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LFE 201

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER

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LFE 201

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER

1.0 INTRODUCTION
This report is prepared as a partial fulfillment of the course Live-in-field Experience, spring
2011. Live-in-field Experience (LFE) program allowed us to get familiarized with the rural life
of Bangladesh and gives students the exposure of such features with which they would have
never come across to or would have had interaction with. There is no other way to realize the
rural lifestyle and poverty than to visiting the actual village and interact with the villagers.
1.1 OBJECTIVES
The purpose of LFE is manifold. One of the prime objectives of the study is to familiarize
ourselves with socio-economic condition of the villagers. Our lives in the cities are independent
from those of villagers and therefore our only exposure to rural life is via this LFE program. The
research focuses on finding out enough information on the following objectives:

The physical characteristics of the village, village map, resources, transect walk, etc.

The social structure and changes in the village and the reasons for the changes

Economy and rural production cycle, the wealth and resources owned by villagers

Health & environment awareness of the people. Their sanitation waste disposal, etc.

Rural Market structure, the process of exchange, marketing activities, etc.

Aspects of micro-credit, NGO involvement, etc.

1.3 LIMITATIONS
During our survey in Sharkarpara we faced a few limitations. They are:

Time limitation was the first problem. We had very limited time to do our fieldwork

Sometimes it was difficult to read their leaps as their style of speaking is quite different \

We often struggled to know their correct annual income and expenditure

Our interview was taken during the pick hour when most villagers went to work

Some villagers were unwilling to cooperate

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LFE 201

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

Chapter 2 METHODOLOGY

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LFE 201

METHODOLOGY

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

2.0 INTRODUCTION
Methodology is the procedure of collecting data. We were a total of around 60 students divided
into 12 groups and was sent to two different villages named Katigram and Kushabhanga. We
have carried out our survey in Sharkarpara under the village Union Atigram, Thana & District
Manikganj. We had studied the para to collect the required, both primary and secondary data for
around 12 days. However, we have mainly applied two methods for collecting the data: 1) PRA
for qualitative data, and 2) Questionnaire Survey for quantitative data.
2.1 PARTICIPATORY RURAL APRAISAL (PRA)
PRA stands for Participatory Rural Appraisal. It is a method of collecting information of the
particular village or para by gathering the village people in a common place like tea stall, to a
famous persons house or to a school premise. During the meeting time, we divide the work
amongst the five group members and gathered the required information of the village from the
villagers.
2.2 QUALITATIVE METHOD
The Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is being mainly used as the qualitative method. Some
open ended questions were also being used to analyze the market. We had to build rapport with
the villagers and asked to help us avail information about their village, etc.
2.3 QUANTITATIVE DATA
Some structured and closed ended questions were being used to collect information about the
demographic variables, health, environmental and the economic condition of the villagers.
2.4 OBSERVATION
We have also used observation method when surveying our para. We observed the sanitation
system, water sources, etc. We captured pictures which is also a part of observation and used to
describe the actual scenario of Dighapatia Baazar.

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LFE 201

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

Chapter 3 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VILLAGE

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LFE 201

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VILLAGE

3.0 INTRODUCTION
Bangladesh is a village based country. Most of the people live in villages. Most of the city
dwellers also come from villages. Every village has its own characteristics and customs. More
than 80% of total population lives in 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. For our LFE program, we
were to go to the village para that each group was assigned to and construct a village mapping
with the help of the villagers and make a transact walk of our own as well. Usually a village
comprises several Paras and our. Group 3, was assigned to the para called Sharkarpara, in the
village of Katigram.
3.1 VILLAGE MAPPING
We were to draw a village map to grasp the locations of different places in the village para and
its surroundings, to get acquainted with the different resources & parts of the village, and to
identify the social structure of the village. The very first thing we had to do when we went to
Sharkarpara for the first time was to Rapport build. It is the most important task for conducting
these kinds of surveys because it helps one to know another. Many villagers together gave us the
information about our village and Sharkarpara.
3.2 DISCRIPTION OF THE VILLAGE
With the help of the villagers, we gathered the information needed to draw the map of the village
and Sharkarpara in front of Mr. Sajibs house. The villagers gave us all the important Landmarks
of the village. Our village, Katigram, consists of one Canal through the middle of the entire
village. It also has one Main Road crossing over the canal and through the whole village along
with many mud alleys that lead into the different paras of the village. At the cross points these
alleys or the main road with the canal, there are tree bridges in Katigram. These alleys and the
main road is the main form of communication channel in terms of transportation. On both sides
of the main road, the paras of Katigram lie. Our para, Sharkarpara is at the North of Katigram,
with the main road at the south of it and the canal at the north of the para and two mud alleys on
the east and west of it.
Katigram has one field, on the west of which it has the single hospital in the whole of the village.
Right next to the hospital, there is an Agrani Bank which is, again, the single bank in all of
Katigram. At the opposite side of the bank, there is an NGO called Gonokalyan Trust. There
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LFE 201

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VILLAGE

are other NGOs in Katigram, Buro Bangladesh, and Ayesha Abed Foundation. There are two
schools in the village, one High school, and one primary school, which is located in Sharkarpara.
There are in total two mosques and a few temples in the entire village. There is only one Post
Office in Katigram which is situated in Sharkarpara. Lastly, on the south side of Katigram, there
is a Haat that opens twice every week. The entire village of Katigram is filled with greenery. It
has many mustard fields, Mahogany bushes, Kath bagan, and Bamboo bushes.
3.3 DESCRIPTION OF SHARKARPARA

Figure 3.1: School Children

As each group was assigned to a different para in the village, our


group 3 was assigned to the para called Sharkarpara. It is located
at the north of Katigram. The only primary school of Katigram is
situated here in Sharkarpara, Katigram Sharkari Prathomic
Bidyaloy in Kaji Nazrul Bhaban. When entering the para, the
first thing we saw is the school. One of the two mosques of
Katigram is also in Sharkarpara, on the left of the entrance, next
to which is the Ayesha Abed Foundation. There are two large
ponds on the east of Sharkarpara, and the canal that goes through Katigram falls on the north of
Sharkarpara. The Post Office of Katigram is on the left of the primary school in Sharkarpara,
next to which is a Goupronon Kendro, and going straight towards north brings us to a temple.
Sharkarpara consists of around 35 to 40 houses where approximately 150 people live. This para
consists of many alleys that lead to the houses inside Sharkarpara, and has a few lowlands in the
para. It has one Kathbagan, and two Mahogany bushes, and 4 bamboo bushes. At the northeast
side of the para, there are five poultry firms all belonging to one man.
3.3.1 Sharkarpara at a Glance:
Figure 3.1: School Children

