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The Scientific Method Book 1
Book 1
By: Khaerby Andrelei M. Mercado

The Scientific Method Book 1

Book 1

Khaerby Andrelei M. Mercado
Grade VII Arrhenius

The Scientific Method Book 1

Table of Contents:



Lesson 1 - Observation

Pages 2 - 5

Lesson 2 Observation Methods

& Techniques

Pages 6 - 14

Lesson 3 Identifying and

Formulating Research Problems

Pages 15 - 29

Lesson 4 Formulating
Research hypothesis and Null
Lesson 5 - Experimenting

Pages 30 - 37

Lesson 6 Making Conclusion

Pages 50 - 52

Pages 38 - 49

The Scientific Method Book 1

The Scientific Method Book 1

Answer Key:
A. Directions: Write true if the statement is right and false if not.
1) Observation is a systematic data collection approach. (TRUE)
2) Observational research is a type of conservative research that deals with
discovering needed variables. (FALSE)
3) Our senses are used in observation, because of that, our senses are unlimited.
4) Considered as a physical process itself, not all forms of observation involve
amplification and are thus thermodynamically irreversible processes, increasing
entropy. (FALSE)
5) Cases studies and archival research are common types of observational
research. (FALSE)

B. Directions: Identify the following.

1. Requires observations of nature to formulate and test hypotheses. SCIENTIFIC
2. Are subject to errors in perception such as optical illusions. SENSES
3. One problem encountered throughout scientific fields is that the observation may
affect the process being observed, resulting in a different outcome than if the
process was unobserved. OBSERVER EFFECT
4. These are special types of observational research. CASE STUDIES
5. An observation that has no intervention by a researcher. NATURAL

C. Directions: Write the steps on how to formulate and test hypotheses.

1. Asking a question about a natural phenomenon
2. Making observations of the phenomenon
3. Hypothesizing an explanation for the phenomenon
4. Predicting a logical consequence of the hypothesis
5. Testing the hypothesis by an experiment, observational study, field study or simulation
6. Creating a conclusion with data gathered in the experiment, or forming a revised/new
hypothesis and repeating the process
7. Publishing your results.

The Scientific Method Book 1

8. Peer review of the results of others.

A. Directions: Enumerate the following:

1. The 4 Observation Techniques
1. Controlled Observations
2. Natural Observations
3. Participant Observations
4. Non Participant Observations
2. The 3 Approaches
1. Covert observational research
2. Overt observational research
3. Researcher Participation
3. Most frequently used types of observational techniques in Marketing Research
1. Personal observation
2. Mechanical observation
3. Audits
4. Trace Analysis
5. Content analysis
B. Directions: Briefly define the following:

Covert observational research - The researchers do not identify themselves. Either they
mix in with the subjects undetected, or they observe from a distance..

Overt observational research - The researchers identify themselves as researchers and

explain the purpose of their observations.

Researcher Participation - The researcher participates in what they are observing so as

to get a finer appreciation of the phenomena.


The Scientific Method Book 1

OUMs Digital Library Gallupe R. B. (2007).

Research contributions:
The tyranny of methodologies in information systems research. ACM SIGMIS Database,
Volume 38, Issue 3, ACM Press. [available at ACM] Books Leedy P. D., & Ormrod J. E.
Practical research: Planning and design. Merrill: Prentice Hall. Powers, G., Meenaghan
T. & Toomey B. (1985).
Practice focused research: Integrating human service practice and research.
New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. TOPIC 4 THE RESEARCH PROBLEM, 57 Internet
Trochim, W. K. (2007). Research method tutorials [Electronic version]
Koul, L. (1992). Methodology of educational research. India: Vikas Publishing House
Ali, A. (1990). Approaches to Educational Research: analysis, criticisms and relevance.
Perspectives in Educational Research and National Development (Vol. 1) Onitsha,
Summer Educational Publishers Limited
Bem, D. (1987) Writing the empirical journal article. In Zanna, M. P., & Darley, J. M.
(Eds.), The complete academic: A practical guide for the beginning social scientist (171204). Mahweh, N.J.: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Inc.
Best, J.W. (1970). Research in education. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc
American Psychological Association (2009). Publication manual of the American
Psychological Association (6th Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.
American Psychological Association (2001). Publication manual of the American
Psychological Association (5th Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.
Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R. (2006). Educational research: An introduction (8th
Ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Kothari, C.R. (2006). Research methodology: Methods & techniques. India: New Age
International Publishers
Nwana, O.C. (1982). Introduction to education research. Ibadan: Heinemann

The Scientific Method Book 1
Leedy, P.D. (1997). Practical research: Planning and design (6th ed.). Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., p. 232-233.

The Scientific Method Book 1