

3.2.4 Reliability:Except for some well-documented problems with high speed reduction gears,
steam turbine installations have proven reliable in operation.

3.2.5 Redundancy:In LNG shipping, it is common practice to tie up small fleets of ships on long-term
charters on fixed routes with fixed sailing schedules. As the buffer capacity of
such a supply chain is limited and punctual cargo operations are important, these
kinds of trades require ships with amply redundant machinery. Although steam
turbine installations have proven reliable, they do not have too much redundancy
incorporated.

3.2.6 Maintanability:Due to the nature of the LNG trade, it is also important that maintenance of the
machinery installation does not interfere with the sailing schedule of the ship or
influence its performance. Steam turbine installations require a modest amount of
well-schedulable maintenance. The timing can easily be made to coincide with
the wet- and dry-docking intervals of the ship.
3.2.7 Crewability:As all other segments of the shipping industry have made the switch to diesel
engine power during the last three decades, the pool of experienced and skilled

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steam engineers is rapidly shrinking. This poses a crewing challenge which can
even reflect in manning costs.

3.2.8 Others:Ships with steam turbine installations have rather poor manoeuvring
characteristics. When considering transits in light ice conditions and cargo
operations offshore, good manoeuvring characteristics become increasingly
important.

3.3 Winds of change:Short-term contracts and even spot cargoes are becoming more common today
owing to the increasing LNG demand and supply. Some LNG carriers have even
been ordered without any shipment contract or route, which was previously
unheard of in the LNG business. Thus ship operators are bound to look for
newbuildings with more operational flexibility and efficiency to adapt to varying
contractual situations. This primarily calls for a flexible and efficient propulsion
plant able to accommodate different ship speeds and alternative operating
profiles. The main drawback of the traditional steam turbine plant is its
inefficiency, and hence high fuel consumption. The lack of alternative usage for
the boil-off gas has led to thinking that the boil-off gas is free. Alternative
methods of utilizing boil-off gas have forced changes in this thinking. Furthermore
the natural boil-off quantity is decreasing in modern LNG carriers owing to
advances in tank insulation technology and design.
As a result, the natural boil-off is far from sufficient to fuel the propulsion power
needed for the relatively high ship operating speeds. Therefore forced boil-off
gas or heavy fuel oil is needed to top up the fuel demand of the boilers, both of
which increase operating costs. On a laden voyage typically around 50 % of the
energy requirement comes from heavy fuel, and up to 80 % during ballast
voyage. Environmental aspects also need to be considered. The high fuel
consumption of a steam turbine plant leads directly to high CO2 emissions which
will become an increasing liability in the future. Although NOX emissions of
traditional LNG carriers are very low owing to the combustion characteristics of
boilers, their SOX emissions are considerable because of the heavy fuel used to
top up the energy requirement. Among the other arguments often heard against
steam plant are an increasing lack of competent steam engineers, poor
manoeuvring characteristics, and limited propulsion redundancy.

3.4 Alternative Propulsion Concept:Alternative machinery installations for LNG carriers could potentially be built
around diesel engines, gasdiesel engine, dual-fuel engines and gas
turbines. An attractive machinery alternative has to at least match the

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The future of LNG transportation: Various Propulsion Alternatives by B. Gupta & K. Prasad
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performance of the steam turbine installation with respect to the following


aspects:
Reliability
Safety
Additionally, an attractive alternative has to outperform the steam turbine
installation with respect to the following aspects:
Efficiency
Environment
Redundancy
In relation to the boil-off gas, a choice has to be made between:
Using boil-off gas as fuel
Returning boil-off gas to the cargo tanks
After Reliquefaction The machinery alternatives have sorted by the technology
applied for basic power generation.

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CHAPTER 4

SLOW SPEED DIESEL ENGINE


4.1 Slow Speed Diesel with BOG reliquefaction:Since the nineteen-seventies, diesel engine installations have become dominant
in all shipping segments, except LNG shipping. Experience gained from
thousands of diesel engine installations in service has resulted in the
development of highly-efficient, reliable and safe diesel engines. The latest
developments, like the application of common rail fuel injection on both four- and
two-stroke diesel engines, are taking diesel engine technology yet one step
further. As diesel engines can only burn liquid fuels like marine diesel oil MDO)
and HFO, the boil-off gas on LNG carriers has to be reliquefied in an onboard
Reliquefaction plant and fed back into the ships cargo tanks. These
reliquefaction plants require a substantial amount of electric power to operate
and are costly, heavy and have only been applied in the marine environment on
a very limited scale. The most simple and straightforward diesel engine
installation for a ship the size of a conventional LNG carrier or larger would be a
single two-stroke engine in direct-drive to a single fixed-pitch propeller. As the
LNG trade sets high standards with respect to maintainability and redundancy,
the most simple and straightforward diesel engine installation onboard an LNG
carrier will likely feature twin two-stroke engines, each in direct drive to a fixedpitch propeller. In order to keep the complexity low and the operational flexibility
high, electric power will likely be generated by a group of four-stroke diesel
generating sets. Devices for locking or disconnecting the propeller shafts will be
necessary to enable maintenance activities on one engine while sailing. Having
one engine out of operation for maintenance will however still have a substantial
impact on the ships service speed. This impact can be reduced by selecting
controllable-pitch propellers, or by using the tuning possibilities of electronicallycontrolled, two-stroke engines. The exhaust emissions of two-stroke engine
installations are reasonable, but certainly not excellent. Without additional
equipment like SCR units or direct water injection, NOx emissions are
substantial. As an inevitable consequence of using HFO as a fuel, SOx
emissions are
high too. More propulsion redundancy and operational flexibility can be offered
by applying multiple four-stroke diesel engines driving controllable-pitch
propellers through reduction gears. A further enhancement can be realized by
applying electric propulsion. The application of electric propulsion will at the
same time result in a higher part-load efficiency.
Major advantages of the diesel system are the high overall fuel efficiency which is about 60% higher than for steam plants, the reduced engine room space
required and considerable lower initial costs. Diesel propulsion is perceived as
offering less redundancy than existing steam systems, which we do not
completely accept. In any case, redundancy could be achieved by installing a
combined power take off, power take in (PTO / PTI). In the case of a main engine
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failure, the e-motor on the shaft line would be driven by the diesel gensets which
would allow the ship to sail at a safe manoeuvring speed. This is a proven design
which has been installed on several chemical tankers. Another consideration with
diesel propulsion is that amount of LNG delivered is higher because the BOG is
being reliquefied. One negative point is the potential increase in NOx, and SOx
emissions as the engines burn HFO, however the amount of CO2 released into
the atmosphere could be reduced.
For our analysis, the system shown in fig. 1 was adopted. The reliquefaction
plant is a closed Brayton cycle. The BOG is removed from the tanks,
compressed and cooled and condensed to LNG in a cryogenic heat exchanger.
Non-condensibles, mainly nitrogen, are removed in a separator and exited to the
vent. The LNG is returned to the tanks. The cryogenic temperature in the heat
exchanger is produced by means of a nitrogen compression expansion cycle.
The plant requires about 3.5 MW electrical power.

Figure 1: Diagram of Diesel engine with Reliquefaction

4.2 GAS-DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATIVES:Gas-diesel engines act according to the Diesel principle and can virtually burn
any possible mixture of gas and liquid fuel, with only a few restrictions to the
quality of the gas. As the mixture of gas and liquid fuel is injected into the
combustion chamber during air compression (Fig. 2), the required injection
pressure is high. For four-stroke gas diesel

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engines, a gas pressure of around 350 bar is required, while for two-stroke gasdiesel engines some 250 bar is deemed sufficient.

Except for the reliquefaction plant, LNG machinery installations based on gasdiesel engines look fairly similar to concepts based on conventional diesel
engines. As boil-off gas is generated at atmospheric pressure, large gas
compressors are required to boost the gas pressure to the appropriate level.
These compressors require a substantial amount of electric power to operate and
are costly and heavy. Additionally, the presence of high-pressure gas in the
engine room is a major safety concern, especially on LNG carriers. Emissions
of gas-diesel engine installations are generally lower than those of steam
turbine and diesel engine installations as a result of higher efficiency and
cleaner fuel, respectively.

M/V Excalibur LNG Carriers

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LNG carriers represent the last stand for the in all other markets practically
extinct marine steam turbines. With efficiencies of only about 30%, versus the
diesel engines more than 50%, and in combined systems even higher, diesel
engines are the propulsion system of choice in the marine industry.

Diesel Driven with reliquefaction plant


This reason for the dominance of the diesel engines is clearly
demonstrated in Fig showing the thermal efficiency of the various prime movers.

Typical thermal efficiencies of prime movers


As shown, steam turbine propulsion plants generally have a lower
efficiency and therefore need far more input energy than modern, fuel efficient
diesel engines. With efficiency and CO2 emission being largely inversely

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proportional, MAN B&W is proposing alternative propulsion concepts based on


low speed diesel engines with electronic control for modern LNG tankers.
Two different concepts are offered:
ME HFO burning engines
ME-GI dual fuel burning engines.

Building Blocks for an LNG Carrier


HFO burning fuel efficient Low Speed two-stroke diesel engines in single or twin
propeller configuration, in combination with reliquefaction of the Boil Off Gas
(BOG), offer economic benefits for those trades where loss, i.e. consumption of
cargo, is not accepted and the supply of the full amount of cargo is honoured.
Where this is not the case, and gas fuel is preferred, the ME-GI dual fuel engine
is the proper answer.
Recent technical development has made it possible for MAN B&W to offer the
option of dual fuel operation on ME-powered LNG carriers. The system focuses
around a high pressure reciprocating compressor supplying the engine with the
main gas injection, while ignition is ensured by pilot oil injection.
Ten years of operational experience have been logged with this concept.
However, LNG carriers are expensive ships, and the contractual supply of cargo
is usually tied by strict charterparty conditions. Therefore, the market has been
hesitant to look at and accept other than the traditional steam propulsion system.

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Now this has changed. With the market launch of electronically controlled low
speed diesels and reliable independent reliquefaction technology, all the
traditional reasons not to leave the steam turbine have become invalid. It must
also be realised that manning of steam driven commercial vessels will be
increasingly difficult because of the phasing out of marine steam turbines.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate by comparison that the LNG
transport industry can benefit greatly in terms of US$ savings by changing to
electronically controlled low speed diesels while, at the same time, contributing to
a better environment by significantly reducing CO2 emission. The OVERALL
conclusion is that more than US$ 3 million is lost every year through the funnel of
every steam driven LNG carrier.
MAN B&W offers a full programme of marine diesel engines for every
conceivable application. The low speed engine programme is developed in
Denmark and manufactured by a family of licensees at major shipbuilding
centres of the world. Single unit powers range from 2,000 hp to well over 100,000
hp, all for direct coupled installation at propeller speeds from 250 rpm down to 60
rpm for the largest propellers. The power requirement for an LNG carrier calls for
some 40,000 hp, typically two off 60 or 70 cm bore units.
MAN B&W low speed engines hold a worldwide market share of about 65 % in
their segment.. Another recent demonstration took place with the delivery of a
6S70ME-C engine at HSD in Korea in July 2003.

4.2.1 ME-GI -- The Dual Fuel Engine:MAN B&W Diesel A/S launches the ME-GI engine. This range of engines is
designed for the highly specialised LNG carrier market. The design builds on
experience gained from the earlier MC-GI engines combined with the
developments in the latest electronically controlled ME engines.

The ME-GI Engine

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The ME-GI Engines


After careful consideration of the various alternatives for LNG carrier propulsion,
the conclusion from MAN B&W is that a two-stroke engine solution is the best
system for powering LNG carriers.

The ME-GI Engine Hydraulic Oil Loop


The combination of low installation and running costs for this highly specialized
type of vessel makes the adoption of the dual fuel ME-GI engine from MAN B&W
very attractive for any ship owner and operator who needs to keep their costs to

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a minimum. An additional Reliquefaction plant allows sale of more gas when the
gas price is higher than the fuel oil price. Traditionally, LNG carriers have been
driven by steam turbines that are fed from boilers fired by the boil off gas,
supported by heavy fuel oil. Responding to a market demand for more efficient
engines, while retaining the option to burn the boil off gas, MAN B&W is now
reintroducing its high pressure gas injection low speed diesels now in
electronically controlled execution. Designated ME-GI, this gas burning option is
being offered in parallel to the heavy fuel-burning solution with gas reliquefaction.

.
The combination of the ME-GI engine, installed with a reliquefaction plant, allows
the owners and operators the choice to either use the boil off gas in the engine or
to reliquefy the gas and use HFO instead. The choice being dependent on their
relative prices and availability, as well as environmental considerations

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Out of all the options for the prime mover, the low speed twostroke diesel engine
gives the best thermal efficiency for any conventional propulsion system. This is
especially the case for LNG carriers, where the power requirement is around 30
to 40 MW. Thermal efficiencies of around 50% for diesel engines far exceed the
30% offered by steam turbines and any other combination alternatives.