Village
Name
Para Name
Population

Katigram

Houses

35/40

Mosque

Sharkarpara
Approx. 150

School
Post Office

1
1

Khal
Pond

1
4

Source: Field Survey, 2011

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PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VILLAGE

FIGURE 3.2 Map of Katigram Village and Sharkarpar

Source: Field Survey, 2011

3.4 TRANSACT MAP OFSHARKARPARA

Transect map is the microscopic view which will give a clear idea of natural and other resources
and how households are distributed within the village. We took 100 steps with the help of a
villager to show a transact map which covers the type of zone, soil, household, trees, vegetation,
animals, land height and whether there were any problems or not.
3.4.1 MY TRANSACT WALK
Picture 1.1 Village mapping

I started my transect walk from the primary school. The first


twenty five steps of my transect walk was on sandy loam,
where the Katigram Primary school was on my left, and the
temple was on my right side. There were also houses and
cowsheds on my right which were all tin shed except for on
building that was made of bricks. In my next twenty five steps,
there was a pit on my left side. After the pit, there was a big space of barren land, after which
was mahogany bush and bamboo bushes. As on my right side, there were mostly houses and
cowsheds and the cowsheds had cows and goats in them.
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LFE 201

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VILLAGE

My entire transact walk consisted of mahogany, bamboo bush and a bit of bash bagan. The
vegetations that the households had grown near their houses were eggplants, green pepper,
spinach, and bottle gourd. The mahogany bushes were all grown on the loamy soil, whereas the
houses and the vegetation were mostly on sandy loam. However, the barren land was a sandy
place. Most of my transact walk was on high land, but the mahogany bush, barren land, and the
pit was in a low land. The problems that this area had were fertilizers being open out in the air
which is very bad for health and much of the places were left out idle instead of using it for
vegetation or any other purposes.
Figure 3.1: My Transact Walk
STEPS/
CATEGORY
0-25
(left/right)

25-50
(left/right)

50-75
(left/right)
75-100
(left/right)

ZONE
TYPE
School
Temple,
house,
cowshed
Pit

SOIL
TYPE
Sandyloam
Sandyloam

HOUSEHOLD

TREES

Tinshed
Tinshed,
building

Mahogany
Mahogany,
Bamboo

Sandyloam,
loamy soil
Sandy

Tinshed

Mahogany,
Bash
Mahogany

Houses,
Cowshed
Barren land
Houses
Cowshed
Mahogany,
Bamboo
Houses,
Road

Sandy loam

Tinshed

Mahogany

Tinshed

Mahogany,
Bamboo
Mahogany

Sandyloam

ANIMALS

Eggplants, green
pepper, spinach,
bottle gourd

Cows,
goats

LAND
HEIGHT
High
High

Low
Spinach, green
pepper

Cows

Bash

Loamy soil
Loamy soil

VEGETATION

High
Low

Spinach

Cows

High
Low

Spinach

low

Source: Field Survey, 2011

3.5 CONCLUSION
Sharkarpara, Katigram is a typical village in
Bangladesh. We had an overall basic idea about
Bangladeshi village construction. By doing the
transect map we found how a portion of a
village can be reflecting on the structure of the
village as a whole. More than 80% of the people
are living in villages of Bangladesh and there is
no other way to develop this country without
developing the village or its people.

Picture 1.2: Temple in Sharkarpara

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LFE 201

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

Chapter 4 SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND SOCIAL CHANGE PROCESS

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SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND SOCIAL CHANGE PROCESS

4.0 INTRODUCTION
Society is a system in which people live together in organized communities, have shared
customs, laws, organizations etc. Social change is a continuous process that is altered over
different periods. Changes also take place as a reflection of technological advancement within
the society. This chapter will focus on the changes that took place over the different ruling
periods since 1972.
4.1 SOCIAL CHANGE PROCESS
We divided the whole time frame into four periods of ten years of ruling periods each to show the social
changes which took place gradually in Sharkarpara. The four different periods are:

I.
II.

Period One- The Sheikh Mujib and Zia-ur-Rahman period (1972 to 1982)
Period Two- Ershad and BNP period (1983 to 1993)

III.

Period Three- Khaleda Zia and Sheikh Hasina period (1994 to 2004)

IV.

Period Four- Caretaker Government and Sheikh Hasina period (2005 to current)

We have found out information on the many aspects of the society that affects the social change
processes of the area, with the help of the villagers. The different indicators of the changes in
four different periods are explained below:
Table 4.1: Social Change Process
RULING PERIOD

1972-1982

1983-1993

1994-2004

HOUSEHOLD

Earth/hay roofs

Earth/tin roofs

Earth and bamboo/


tin roofs

INFRASTRUCTURE

Cut canals, rivers

LIVING STANDARD

Low/ agriculture

COMMUNICATIONS

Weak/ haat

High roads

TECHNOLOGY

Weak/ radio

Radio, TV, VCR

Hospitals, schools,
bridges, roads
Moderate/
agriculture

Road skims

NIL

Higher/ agro,
business, teachers
Improved
transportation
Personal TV,
satellite, VCR

HEALTH
TREES

Higher/ garments
Improving
Cell phones
Influential families

ELECTRICITY
EDUCATION

2005-Present
Earth, concrete,
bamboo thatch/ tin,
concrete roofs

Katigram govt.
school
Poor/ little
awareness
Mango, berry,
jambura, jamrul

ANIMALS

Domestic animals

AGRICULTURE

Mustard, corn, riceaush/amon

More female
Flood/sickness
Decreasing fruit
trees
Birds- babul,
choroi, ghughu,
kokil
Introduction of irri

No. of SSC
increased
Improved/hospitals,
vaccination

Still increasing
Family planning

Bamboo trees

Cutting down trees

Exotic birds
decreased

Bird- Kingfisher,
domestick animals

Poultry firms, aush


& amon destroyed

Same

Source: Field Survey, 2011

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SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND SOCIAL CHANGE PROCESS

4.1.1 Household Types- from the first period till now, there are
still earth houses with roof top and tin shed. Now, there are bamboo
thatches, and concrete houses in Sharkarpara.
4.1.2 Infrastructure- canals were cut, rivers connected, during the
Ziaur Rahman period. All the schools, hospitals, roads and bridges,
had been made during the second period.

