You are on page 1of 75

ATENEO

DE NAGA
UNIVERSITY
Theories of
Language and
Language
Learning

BICS
CALP
CUP
Presenter:

NEA AUXILIOBESMONTE
MA ED ELT

Objectives: At the end of the


lesson, students are expected to:
1.

Explain the concepts of BICS,


CALP and CUP;
2. Differentiate BICS and CALP;
3. Elaborate research data that
support CUP in the acquisition of
L2;
4. Deduce the implications of
BICS, CALP and CUP to L2 teaching
under the K12 Curriculum.

Outline of Discussion:
I.

Types of Language
A. Social Language
B. Academic Language
II. BICS and CALP
A. Basic Interpersonal
Communication Skills BICS
1.

Definition
2. Understanding BICS and its
acquisition

Outline of Discussion:
B. Cognitive Academic Language
Proficiency CALP

1. Definition

2. Understanding CALP and its


acquisition
C. Differentiating BICS and CALP

II.

Common Underlying Proficiency


CUP

Outline of Discussion:
A.

Definition
B. Research data that support
CUP
III. Significance of understanding
BICS, CALP and CUP in teaching L2
V.

Synthesis (through a video clip)

VI.

Evaluation

GUIDING LIGHT:
Abilities

to construct meaning
from oral and written
language, relate complex
ideas and information,
recognize features of different
genres, and use various
linguistic strategies to
communicate. (Dutro and
Moran, 2003, in Zwier, 2008)

SUMMARY SENTENCE:
BICS is much more easily and
quickly to acquire than CALP
but is not sufficient to meet
the cognitive and linguistic
demands of an academic
classroom (Cummins,1984;
Baker and Jones, 1998).

I. TYPES OF LANGUAGE
1.

Social Language

2.

Academic Language

I. TYPES OF LANGUAGE
1.

Social Language

Social language is the language of the


playground (Cummins, 1981, 1996).
Language that develops [relatively easily]
from social activities (play, TV/ movies/
radio, informal or conversational
exchanges). Other examples:
retelling events
talking about experiences
describing activities
giving personal opinions

I. TYPES OF LANGUAGE
1. Social Language
Social language is context-embedded,
that is, comprehension is aided by
context clues, like facial expressions,
body language, modeling or
demonstrations, visual clues and cues,
etc.
Because it is embedded in social
interaction, social language is thought
to be cognitively undemanding.

I. TYPES OF LANGUAGE
2.

Academic Language

The kind of abstract, higher-level


academic discourse that might be
found in more formal settings, like a
classroom for example.

I. TYPES OF LANGUAGE
2.

Academic Language

Forms of academic language include:


Comparing and contrasting
Listing, defining, classifying
Predicting, explaining, analyzing,
justifying
Inferring, deducing
Integrating, evaluating
Arguing, persuading, defending

I. TYPES OF LANGUAGE
2.

Academic Language

Typically, academic language is contextreduced, meaning that there are fewer


clues or supports to help students
comprehend content information.
Because of the lack of environment
clues, academic language is thought to
be more cognitively demanding than
social language.

II. BICS and CALP

Theorists:
Jim

Cummins, 1981, 1994


Virginia Collier, 1987, 1995
Ana Chamot & Michael OMalley, 1986

II. BICS and CALP

II. BICS and CALP


James is a bright, active student in
Mrs. Joses Grade 8 Science class. He
is very social and can talk his way
into (or out of) anything. He
participates in class discussions and
listens carefully to instructions.
When it comes to writing lab reports,
however, he struggles. His Science
teacher, Mr. Abalos, is surprised to
see

II. BICS and CALP


how many gaps there are in his
writing after reviewing his first lab
report since he clearly understood
the lab activity in class and
explained the directions verbally to
his peers. She had assumed that
since James can speak well in English
to his peers, he was fluent in English,
but now she is beginning to wonder
about her initial assumption.

II. BICS and CALP


A.

BICS

1. Definition - Basic Interpersonal


Communication Skills (BICS) are
language skills needed in social
situations

II. BICS and CALP


A.

BICS
These are the "surface" skills of
listening and speaking which are
typically acquired quickly by many
students; particularly by those
from language backgrounds similar
to English who spend a lot of their
school time interacting with native
speakers.

II. BICS and CALP


A.

BICS
BICS is said to occur when there are
contextual supports and props for
language delivery. Face-to-face
`context embedded situations
provide, for example, non-verbal
support to secure understanding.
Actions with eyes and hands, instant
feedback, cues and clues support
verbal language Baker (2006) .

II. BICS and CALP


A.