General arrangement of double wall piping system for gas


The ME-GI dual fuel enhanced engine control and monitoring systems enable the
latest ME technical developments to be applied to the LNG carriers. The precise
timing and combustion rate shaping gained through the use of the electronic
control of injection and exhaust valves produce greater control at any load.
In order to make it possible to use the Boil Off Gas from an LNG Carrier as fuel in
low speed diesels as well, MAN B&W has readdressed this technology based on
our ME engine concept.
The benefits of the greater control given by the ME engine range further enhance
the operational reasons for introducing this option. Some years ago, MAN B&W
developed the MC range of engines for dual fuel. These were designated MC-GI
(Gas Injection). The combustion cycle was initiated by the injection of pilot fuel
oil, followed by the main gas injection. The technology was widely published as,
for instance, in Ref. [2]. The fuel injection timing on these dual fuel engines was
mechanically controlled, but in the electronically controlled version, like all ME
engines, it can be user-defined and is subject to greater control and flexibility,
thereby allowing the dual fuel concept to be further optimized.
The efficiency of the ME-GI duel fuel engines is the same as an ordinary ME
engine, due the diesel cycle. The system efficiency will be higher than that of
other gas consuming propulsion system, incl. dual fuel diesel electric even
considering the compressor power. Full redundancy as required by International

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Association of Classification Societies (IACS) can be met with one compressor,


one reliquefaction unit or one oxidizer as also discussed later. The system
configuration is shown in Fig. 5.

ME-GI engine and gas handling units


The average lifetime of commercial vessels is 25 years, by which time the
vessels are usually scrapped for reasons of economy. Diesel engines could
operate for decades beyond, as all wear parts are replaceable. Long living
diesels are seen mainly in power plants. The low speed diesel engine has a long
lifetime which also makes it relevant for LNG carriers with a lifetime of up to 40
years. The latest series of electronically controlled engines, the ME series, are
particularly suitable for the trade discussed, as the control system software can
be updated routinely. Maintenance requirements for diesels are predictable, and
parts supplies over the engine lifetime are guaranteed by the manufacturer and
designer. Vibration levels are fully predictable and controllable, both for vessels
with spherical tanks and membrane tank systems. Furthermore, the segregation
of the gas cargo and heavy fuel for propulsion ensured with reliquefaction means
that handling of gas in the engine room and surrounding areas is avoided. Based
on the technology described in the foregoing, the machinery to replace the steam
turbine and boilers in a typical 145,000 m3 LNG carrier is therefore 2 x approx.
20,000 hp low speed fuel burning ME or ME-GI type diesel engines. Typical
propulsion power requirements for LNG carriers of different sizes are shown in
Fig

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Typical Propulsion Power Requirements for LNG Carriers


The bridge and engine room control system shall be able to handle operation
with both one (emergency) and two engines. The bridge and engine room control
system shall, in the case of operation on two engines, be able to handle both
individual control and simultaneous control of the engines. Simultaneous control
consists of equality in power distribution, order for reversing, start of engines and
stop of engines. The control system shall, in case of failure on one of the
engines, be able to ensure continuous operation with only one engine without
jeopardizing manoeuvrability or safety of the ship or engines. In the case of FP
propellers, it is presumed that, the shaft is declutched from the engines and the
propeller wind- milling, alternatively that a shaft brake is applied. In the case of
CP propellers, it is presumed that the propeller is at zero pitch and the shaft
brake is active. If engine overhaul is to take place during sailing, declutching is
necessary.

Propeller curves in load diagram with one vs. two propellers working

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In the case of a FP propeller the working engine will have to accept a heavy
propeller, i. e. higher torque, as shown in Fig, which basically calls for a changed
engine timing.
With the ME engine concept, this can be done by push button only, activating
single engine running mode. This can be pre-programmed into the software just
as the so-called economy mode and low Ox mode. Hence, the operating
engine of will be readily optimised for the purpose, and full mobility of the vessel
ensured. As per calculation, a speed of 75% of the design speed of the vessel
can be obtained with a single engine in operation.

4.2.2 Economical Evaluation:The operating costs and the additional income from sale of the reliquefied LNG
for a 150,000 m3 LNG carrier is analysed in the following. The analysis includes
fuel oil, lubricating oil and maintenance costs for both propulsion and electricity
production under various operating conditions. The analysis is based on state-ofthe-art insulation of tanks, and thus BOG rate, and a traditional service speed of
the vessel. An evaluation of the operating costs and the additional income from
selling reliquefied LNG shows that substantial economic benefits can be
obtained. The actual outcome of the evaluation will depend on the project in
question. i.e. voyage profile, service speed, size of the vessel economic factors,
price of HFO and LNG, as well as of the Boil-Off rate. In any case, diesel engine
propulsion offers significant economic savings for the operator. The operating
costs are indicated in the tables in the Appendix and based on the Basic Data
and a typical voyage profile as shown in Fig.

Operating costs for LNG carriers

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Table 4 of this Appendix shows the final summary of the operating costs and in
that the potential for additional income is above 3.5 million US$/year.
In Fig. the result of the summary in Table 4 is visualized for various sizes of LNG
carriers. The additional sale of reliquefied BOG brings the large saving. The
savings depends, of course, on the sale price of LNG compared to HFO. Fig. 30
shows the advantage by reliquefaction compared to steam propulsion for a
150,000 m3 LNG carriers as a function of the LNG price compared to the HFO
price per energy unit. For guidance, historically price levels of LNG and HFO on
some LNG markets are shown.

4.2.3 Investment cost:Shipyards that today build LNG carriers have much more experience of
installing diesel engines than steam turbines and boilers. The installation of twostroke diesel engines are therefore already known to the yards and the cost can
be kept low. The direct-coupled diesel solution incl. reliquelation plant requires
lower investment cost than the steam plant, as far as equipment is concerned.
However, the twin-screw solution proposed does represent added cost on the
hull side at some shipyards. This could be up to US$ 3-4 million, but the total
cost is still comparable to that of the steam plant.

4.2.4 Exhaust Emissions:The expected annual exhaust emissions for the solutions is shown in Fig.
31. The CO2 emission is obviously largest for the steam plant due to its low
efficiency. The SOx from the fuel sulphur is about the same, as the same amount
of fuel is used. This can be reduced by using fuel with low sulphur content for
both steam turbine and diesel engine propulsion.

Emissions for the solutions compared

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The proposed diesel solution complies with the IMO limits for NOx emissions and
is therefore without any NOx abatement. However, the NOx can, if needed, be
reduced to any level by Selective Catalytic Reduction.

4.2.5 Whats Special In It-A Comparative Analysis :As mentioned in the introduction, the purpose of making electronic engines is
focused around the virtues related to ensuring fuel injection and rate, as well as
exhaust valve timing exactly when and as desired. With respect to the exhaust
valve movement, this means changing the cam length, as illustrated in Fig. by
simply changing the point in time of activating the ELVA valve.

Fig. 24: Exhaust Valve Timing


This can be used to control the energy to the turbocharger, both during steady
and transient load conditions.
.

Fig. 25: Exhaust Valve Closing Time

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Smoke-free acceleration is a natural benefit apart from SFOC optimization at any


load. Fig. 25 gives an illustration of how already a different cam length was
implemented on the 7S50ME-C engine in Frederikshavn for 100% load vs. 75%
load
Thanks to the multitude of possibilities with the ELFI, the proportional valve
controlling the servo oil pressure to the fuel oil pressure booster, not only the fuel
oil cam length, but also the cam inclination and angle and even the number of
activations per stroke can be varied for the fuel oil injection. Fig. 26 illustrates
different profiles demonstrated during testing of the 7S50ME-C.

Fig. 26: Injection Profiles


The double injection profile is specially tailored for a significant reduction of NOx
emissions as referred to later (see Fig. 32). Fig. 27 shows the selected injection
rate on that engine at 75% load, compared with what it would have been with a
fixed cam.

Fig. 27: Injection at 75% load, ME-C versus MC-C


The resulting heat release, see Fig. is the reason for selecting a more intensive
injection.

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Fig. 28: Heat Release at 75% load, ME-C versus MC-C


A better heat release mirrors a better fuel consumption, also because the pmax
is higher, see Fig. Such data could of course also be realised on a

Fig. 29: Cylinder Pressures at 75% load, ME-C versus MC-C


mechanical engine, but not while at the same time maintaining the ability to
perform at 100% load. In the low end of the load scale, the possibility for
controlling the timing and rate of injection gives the possibility to demonstrate
stable running down to 10% of MCR-rpm, i.e. 13 rpm against a water brake only.
This could be even more stable against a propeller eliminating the need for stopand-go operation through channels and canals and making ME engines
particularly suitable for shuttle tankers and lightering vessels, as well as for
vessels with greatly varying load profile. General performance curves for the MEC and MC-C engines are shown in Fig. 30. The lower part load fuel consumption
is achieved by raising the pmax over the whole load range.
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Fig. 30: Performance Curves, ME-C versus MC-C


In order to avoid too high difference between pmax and pcomp, also this
pressure is raised by timing control. As also illustrated, the lower SFOC comes at
a price in that the NOx increases. For this reason, the first two modes to be
incorporated in the control system of the ME engine, as standard, are the fuel
economy mode and the low-NOx mode. Fig. 31 illustrates the coagency
between SFOC, NOx, and pmax/Pcomp for the two modes.

Fig. 31: Performance Curves, Economy versus low-NOx


It goes without saying that an ME-C engine will comply with IMOs NOx cap also
in the fuel economy mode.

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The low-NOx mode is intended for areas where lower than IMO NOx limits do or
will apply. The change from one mode to the other is a matter of seconds only
and, of course, is done while running, as illustrated in Fig.

Fig. 32: 7S50ME-C 75% load

4.2.6 Reduced Fuel Consumption


Fuel injection characteristics can be optimised at a large number of load
conditions whereas a conventional engine has to be optimised for the
guaranteed load, typically at 90100 % MCR.
Constant pmax in the upper load range can be achieved by a combination
of fuel injection timing and variation of the compression ratio (the latter by
varying the timing of closing the exhaust valve). Due to this, the maximum
pressure can be kept constant over a wider load range without
overloading the engine, leading to SFOC reductions at part-load.
Monitoring of the cylinder pressures ensures that the load distribution
among the cylinders and the individual cylinders firing pressure can be
kept up to as new standard, maintaining the as new performance over the
lifetime of the engine.

4.2.7 Operational Safety & Flexibility


The ME engines crash stop and reverse running performance are improved because the
timing of exhaust valves and fuel injection is optimal for all engine operation scenarios.
Faster acceleration of the ME engine is possible because the
scavenge air pressure can be increased faster than normal opening
the exhaust valve earlier during acceleration.

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Dead slow running and slow steaming are improved significantly as the
minimum rpm are 1012 % of the MCR level, and dead slow running is
more regular because the combustion is improved thanks to the
electronic control of the fuel injection.
The control system of the ME engine includes an on-line overload
protection system, which ensures that the engine complies with the
load-diagram and is not overloaded in the event that the propeller
becomes too heavy running as a result of fouling of the hull and
resistance from wind and waves.

4.2.8 Flexibilty Regarding Exhaust Gas Emission


The ME engine can be run in different modes, viz. The Limited exhaust gas
emission mode and the Low fuel oil consumption mode.
Smoke emission at low load is improved.
The Alpha Lubricator, which is a computer controlled cylinder lubricator
system with intermittent lubrication, enables a reduction in the lube oil
dosage.
Less weight: approximately 3 t/cyl. for a 600- mm-bore engine.
The ME engine range has proved to be very successful since its introduction.
The first ME engine was put into service on the 37,500 dwt chemical tanker M/T
Bow Cecil (Odfjell, Norway). This engine, a 6L60MC/ME, has performed as
desired for more than 16,000 hours. The ME range of engines is available from
the 4S50ME-C through to the worlds most powerful ME engine, the 14K108MEC.The advantages of the ME-C range of engines are quite comprehensive, as
seen below:

4.2.9 Advantages :! Lower SFOC and better performance parameters thanks to variable
electronically controlled timing of fuel injection and exhaust valves at any
load
! Appropriate fuel injection pressure and rate shaping at any load
! Improved emission characteristics, with lower NOx and smokeless
operation
! Easy change of operating mode during operation
! Simplicity of mechanical system with well proven traditional fuel injection
technology familiar to any crew

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! Control system with more precise timing, giving better engine balance with
equalized thermal load in and between cylinders
! System comprising performance, adequate monitoring and diagnostics of
engine for longer time between overhauls
! Lower rpm possible for manoeuvring
! Better acceleration, astern and crash stop performance
! Integrated Alpha Cylinder Lubricators
! Up-gradable to software development over the lifetime of the engine

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CHAPTER 5

DUAL FUEL DIESEL-ELECTRIC PROPULSION


The dual fuel engine is basically a normal 4 stroke diesel which can utilize natural
gas as fuel. The gas is injected into the air intake and a small amount of diesel is
added in the combustion chamber to ignite the gas / air mixture. In addition to
running on gas, dual-fuel engines can run on MDO. When running on MDO, the
dual-fuel engine acts as a normal diesel engine.

In case the supply of gas is interrupted, the dual-fuel engine automatically


transfers to diesel mode, without loss of engine power or speed. The transfer
from diesel to gas mode is carried out fully-automatic on demand and is possible
within one revolution of the engine.
The system is extremely environment friendly. When using LNG as fuel there is
very little NOx, no SOx and no particle emissions. The reduction of CO2
emissions totals approximately 100,000 mt per year compared to a standard
steam-driven LNG carrier.
The Dual fuel engines are four-stroke engines which can be run alternatively in
gas mode or liquid-fuelled diesel mode. In gas mode it runs as a lean-burn
engine according to the Otto cycle. Ignition is initiated by injecting a small amount
of diesel oil (pilot fuel), giving a high-energy ignition source for the main fuel gas
charge in the cylinder. The micro-pilot injection system uses less than 1 % of
nominal fuel energy input. In liquid fuel mode the this engine works just like any
diesel engine, utilising a traditional jerk pump fuel injection system. Transfers
between the two operating modes take place without interruption in power
supply. With a lean fuel mixture it is possible to achieve good engine
characteristics regarding efficiency and emissions. However, at higher loads the
useful operating window between knocking and misfiring is very narrow.
Accordingly, electronic control of gas admission and pilot injection is employed in
the DF engines to regulate the combustion process individually for each cylinder.
Accurate control ensures that combustion stays within the operating window and
has optimal performance for all cylinders under all conditions as the gas quality,
ambient temperature etc. vary.