Picture 4.1: Concrete House

4.1.3 Living Standards- The living standards have gradually increased, though very slowly in
Sharkarpara. There are still agro based workers, there are now people doing businesses, women
working in places such as the Ayesha Abed Foundation.
4.1.4 Communication/Transportation- The only way of communication in the first period was
the Haat. After roads were built transportation and communication has improved.
4.1.5 Electricity- from the first period till the third, there had been no electricity in Sharkarpara,
whereas Awamileague and BNP, had both promised in the third period for providing electricity,
but failed. Except for some influential families in Sharkarpara, no one has electricity till today.
4.1.6 Technology- the villagers used to possess only radios during the time of liberation, few had
black & white common TV and VCR in Sharkarpara. Now, more villagers have personal color
TV, some have satellite and many rents VCDs. However, till today many do not even have cell.
4.1.7 Education facilities- Katigram Government School has been in Sharkarpara since 1564.
There used to be mostly male students and very few female and most of them studied till fifth
grade. Now female students are increasing, and people are going for higher studies now.
4.1.8 Health Care facilities- there used to be very poor medical facilities, poor sanitation
systems, less awareness of health and vaccination. During 1988, the flood caused more sickness.
Now there is an improvement as hospitals were built and NGOs started educating people more.
4.1.9 Trees- many trees were cut down due to
improvement on infrastructure. Now there is more
bamboo than fruits.
4.1.10 Wildlife- from the first period till now, there has
been cows, goats, chickens, cats, and dogs. Birds such as
babul, kokil, ghughu, choroi etc. used to be seen,
and now there are very few left, and one of these is
kingfisher.

Figure 4.1: Kingfisher Bird

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Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

4.1.11 Agriculture- from the first period till now there has been mustard, corn, poultry, rice.
However, there used to be rice of aush and amon before. Ershad had introduced the rice irri,
which was gradually accepted by all as aush and amon rice had been destroyed due to fertilizers.

4.2 POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CHANGES According to the villagers, some positive and
negative changes that took place over the time period of the last four ruling period are as follows:
Table 4.2: Positive and Negative Changes

POSITIVE CHANGES

NEGATIVE CHANGES

Standard of Living has increased


There are more Economic Stability in villagers
Education level has increased
Infrastructure and Transportation is improved
Health & Sanitation is much better
Women Empowerment has increased
Awareness of min age for marriage is higher
Most Households have improved
Crime has decreased

Price level of goods have increased


There is a reduction in Cultivation land
Extinction of Wildlife has increased
Labor Wage has increased
There are still a poor system of Electricity
There are still a poor system of Waste Disposal
The Drinking Water is Unsafe
There are no Secondary/Higher Secondary School
Dowry System is still there
Source: Field Survey, 2011

4.3 GENDER DIVISION OF LABOR


There is still a huge difference in gender division of labor
between men and women. Most of the hard agro work is done
by men while the cutting and planting of crops is done by the
women. Most male owns a business compared to the women.
For handicrafts, and garments mostly women are involved,
e.g. in Ayesha Abed Foundation. Only the men are engaged
in construction and transportation work. In Sharkarpara there
are only male doctors and government service holders, but

Picture 4.2: Discussion on Ruling Periods

there is an equal distribution in teaching.


4.4 CONCLUSION
After studying the social changes in Sharkarpara, we found that there are improvements like
increasing rate of female education, increase in health care facilities, healthy sanitation, etc.
There are also negative changes such as dowry system, increasing price of goods, decreased
agriculture land, etc. However, the gender division is seen to be huge, but gradually, women are
proving to be able to similar work as men overtime.
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Chapter 5 ECONOMY AND RURAL PRODUCTION CYCLE

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Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

ECONOMY AND RURAL PRODUCTION CYCLE

5.0 INTRODUCTION
Bangladesh is an agricultural based country with around 70% of its people depending on
agriculture to lead their life. Very few numbers lead a life with high living standard while many
others continue to stay below the poverty line. We have identified different income groups of
Sharkarpara, their amount of income and the sources, sources of loan, savings, seasonal cropping
pattern throughout the year, etc.
5.1 ECONOMIC CONDITION
From a population of twenty five households, we found out their income level and the sources of
their income in order to get an overall idea about the income groups of Sharkarpara.
Figure 5.1: Income Group of Sharkarpara
3

High Income

15

Middle Income
Low Income

Source: Field Survey, 2011

As we can see from the Figure 5.1 there are more middle income people in Sharkarpara, than
high or low. From our field study, we found out that all the high income people lives in concrete
houses, whereas middle and low income people lives in tin shed houses. There was one
household in the middle income group, who takes microcredit loan for running his petty store
and lives in a concrete house. Table 5.1 gives us an overall idea on the occupations, income
level, sources of loan and the savings of the different income groups of Sharkarpara.
Table 5.1: Income Assessment and Sources of Income in Sharkarpara
INCOME
GROUP

HIGH
MIDDLE
LOW

INCOME SOURCES
Poultry, Petty store,
agriculture, Variety Store
Agriculture, Petty shop
Vendor, House worker,
Garments, Service Holder

(monthly)

SOURCE OF
LOAN

SAVINGS

130,000 to 175,000

Self

1,500 to 5,000

10,000 to 42,000

Self, Microcredit

around 4,000

2,000 to 6,000

Microcredit

NIL

INCOME LEVEL

Source: Field Survey, 2011

All three level of income group own cows, goats, and chickens along with their houses that they
live in. Middle income group owns more animals than the lower income group, whereas, the high
income group owns, either shops, acres of land, and mahogany bushes. It is seen that only the
high and middle income groups have savings, and both groups have agriculture and petty store as
sources of income. Even though their monthly income may seem very high, these are only the
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ECONOMY AND RURAL PRODUCTION CYCLE

revenue from which, after deducting the high costs of harvesting, fertilizers, labor, investments,
machines, irrigation, chicken food, vaccination and medicines, the profit is pretty low. The
richest man in Sharkarpara is Mr. Atiqur Rahman, who owns the only five poultry firms in the
para. Table 5.2 gives a brief idea about profit of different income groups, cost benefit analysis.
Table 5.2: Cost Benefit Analysis of Sharkarpara
PROFESSION
AGRICULTURE
POULTRY
STORE OWNER
VENDOR
HOUSE WORKER
GARMENT WORKERS
SERVICE HOLDER