BICS

It takes learners, on average,


approximately two years to
achieve a functional, social use of
a second language (Cummins,
1981).
English language learners who are
in the beginning stages are able to
handle the following tasks:

II. BICS and CALP


A.

BICS

Produce

survival vocabulary such as the


words forwaterorbathroom.
Follow simple directions that are
accompanied by gestures such as
Point to the door or Walk to the
chair.
Engage in one-to-one social
conversation using gestures.
Answer low-level questions such as Is
an elephant large or small? or What
color is the chair?

II. BICS and CALP


A.

BICS

How

students acquire BICS?


True or False ?
Students don't always acquire
social language naturally in
informal contexts. They may need
to be taught how to communicate
appropriately in social situations.

TRUE

II. BICS and CALP


A.

BICS

English

language learners may need to be


specifically taught interpersonal skills such as
how to greet people, give and receive
compliments, apologize, and make polite
requests.
They also need to understand nonverbal
language and the use of personal space. The
goal of Standard 1 of the 2006 PreK12
English language proficiency standards is for
ELLs to learn to communicate in English for
social and instructional purposes during the
school day.
Example:

II. BICS and CALP


B.

CALP

CALP

is said to occur in 'context


reduced' academic situations.
Where higher order thinking skills (e.g.
analysis, synthesis, evaluation) are
required in the curriculum, language is
`disembedded from a meaningful,
supportive context.
Where language is `disembedded the
situation is often referred to as `context
reduced . (Baker, 2006, p. 174)

II. BICS and CALP


B.

CALP

CALP

is the basis for a childs ability to


cope with the academic demands
placed upon her in the various subjects.
Cummins
states that while many
children develop native speaker fluency
(i.e. BICS) within two years of
immersion in the target language, it
takes between 5-7 years for a child to
be working on a level with native
speakers as far as academic language
is concerned.

II. BICS and CALP


B.

CALP

Understanding

CALP and Its Acquisition

Going back to basic


Vocabulary
1. receptive vocabulary
2. expressive vocabulary
can further be broken down into:
Tier 1consists of basic vocabulary
words that usually don't have more
than one meaning. These words are
easy to understand and don't need
specific instruction for most students.

II. BICS and CALP


B.

CALP

Understanding

CALP and Its Acquisition

Tier 2words are used more often and


have more than one meaning. They can
appear in differing situations but are not
often present in social conversations for
children.
Infer, deduce, elaborate, investigate, etc.
Tier 3are words that are not used often
and aresubject-specific, such as isotope,
Industrial Age, or indigenous.
Most academic language falls into

II. BICS and CALP


B.

CALP

Understanding

CALP and Its Acquisition

Looking beyond vocabulary


1. Bricks and Mortar
Dr. Cindy Lundgren explains the idea of
"bricks" as key vocabulary words and
concepts in a sentence, and "mortar" is
the language (such as signal words and
phrases) holding the bricks together.
Example:
Even though bats have wings, they are
not birds.

II. BICS and CALP


B.

CALP

Understanding

CALP and Its Acquisition

2. TWIPs
Debbie Zacarian and Judie Haynes (2010)
also look beyond discrete vocabulary
words in their academic language
definition, including a range of structures
they call TWIPs (Terms,Words,Idioms,
andPhrases).
Here are some examples:

II. BICS and CALP


B.

CALP

Understanding

CALP and Its Acquisition

2. TWIPs
Terms

Theboiling pointof water is 212


F.

Words

TheDeclarationis now on display


in Washington, DC.

Idioms

She came to townonce in a blue


moon.

Phrase
s

Based on the data,we agree with


the scientists' conclusion.

II. BICS and CALP


B.

CALP

Understanding

CALP and Its Acquisition

3. Same Word, Different Meaning

Some key words or terms may have


different meanings across disciplines and
may be used as different parts of speech
in different contexts (i.e., noun vs. verbs):
Examples:
Table
Plot
Branch
Foot

II. BICS and CALP


B.

CALP

Understanding

CALP and Its Acquisition

True or False?
Although English language learners
may speak English on the playground,
this does not mean they have
mastered the academic and cognitive
language of the classroom.
TRUE.

II. BICS and CALP


B.

CALP

Understanding

CALP and Its Acquisition

Classroom situation:
Mrs. Perez:Why didn't you do your
homework, Carlota? You're going to fail
this class.
Carlota:I go visit my aunt. She sick.
She got something bad with her heart.
My uncle drive my mother and me. We
bring aunt some food. When I get
home, it's too late finish homework.

II. BICS and CALP


B.

CALP

Understanding

CALP and Its Acquisition

CALP is more than understanding


vocabulary and learning academic facts
for a test; it also requires students to
sharpen their cognitive abilities and learn
new concepts.