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LNG cargo boil-off is a very good fuel for the DF engines. The only considerable
variation in the gas composition, however, is the nitrogen content such that the
energy content of the boil-off gas is lower than that of pure methane. The
nitrogen content in the LNG vapour can be as much as 30 % in volume
especially at the beginning of the laden voyage. This is not a problem for DF
engines as they can run on such a gas mixture at their nominal output without
de-rating.

Electric propulsion system for LNG carriers

5.1 AZIPOD PROPULSION - Electric Marine Propulsion:Azipod is a podded propulsion system, azimuthing through 360C, cruising
ahead of competition in the 5MW to 30MW class. It incorporates an electric
motor mounted directly on an extremely short propeller shaft. The motor drives a
fixed-pitch propeller. The motor is controlled by a frequency converter which
produces full nominal torque, smooth and stepless, in either direction over the
entire speed range, including standstill. The propeller rpm can be optimized
according to the varying hydrodynamics of each project.

5.2 CRP AZIPOD PROPULSION - High-Efficiency Contra-Rotating


Propulsion System
Contra-rotating propulsion (CRP) means there are two propellers on the same
line rotating in different directions - an Azipod is installed in place of a normal
rudder, aligned downstream of the main propeller. The secondary propeller
utilizes the remaining energy from the rotating water leaving the forward
propeller.

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Each Azipod propulsion system is individually designed and optimized to


achieve maximum performance.

The system encompasses several unique advantages, resulting in the best


hydrodynamic efficiency in the industry. Gains in efficiency are achieved by
applying the CRP principle, dividing the load over two propellers and through
utilization of the preferred single-skeg hull form.
Enhancing propulsion efficiency up to 15%, the CRP Azipod propulsion system
will have a big impact on vessel construction for ship types such as RoPax,
ULCS and tankers.

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5.3 COMPACT AZIPOD PROPULSION - Marine Electric Thruster System:The Compact Azipod is a electric thruster solution for smaller vessels, is
standardized and modular, with high performance and low operating costs. The
system is produced in five sizes from 0.5MW to 4.2MW and is available in
propulsion and azimuthing thruster versions.

System construction is straightforward, consisting of a Propulsor Module and a


Steering Module, providing unlimited azimuthing angels. The Propulsor Module
incorporates an ultra-efficient permanent magnet synchronous motor with a fixedpitch propeller mounted directly to the motor shaft. The compact motor is directly
cooled by surrounding seawater, allowing for a simple mechanical construction
and a slim pod with superb hydrodynamics.

5.4 First large size dual fuel electric carrier:Oslo, Norway ? December 12th, 2003 ? Chantiers de lAtlantique, ALSTOM
Group, has awarded ABB Marine a contract to supply the electric propulsion
system for a new 153.000 m3 LNG carrier, owned by Gaz de France. The vessel
will be built in France by Chantiers de lAtlantique and delivered in 2005.
This propulsion systems meet stringent safety, reliability, and cost efficiency
requirements, as demanded by leading ship owners and gas charters.

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Increased worldwide utilization and transportation of LNG has initiated several


studies to explore alternatives to conventional steam turbine propulsion. For LNG
carriers, electrical propulsion provides the highest overall efficiency and benefits
for ship builders and for operators of the ship.
To the new Gaz de France LNG carrier, a complete propulsion drive system in a
redundant electrical configuration is provided. The delivery will include medium
speed propulsion motors of a total of 28 MW, medium-voltage frequency
converters (ABB ACS 6000), and a propulsion control system.
The frequency converters use the Direct Torque Control (DTC) technology, a
genuine motor control method developed. The converter technology gives
improved performance and controllability of the propulsion system compared to
alternative methods, and a simpler electrical power system without harmonic
filters.

Figure 2: Diagram of Diesel-Electric Propulsion


The diagram of the system is shown in fig. 2. Four diesels provide electrical
power for the main propulsion motors and the other electrical consumers. This
gives a high flexibility between different operating modes. The total power
installed is less than for any other propulsion alternative because of this flexibility.
As the diesels are producing electricity, an in-line arrangement of
shaft/gearbox/engine is not necessary. So the diesels can be arranged on a
higher deck, thus reducing engine room space demand. The layout offers
multiple redundancy, apart from the shafting and the gearbox. Even in the event
that two diesels should fail, or one electric motor is out of use, the ship would be
able to sail at about 75% of its design speed. An LNGC of about 145,000 m with

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diesel-electric propulsion will be able to take about 5000 m more cargo than a
steam-driven ship with same overall dimensions.
.
The number and size of these sets of course largely depends on the ship size
and speed, but also on the envisaged operating philosophy. An LNG carrier with
a cargo capacity of some 150000 m3 will typically require one six- and three
twelve cylinder engines. An LNG carrier with a cargo capacity of 200000 m3 will
typically require two six- and four nine-cylinder engines, and a ship of 250000
m3 cargo capacity will do with two six- and four twelve-cylinder dual-fuel engines.
The generated electric power is fed to an electric drive fairly similar to those used
on contemporary cruise ships. Two high-speed electric propulsion motors drive
a fixed-pitch propeller through a reduction gear. Twin low-speed electric motors
mounted on the same shaft can be selected to drive the propeller without
assistance of a gearbox alternatively. For the larger ships, twin screw
arrangements can be selected without significantly increasing the complexity of
the machinery installation.

5.5 Advantages:The main advantages of electric propulsion are:


" Reduced lifecycle cost by improving the operational economy with
reduced fuel consumption and maintenance cost
" Increased payload through efficient modularization and flexible location of
machinery components
" Safety and reliability with improved manoeuvrability, high redundancy and
standardized proven technology
" Environmental benefits from lower fuel consumption and emissions
resulting from constant speed engine operation with optimized loading and
high efficiency
" Better comfort for crew and passengers due to reduced vibration and
noise
" High performance due to maximum torque at zero speed
" Flexible and easy installation compared to diesel mechanical systems
Hence the main arguments in its favour are high fuel efficiency, safety, and
flexible and efficient use of the installed machinery. The selection of either
single or twin screws has to be based on the operating profile and redundancy
requirements specific for each project.
The main disadvantages of this system compared to the alternatives are the
slightly higher initial costs and the small efficiency loss in the power generation
process

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5.6 Four generating sets:The number of engines and the power output of each unit are determined by the
shaft power needed and also by the degree of redundancy requested. Generally
speaking on a typical 138,000 m3 ship with the need for some 34 MW total
engine output, the power plant would consist of four generating sets. The
maximum continuous output of these engines are 950 kW/cylinder at 500 or 514
rev/min (50 or 60 Hz respectively) and their thermal efficiency is as high as 48 %.
Four engines provide some redundancy if one of the engines is out of service,
and also flexibility for the different operating modes such as manoeuvring,
waiting off ports, loading and unloading. Additionally, they allow flexible
preventive maintenance at sea and during port calls, which is not the case with
the steam plant or other single-engine alternatives.

5.7 High total efficiency:Recent studies suggest that the most beneficial solution, both economically and
environmentally, for topping up the energy available from boil-off gas is to use
forced boil-off instead of diesel fuel oil. This solution, in combination with DFelectric propulsion, is economically very attractive in both installation and
operating costs. Recent evaluations in the industry have calculated annual
savings in total operating costs of between 2.2 and 2.8 million USD
compared with a traditional steam turbine LNG carrier. As the dual-fuel
engine is operated on low-pressure gas, below five bar at the engine inlet, the
fuel gas compressor package is essentially similar (only two-stage instead of
single-stage) to that already used in the current steam-powered fleet. The main
difference is that the total efficiency of the DF-electric plant is well above
40 % compared to less than 30 % for the steam plant. The difference is
even greater in part-load operation.

5.8 Outline of the DF-electric LNG carrier:The DF-electric LNG carrier concept is designed for a single-screw vessel with
four cargo tanks and a capacity of about 138,000 m3. The hull has a transom
stern, a single-skeg aft body and a bulbous bow. The propulsion machinery and
accommodation spaces are arranged in the stern part. The cargo machinery
room is arranged separate from the accommodation space on the upper deck.
Two cargo tank system variants can be applied:
Membrane and spherical types. Both variants have a length bp of 275 m, breadth
of 43 m and 48 m respectively, and design draught of 11 m. The main machinery
consists of four nine-cylinder in-line W50DF dual-fuel engines, each driving an
alternator. Each main engine develops 8550 kW at 514 rev/min, giving a total
output of 34.2 MW. The main generators feed the ships electrical network and,

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through a variable-speed drive system, the propulsion motors. A 500 kW


emergency diesel generator set is also installed. The single, five-bladed fixed
pitch propeller is driven by two 13.5 MW AC propulsion motors through couplings
and a twin-input/single-output reduction gear. There are also two 1000 kW bow
thrusters. To enhance the redundancy of the propulsion plant, the main engine
rooms and casings are divided with a fire-resistant bulkhead. The main engine
rooms are under diminished air pressure. A back-up arrangement of a thermal
oxidiser is provided to dispose of boil-off gas during long periods of low-load
operation. The service speed of the ship is about 19.5 knots at the design
draught of 11.0 m and with 15 % sea margin, which corresponds to 27 MW shaft
power. The power for accommodation and machinery ancillary consumers is
about 1 MW.

5.8.1 Operating Economy:As dual-fuel engines have the ability to run on both gas and MDO, the choice of
fuel is up to operator. Several independent studies have however confirmed that
forcing additional boil-off gas to complement the natural boil-off gas is the way to
profit most from the potential of the dual-fuel-electric solution. Firstly, forced boiloff gas is cheaper than alternative fuels. Secondly, it is lighter than alternative
fuels. Fuel bunkers weight is thus reduced, and at a given displacement, the
ship will be able to carry more cargo weight. Carrying more cargo volume is
enabled by the fact that the dual-fuel-electric solution saves engine room space
(Fig. 7). Even when using a small part of the cargo as fuel, a dual-fuel-electric
LNG carrier will deliver more cargo to the unloading port in this way.

The efficiency of the propulsion machinery of a dualfuel- electric LNG carrier is


approximately 41% and the efficiency of the electric power generation machinery
is around 44%, compared to 29% and 25% respectively for a steam turbine
installation. A two-stroke diesel engine installation will have a propulsion

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machinery efficiency of about 48% and the efficiency of the electric power
generation machinery will be about 41%, but will consume a substantially higher
amount of electric power due to the presence of the liquefaction plant. Adding the
cheaper fuel of the dual-fuel-electric LNG carrier to the equation, this solution
clearly excels in terms of operating costs (Fig. 8).

5.8.2 Environmental-Friendliness:When exclusively using natural and forced boil-off gas as fuel, the dual-fuel
electric solution shows unrivalled emission values (Fig. 9). All other machinery
alternatives suffer from the use of HFO, either used uniquely or in combination
with natural boil-off gas.

5.8.3 Safety:A Safety Concept for dual-fuel-electric machinery onboard LNG carriers has
been developed to make sure that the safety of the installation complies with
class and at least matches the safety of steam turbine installations. The recent
introduction of double-wall gas piping on the engine pipeline will further increase
the safety of the solution. With several potential customers and class, safety

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studies including hazard identification, FMEA and hazardous operations studies,


have been conducted to further validate the safety of the solution.

5.8.4 Reliability:The diesel engine has proven its reliability in various demanding marine
applications, such as cruise ships. The use of gas as compared to HFO further
enhances this inherited reliability.

5.8.5 Redundancy:Electric propulsion systems are in their essence highly redundant, as more or
less all primary functions of the system are distributed over more than one
component. The dual-fuel-electric installation features multiple generating sets,
potentially distributed over multiple engine rooms, has twin transformers and
converters, and features twin electric propulsion motors with double windings.

5.8.6 Maintainability:Case studies for various customers have shown that the required maintenance
on dual-fuel-electric installations can easily be carried out without affecting the
ships operational performance. Maintenance of dual-fuelelectric installations is
more costly than of steam turbine installation, but does no harm to the ships
operating economy.

5.8.7 Crewability:Dual-fuel-electric installations can be operated and maintained by diesel engine


crews. There is no need for crew members with exceptional skills or experience.

5.8.8 Others:The dual-fuel-electric installation provides excellent propulsion characteristics for


navigation in ice, due to the availability of full propeller torque at zero speed and
excellent manoeuvring characteristics. Dual-fuel-electric installations can easily
cope with the power requirements of dynamic positioning systems. This might
become a valuable feature, as an increasing amount of offshore LNG terminals is
envisaged.