COST (BDT)
163195
130200
120000
2500
2000

REVENUE (BDT)
175920
155200
130000
6000
6000
4000
2000

PROFIT (BDT)
12725
25000
10000
3500
4000
NIL
NIL
Source: Field Survey, 2011

5.2 RURAL PRODUCTION CYCLE


Agriculture products depend on the season vastly in villages, as they are not so technological
based. Some factors like climate, soil type, ground water are very important issues for cultivation
in lands. Different climates exist in different seasons, based on which, different crops grow.
Some of the crops that grow in Sharkarpara according to one of the villagers, Mr. Sohel Rana,
are dhan, paat, mosuri daal, begun, mula, corn, mustard, spinach, etc. During the time
of our interview which was in Magh, (January), it was the growing time for irri and corn, and
harvesting time for mustard and eggplants.
5.3 CROP MAINTENANCE
5.3.1 Fertilizers- The fertilizers that are used for
maintaining crops are Potash, Urea, TSP, DIP.
5.3.2 Pesticides- The pesticides that are used are
Insecticides, Fungicides, PGR (plant growth
regulator)
5.3.3 Common Pests (Problem)- Majra poka,
Badami poka, Fungus, Rats.
Picture 5.1: Cultivated land

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Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

Figure 5.2 shows the crop production cycle calendar chart for a few vegetations in Sharkarpara.
For the irri rice, the seeds must be harvested in Boishakh (April), and seven months later, in
Poush (December), fertilizer, land preparation, and irrigation must be done. Finally, for the next
three months, irrigation must be continuous and rice will be growing.
Figure 5.2: Agriculture Production Cycle Calendar

MONTH/CROP

IRRI

BOISHAKH/APR
JOISHTHO/MAY
ASHAR/JINE
SRABON/JULY
BHADRO/AUG
ASHIN/SEPT

HARVETING

_________________
l_______+++____on
Jrrigati_________on
In______________g
In___________+___
++++++++++___++
+++++++.+++++.++
______________+

KARTIK/ OCT

AGRAYAN/ NOV

FALGUN/ FEB

FERTILIZER
LAND
PREPERATION
IRRIGATION
GROWING
TIME
Jrrigati______on
In___________g
Jrrigati______on
In___________g

CHAITRA/ MAR

Jrrigati______on
In___________g

POUSH/ DEC

MAGH/JAN

MUSTARD

In______________+
++++++++________
_________+_PPPPP
PPPPPPPPPP______
_________________
_____harvestin____
______+++++___/g

EGGPLANT

CORN

LADIES
FINGER

In______________g

In______________g

In______________g

In______________g

In______________g

In______________g

In______________g

In______________g

In______________g

In______________g

In______________g

In______________g

In______________g

In______________g

In______________g

In______________g
_________________
________________
lan______________
__d prepar___ation

In______________g
In_______________
__.______________
_________________
___________.___g

In_______________
_________________
________________g

______________on
Jrrigati_________on
________________

In_______________
_________________
_________________
_______________g

In_______________
__.______________
________________.
_______________g

_________________
________harvesting
In_____++++++___
________________g
In_______________
__.__________++++
++++_______.___g

In_______________
_______________g
In_______________
_______________g
In_______________
__.______________
___.___________g

___________.___._
lan___d preparation
In______________g

Source: Field Survey, 2011

5.4 CONCLUSION
We have found that the main sources of income of the village are mainly from agriculture and
agro-based industry which includes cattle, goat, chicken, etc. Though the richest villagers have
other professions but the numbers are very few. Some of the popular vegetables that grow in
Sharkarpara are mustard, eggplants, irri and spinach and most of the villagers have storage
facility for their crops.

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Chapter 6 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT

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HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

6.1 INTRODUCTION
Health & environment is one of the most neglected issues in our country, and they are
interconnected with each other. Environment is all the things around us which have great
influence on us and health is the fact to carry on a balanced life style in which one is reasonably
free of pain, discomfort and any types of disability. Mostly in villages, people are least
concerned about the health and environmental issues. They face health and environmental
problems due to their low literacy rate, ignorance and unconsciousness.
6.2 DISEASE
Source: Field Survey, 2011

Figure 6.1: Types of Diseases in Dighapatia Bazaar Para


3

Veneral Diseases

TYPS OF DISEASES

10

Asthma

12

Dengue

15

Muscle/Joint

20

Acidity

25

Cold Fever

10

15

20

25

As seen from the above bar Figure 6.1 the most common type of disease that the villagers of
Sharkarpara have is the cold fever. The entire population of our interview has had cold fever at
some point, and most have also had acidity.

Picture 6.1: Use of pond for washing clothes

6.3 WATER SOURCES


People can be affected due to gastroenteritis
resulting

from

pathogens

entering

through

contaminated water and unclean food. Mostly


children suffer from this disease and many results
death. People of Sharkarpara may are not aware of
this but they do know that it is important to use clean
water to prevent diseases. All of Sharkarpara, from
our survey, use tube well water for drinking and cooking as they are aware of this to be safe from
every kind of pollution and free of arsenic. However, for washing clothes, most villagers use the
pond. Figure 6.1 shows the distribution of use of water among tube well and pond.
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HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT

Figure 6.2: Uses of Water in Dighapatia Bazaar Para

Source: Field Survey, 2011

TUBEWELL

30

25

POND
23

22

25

17

20

10
3

0
DRINKING

BATHING

UTENSILS

CLOTHES

COOKING

6.4 COOKING
In Sharkarpara, not a single household uses gas, as it is expensive. For their daily cooking, they
mostly use leaves, twigs, straws, or cow dung. From the pie chart in Figure 6.3 we can see that
only 2 households use fire woods and no households use kerosene besides gas.
Those who use fire wood, straw and leaves and

Figure 6.3: Fuel Types


0%
8% 0%
0%
LEAVES/STRAW/COW DUNG

twigs indicated smoke as a common health


problem that leads to eye irritation and some

FIREWOOD

breathing difficulties. These respondents

KEROSENE

vindicated deforestation as the major

GAS

environmental effect of their fuel choice fuel.