II. BICS and CALP


B.

CALP

Understanding

CALP and Its Acquisition

Classroom situation:
Mrs. Perez assignments, lectures, and
tests are way above and are not modified for
Carlotas English language ability.
Mr. Angelo uses simple language to
introduce new concepts, outlines important
information, gives vocabulary exercises and
engages students in group work with
partners.
From which teacher will Carlota get more L2

II. BICS and CALP


C.

Differentiating BICS and CALP

To illustrate BICS and CALP:

Context
embedded
reduced

Cognition
undemanding

demanding

Context + Cognition
undemanding

embedded reduced

demanding

Context + Cognition
A=
undemanding

context embedded +
cognitively
undemanding
embedded reduced

demanding

Context + Cognition
Talking
with
undemanding
friends
Buying lunch
Playing
sports
embedded reduced

demanding

Context + Cognition
undemanding

B=
context
embedded +
cognitively
demanding
demanding
embedded reduced

Context + Cognition
undemanding

embedded reduced

Demonstrations
Science
experiments
Lessons with AV
demanding

Context + Cognition
undemanding

embedded reduced

demanding

C=
context reduced +
cognitively
undemanding

Context + Cognition
Telephone
undemanding

embedded reduced

demanding

conversations
Friends shopping
list
Written
instructions

Context + Cognition
undemanding

embedded reduced

D=
context reduced +
cognitively
demanding
demanding

Context + Cognition
undemanding

embedded reduced

demanding

Reading and
writing
Standardized tests
Most content
classes

Dr.

Robin Scarcella uses to help her


college students understand the
difference
between
social
and
academic language is to provide
them with similar sentences or
passages that convey the same
meaning but that are written in
different
styles,
such
as
the
following:

Social English

Academic English

I like this book


more.

This story is more


exciting than the
first one we read.

It worked.

Our experiment was


successful.

Because they
were brave.

The soldiers
received the medal
because of their
courage.

III. CUP Common


Underlying Proficiency
True

or False?

Parents

of English language learners


should be encouraged to speak their
primary language at home.

TRUE.

III. CUP Common


Underlying Proficiency
The

CUP is a cognitive approach to


L2 acquisition, supports the idea that
being bilingual is a cognitive
advantage, and that knowledge in a
primary
language
provides
a
foundation for learning a second
language (Daz-Rico & Weed 2010).

III. CUP Common Underlying Proficiency


Freeman

and Freeman (2004) argue


that there is an interdependence
between knowledge in a first
language and learning a second
language.
Jim Cummins (2000) proposed that
knowledge of a concept in a primary
language promotes the transfer of
that knowledge into a second
language.

III. CUP Common Underlying Proficiency


The

termcommon
underlying
proficiency (CUP)has also been
used
to
refer
to
the
cognitive/academic proficiency that
underlies academic performance in
both languages(Cummins 2000: p.
38).

III. CUP Common Underlying Proficiency

Language, power, and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire

III. CUP Common Underlying Proficiency


True

or False?

Students

who have strong literacy


skills in their native language will
learn English faster.

TRUE.

III. CUP Common Underlying Proficiency


The

most significant variable in how


long it takes for a student to learn
English isthe amount of formal
schooling students receive in their
first language (Thomas and Collier
1997).

III. CUP Common Underlying Proficiency


Additive

bilingualism happens when


the first language continues to be
developed and the first culture to be
valued while the second language is
added.
Subtractive bilingualism occurs when
the second language is added at the
expense of the first language and
culture,
which
diminish
as
a
consequence.

III. CUP Common Underlying Proficiency


Research

data that support this principle:


In virtually every bilingual program
that has ever been evaluated, whether
intended for linguistic majority or
minority students, spending instructional
time teaching through the minority
language entails no academic costs for
students' academic development in the
majority
language
(Baker,
1996;
Cummins & Corson, 1997).

III. CUP Common Underlying Proficiency


Research

data that support this principle:


An impressive number of research studies have
documented a moderately strong correlation
between bilingual students' LI and L2 literacy skills
in situations where students have the opportunity to
develop literacy in both languages. It is worth noting
that these findings also apply to the relationships
among very dissimilar languages in addition to
languages that are more closely related, although
the strength of relationship is often reduced (e.g.
Arabic-French,
Dutch-Turkish,
Japanese-English,
Chinese-English,
BasqueSpanish)
(Cummins,
1991c; Cummins et al., 1984; Genesee, 1979; Sierra
& Olaziregi, 1991; Verhoeven & Aarts, 1998; Wagner,
1998).