5.9 Future operating profiles:When specifying propulsion machinery options for LNG carriers it is essential to
consider the differences in operating profiles, fleet configurations and shipping
routes. he basic case today is an approx. 138,000 m3 vessel with an operating
speed of around 19.5 knots and the corresponding power required at the
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propeller of about 27 MW. However, future operating profiles of LNG carriers will
require more flexibility from the power plant. Already there have been inquiries
about ships that would normally operate at about 15 knots, but have to be
capable of doing 19 knots on spot cargo trades. It is then very important that the
power plant is efficient also in part-load operation. The maximum required
electrical power for cargo pumping and other consumers is roughly 6 MW
whereas the minimum can be less than 1 MW. As stated previously, the energy
in the boil-off gas will vary considerably during the round voyage of an LNG
carrier. When converting the energy content available in the boil-off gas of the
above-mentioned size of LNG carrier into mechanical power at the propeller shaft
using modern dual-fuel engines, figures ranging from the 12 MW in the worst
case up to 25 MW at the best can be calculated for the laden voyage. In ballast,
the corresponding figures are typically about half, but can be even lower. Thus,
even in the best case the natural boil-off would not be enough to cope with the
energy consumption, and either forced boil-off gas or supplementary liquid fuel is
needed to make up the shortfall. The selection of supplementary fuel depends on
the result of a feasibility study taking into account not only the operating profile of
the ship but also oil price trends and the availability of bunkers of the correct
grade in the vicinity of the LNG terminals. One option might be not to use the
boil-off gas as fuel for propulsion power at all. Instead, this gas could be
reliquefied and returned back to the cargo tanks to be carried to the final
destination. Propulsion could then be based on diesel engines burning heavy fuel
oil, as in almost any other modern large cargo vessel today. Suitable
reliquefaction plant has been tested in marine conditions but the technology is
not yet considered mature. The plant would be quite expensive and imposes a
high electrical demand. Therefore, in addition to the technical risk, a
reliquefaction plant is very sensitive to the ratio of LNG to heavy fuel oil
prices.

5.10 Market Introduction:The first dual-fuel-electric ships running on LNG, Viking Energy and Stril Pioner,
are in operation since 2002 and the first dual-fuel-electric LNG carrier, Gaz de
France Energy, is currently nearing completion and is scheduled to enter
Commercial operation in November this year.

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CHAPTER 6

GAS TURBINE ALTERNATIVES


Gas turbine is, in essence, designed to burn gas. As electric drive is being
increasingly used and accepted, gas turbines are becoming more and more
potential as prime movers. When coupled to an exhaust heat utilising steam
turbine, fuel efficiency of such a so called COGES plant increases to a very
competitive level. Most gas turbines yield around 20..24 MW in COGES use,
thus requiring a booster diesel generator set to reach the power level
required in a contemporary large LNG carrier. Figure 3 presents a schematic
view of such a machinery.

Figure 3 Gas turbine option with two electrical motors for redundancy. Gas
turbine burns the boil-off

6.1 Aero-derivative Marine Gas Turbines:Aero-derivative gas turbines have entered the commercial marine propulsion
market in the 1990s. Before the 1990s, most marine gas turbine applications
were naval vessels, but there are some notorious exceptions. The most famous
is GTS Finnjet, commissioned in 1977, built by Wrtsil's Helsinki shipyard as
hull number 407. Two Pratt & Whitney FT4C-1D aero-derivative gas turbines give
her displacement hull with Swedish/Finnish Ice Class 1A Super a speed of 33.5
knots. After 25 years in the business, she still going strong and is very popular
with her passengers.
What makes a gas turbine suitable or even ideal for marine propulsion
applications?

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High output;
Compact dimensions;
Low weight;
High torque;
Low noise and vibrations;
Low emission;
Low lube oil consumption;
Low maintenance;
Rapid on-site engine module change-out;
Rapid engine exchange.

6.2 Advantages of Marine Aero-derivative Gas Turbines:6.2.1 Operation:


! Gas turbines do not emit black smoke during transient loads;
! Gas turbines pick up load very rapidly, at a rate of about 1 MW per
second;
! Turbines are "hands-off" machines, if the control system does not indicate
any problems, it does not need any maintenance activity. During start-up,
operation and shut-down, the gas turbine is operated through the turbine
control system, which controls fuel management, but also monitors turbine
condition. If any parameter exceeds pre-set limits, the turbine control
system will give and alarm and reduce turbine load to avoid damage. In
case of serious problems, the control system will shut down the engine.

6.2.2 Maintenance:
! Gas turbine control system monitors engine performance and condition
"on-line";
! "On-condition" maintenance avoids unnecessary scheduled maintenance,
replace what needs to be replaced;

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! Modular gas turbine construction allows for rapid exchange of engine


modules, avoiding lengthy on-site repairs;
! Gas turbine size and weight allows for a complete engine change-out onsite within hours, without dry-docking or extended stays in port;
! Gas turbine and spares can be air freighted worldwide.

6.2.3 Reliability and availability:


! Aero-derivative gas turbines provide the very high reliability (> 99.5%) and
availability (97.5%) associated with aero engines;

6.2.4 Environment:
!
!
!
!

Low NOx and SOx emissions;


Low particulates emission;
No visible smoke during transient loads;
No fuel sludge from heavy fuel oils.

6.2.5 Noise and vibration:


! Gas turbines are rotary machines, inherently low structure borne noise;
! Gas turbines packages feature an acoustic enclosure, reducing engine
room noise levels and improving the quality of the working environment in
the engine room;
! Resilient package mounting reduces structure borne noise even further;
! High pitched air borne noise is easily attenuated;
! Lower investment in air borne and structure borne noise insulation.

6.2.6 Vessel design:


! Low weight and compact dimension of gas turbine and ancillary systems
allows design freedom in terms of location of engine room in the vessel;
! Smaller engine room leaves more space for revenue making purposes;
! Low weight allows the engine room to be moved away from the bottom of
the vessel;
! Low noise and vibration levels improve crew and passenger comfort,
allowing engine room spaces to be located closer to accommodation
areas;

6.2.7 Propulsion plant design:


! Gas turbines have exhaust gas mass flow and temperature, which makes
exhaust gas heat recovery both technically and economically feasible.

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6.2.8 Installation:
! Gas turbine, control system and ancillaries are packaged on skids, ready
for installation in the building blocks in the shipyard, speeding up the
construction process;
! Gas turbine package with ancillaries are factory tested, reducing
commissioning time in the shipyard;
! Gas turbine packages and ancillaries are assembled in the factory by
specialized personnel, avoiding assembly problems and delays in the
shipyard;
! Gas turbines are air cooled, eliminating the need for elaborate high and
low temperature cooling water systems;
! Gas turbine lube oil is not exposed to the combustion process, resulting in
very low lube oil consumption and eliminating the need for extensive lube
oil conditioning systems;
! Gas turbines operate on MDO, obviating the need for fuel bunker heating,
fuel line tracing and fuel conditioning systems

6.3 Disadvantages of Marine Aero-derivative Gas Turbines:6.3.1 Thermal efficiency:


! Gas turbine thermal efficiency is lower than the thermal efficiency of
comparable diesel engines. Thermal efficiency of aero derivative gas
turbines in the 20 - 30 MW class ranges from 36.5 to 40%. This makes the
single cycle fuel consumption of a gas turbine about 20% higher than that
of a caparable diesel engine;
! Gas turbine thermal efficiency is proportional to gas turbine output.
Thermal efficiency of small gas turbines, in the 2 - 5 MW class, hardly
exceeds 30%;

6.3.2 Liquid fuel quality restrictions:]


! Gas turbines can operate on either gaseous fuel or liquid fuel or both
simultaneously, without any restriction in the ratio between fuels. However
there are some severe restrictions on the quality of the liquid fuel.
Vanadium and sulfur content should be kept within the specified limits in
order to avoid high temperature corrosion of the turbine blades, which
leads to loss of engine performance. In practice, the fuel specification
completely rule out the use of any residual fuel and the cheaper distillates
as well. ISO 8317-1996 Class F Marine Fuels MDO-DMA and DMX are
suitable, but DMA might be a bit high on Sulfur.

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6.3.3 Initial investments:


! Initial investment for a gas turbine engine in the 20 - 30 MW class is
approximately 15 - 20% higher than in diesel engines of comparable
output. For smaller gas turbines, especially derivatives of helicopter
engines, the price difference is even higher;
All the above reasons might spell doom for many a marine gas turbine project.
An rightly so, if the advantages do not offset the disadvantages of the use of gas
turbines, the vessel will be an economic disaster. When the first series of gas
turbines for cruise vessels were contracted in the late 1990s, some people
temporarily lost their sense of perspective. All kinds of projects traditionally
featuring diesels as prime movers, were suddenly re-engined with gas turbines of
all makes and sizes. None of them made it through the project phase. Many of
these projects failed because of the low thermal efficiency of smaller gas
turbines. Even projects involving large gas turbines failed, mainly because of the
high specific fuel consumption of the gas turbine and high fuel cost. With residual
fuels usually being between USD. 60 and USD. 100 cheaper per ton than MDO
and diesels being 20% more fuel efficient, single cycle gas turbines have a hard
time competing.

6.4 Gas Turbine Myths and Misunderstandings


In the marine community there are still a lot of myths and misunderstandings
about gas turbines.

Myth:
Gas turbines have very low torque and cannot be used in mechanical drive
applications.

Fact:
Gas turbines can develop a very high torque, because the gas generator is aerodynamically coupled to the free power turbine. This allows the gas generator to
spin up even when the free power turbine is stationary because moment of
inertia of the propeller. When the gas generator develops sufficient air flow, the
torque of the free power turbines overcomes the inertia of propeller.

Myth:
Gas turbines are unable to take instant load application.

Fact:
The design of the gas turbine, with the gas generator aero-dynamically coupled
to the free power turbine, lends itself very well to instant application of heavy
loads, which occur when a generator suddenly trips off-line. The speed of the

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free power turbine might drop momentarily, but the gas generator will generate
sufficient airflow to correct free power turbine speed almost instantly.

Myth:
Gas turbines only run on jet fuel.

Fact:
Gas turbines are perfectly happy to run on any liquid fuel available, as long as
the combustion properties are all right. Technically it is possible to burn well
seperated residual fuels. However, commonly available residual fuels have high
contents of Sulfur, Vanadium and alkali metals. The marine liquid fuel
specifications of the gas turbine manufacturers have been compiled to ensure
satisfactory hot section replacement intervals. Distillate fuels, such as MDO DMX
and DMA (ISO-8217:1996(E), Category ISO-F) are acceptable, provided the
Sulfur content is below 1.0%. Higher Sulfur and alkali metals content will reduce
hot section lifetime accordingly. Vanadium content is given as 0.5 ppm maximum
to reach a satisfactory lifetime. Higher Vanadium content will accellerate high
temperature corrosion of the turbine blades. The replacement cost of a
prematurely worn hot section will definitely offset the gains of using noncompliant fuels.

6.5 Marine Gas Turbine Applications


There are indeed some commercial marine applications in which gas turbines
perform very well:
Fast ferries:
Low weight and small
size of gas turbines,
as well as simple
arrangement
of
ancillary
systems,
leave more space for
revenue
making
purposes;
High gas turbine
output
makes
it
possible to satisfy
high speed required.
In some cases one
fast ferry can replace
two
conventional
ferries.

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Cruise vessels:
! Combined cycle operation reduces specific fuel consumption to more
competitive levels. Usually one gas turbine can service the power
requirements of the entire vessel;
! Lower engine room space requirements allow for an increase in
passenger capacity within the same dimensions;
! Low noise and vibration enhance passenger comfort;
! No visible smoke makes operations in Alaskan water possible;
! Low NOx and SOx emissions allow operations in environmentally
sensitive areas.

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CHAPTER 7

GAS TURBINE ELECTRIC DRIVE LNG CARRIER


The gas turbine electric drive power plant is the power plant that allows most
flexibility in the design and layout of the vessel. The gas turbine drives the
propeller shaft by way of an electric shaft. This arrangement allows the gas
turbine generator power plant to be located away from the tank top. In this case,
the power plant is housed in the superstructure, located over the mooring winch
deck. The engineroom size can therefore be reduced substantially, increasing
cargo capacity by approximately 19,000 cubic meter. The traditional LNG carrier
hull can be maintained, to minimize redesign costs.

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7.1 Gas turbine electric drive combine cycle propulsion


1 x Dual-fuel marine gas turbine generator, output 27 MWe;
1 x Steam turbine generator, output approximately 10 MWe;
1 x Exhaust gas boiler with supplementary firing and duct firing capabilities;
1 x Frequency controlled electric motor;
1 x FPP.

As can be seen in the fuel consumption and thermal efficiency diagram, the
thermal efficiency of the gas turbine electric drive power plant exceeds 50 % in
combined cycle operation. At operating conditions, the thermal efficiency is
approximately 48 %.
The free power turbine of the gas turbine drives the generator. The generator
feeds into the main switchboard. The main switchboard feeds all electric
consumers. The propeller is driven by a frequency controlled electric motor. The
exhaust gasses from the gas turbine raise steam in an exhaust gas boiler. This
steam is used to produce power in a 10 MWe steam turbine generator. The
steam turbine generator also feeds into the main switchboard.