OTHERS

92%

Picture 6.2: Cooking places in Sharkarpara

Source: Field Survey, 2011

6.5 WASTE DISPOSAL


Waste disposal is one of the major problems of the rural area which impact on the environment.
The rural people throw their waste anywhere which may pollute the atmosphere of the
environment. This harmful atmosphere may cause different diseases around the area.
Environmental consciousness was evident among those who uses separate kitchen in our
Sharkarara because some dispose the waste products in a hole away from the house and away
from the reach of children, and most of the people, around 21 to be precise, dump the waste in a
nearby ditch.
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Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011


Figure 6.4: Waste Disposal in Sharkarpara
4
0%

Source: Field Survey, 2011


21

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

HOLE
NEARBY DITCH
SPECIFIC PLACE
NO SPECIFIC PLACE

0
70%

80%

90%

100%

Picture 6.3: Latrine

6.6 SANITATION
Most people of Sharkarpara are aware of hygiene factors and many, around
80 percent of our population, have adopted the ring slab latrines, where the
sewerage is taken from a pipe from the latrine and out into the river.
However, there are very few people who use hanging latrine, septic tank,
and pit latrines outside their premises, which are the least hygienic. In the

last five years, many households have set up better, ring slab, sanitation facilities instead of using
open-pit toilet.
Source: Field Survey, 2011

Figure 6.5: Sanitation System in Sharkarpara


80
0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

8
50%

60%

70%

80%

8
90%

RING SLAB
HANGING LATRINE
SEPTIC TANK
PIT LATRINE

4
100%

6.7 HEALTHCARE FACILITIES


The diseases which can be prevented by immunization are diphtheria, tetanus,
whooping cough, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis and measles. A health card is given to
the parents for the record of vaccination. Immunization of children actually depends
on conscious of parents. In Sharkarpara, around 20% households, have given their
children vaccination, and very few still do not give vaccination to their child. The
most common vaccinations they give are Polio, Tetanus, B.C.G., and Diphtheria.
Figure 6.5: No. of Vaccination in Sharkarpara

Source: Field Survey, 2011

20

YES
NO

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

N/A

Picture 6.4: Vaccination

6.8 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT


The rural people of our country do not get enough attention for health care facilities because the
government of Bangladesh set minimum health care for all citizens. Above all, most Government Health

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HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT

care centers have problems like poor service, unclean environment, without discipline, lack of medicine
etc. Nevertheless, people of Sharkarpara go to Manikgang Shadar Hospital for treatments. They often
practice other sources of treatment for different types of diseases. Table 6.1 gives an overall idea on the
common diseases and the sources of their treatments. Villagers go to Kabiraj and Hujur often when they
have typhoid, malaria, or depression, etc. because they believe they have non-scientific diseases such as
ura bau, sapa batash, etc,
Table 6.1: Diseases and their Treatment Sources in Sharkarpara
TREATMENT SOURCE
Public Health Care Facilities- Manikgang
Shadar Hospital; Dhaka
Local Public Health Worker- Daee
Local NGO Health Worker- NIL
Local Pharmacy- Haat
Local Priest (Hujur)
Homeopath- Neem, Thankuni, Turmuric
Herbal Treatment
Other-Kabiraj

Source: Field Survey, 2011

DISEASE TYPE
Cancer, Tonsil, Vomiting, Tooth ache, Body pain, Gastric, Pressure,
Pregnancy
For medicines prescribed by doctors
Bad dreams, Coughing, Itchiness, Bad eye, being attacked by Jinn
Fever, Cold, Cough, Stomach upset
Stomach Upset, Injury
Fever, Headaches, Stomach aches, Weakness, Upri Beram

They usually buy their medicines from a market nearby their village, and from the Haat. They
dont get any medical facilities from the different NGO workers and government. Free treatment
is not given for the poor and old-aged people. In the hospital, doctors are often not available in
case of emergency or at night. The services at the hospital are also very poor, and villagers often
have to wait in long queue till their call. Due to lack of caring from the nurses and hospital
authority, villagers find it safer, cheaper and more effective to go to the local Priests, and
Kabiraj rather than hospitals.

6.9 CONCLUSION
Villagers are of Sharkarpara are aware about health and environment condition but not educated
enough. Most are aware enough to use tube well water but regarding waste disposal they are not
careful and do not consider its effect on the environment. However, their toilet facilities are
moderate. Diseases such as fever, cold, cough are quite common and many still goes to Priests
and Kabiraj as villagers lack proper treatment and medical help from the government health
care centers. Most are very much aware about the vaccination and its necessity for their child.
The change in the health and sanitation sector in Sharkarpara has largely occurred over the past
few years due to their self-concern and willingness.
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Chapter 7 RURAL MARKET

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RURAL MARKET

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

7.0 INTRODUCTION
The majority portion of Bangladesh is rural and transactions of goods and services in rural area
occur in rural markets. Since, the purchasing power parity of the rural people is much less than
that of their urban counterpart, the prices and quality of the products also varies here. This rural
market plays a significant role in the village economy. In the rural market, Haat, we found
many different types of products, their distribution channels and members like producer/ farmer,
wholesaler, broker, retailer and customer, how they work, behave and their way of survival.
7.1 CONCEPT OF MARKET, BAZAAR AND HAAT
The rural Market is divided into two segments and the segments are Bazaar and Hut. The
permanent form of market in rural area is known as Bazaar. Every day bazaar takes place in
certain area of village. Haat is also a type of market but it is different in a sense that it is not
permanent like Bazaar. The prices of products and services in the haat are usually fixed through
bargaining.
Table 7.1: Difference between Haat and Bazaar:

Source: Field Survey, 2011

HAAT
Open once or twice a week,sun&tue,(9 am to 6 pm)
Consists of everyday and novelty items
Comprises of 300 traders approximately
Maintained by a Haat Committee
Must pay TK 10-30 every week
Low (due to high competition)
Has a wider variety of products and services
Few middlemen as most farmers sell directly
Has more buyers and sellers
Buyers have higher bargaining power

BAZAAR
Open mostly throughout the week
Consists of daily necessities
Comprises of 150 stores approximately
Maintained by Pouro Shobha
Usually rents stores
Moderate to High price
Has less number of products and services
Higher number of middlemen
Has less sellers and buyers
Sellers have higher bargaining power