III. CUP Common Underlying Proficiency


Research

data

that

support

this

principle:

Native-language

development can
reading.
(Fitzgerald,

enhance
ESL
1995:181)
Within a bilingual program, instructional
time can be focused on developing
students' literacy skills in their primary
language without adverse effects on the
development of their literacy skills in
English.

III. CUP Common Underlying Proficiency


Research

data

that

support

this

principle:
The relationship between first and second
language literacy skills suggests that effective
development of primary language literacy
skills can provide a conceptual foundation for
long-term growth in English literacy skills. This
does not imply, however, that transfer of
literacy and academic language knowledge
will happen automatically; there is usually a
need for formal instruction in the target
language to benefit a cross-linguistic transfer.

III. Implications of BICS, CALP


and CUP to L2 Teaching
L2

teachers should not assume that


non-native speakers who have
attained a high degree of fluency
and accuracy in everyday spoken
English have the corresponding
academic language proficiency.

III. Implications of BICS, CALP


and CUP to L2 Teaching
It

is very important that students be


encouraged to continue their native
language
development.
As
Cummins (2000) states: "Conceptual
knowledge
developed
in
one
language helps to make input in the
other language comprehensible.

III. Implications of BICS, CALP


and CUP to L2 Teaching
If

teachers have an awareness of the


likely difficulty of a task, based on
Cummins' model, they can judge its
appropriateness for the non-native
speakers in their classes and in this
way avoid much frustration.

III. Implications of BICS, CALP


and CUP to L2 Teaching
If

teachers have an awareness of the


likely difficulty of a task, based on
Cummins' model, they can judge its
appropriateness for the non-native
speakers in their classes and in this way
avoid much frustration.
Teachers
and
departments
should
explore every possibility to incorporate
the different cultural backgrounds of our
students into their daily teaching and
curricula.

III. Implications of BICS, CALP


and CUP to L2 Teaching
Teachers

and
departments
should
explore every possibility to incorporate
the different cultural backgrounds of our
students into their daily teaching and
curricula.
Cummins
(1994)
quotes
research which suggests students working
in an additive bilingual environment
succeed to a greater extent than those
whose first language and culture are
devalued by their schools and by the
wider society.

IV. Synthesis
Teachers

V. Evaluation
Day-to-day

language
Used on the playground, in the lunch room,
and on the school bus
Developed within 6 months to 3 years
Includes listening, speaking, reading, and
writing about content material
Usually context embedded
Not very demanding cognitively
LFS ELLs may take 7 to 10 years to
develop
Includes skills such as comparing,
classifying, and synthesizing

V. Evaluation
Social

language
Academic language
Formal academic learning
Language skills needed in social
situations
Used at parties, playing sports and
talking on the telephone
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
Essential for students to succeed in school
Developed within five to seven years
Tasks are context reduced

V. Evaluation
Fill

in the blanks to complete the


concept.
Language that is supported by
contextual clues is less__________. A
textbook is an example of context_____________language.
BICS stands for Basic Interpersonal
_____________Skills.
CALP stands for___________Academic
Language Proficiency.

List of References
Baker,

C. (1988)Key Issues in Bilingualism and Bilingual


EducationClevedon: Multilingual Matters
Collier, V. (1987) How long? A synthesis of research on
academic achievement in a second language.TESOL
Quarterly,23
Cummins, J. (1984)Bilingual Education and Special Education:
Issues in Assessment and PedagogySan Diego: College Hill
Cummins, J. and McNeely, S. (1987) Language Development,
Academic Learning , and Empowering Minority Students. In
Tikunoff, K.Bilingual Education and Bilingual Special
Education: A Guide for AdministratorsBoston: College Hill
Cummins, J. (1991) Language Development and Academic
Learning Cummins, J in Malave, L. and Duquette, G.Language,
Culture and CognitionClevedon: Multilingual Matters
Cummins, J. (2000)Language, Power and Pedgogy: Bilingual
Children in the Crossfire.Clevedon: Multilingual Matters

List of References

Daz-Rico, L. T. & Weed, K. Z. (2010).The crosscultural,


language, and academic development handbook: A
complete K-12 reference guide(4th ed.). Boston: Allyn &
Bacon.
Freeman, D. E. & Freeman, Y. S. (2004).Essential
linguistics: What you need to know to teach reading, ESL,
spelling, phonics, and grammar.Portsmouth, NH:
Heinemann
Haynes, J. & Zacarian, D. (2010).Teaching English
Language Learners Across the Content Areas. Alexandria,
VA: ASCD.
http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/academic-languageand-ells-what-teachers-need-know