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7.2 The advantages are:


High thermal efficiency;
Up to 13.8 % more cargo capacity;
Propulsion and power generation redundancy;
Dual-fuel capability;
No hull redesign cost;
FPP can be used without reversing gear;
Low maintenance;
Simplified engineroom arrangement, smaller steam system, smaller
cooling water system;
! Reduced installation and commissioning time in the shipyard through
factory assembled and tested package.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

7.3 The disadvantage are:


! Energy conversion losses in the electric drive system;
! Gas compressor required to supply gaseous fuel at 30 bar pressure to the
gas turbine. Parasitic load can go up to 2.3 MWe;
! More complex and expensive than mechanical drive;
! The operational profile of the power plant can be divided in a few distinct
service modes:

7.4 Normal cruising speed:


7.4.1 Loaded:
The gas turbine generator is the prime mover, using the available BOG as
primary fuel. Gas turbine exhaust gas heat is recovered in the boiler to generate
steam. The gas turbine generator and the steam turbine generator feed the
electric consumers from the main switchboard. The electric motor mounted on
the propeller shaft drives the propeller.
In ballast:
Heel scenario: The gas turbine generator is the prime mover, using the available
BOG as primary fuel. To make up the balance of the fuel requirements, extra
LNG has been left in the tanks to be regassified when required. Gas turbine
exhaust gas heat is recovered in the boiler to generate steam. The gas turbine
generator and the steam turbine generator feed the electric consumers from the
main switchboard. The electric motor mounted on the propeller shaft drives the
propeller;
Heel + liquid fuel scenario: The gas turbine generator is the prime mover, using
the available BOG as primary fuel. To make up the balance of the fuel
requirements, liquid fuel (MDO) will be suppleted. Gas turbine exhaust gas heat
is recovered in the boiler to generate steam. The gas turbine generator and the

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steam turbine generator feed the electric consumers from the main switchboard.
The electric motor mounted on the propeller shaft drives the propeller;
Liquid fuel scenario: The gas turbine generator is the prime mover, using liquid
fuel as primary fuel. Gas turbine exhaust gas heat is recovered in the boiler to
generate steam. The gas turbine generator and the steam turbine generator feed
the electric consumers from the main switchboard. The electric motor mounted
on the propeller shaft drives the propeller.
7.4.2 Maneuvering:
The gas turbine generator is the prime mover, using the available BOG as
primary fuel. The gas turbine generator and the steam turbine generator feeds
into the main switchboard. The main switchboard supplies all electric consumers,
including 4 MWe propulsion power to the propeller and 2 MWe bowthruster load;
Should the gas turbine generator fail during maneuvering, can the steam turbine
generator pick up the propulsion load. Steam for the steam turbine generator will
be raised by firing the boiler on either BOG or liquid fuel or a mixture of both;
Should the steam turbine generator fail during maneuvering, can the gas turbine
generator supply the electric consumers through the main switchboard.
7.4.3 Harbour load:
The steam turbine generator is supplying the electric consumers through the
main switchboard. Steam is being raised by firing the boiler on liquid fuel.
7.4.4 Cargo discharge:
The steam turbine generator is supplying the cargo pumps and the electric
consumers through the main switchboard. Steam is being raised by firing the
boiler on liquid fuel.
7.4.5 Emergency situations:
Should the gas turbine generator fail during the voyage, can the steam turbine
generator provide approximately 8 MWe to the propeller shaft through the electric
motor on the propeller shaft. Steam is being raised by firing the boiler on either
BOG, BOG and liquid fuel or liquid fuel only, depending on availability. 8 MW
propulsion power should keep the vessel maneuverable and she can proceed to
the nearest port for repairs, should it prove impossible to remedy the problems at
sea.
Should the steam turbine generator fail during the voyage, can the gas turbine
generator supply the electric consumers through the main switchboard. With just
over 4 MWe necessary for the electric consumers at sea, sufficient propulsion
power remains to ensure good seakeeping and minimize delays in the schedule.
If the problems can't be corrected at sea, spares and replacement equipment can
be loaded at the next port of call.

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7.5 Gas Turbine Electric Podded Drive LNG Carrier


The present LNG carrier is radically redesigned to exploit the full advantages of
combined cycle gas turbine electric drive propulsion system. The engine room in
the present design has been removed to make space for an extra cargo tank and
MDO bunkers. The gas turbine generator, the steam turbine generator, the
exhaust gas boiler, the condensers, the steam system and fuel handling systems
have been moved to a dedicated superstructure on the main deck, over the
mooring winch deck. Similar mooring deck arrangements can be found on cruise
vessels and post-panamax container vessels.

One or two podded drive propulsors are mounted beneath the hull to replace the
FPP and the rudder. The podded drives place the main propulsion motors
outside the vessel, saving space inside the vessel for revenue making purposes.
Since there is no need to taper in the hull towards the stern boss, the parallel
midship is extended to the transom. The keel gradually rises aft of frame 70 to
provide a smooth flow of water to the podded drives. Without any taper, the hull
frames are U-shaped and consequentially hull construction is much simpler and
cheaper

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.An extra cargo tank between frame 71 and 30 could increase cargo capacity by
up to 24,000 cubic meter. Aft of cargo tank 5 between the cofferdam and the aft
peak bulkhead MDO bunker can be located, with a total capacity of up to 5,200
cubic meter.

7.6 Gas turbine electric drive combine cycle propulsion


! 1 x Dual-fuel marine gas turbine generator, output 27 MWe;
! 1 x Steam turbine generator, output approximately 10 MWe;
! 1 x Exhaust gas boiler with supplementary firing and duct firing
capabilities;
! 1 x Frequency controlled electric motor;
! 1 (or 2) x Podded drive(s).
As can be seen in the fuel consumption and thermal efficiency diagram, the
thermal efficiency of the gas turbine electric drive power plant exceeds 50 % in
combined cycle operation. At operating conditions, the thermal efficiency is
approximately 48 %.

The free power turbine of the gas turbine drives the generator. The generator
feeds into the main switchboard. The main switchboard feeds all electric
consumers. The propeller is driven by a frequency controlled electric motor. The
exhaust gasses from the gas turbine raise steam in an exhaust gas boiler. This
steam is used to produce power in a 10 MWe steam turbine generator. The
steam turbine generator also feeds into the main switchboard.

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7.6.1 The advantages are:


High thermal efficiency;
Up to 17.4 % more cargo capacity;
Increase propulsion efficiency through podded drives;
Increased maneuverability;
Propulsion and power generation redundancy;
Dual-fuel capability;
Lower hull construction cost;
Low maintenance;
Simplified engineroom arrangement, smaller steam system, smaller
cooling water system;
! Reduced installation and commissioning time in the shipyard through
factory assembled and tested package.

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

7.6.2 The disadvantage are:


Energy conversion losses in the electric drive system;
Gas compressor required to supply gaseous fuel at 30 bar pressure to the gas
turbine. Parasitic load can go up to 2.3 MWe;
More complex and expensive than mechanical drive;

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The operational profile of the power plant can be divided in a few distinct service
modes:

7.7 Normal cruising speed:


7.7.1 Loaded:
The gas turbine generator is the prime mover, using the available BOG as
primary fuel. Gas turbine exhaust gas heat is recovered in the boiler to generate
steam. The gas turbine generator and the steam turbine generator feed the
electric consumers from the main switchboard. The electric motor mounted on
the propeller shaft drives the propeller.
7.7.2 In ballast:
Heel scenario: The gas turbine generator is the prime mover, using the available
BOG as primary fuel. To make up the balance of the fuel requirements, extra
LNG has been left in the tanks to be regassified when required. Gas turbine
exhaust gas heat is recovered in the boiler to generate steam. The gas turbine
generator and the steam turbine generator feed the electric consumers from the
main switchboard. The electric motor mounted on the propeller shaft drives the
propeller; Heel + liquid fuel scenario: The gas turbine generator is the prime
mover, using the available BOG as primary fuel. To make up the balance of the
fuel requirements, liquid fuel (MDO) will be suppleted. Gas turbine exhaust gas
heat is recovered in the boiler to generate steam. The gas turbine generator and
the steam turbine generator feed the electric consumers from the main
switchboard. The electric motor mounted on the propeller shaft drives the
propeller; Liquid fuel scenario: The gas turbine generator is the prime mover,
using liquid fuel as primary fuel. Gas turbine exhaust gas heat is recovered in the
boiler to generate steam. The gas turbine generator and the steam turbine
generator feed the electric consumers from the main switchboard. The electric
motor mounted on the propeller shaft drives the propeller.
7.7.3 Maneuvering:
The gas turbine generator is the prime mover, using the available BOG as
primary fuel. The gas turbine generator and the steam turbine generator feeds
into the main switchboard. The main switchboard supplies all electric consumers,
including 4 MWe propulsion power to the propeller and 2 MWe bowthruster load;
Should the gas turbine generator fail during maneuvering, can the steam turbine
generator pick up the propulsion load. Steam for the steam turbine generator will
be raised by firing the boiler on either BOG or liquid fuel or a mixture of both;
Should the steam turbine generator fail during maneuvering, can the gas turbine
generator supply the electric consumers through the main switchboard.

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7.7.4 Harbour load:


The steam turbine generator is supplying the electric consumers through the
main switchboard. Steam is being raised by firing the boiler on liquid fuel.
7.7.5 Cargo discharge:
The steam turbine generator is supplying the cargo pumps and the electric
consumers through the main switchboard. Steam is being raised by firing the
boiler on liquid fuel.
7.7.6 Emergency situations:
Should the gas turbine generator fail during the voyage, can the steam turbine
generator provide approximately 8 MWe to the propeller shaft through the electric
motor on the propeller shaft. Steam is being raised by firing the boiler on either
BOG, BOG and liquid fuel or liquid fuel only, depending on availability. 8 MW
propulsion power should keep the vessel maneuverable and she can proceed to
the nearest port for repairs, should it prove impossible to remedy the problems at
sea.
Should the steam turbine generator fail during the voyage, can the gas turbine
generator supply the electric consumers through the main switchboard. With just
over 4 MWe necessary for the electric consumers at sea, sufficient propulsion
power remains to ensure good seakeeping and minimize delays in the schedule.
If the problems can't be corrected at sea, spares and replacement equipment can
be loaded at the next port of call.

7.8 Increasing LNG Carrier Cargo Capacity


The current cargo capacity of 138,000 cubic meter can be increased substantially
when the engine room bulkhead and the aft cofferdam are moved further aft.
Changing the overall length or the draft is not recommended, as some major
LNG ports have size restrictions. Changing these parameters would impair the
flexibility of the vessel. Gas turbine propulsion will allow a rearrangement of the
engine room, since the gas turbine is much smaller than the steam turbine and
its steam boilers.

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Moving the ER bulkhead aft from frame 71 to frame 45 extends the cargo hold by
20.8 meter. If the gain in gargo hold length is distributed over the four cargo
tanks, an increase of 19,000 cubic meter in cargo capacity can be realised. The
advantage of this version of the LNG carrier is that it can accommodate both gas
turbine electric and gas turbine mechanical drive. The hull form does not have to
be changed, so the redesign costs are minimal.

A total rearrangement of the LNG carrier would yield even better results. Cargo
capacity would increase by 24,000 cubic meter over the standard design, while
the increase thermal efficiency of the combined cycle gas turbine power plant
brings fuel cost down by 40%. Increased propulsion efficiency from the podded
drive system would bring fuel consumption down even further. Newbuiding cost
can be reduced because of the simplified construction of the aft ship, without
complex curves around the propeller boss.

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CHAPTER 8

RELIQIFICATION TECHNOLOGY
While reliquefaction is widely used in gas handling on land, it has been used on
board ship so far only on LPG carriers.Recently, the technology for reliquefying
LNG on board ship has been matured and commercialised.
The present analysis is based on the Moss Reliquefaction, sold worldwide by
Hamworthy KSE (Ref. [3]). The patented system (Moss RS) for reliquefying boiloff gas, establishes a solution for pumping LNG back to the tanks and selling
more LNG to the buyers of gas.
The boil-off gas reliquefaction concept is based on a closed nitrogen cycle
extracting heat from the boil-off gas. Several novel features such as separation
and removal of incondensable components have resulted in a compact system
with low power consumption. The concept has the following technical merits:
The nitrogen in the LNG boil-off gas (BOG) is not reliquefied; this
results in reduced nitrogen in the tanks during the voyage, better
control of tank pressure and lower power requirement for the RS
system.
The system uses only proven components with extensive references
from air-separation and peak-shaving plants world-wide.
The system is prefabricated on skids for easy installation and hook-up.
The system has automatic capacity control.
The system can be stopped when the cargo pumps are in operation.
This eliminates the need for extra generator capacity.
During ballast voyage, the cargo tank temperature can be maintained
by spraying reliquefied LNG back into the cargo tanks.
The system must be installed with 100% redundancy.
No extra personnel are required for operation and maintenance. The
process can be described as follows:
The LNG boil-off is compressed by the low duty (LD) compressor
(BOG compressor), and sent directly to the socalled cold box. The cold box in
which the boil-off is reliquefied is cooled by a closed refrigeration loop (Brayton
cycle). Nitrogen is the working medium. Fig. 21 shows the standard Moss RS
reliquefaction system.
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Standard Moss RS reliquefaction system

8.1 BOIL-OFF CYCLE:The cargo cycle consists of an LD compressor, a plate-fin cryogenic exchanger,
a separator and an LNG return pump. Boil-off is evacuated from the LNG tanks
by means of a conventional centrifugal low duty com-pressor. The vapour is
compressed to 4.5 bar and cooled at this pressure to approximately 160C in a
plate-fin cryogenic heat exchanger.
This ensures condensation of hydrocarbons to LNG. The fraction of nitro-gen
present in the boil-off that cannot be condensed at this condition remains as gas
bubbles in the LNG. Phase separation takes place in the liquid separator. From
the separator, the LNG is dumped back to the storage tanks, while he nitrogenrich gas phase is discharged (to atmosphere or burnt in an oxidizer).

8.2 NITROGEN CYCLE:The cryogenic temperature inside the cold box is produced by means
of a nitrogen compression-expansion cycle, shown in Fig. Nitrogen gas at a
pressure of 13.5 bar is compressed to 57 bar in a 3-stage centrifugal
compressor. The gas is cooled by water (seawater or indirect) after each stage.
After the last cooler, the gas is led to the warm part of the cryogenic heat exhanger where it is pre-cooled to about -110C and then expanded to a pressure
of 14.5 bar in the expander. The gas leaves the expander at about -163C and is
then introduced into the cold part of the cryogenic heat exchanger where it
cools and reliquefies the boil-off gas to LNG.