The Katigram Haat has been actively operating in the village for the past 60 years. Traders from
all over the village and other localities come here for buying and selling their goods/services.
The Katigram haat has around 100 to 200 traders. These traders must buy their space in the haat
by paying the haat committee around TK 10 to 30, or two kg of a certain agro goods.
7.1.1 Communication and Transportation Facilities
The transport system of the products in and out of the haat is by self walking, by van, bus,
rickshaw or by trucks. However, for communication, the traders must be physically present to
have a fair or bargained sales/purchase. Use of cell phones with their traders is not practiced, and
many have fixed traders from whom they always purchase products.
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RURAL MARKET

7.1.2 Available Products and ServicesThe products and services that we found in the haat are portrayed in table 7.2.
Source: Field Survey, 2011

Table 7.2: Available Products in Tebaria Haat


INDUSTRIAL
PRODUCTS

SERVICES
(TK)

CONSUMER PRODUCTS (TK)


CONVENIENCE

Jar (TK 70/kg);


Berger paint (TK 70/200
gallon); Screw (TK
190/kg); Nails (TK
60/kg); Pipes (TK 80/4
inches); Wires, Chains,
Alkatra, Plastics, Cables,
Tires, Hinges, Brush
paints, Bulbs, etc.

Rice,
Lentils,
Vegetables
Spices, Salt,
Sugar, oil

SHOPPING

SPECIALTY

UNSOUGHT

Clothes, Soap,
Shampoo,
Potato Chips,
Cigarettes

KABIRAJI Productsfor constipation,


stomach ache, joint
pain, gastric, heart
disease, and loss of
appetite: Sesame (160180), Isab Gul (600650), Shabudana (120150), etc.

N/A

Barber:
Adult-30; Child20;
Shave- 20 (with
foam), 10
(without foam)
Tailor:
Lungi- 10;
Blouse- 20; Shirt200; Salwar
Kameez- 40;
Pant- 250;
Blanket Cover- 10

Figure 7.2: Map of Haat

Figure 7.1 is a picture of a map drawn of


the entire Haat, and the bottom left
corner is our entrance to the Haat.
7.2

INBOUND

&

OUTBOUND

PRODUCTS
Some of the products that come inside
the haat for trading and go outside the
haat to other markets are shown in the
flowchart in Figure 7.2 below.
Source: Field Survey, 2011

Figure 7.2: Inbound and Outbound Products of Tebaria


Haat

FRUITS
SPICES
HERBS
COSMETICS
CLOTHES, etc.
FROM NEARBY PARAS,
TOWNS, DHAKA,
SAVAR, INDIA

KATIGRAM
HAAT

CONSUMER
PRODUCTS
INDUSTRIAL
PRODUCTS
SERVICES

RICE
VEGETABLES
LENTILS
FRUITS
FISH, etc.

TO NEARBY
TOWNS, DHAKA
Source: Field Survey, 2011

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Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

7.3 DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS


Non agricultural products are usually supplied through a multiple agents or distributers, before
they reach the final consumers. The distribution channel of products consists of the following
members, through which most products are distributed:
Producers

Wholesalers

Retailers

Consumers

Some of the products and their distribution channel are shown below.
Winter Clothing
Raw Materials
(Producers)

Local Garments
(Manufacturer)

Respondent
(Retailer)

Buyer
(Consumer)

Spice Vendor
Raw Materials
(Producers)

Processing
(Manufacturer)

Respondent
(Retailer)

Buyer
(Consumer)

Seasonal Fruits

Farm
(producer in
India)

Bangladeshi
Wholesaler
(middleman
1)

Factory
(Wholesaler)

Large
Retailer
(middleman
2)

Respondent
(Retailer)

Buyer (Final
Consumers
in
Bangladesh)

7.4 VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS


A value chain is a chain of activities where products pass through the stages of the chain in order
and at each activity the product gains some value. The chain of activities gives the products more
value as the products move up the stages. A value chain analysis evaluates the activities from input
selection to final distribution of a product to the ultimate consumer. In between the input selection
and distribution, the production process and processing activities are involved. Table 7.3 discusses
the value chain of a few products we had seen in Katigram Haat.
PRODUCTS
POTATO

SESAME

INPUT SELECTION
(TK)
Seeds (5000)
Fertilizer- Urea (2000)
Labor (self)
Seeds
Labor
(30004000)

PRODUCTION
PROCESS (TK)
Ploughing ( 1200)
Harvesting (self)

PROCESSING
ACTIVITIES (TK)
Cleaning (self)
Packing (self)

Harvesting (self)

Peeling (self)
Cleaning (self)
Freight (self)

Table 7.3: Value Chain Analysis of Potato and Termuric


Powder

DISTRIBUTION
(TK)
Producer
Retailer
Consumer (10/kg)
Producer
Retailer
Consumer(140/kg)

Source: Field Survey, 2011

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RURAL MARKET

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Manikgang- Spring 2011

7.5 PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES

By Microphones

Billboards

Hanging Billboards

Posters

Self Marketing

Word of Mouth
Picture 7.1: Self Marketing

7.6 FAKE PRODUCTS

We found different types of fake products in the haat where the products name is change but the
packaging or outlook of the product is similar as the original brands. Most of the people of the
haat are illiterate and they are easily fooled by these products. For example:

Data shoes- similar to Bata


Talc beverages- same packaging as Tang
Casio watches- made in Malaysia

Nokia lighter- taken from the cell


phone brand
Nike shoes, etc.

Source: Field Survey, 2011

Picture 7.2: Fake Products

7.7 LOCAL BRANDS & PREFERENCES


Table shows some of the local brands that we found in the haat, and the brands that the villagers
prefer.

Table 7.4: Local and Preferred Brands of Dighapatia Village

PREFERRED BRANDS
LOCAL BRANDS
Beauty Biri, Topi 10 biri
Castle Cigarettes
Lungi: Warid, Monpura, etc.
Rat Killer: Ostad, China, Heera
Cuffe Lozenges

Beauti Biri
Akiz Biri
Soap- Lux
Shampoo- Sunsilk
Candy- Jhaltok

Detergent- Wheel
Medicine- Square
Hair Oil- Parachute
Snacks- Bombay Sweets
Potato Crackers
Source: Field Survey, 2011

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Source: Field Survey, 2011

Picture 7.3: Preferred Brands

7.8 PROBLEMS OF HAAT


After talking to some of the traders, they had informed us on some of the problems with
Katigram haat that they always face:

Logistical problems- for transportation


Lack of storage facilities

Lack of drainage systems


Lack of sanitation facilities

7.9 CONCLUSION
Villagers prefer haat than bazaar for having the product at a lower price and for the variation of
products. The haat has both local and fake products. There is an inflow and outflow of products
in the haat. Farmers have less bargaining power because of, warehousing problem and most of
the time, they are not even aware of their products value. Most villagers produce their own
products and sell it in the haat and most of them make their living out from trading in Haat.

