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Modeling &
Assignment 1
Lecturer: Mr. Johari Airs

Name: Haseenjit Kaur Khaira

ID: 18943

FRIDAY, 1Oth June 2016

a) Analyse the figure and find the 5 parameters which can be altered (by increasing or
decreasing) so that both models will match? Justify your answer.
(15 marks)
The plot shows both the constructed model & historical model. However, the plot of
the water production over time for both plots arent yielding the same values. To get
the same plot for the constructed model as we did for the historical model, there are a
few (5) parameters that can be adjusted:

Distance between Perforation Depth and Water Oil Contact: If we

perforate nearer to the OWC, a larger water cut will occur due to the high
production of water. When the water level increases as it expands during
production. When this occurs, and the distance between the two points is
small, then water will produce much faster than it would have if perforation
was done further from the OWC.
Relative Permeability: When the relative permeability of water increases,
more water will be produced in a shorter time. This is because the pores of the
reservoir is more susceptible to water (easier for water to flow).
Aquifer strength & size: A large & strong aquifer will expand at a larger rate
than the production rate, and higher water cut may result. This can be done by
providing extra strength to the aquifer by water injection at a rate more than
Viscosity of oil: When oil viscosity is high, there will be higher water cut.
Since water will move faster than oil, it will reach the well quickly and will be
produced, increasing water production immensely.
Vertical & horizontal permeability ratio: If the ratio is high (>1), it would
mean that water would be moving upwards at a better rate compared to oil
moving horizontally to the wellbore. This would mean a higher water cut.

(b) Describe the importance of history matching and list 3 variables which can be history

The constructed model must match (or be of lose value) to the historical model. This is to
verify and ensure that the simulation model is accurate and really does simulate the actual
reservoir characteristics. An accurate and verified simulation model will allow us to:

test alternative development scenarios for a field

optimize either recovery or economic returns
evaluate rock & fluid properties
allows development of procedures that defines effective rock properties

The three variables that can be used for historical matching are:

Gas Oil Ratio/ Water Oil Ratio


a. Evaluate the relationship of oil API gravity and the direction of flow preference in a tilted
reservoir (10 marks).
In a reservoir, oil will lie above water due to the lower density. However, there is a case
where water will go above oil and move upward, while oil moves downwards, below water.
This case will occur when the API gravity of the oil is less than that of oil. This means the
density of oil is high, hence s flows below water. In a tilted reservoir, this case is less
effective due to the gravitational force that happens due to the tilting.
b. In January 2016, a new reservoir was found at Malaysian Offshore and named Reservoir
M. Reservoir M has high uniformity in term of fluid and rock properties. Based on the
combined appraisal of geologist, geophysicist and petro physicist, Reservoir M has small
amount of STOIPP to be recovered. Evaluate the feasibility of using reservoir modelling and
simulation for Reservoir M and suggest any other alternative. Justify your answer. (20 marks)
Currently, the oil price isnt as high as it used to be, and it isnt as easy to cover the expenses.
However, since the reservoir is homogenous, there will be no need to use the simulation
method, as it will be expensive and uneconomical. The revenue may no cover the expenses as
well due the small amount of STOIP. Also the costs of the equipment and platform, and not
knowing how much of the STOIP is recoverable and how much is a reserve.
Another method that may be used instead, which is a good fit since it is cheap & the reservoir
is homogenous, is the volumetric method. Material Balance Equation will be the cheaper and
effective method to use for Reservoir M.