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Nitrogen compressor/expander
The nitrogen then continues through the warm part of the cryogenic heat
exchanger before it is returned to the suction side of the 3-stage compressor.
The N2-compressor/expander unit is three-stage integrated gear centrifugal
compressor with one expander stage. The unit has a gear with 4 pinions where
each of the 4 wheels is coupled to a separate pinion. The result is that the
expander work goes directly into the gearbox and relieves the electric motor.
The advantages of this solution are:
More compact design
Reduced cost
Improved control of the refrigeration
Reduced power consumption.

8.3 CONTROL SYSTEM:Generally, the temperature in the nitrogen loop decides the quantity of N2 in the
coolant circuit. Increasing or decreasing the amount of nitrogen in the loop
changes the cooling capacity. The amount is changed by injecting or withdrawing
nitrogen from the receiver. If the cooling capacity is too high, the inlet expander
temperature will decrease. The control valve to the receiver at the compressors
discharge will open to withdraw the nitrogen from the main loop.
Correspondingly, if the cooling capacity is too low, the inlet expander
temperature will increase. The control valve from the receiver to the compressor
suction side will open to inject nitrogen into the main loop.
The relationship between cooling capacity and pressure changes is based on the
fact that a turbo compressor is a constant volume flow machine. When the

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suction pressure is changing, the mass flow is changing and, correspondingly,


the cooling capacity. The pressure ratio for the compressor is constant and
independent of the suction pressure. Even if the cooling capacity is reduced, the
outlet expander temperature will be nearly the same.
The BOG cycle is an independent loop. The cargo tank pressure is kept
approximately constant by varying the mass flow through the compressor. The
boil-off compressor will be a two-stage centrifugal compressor with diffuser guide
vanes (DGV) for controlling the capacity. There is DGV on both stages, and they
work in parallel, controlled by the same signal.

8.4 REDUNDENCY: Redundancy is required by the International Classification Society


Association (IACS), as discussed later. The requirement is fulfilled if
one of the following options is installed:
Thermal oxidizer or flare system capable of burning the maximum boiloff rate.
Two 100% reliquefaction plant with one cold box, comprising the
following:
Two BOG-compressor units (twostage centrifugal compressor) Two N2compressor/ expander units (three-stage integrated gear cen- trifugal
compressor with one expander stage)
o
o
o
o

One cold box


One LNG phase separator
One LNG forced return pump
Auxiliary systems

Which one to operate of the two BOGcompressor units and N2-compressor/


expander units can be freely chosen by operating the applicable valves. Changeover of equipment is done manually, and must be done only when the machinery
is shut down. Simultaneous parallel operation of the equipment will not be
possible.
As the reliability of todays steam turbine driven LNG carriers is considered high,
an alternative system must not deteriorate the availability of the LNG carriers.
The reliquefaction system therefore only uses proven components first class,
high quality with extensive references. The low-duty compressors in the RS
system are the same as used on all LNG carriers today. The refrigeration cycle
is in operation on the LNG carrier S/S LNG Jamal, nd the 3-stage compressor
with expander is operating on FPSOs and in onshore process plants.

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The proposed cold box (plate fin heat exchanger) is widely used in onshore
cryogenic installations. An availability analysis concludes 99.98 % availability,
which is at the same level or better than ship machinery in general.

8.5 LIQUIFICATION PLANT:Hamworthy KSE was awarded the contract by the Norwegian gas distribution
company Gasnor in October 2001. The LNG production capacity is 60 ton/ day
(2500kg/hr), which corresponds to the boil-off rate on traditional size LNG
carriers. This plant uses the same type of cooling cycle (Brayton) and control
prin-ciples as the reliquefaction system for LNG carriers. The same 3-stage N2
compressor with expander and the same type of cold box that will be used on
LNG Carriers are also installed.
However, as the plant is onshore and the feed gas comes from the gas pipelines
from the offshore fields in the North Sea, this plant needs additional equipment
and systems.
The plant shown in Fig thus consists of the following basic parts:
Natural gas dehydration unit
Natural gas CO2 removal unit
Nitrogen cooling circuit (same as proposed for LNG carriers)
Main liquefier (cold box) with LNG receiver (similar type as proposed for
LNG carriers)
LNG storage tank and truck loading station.
Natural gas from the high-pressure feed line is reduced in pressure down to 120
barg and dehydrated down to a H2O content of 1 ppm. The dry feed gas is
further reduced in pressure down to 52 barg prior to removal of CO2 down to a
level of 50 ppm.
Liquefaction is accomplished at about 50 bar abs against cold nitrogen gas,
which is cooled in a single-expansion cycle with three compressor stages and
one expander stage. The heaviest gas fractions are separated out and the gas
liquefies in the lower-mid section of the cold box.
The liquid is sub-cooled in the bottom section and led to the LNG flash drum via
a valve, where the pressure is reduced to 0.5 barg, and the LNG is sent to a
storage tank. The system is equipped to give a variable production rate by
adjusting the mass flow of nitrogen. The first LNG was produced on this plant on
March 15, 2003.

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LNG carriers, like oil tankers, are not permitted to immobilize their propulsion
machinery while in port and port areas. Hence, redundancy is required. For the
steam ship, redundancy is considered fulfilled by having two boilers, whereas no
redundancy is required for the single steam turbine, propeller shaft and propeller.
For diesel engines, which require more maintenance on a routine basis than
steam turbines, either a multi-engine configuration or an alternative propulsion
power supply possibility for a single engine configuration is required. Shuttle
tankers in the North Sea are equipped with twin low speed engines and twin
propellers. This ensured that approximately half of the propulsion power

Redundancy Considerations for Reliquefaction Plant for LNG Carriers


The International Association of (marine) Classification Societies (IACS)
redundancy considerations for a reliquefaction plant for LNG carriers are as
stipulated in Fig. 24. With the ME- I engine, the configuration shown in Fig. 5,
comprising one reliquefaction unit, one high pressure compressor and one
oxidizer, will comply with redundancy requirements and offer full fuel
flexibility. Redundant low speed engine propulsion concepts, as outlined above,
ensure that sufficient power is available for safe navigation and, for the twin
engine concept with completely separated engine rooms, even an additional
margin towards any damage is obtained. For LNG carriers, a twin engine
configuration is proposed to alleviate any possible doubt on reliability and
redundancy. The twin-engine configuration is shown in Fig. 25.

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CHAPTER 9

VOYAGE- ANALYSIS & PERFORMANCE


9.1 SELECTION OF ALTERNATIVES
The feasibility of gas-diesel engines for propulsion and electric power generation
onboard LNG carriers was studied by engine builders some ten years ago. The
need for gas compression turned out to be a too high burden for the operating
economy of the ship. The quantifiable characteristics of the other alternatives
were compared using a specially developed comparison tool, whereas their nonquantifiable characteristics were
discussed and compared together with major LNG carrier owners, operators,
managers and shipyards over the past few years. When comparing the
operational economy of the various alternatives, it is important to take the whole
machinery installation into account. Two-stroke diesel engines have high
efficiency, but the need to reliquefy the boil-off gas gives installations featuring
this type of engines a higher total energy consumption. The most attractive
alternative to the traditional steam turbine installation turned out to be dual-fuelelectric machinery. As a runner up but at clear distance to dual fuel- electric
machinery, an installation featuring twin two-stroke engines, each in direct-drive
to a fixed-pitch propeller, a reliquefaction plant, and a group of fourstroke diesel
generating sets emerged.

9.2 ONE-TIME INVESTMENT COSTS


To determine the difference in one-time investment costs, cost of relevant
machinery components are added up. The calculation includes components like
prime mover, boiler
plant,
reduction
gear,
shaftline,
propeller, and so
forth.
Calculation
reveals, that the
three
alternative
machineries all cost
less initially, than
the
steammechanical
machinery. Figure 5
presents
these
onetime machinery
investment costs.
Figure 5 One-time machinery investment costs

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As the graph indicates, the novel machineries investment cost is around 3.7
MUSD less, than the steam-mechanical machinerys investment cost. This
represents an about 15..30% reduction in machinery investment cost. This cost
difference can be amortized to an economic lifetime of 20 years, with an 8%
opportunity cost for money. Resulting is an annual capital cost difference
between 320 000 and 650 000 USD, in favour of the novel machineries. To put
this investment cost difference into perspective in the ship scale, large LNG
carriers have recently been contracted at prices of 160..170 MUSD. In ship scale
the investment cost difference is thus about 2..4%.

9.3

RECURRING VARIABLE COSTS

Variable costs are usually divided into two different sub-categories, operating
costs and voyage costs. Operating costs are semi-variable, being incurred by the
vessel being kept operational. These costs can only be avoided by laying up the
vessel. Operating costs consist, mainly, of manning costs, insurance premiums,
annual small repairs and maintenance, various stores and lubricating oils.
Operating costs vary from ship to ship, and operator to operator, but on an
average, annual operating costs can be assumed to be around 3.2 MUSD for a
large, contemporary LNG carrier. Voyage costs, on the other hand, are truly
variable costs. They are voyagedependant, and incurred by the actual voyage.
Voyage costs include fuel oil costs, pilotage, fairway and canal dues and port
changes. Voyage costs are very much dependant on bunker prices, cruising
speed, boil-off rate and operating route, just to mention few, but can here be
assumed to be about 4.8 MUSD per annum. Thus for reference all recurring
annual variable costs can be calculated to sum up to about 8.0 MUSD.

Figure 6 Recurring annual variable cost, versus route length, presented as


difference to the steam-mechanical machinery
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However, the only relevant differences between the four options are in their
respective machineries. It would thus be fair to assume, that the majority of
operational costs, as well as some voyage costs, like pilotage, port dues etc, are
equal for all machineries. The only differing variable costs thus are, in fact,
incurred by the choice of machinery. Figure 6 presents the three novel
machineries annual variable costs. The comparison is presented as a difference
to steam turbines costs, so it does not indicate an absolute cost level, but
relevant.
The main difference comes from fuel oil costs. Lubricating and cylinder oil costs
are practically nil for both steam and gas turbines, but are becoming relevant for
medium speed, and especially for slow speed diesels. There are also small
differences in maintenance costs, but these differences are rather insignificant.
When compared to the estimated annual operating and voyage cost sum up of
8.0 MUSD, both diesel-electrical and gas turbine machineries seem to be able to
yield around 9% savings.

9.4 WHAT AFFECTS THE VARIABLE COSTS?


Variable costs are, naturally, very much dependant on boundary conditions,
which are applied in calculations. But what happens, if some of the boundary
conditions change? This is a question, which is important from the operators
point of view, as the operator can only affect some of the boundary conditions.
Some prevailing boundary conditions, like price of bunker and value of LNG are,
from the operators point of view, given.

9.4.1 Operating route


LNG is transported over very varying distances. Its way below 1000 nautical
miles from Algeria to the other side of the Mediterranean, while from Persian Gulf
into the Far East it is well over 6000 nautical miles. Length of the LNG trading
routes thus varies quite widely today, and maybe even more in the future. Short
routes of course have relatively more port time, as well as time spent
maneuvering and cruising at slow speeds. In long hauls the full speed, open sea
leg is emphasized. One could thus expect, that length of the operating route
might play a role in machinery selection. But, as Figure 6 shows us, length of the
operating route does not really have relevance. The calculation was done for
three routes, representing lengths of about 1700, 3800, and 6500 nautical miles.
Even though at slow speeds the steam and gas turbines go down in efficiency,
while diesels do not, there are no noticeable differences in the end results. This
might necessarily not be the case in very short routes, from 300 to 1000 nm,
where the full speed leg is really small. But, at least from 1700 nm upwards, the
length of the route does not play a role in machinery selection.

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9.4.2 Fuel flexibility


Fuel flexibility means the ability for the machinery to utilise varying proportions of
bunker and LNG. Depending on the tank insulation and ambient conditions,
among other things, boil-off equals 40..60% of the ships total fuel input. The
remaining 40..60% of fuel input is usually provided with bunker. But if bunker
price is very high, or if LNG is valued very low, it might prove more economical to
force additional boil-off to feed the machinery. Under such market conditions, the
most economical operating mode would thus be to have LNG input representing
100% of total fuel input. Fuel flexibility is therefore quite important from the
operators point of view. When an LNG ship is operated for 30 years, or even
longer, it is vital, that fuel costs can be minimised, by switching to the most
economical fuel, following changes in market conditions. Steam-mechanical
machinery has the ultimate fuel flexibility. Steam turbine can be equipped to LNG
fuel inputs from 0% to 100%, and the rest of the fuel input can be the cheapest
bunker available. This is a clear advantage of the steam turbine machinery, as, in
fact, the actual boil-off rate varies following the ambient conditions. Steam turbine
has no problem in consuming all the boil-off there may be.
Gas turbines can here roughly be divided into two categories. First there are the
aero-derivative gas turbines, which use clean distillate fuels like MGO as their
liquid fuel. Then there are industrial gas turbines, which are able to burn heavier
and cheaper intermediate fuels, such as IF30 or even IF180. Due to the
differences in liquid fuel, these two types of gas turbines have differing operating
economies. HFO-burning gas turbine has the second best fuel flexibility, being
able to utilise LNG for 0% to 80% of total fuel input. This applies to gas turbines,
which have their COGES cycle output around 22 MW. This LNG input range is
wide enough for the gas turbine to be able to take all the boil-off which may be
coming. At least 20% of fuel input must nevertheless be HFO, since this
machinery is equipped with a booster diesel engine.
MGO-burning gas turbines have the disadvantage of having to use rather
expensive liquid fuel. For this reason it is usually not liquid fuel, which is used for
additional fuel input, but forced boil-off. In such a case the amount of LNG input
is fixed at gas turbines total fuel input, representing about 80% of total fuel input.
This machinery has, from the economical point of view, no fuel flexibility at all.
Total lack of fuel flexibility also applies to the re-liquefying diesel-mechanical
machinery. This machinery uses 0% LNG as fuel input, and since the
primemovers can not utilise LNG, the amount can not be changed. As long as
the re-liquefaction plant is dimensioned correctly, it has the capacity to re-liquefy
all the boil-off coming from the tanks. This machinery burns 100% bunker, no
matter what its price in relation to LNG is. Diesel-electrical machinerys LNG
input is also fixed. It is fixed at the amount of gas-burning diesel engines, while
HFO input is fixed at the amount of single fuel diesel engines. This machinery
must thus burn the pre-determined amounts of LNG and bunker, no matter what
their prices are. Actually, since the amount of boil-off can vary, gas-diesel
capacity must either be overdimensioned for normal use, or the occasional
excess boil-off gas must be disposed of by burning it.