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Chapter 8 ASPECTS OF MICROCREDIT

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ASPECTS OF MICROCREDT

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Mankigang- Spring 2011

8.0 INTRODUCTION
The term micro credit in simple terms means small loans. Microcredit (a part of micro finance) is
the provision of financial services such as loans, saving, training and insurance to people living
in poverty who traditionally lack access to banking related services. NGOs (Non-government
organization) are working in the fields such as Education, Health and Sanitation, Family
Planning, Micro credits and many others.
8.1 NGOs
From our survey we have found out that that 72% of the people in Sharkarpara have taken loans
from various NGOs and 28% did not take any loans. From this 72% of population, they take loans
from five different NGOs. Figure 8.1 gives an overview of this.
Source: Field Survey, 2011

Figure 8.1: No. of members in NGO from Sharkarpara


29
0%

10%

20%

27
30%

40%

50%

15
60%

70%

8.2 PURPOSE OF LOAN

9
80%

90%

100%

Figure 8.2: Purpose of Loan

The NGOs are playing a very important

N/A

role in changing the socio-economic

VAN

structure and development of overall

BUSINESS

Sharkarpara. People require loans for

DPS

different purposes. Most of the villagers

CATTLE

earn their livelihood from agriculture but

DOWRY

house building and business have the

RENT (land)

highest demand for taking loans. The

LAND

major reasons for which, the people of

SHOP

Sharkarpara take loans and the number of

RICKSHAW

people who do are shown in Figure 8.2.

ASA
GONOKALYAN TRUST
BURO BANGLADESH
JAGORONI CHAKRA
BRAC

AGRICULTURE

2
1
3

1
4

Source: Field Survey, 2011

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8.3 NGO STATISTICS


Table 8.1 below gives an overview of all the prime NGOs and their services in Sharkarpara.
Source: Field Survey, 2011

Table 8.1: NGO Statistics


NGO

INDIVIDUAL
PRINCIPAL

PROPOSED
INTEREST RATE (%)

TIME PERIOD
(weeks)

ACTUAL INTEREST RATE


[(FV-PV)/PV]x100

BURO
ASA
GONOKALYAN TRUST
BRAC
JAGORONI CHAKRA

5000
28000
25000
NIL
15000

15
NIL

45
45
45
45
45

21.5% (TK 405/week)


15.7% (TK 720/week)
17% (TK 650/week)

12.5 (for 1000)


NIL
NIL

NIL
20% (TK 400/week)

These NGOs offer various types of loans and savings services. To understand about the services further
Table 8.2 is shown for two prime NGOs below.

Source: Field Survey, 2011

Picture 8.1: Villagers who has taken Microcredit

Table 8.2: NGO Statistics- BURO

Source: Field Survey, 2011

TYPES OF
LOANS

GENERA
L (000)

AGRICULTUR
E (000)

INTEREST
RATES
AMOUNT (BDT)
INSTALLMENTS

15%

15%

1-50
46 weeks

1-50
46 weeks

BURO
MICRO
PANI O POY
ENTERPRISE
NISHKASHON (000)
(000)
15%
15%
15-200
46 weeks

EMERGENC
Y (000)

DISASTE
R (000)

NIL

10%

1-3
3 months

4 max.
42 weeks

1-5
46 weeks

Table 8.3: NGO Statistics- Gonokalyan Trust

Source: Field Survey, 2011


GPNOKALYAN TRUST

TYPES OF
LOANS
INTEREST
RATES
AMOUNT (BDT)
INSTALLMENTS

RURAL MICRO
CREDIT
(RMC)(000)

MICROCREDIT
ENTERPRISE (000)

ULTRA POOR
PROGRAM (000)

EFRRAP
(DISASTER)(000)

SEASONAL (000)

12.5%

12.5%

10%

4.5%

TK1700/11.33%

1-29
45 weeks

30-200
45 weeks

1-6
44 weeks

3 max.
40 weeks

15 fixed
9 months

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ASPECTS OF MICROCREDIT

BURO and GONOKALYAN TRUST are the two major loan providers in Sharkarpara and following
right after them is BRAC.
Buro

Ganakalyan Trust

Active Accounts- 3,508

Active Accounts- 1580

Savings- from TK 10 to unlimited per week

Savings- RMC- TK 10 per week; M.E.- TK20

Advantages- Loan takers are allowed to take

per week; U.P.P.- TL 2-5 per week

their savings any time they wish to

Seasonal Loans- TK 15000 for 9 months

Picture 8.2: NGOs

Source: Field Survey, 2011

8.4 EFFECT OF NGOs IN SHARKARPARA


There is no doubt that micro credit has improved the financial condition of the people of Sharkarpara.
Though there are very few of failure cases, most people have said that micro credit has changed their way
of living. Table talks about a few positive and negative effects of micro credit in Sharkarpara.
Table 8.4: Positive and Negative effects of Microcredit

POSITIVE
Sanitary Development
Education Development
Better Family Planning
Agricultural Improvement
Better Child Care i.e. Vaccination, Nutrition

NEGATIVE
Established Dwelling House in Cultivated Land
Daily Commodity Price Raised
Social Disharmony

Source: Field Survey, 2011

8.5 CONCLUSION
Many villagers believe that NGOs are helping them to get out of poverty and getting them more
solvent however, there are still many in Sharkarpara who do not believe in taking microcredit as
they believe it is too much hassle and not worth it. They invest the loans in different sectors and
mostly on agriculture. Though most loans are given to the women but men are also using those
loans for profitable returns. These loans encourage village women to be economically
independent by giving necessary education on economic activities. As NGOs are focusing on
these above fields, the standard of the living of the villagers are slowly but surely going up.
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Chapter 9 CASE STUDY

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CASE STORY

9.0 INTRODUCTION
We have done individual case stories on two villagers
from Sharkarpara, and the Katigram Haat by interviewing
them. In the case stories we cover the interviewees
profile, education background, history of family, the
economic and social condition of the family, income,
sources of income, spending, etc.