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9.4.3 Value of LNG


Of course, fuel flexibility has no meaning, unless the value of LNG, or price of
HFO, changes. Actually, value of LNG is quite a complex issue. This is also, one
could claim, the essential issue with respect to voyage costs, and subsequently
to machinery selection. This is thus a question, which deserves some attention.
As mentioned, boil-off gas is natural in each LNG carrier. Quantity of boil-off is
not, however, dependant on the choice of machinery. First thing to note here is
thus, that since the amount of natural boil-off is equal with all four machineries, it
can be considered as free source of power in comparison. But, the fourth
optional machinery, based on two stroke diesel engines, can not burn boil-off.
Instead, the boil-off gas is re-liquefied, and put back into the cargo tanks.
Because no boil-off is burnt, this machinery naturally burns much more liquid fuel
than all the others. But, on the other hand, it is also able to deliver more cargo
inside the same cargo tanks, than the alternativemachinery- including ships. To
be able to compare this option justly, reliquefied boil-off gas must be assigned
with some value. To highlight the importance of boil-off valuation, Figure 7
presents compositions of relevant variable costs for each four machineries.

Figure 7 Composition of relevant variable costs


The figure also includes two COGES machineries. These refer to gas turbine
based machineries, which can utilise different kinds of liquid fuels. As the amount
of natural boil-off is not enough to give most gas turbines a 100% fuel input,
back-up fuel must be added. If the gas turbine can utilise HFO, it is used. But if
the gas turbine can only utilise MGO, it is, from economical point of view, too
expensive to be burnt. In such a case the 100% fuel input for gas turbine is
provided with additional LNG, which is forcefully vaporised. Such a ship will end
up delivering less cargo than its counterparts, and the value of forced boil-off is
thus added to its variable costs. In the figure above, LNG is assigned an energy-

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equivalent value to HFO. This means, that the energy contained within LNG is
valued at the same price, as the energy contained in HFO. Looking at the figure it
is also evident, that value of LNG is the key issue for profitability of re-liquefying
technology, as well as for the MGO-burning gas turbine. If energy contained in
LNG is more valuable than energy contained in HFO, it is good business not to
burn it, but to re-liquefy, and to sell it at a higher price. But what is the right price
of LNG? Unlike for example oil, natural gas or LNG does not really have a world
market price, as such. Different buyers get their gas at different prices,
representing varying production costs and differing competitive environments.
Usually in long term contracts the gas price is pegged to a basket of alternative
fuels, such as oil and coal. One way of determining the value of LNG is by
estimating it through the concept of opportunity costs. If LNG would not be
forced, it could be used in the buyers power plant for power production. This
would mean, that the power producer needs to use less alternative fuels, such as
crude oil, in his power production. In opportunity costing LNGs price could thus
be set to the crude oils energy-equivalent price. With the crude price of 28
USD/barrel, this would translate into an LNG price of approximately 201
USD/tonne. Because natural gas is, at least in part, used due to its
environmental merits, an environmental premium could be added to this value.
But, it is often the producer of gas, who arranges the transportation. For the
producer, LNG is not that expensive, as he could calculate it only to be worth the
gas production and liquefying costs. At its very lowest, production and liquefying
costs of LNG equal about 91 USD/tonne. In a medium sized offshore production
plant, on the other hand, the production and liquefying costs sum up to around
147 USD/tonne. Table 1 summarises some of the alternative aspects into the
value of LNG.

Table: Some different aspects into the value of LNG


It would thus appear, that the value of re-liquefied, or forced boil-off, can be
argued to be anything between 90..250 USD/tonne. LNG producer could use
values of 90..150 USD/tonne, depending on market conditions, availability of
LNG supply, and accounting policies. If all produced LNG could be sold at a good
price, true opportunity costing values up to 230 USD/tonne should be used. On
the other hand, LNG consumer would most likely be more correct in using values
between 200..230 USD/tonne. Value of LNG is thus quite of an ambiguous
concept.
But has this any relevance with respect to annual variable costs? Figure 8
answers this question by showing the relationship between annual variable costs,
and the value of LNG. The graph shows differences to the steam mechanical

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machinery, which is represented by the x-axis, and calculation is based on HFO


price of 114 USD/tonne.

Figure 8 Recurring annual variable cost, versus the value of LNG,


presented as difference to the steam-mechanical machinery
The diesel-electrical machinery maintains its advantage over steam turbine at all
LNG values. When LNG is valued below 125 USD/tonne, or 110% of HFO per
tonne price, diesel-electrical machinery becomes less economical. Below this
price it is more economical to burn LNG, rather than HFO. Unfortunately dieselelectrical machinerys LNG input can not be increased beyond the installed
capacity of its gas burning engines. Steam turbine can be operated entirely on
LNG, if need be, and will thus be more competitive in low LNG values. Gas
turbine machinery, which can utilise HFO as its liquid fuel, behaves much the
same way as the diesel-electrical machinery. Below LNG value of 125
USD/tonne, or 110% of HFO price, the back-up HFO is no longer fed into the gas
turbine, but replaced with additional forced boil-off. This improves its economics
a little bit in lower LNG values, but there will still be a HFOburning booster diesel
engine, which can not use LNG. The MGO-burning gas turbine has to force
additional boil-off constantly. This machinerys optimum operating point is thus at
125 USD/tonne, or 110% of HFO price, since higher LNG prices do not favour
boil-off forcing. This machinery finally loses its advantage over steam turbine at
break-even LNG value of 175 USD/tonne, or 155% of HFO price. As one could
expect, re-liquefying is good business, if LNG is valued high. Break-even LNG
value with respect to steam turbine is at 120 USD/tonne, or 105% of HFO price.
Re-liquefying becomes the most economical option beyond LNG value of 155
USD/tonne, or 135% of HFO price.

9.4.4 Price of HFO


And what happens, if bunker price changes? Actually, it is only relevant, what is
the value of LNG in relation to the price of HFO. This is what determines, if it is

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more economical to burn HFO or LNG. Figure 8 has been calculated with a HFO
price of 114 USD/tonne, but the results could as well be presented in a more
universal scale of LNG/HFO price ratio. Additionally, when the one-time
investment costs are amortized to the ships expected economic lifetime,
recurring annual variable costs can be added to it. Figure 9 presents these
results, applying 20 years and an 8% cost of capital to amortize.

Figure 9 Total annual cost, versus the ratio of LNG value and HFO price,
presented as difference to the steam-mechanical machinery
These results, presented in Figure 8 and in Figure 9, have been arrived to by
assuming, that all the fuel flexibility, which is available in a machinery, is utilised
to its maximum extent.

9.4.5 Membrane or Moss?


LNG ships are usually divided into two subtypes, according to their cargo
containment system. Ships having their cargo contained in Technigaz or Gaz
Transport systems, are commonly referred to as membrane-type tankers,
whereas ships with their cargo carried in large, spherical tanks, are referred to as
Moss-type tankers. Ships of the two subtypes are distinctly different from one
another. Moss-type ships enclose a larger volume due to their main-deckpenetrating spherical tanks. Moss-type ships have also wider beam, than their
membrane-type counterparts. Despite these differences, all results presented in
this paper are equally applicable to ships of both subtypes. Having said this,
there are still some differences between the subtypes. Moss-type ships have
wide beams, their cargo contained in spherical tanks, and typically quite spacious
engine rooms. In these Moss-type ships a more compact machinery does not
enable any reductions in main dimensions, nor any increase in cargo volume. In
an membrane-type ship, on the other hand, a more compact engine room would
enable an increase in cargo space, or, alternatively, a reduction in main

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dimensions. Quite compact all-aft engine room can be achieved with electrical
podded propulsors. These propulsors of course require the ship to have an
electricity producing main machinery.

9.4.6 Single or twin propulsor?


One of the acknowledged benefits of a twin screw design is its improved
redundancy. Diesel-electric and COGES machineries, as well as the
dieselmechanical re-liquefying machinery, can all be easily built as either single
or twin propulsor ships. If the steam-mechanical ship would be built twin screw, it
would be much more costly. In practice twin screw steam-mechanical ship is
really not feasible.

9.5

Shipyard Premium

So far all LNG carriers have been delivered with a single screw steammechanical
propulsion. All the novel alternatives, discussed in this paper, are thus prototypes
from the yards point of view. As steam turbine is the default design, it is likely,
that shipyards will add premium to any novel LNG tankers price. The calculated
investment cost difference, presented earlier in this paper, is thus different, than
the actual ships price difference, which can only be indicated by yards. Part of
the premium should be viewed as an uncertainty guarantee. This part indicates,
how much the yard thinks its risks increase, should it be contracted to build a
prototype with a new power plant concept. One could expect, that re-liquefaction
plants, and gas turbines, will probably carry the highest risk premiums. Medium
speed diesel technology, even if fuelled by low pressure gas, is perhaps the least
unknown technology for most LNG carrier building shipyards. Another part of
premium is due to the loss of serial ship effect. When ships are built in series,
benefits of learning, repeatability, and, one could say, kind of mass production,
are beginning to emerge. Established LNG ship building yards in the Far East
have built, and are in the process of building LNG ships in series. For such yards
the serial ship effect premium, and the threshold to choose a novel machinery,
might be higher, than for the yards, which are yet less established in the LNG
market. Shipyard premium might, all in all, become big enough an obstacle for
novel machineries to enter the market. What could a supplier of such a novel
technology do, so that the shipyard would reduce its premium? There might not
be much, a supplier can do about the serial ship effect, but risk premium is
something, a supplier could reduce. One answer would be for the technology
supplier to carry a part of the risk. This could be arranged through the delivery of
a complete power and/or propulsion package. The more tasks and
responsibilities the supplier is willing to take care of in the building phase, the
less risk there is associated for the yard to carry. Such a package could help
persuade the yard to select a novel machinery. In the same context, the supplier
could also offer something extra for the owner. If the supplier is contracted to
deliver a machinery package, and if it is also willing to take responsibility over it,
supplier could as well offer up-time guarantees, for example. Such a package,

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offering benefits for both the owner and the yard, could significantly help
penetration of new machineries into the LNG market.

9.6 Conclusion
So far nothing has been able to beat steam turbines in LNG carriers. Lately, as
technology has advanced, alternative and promising methods of handling boil-off
gas have emerged. More specifically, there are three alternative technologies to
power the tomorrows LNG carriers. These are gas burning low pressure diesels,
gas turbines in combined cycle, and re-liquefaction of boil-off. All of these novel
technologies appear to offer economical benefits for the owner. Initial investment
costs of these three machineries are lower, and all of their annual costs are
smaller, given the right boundary conditions. All the novel machineries can be
built to have higher redundancy, than what is feasible with steam turbine. These
novel machineries can also be equally well applied onboard both the membraneand Moss-type LNG carriers. Also the length of the operating route does not
appear to be an issue in machinery selection.
However, attention must be paid to correct identification of the prevailing
boundary conditions. Re-liquefaction technology is sensitive to rise in bunker
price, and especially to reduction in value of LNG. Re-liquefaction technology
probably has the highest economical risks associated with it, but it is also
capable to offer the highest returns. If it is the LNG consumer, who owns the
cargo during transit, re-liquefaction emerges as a very prominent solution. Quite
contrary to re-liquefaction, the MGO-burning gas turbines are sensitive to a high
LNG price. This machinery is, over a wide range of LNG and HFO prices, more
economical than the steam turbine machinery. However, it appears to lose
constantly to the HFO-burning gas turbine, as well as to the diesel-electrical
machinery. For LNG projects, where it is the gas producer, who is responsible for
transportation, MGO-burning gas turbines however do provide a good solution.
HFO-burning gas turbines and diesel-electrical machineries have rather similar
operating economics. They both beat steam turbine over the entire range of
varying boundary conditions, and are able to offer quite constant and secure
economical benefit for the operator. These machineries both thus pose the
smallest economical risks with quite certain returns. Both of these novel
machineries can be considered as rather safe options for the operator. Shipyard
premiums are an issue, which might impede penetration of these novel
technologies. Here a supplier could ease the selection by offering the shipyard a
complete packaged delivery.