Source: Field Survey, 2011

9.1 CASE STUDY I


Mr. Zakir is one of the many traders in Katigram Haat. He is a 25 year old man who sells
seasonal clothes for eight years now, and his sitting area is right at the entrance of the haat. Mr.
Zakir is unmarried and lives in Purbopara, Dihi Katigram village, with his mother alone.
General Information of Interviewee
Name
Mr. Zakir
Age
25
Education
8th Grade, Madrasa
Address
Purbopara, Dihi Katigram
Products
Seasonal Clothings
Income (Yearly) Around 90, 000
Properties
House, 8 paki land, 1 cow, 12 chickens

Source: Field Survey, 2011

The products that he was currently selling at the


time of interview are gents and children pants,
sweaters, shirts, school uniforms, jackets, gloves,
socks, caps, and ear caps. He buys his products
mostly from Shadarghat, Dhaka, where goes by
bus Shuvo Jatra, and buys the clothes- shirts,

caps, socks, jackets, from local garments that sell these downstairs of the factory for 90/100
pieces in one pack. He buys the pants from Kaligang, 6/8 pieces each pack and sells each pant
for BDT 250 to 300. The rest of his garments come from Gingira. However, from the sales of
each of his product, his profit is usually only around BDT 10 to 50 per piece.
Zakir is a self owned business man and he makes all the
necessary delivery himself. He uses the local buses for his
regular transportation and communicates with his cell phone
with his suppliers and stores his supplies at home. Today he
earns around seven to eight thousand taka weekly from his
business, and owns his own house, a few domestic animals

PROFIT ON PRODUCTS (TK)


PRODUCTS BUY SALE PROFIT
60
80
20
GLOVES
27
35
8
CAP
18
25
7
SOCKS
15
20
5
EARCAPS
300
350
50
JACKET
250
300
50
SWEATER

Source: Field Survey, 2011

along with his own TV, VCD, and 8 paki of land.


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CASE STORY

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Mankigang- Spring 2011

Source: Field Survey, 2011

9.2 CASE STUDY II


Jahanara Begum is a fifty year old widower living in
Sharkarpara with her sons. She lives in her own house. Her
source of income comes through her sons, one who work in
mudi dokan, and the other sells chanachur. However,
she looks after the agro products and domestic animals
along with her daughter in laws.
Jahanara Begum is a Microcredit loan holder. She has been
taking loans for around twenty three years now. Her very
first loan was from Brac in 1988, and it lasted for 15 years.
Her second loan was from Proshika five years back. Her
last loan was from Gonokalyan of TK 30,000, and she was
insisted to take TK 4,000 by the loan givers as she was doing well in repaying the interests. She
prefers Gonokalyan as they charge 13% whereas other NGOs charge higher, 15 percent.
Jahanara Begum had been the head of the loan takers from Sharkarpara. The NGOs referred to
her as a successful women, as she had used the loan taken properly, never missed a payment and
increased her wealth from it. She says Brac has helped her throughout the way and after her
husband died, helped her to start her own business. She rented her house to a nursery school and
earned about TK 70,000 from it.
Few years back, one of her sons had cancer and she needed 5 Lac 70 thousand for the entire
treatment which she took from different NGOs. She has been able to successfully treat her son as
well as repay the loan on time. Today she owns her own concrete house, 30 dicim of land and is
very well off now.
9.3 CONCLUSION
From these case studies, it is seen how villagers live their life and work so hard for a better
living. Some have made their living by the help of microcredit, and some have worked on their
own to make money.

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CONCLUSION

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Mankigang- Spring 2011

10.0 CONCLUSION
The main objective the LFE program was to understand life led by the villagers and their
thoughts. We first analyzed the physical and environmental features of the village by means of
mapping. We tried to identify the rural activities and the social changes occurring in rural
Bangladesh. We analyzed data on certain parameters like agricultural condition, health facilities,
education level, environmental pollution, rural lifestyle, culture, behavior, and value system.
Sharkarpara, katigram has changed over the years in terms of household system, living standards,
communication, electricity, technology, health care, trees, wildlife, etc. some of the positive
changes that took place is higher education for both male and female, better, health and
sanitation system, higher awareness of healthcare, economic stability, etc. Some of the negative
changes that took place are the increase in prices of goods, loss of cultivation land due to
infrastructure, extinction of many trees and wildlife, etc. However, the economic condition of
most people in Sharkarpara has increased. Men as well as women are doing business more and
more and earning for themselves. The most popular occupation in Sharkarpara is however
agriculture. These villagers have very low earning, but even among them there are different level
of income groups.
Microcredit has had a great impact on many of these people as NGOs have been helping the
villagers grow by lending them loans. Many have been benefitted from this but many who could
not repay the loan could not enhance their living style as they failed in their business. These
NGOs helped the villagers have proper sanitation, and proper use of water in drinking and for all
other uses such as cooking. They have also tried to educate the villagers of Sharkarpara about
health care, medicines, vaccination, child care, education, family planning, sex education, etc.
and today Sharkapara has a moderate healthy environment with active people in the para.
Most villagers go to the haat, that sits twice a week in Katigram village, and the haat has a wide
variety of transactions of goods and services. We have studied botrh the inbound and outbound
products of the haat, their value chain system and the distribution channels of daily necessities in
the haat.
Overall, from LFE, we gained the knowledge on the villagers of our country, their way of
thoughts, way of living, preferred occupations, businesses, goods and services, and had an
overview of their entire lifestyle.
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LFE 201

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Live-in-field Experience Report- Proshika, Mankigang- Spring 2011

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Live-in-Field Experience, Spring 2011


2. Structure and Program-Independent University Bangladesh
3. www.brac.net
4. Principles of Marketing, 9th edition, Philip Kotler
5. Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr. & J. Paul Peter, Marketing: Creating Value for Customers (page: 7).
Austin Pres
6. Marketing Management, by H.W. Bayd, O.C. Walker 3rd edition, page-09
7. Nelson, Jonathon H 1986 Sociology the Science of Human Organization Chicago

LFE Section 01-GROUP 3, Proshika, Manikgangm, Spring 2011

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