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CHAPTER 10

TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT


PROPULSION TYPES
Comparision between steam & diesel propulsion:-

Size of LNG Carrier and Boil-Off Gas rates

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Voyage profile

Basic Data for Economical Comparison

Power Consumption

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Operation Costs at Loaded Conditions

Operation Costs at Ballast Conditions

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Annual operation costs and value of lost LNG (Fuel oil as add-up energy)
The benefit of diesel engine propulsion of LNG carriers is calculated to be
above. US$ 3.5 million per vessel per year. Especially the LNG selling price has
a positive impact on the advantage of diesel engine propulsion. The benefit
gained in operating costs and the additional income from the sale of LNG by
diesel engine propulsion and reliquefaction will, in all cases, be sufficient to justify
even large differences in investment costs, if such are called for at all. Basically,
diesel propulsion offers a CO2 emission reduction of about 30% compared to the
steam plant.

10.1 Comparision between steam, diesel & diesel-electricA state-of-the-art 145,000 m3 LNG carrier, with main particulars as shown in
figure 4. was used as the basis for the technical and economical evaluation.
Figure 3 and tables 1 and 2 show the predicted power requirements, efficiency
figures and initial costs of the different propulsion options.

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The difference in needed power is merely due to different efficiency losses


between the propeller and the engine or turbine. Since the diesel-electric version
is producing electrical power, the loss of efficiency is greater than for the
mechanically driven propeller.

Figure 3: Predicted Brake Power Requirements

Table 1: Comparison of Propulsion Efficiency

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Table 2: Preliminary comparison of initial costs


Figure shows the different cargo capacities which can be achieved with the
various propulsion alternatives, while maintaining the same main ship particulars.

Principal Particulars:
Length over all: abt. 280,00 m
Length between perpendiculars: 268,00 m
Breath moulded: 43,20 m
Depth to maindeck: 26,10 m
Cargo* (100% - Steam): abt. 145.500 m
Cargo* (100% - Diesel mechanical): abt. 149.000 m
Cargo* (100% - Diesel Electric): abt. 150.500 m
Gross Tonnage: abt. 95.500
Draught (steam / diesel electric): 11,95 m
Corresp. Deadweight all told: abt. 72.700 t
Draught (Diesel mechanical): 12.1 m
Corresp. Deadweight all told: abt. 74.300 t
Speed at design draught: abt. 19.50 kn *) cargo capacity based on CS1
system for 0.15% BOR

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Figure 4: Principle particulars for a 145,000 cbm LNG carrier

10.2 ECONOMICAL COMPARISON


PROPULSION SYSTEMS

OF

THE

DIFFERENT

Five propulsion alternatives were evaluated. Although the alternatives allow


different cargo capacities due to variations in the engine room space demand, all
options were calculated with a cargo capacity of 145,000 m. Including the
different cargo capacities would lead to an unrealistic comparison of the options
to increased payload. In reality, a ship with a lesser capacity could be lengthened
for a marginal price increase in order to achieve a cargo capacity equal to those
designs with smaller engine room space demands.
The following options were compared:
Benchmark ship: steam propulsion using natural BOG and HFO for propulsion
Slow speed diesel with BOG reliquefaction
Diesel-electric completely fired by LNG (natural BOG and forced BOG)
Diesel-electric fired by natural BOG and additional MDO
Diesel-electric HFO fired with BOG reliquefaction
The options were calculated for 3 different trades:
Arabian Gulf to Boston
345 sea days, 20 port days, 36 sailing days
Trans-Atlantic
328 sea days, 37 port days, 18 sailing days
Trans-Caribbean
279 sea days, 86 port days, 6,5 sailing days
The economic assumptions are as follows:
Benchmark ship contract price: 165 M US $
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The costs for different propulsion systems as shown earlier were taken into
account
Financing over 20 years at 7,5% interest rate
BOG-reliquefaction system (redundant) 6 M US $ extra investment and 3,500
kW extra power
Additional maintenance / lubrication cost for DE and slow speed diesel
considered
The costs difference of the various propulsions systems as shown in table 2
were accounted for.
Further economic basis were:
Efficiencies:
Steam: 0.30
Diesel-electric: 0.41 (0.43*)
2-stroke-Diesel: 0.48
Fuel Price:
HFO: 135 USD/t
MDO: 210 USD/t
LNG (FOB) 104 USD/t (2USD/mmbtu)
LNG (CIF) 156 USD/t (3USD/mmbtu)
Lower heating values:
HFO: 40,4 MJ/kg
MDO: 41,8 MJ/kg
LNG: 49,2 MJ/kg *) in gas mode
The fuel prices used are initial values. In order to consider increasing future fuel
prices we assumed that the HFO and MDO prices increase in linear fashion to
the LNG CIF price. The LNG FOB price was assumed to increase by only 50% of
the CIF price increase.

10.3 RESULTS
Figure shows fuel costs as a percentage compared to the benchmark ship,
which represents 100%. The fuel costs are shown for current fuel prices for the
Gulf to Boston trade. Although the slow speed diesel with BOG reliquefaction has
the best efficiency, it is evident from the graph that the propulsion options burning
LNG have greater cost savings. The higher heat values and lower fuel prices of
the LNG overcompensate the slightly lower efficiency.

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Figure 5: Fuel cost comparison


The net revenue in M USD/year for increasing LNG prices is shown in figures 6
to 8 for the different trade scenarios. The X-axis, or zero (0) revenue presents the
benchmark ship. It is clear that all options achieve considerable revenue with
increased benefits for rising LNG prices. Longer trades also allow higher savings.
At current LNG and fuel prices the max. achievable annual revenue benefit for
the Gulf to Boston trade totals abt. 2.8 MUSD for the slow speed diesel with BOG
as well as for the diesel electric version utilising only LNG as fuel. One
remarkable result is that the benefits can still be achieved with the diesel electric
version firing HFO, considering the lower heat value & higher price of HFO as
well as the additional investment and power consumption of the reliquefaction
plant. This result demonstrates that a reliquefaction plant can be a viable option
even for the diesel electric version, not only if HFO is the fuel, but also for dual
fuel engines burning LNG, especially when involved in the spot cargo trade. The
spot market will make it essential for vessels to be flexible and to operate
efficiently at varying speeds which will be encountered on different routes.

Figure 6: Net Revenue Benefits (Gulf to Boston)

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Figure 7: Net Revenue Benefits (Trans-Atlantic)

Figure 8: Net Revenue Benefits (Trans-Carribean)


Figure 9 gives an example for the viability of the reliquefaction system. The curve
shows the LNG consumption for the diesel-electric version for the given speed.
The boil-off-rate is more or less constant at 0.15% /day which are about
100mt/day for a 142,000 m ship. The shaded area above the curve indicates
excessive boil off. If, for example, the ship was on a trade where it has to sail at
only 18.0 knots, then 25 t of excessive boil off would be lost every day without a
reliquefaction plant. The slower the sailing speed the more beneficial a
reliquefaction plant can become. Additionally a reliquefaction plant makes the
ship more flexible regarding the choice of fuel in the future in the case of non
linear fuel price increases.

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Figure 9: Example for BOG reliquefaction viability

10.4 CONCLUSIONS
Steam turbine installations have dominated LNG carrier propulsion and electric
power generation for decades because no suitable alternatives were available.
With the market introduction of low-pressure, four-stroke dualfuel engines came
the chance to challenge the steam turbine dominance. Dual-fuel engines in
combination with an electric drive have turned out to be the most attractive
alternative to the traditional steam turbine installation, especially in terms of
operating economy and environmental friendliness. The first dual-fuel-electric
LNG carrier is about to enter commercial operation, a second vessel is on the
building blocks, and a third ship is in the order book. More orders for dual-fuelelectric LNG carriers are imminent.
The evaluation has shown that there are clear arguments to move forward from
steam propulsion for LNG ships. The slow speed diesel and the dual fuel dieselelectric are equivalent in terms of economic benefits. However the diesel-electric
version allows a higher redundancy, increased flexibility as well as greater cargo
capacity. A diesel-electric ship fitted with a reliquefaction plant seems to be the
most promising solution for current and future demands to LNG carrier
propulsion, especially considering the reduced emissions of NOx, SOx and CO2
and future trading and fuel choice flexibility.

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10.5 Comparison
In order to show the true revenue making potential of gas turbine driven LNGC
alternatives, they have to be compared with the current state-of-the-art
conventional LNGC. First of all, on the basis of many contact with the LNG
shipping community the most likely LNGC configuration was selected on the
basis of technological merits.
Initially, calculations showed the gas turbine electric podded drive LNGC to have
the best revenue making capacity, with its high cargo capacity and highly efficient
propulsion system. However, in the light of recent events involving podded drive
failures, it seems that the reliability of these systems does not yet comply with the
requirements of the LNG shipping industry.
The next best alternative, the gas turbine mechanical drive LNGC offers
unsurpassed thermal efficiency and high cargo capacity. However, the durability
of the reduction gear, clutches and reversing gear for the FPP in commercial
marine application is as yet unknown. Some owners have voiced objections to an
alternative equipped with a CPP, citing its slightly lower propulsion efficiency.
The gas turbine electric drive LNGC combines excellent thermal efficiency and
high cargo capacity, paired with the use of proven technology in the power train.
Electric drive systems have gained some acceptance within the LNG shipping
community, as illustrated by the order for one 74,000 cubic meter diesel-electric
drive LNGC at Chantiers de l'Atlantique last year. Reliability, redundancy and
revenue are the key words to this propulsion alternative.
To check the economic viability of the gas turbine electric drive LNGC, a cost
calculation model has been designed using a range of input parameters to
calculate long run economic performance under differing circumstances and on
different trading routes. Three LNG trades are simulated; the short trade (Algeria
- France), the medium trade (Trinidad - Spain) and the long trade (Qatar Korea/Japan). Two different liquid fuel price levels, representing the extremes of
the last ten years, have been used to check the survivability of the gas turbine
drive alternatives in changing economic circumstances.
Six different aero-derivative gas turbines configuration have been selected to
take part in the comparison, making this study the first full-scale performance
comparison of all major aero-derivative gas turbine makes for commercial marine
propulsion.

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Three alternative fuel schedules have been used in this comparison:


Round Trip BOG + LF: the natural BOG is supplemented with liquid fuel on both
the loaded and the ballast trip. The conventional LNGC burns BOG and HFO
380, while the gas turbine electric drive LNGC burns BOG and MGO;
Round trip BOG + FVG: on both the loaded voyage and the ballast voyage the
full energy needs are covered by the available natural BOG, supplemented with
Forced Vaporized Gas (FVG);
Loaded BOG + LF Ballast LF: on the loaded voyage the energy requirements are
covered by the available BOG, supplemented with liquid fuel. On the ballast
voyage only liquid fuel is used.
The results are presented in the diagrams below:
Long itinerary: High (left) v/s Low (right) Liquid Fuel Prices

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Medium Itinerary: High (left) v/s Low (right) Liquid Fuel Prices

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Short Itinerary:High (left) v/s Low (right) Liquid Fuel Prices

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There are a number of preliminary conclusion to be drawn:


First of all, the cargo quantities delivered by all gas turbine driven LNGCs are
substantially higher than that of the conventional LNGC, which translates in
additional income;
Quite surprisingly, high liquid fuel prices are actually favourable for the gas
turbine propulsion system. The explanation is that the thermal efficiency of the
gas turbine based propulsion plants is so high that the effects of high liquid fuel
prices on the total operating cost are much less than for the steam turbine
powered conventional LNGC. On the loaded voyage, the gas turbine driven
LNGC hardly needs any liquid fuel, while the conventional LNGC relies on liquid
fuel for about 40% of its total energy requirements;
On shorters trades, the effects of an increase in cargo capacity are more
pronounced than on longer trades. On the short trade, a gas turbine electric
driven LNGC transports the equivalent of 9.6 conventional LNGC cargoes extra
per year, against 1.7 extra cargoes on the long trade. The additional revenue
from this additional cargo improves return on investment significantly, which in
turn makes it easier to finance such a newbuilding project;
Even on long trades, with low liquid fuel prices, the gas turbine driven LNGC still
generates over USD. 110M in additional revenue over a 20 year period, even
whenthe ballast voyage has to be made on liquid fuel only. This worst case
scenario clearly illustrates that gas turbine driven LNGCs provide a safe and
steady stream of additional revenue even under the "worst" of circumstances;
Gas turbine powered LNGCs are flexible and profitable under all circumstances.
Switching between long and short charters does influence the overall rate of
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return on investment, but it will always be substantially higher than the ROI of
conventional LNGCs. Fuel costs for long ballast voyages on liquid fuel only are
indeed higher than those of conventional LNGCs, but much lower fuel cost for
the loaded voyage more than compensate this disadvantage. This makes the gas
turbine powered LNGC also suitable for the carriage of spot cargoes, which
sometimes requires longer ballast voyages without heel;
The gas turbines GT1, GT2, GT3 and GT6 show almost identical performance,
which brings increased competition to LNGC propulsion market, currently
dominated by two Japanese steam turbine manufacturers. The resulting effect on
the general price level for LNGC newbuildings can be very beneficial for owners
considering fleet extentions or renewal.
Additional calculations show that, under certain circumstances, it is economically
feasible to re-engine a conventional LNGC with a gas turbine electric drive power
plant incorporating gas turbine types GT1, GT2, GT3 or GT6, even if the cargo
capacity is not increased. However, the conversion should take place early in the
charter for the conversion to be profitable and the vessel will not have the same
flexibility and high ROI as LNGCs especially designed to exploit the benefits of
gas turbine propulsion to the maximum.

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The future of LNG transportation: Various Propulsion Alternatives by B. Gupta & K. Prasad
Available online at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net