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A Interface over IP

Implementation Scheme

A Interface over IP Implementation Scheme Internal Use Only

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
1.1
1.2
1.3

Flex Ater Interface............................................................................................1


NE(s) involved:...................................................................................................1
Feature Introduction...........................................................................................1
Networking in the Flex Ater Mode......................................................................2

2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

A over TDM.......................................................................................................5
Brief Introduction................................................................................................5
NEs Involved......................................................................................................5
Technical Description.........................................................................................5
Transmission Modes A over TDM......................................................................6

Hardware Requirement Flex Ater and A Over TDM.......................................7

4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6

A Interface Over IP Transformation................................................................8


Overview............................................................................................................ 8
Current Architecture...........................................................................................8
Architecture after AoIP transformation...............................................................9
iBSC with Megabit Platform.............................................................................10
Mega iBSC Hardware Platform........................................................................10
MGW Hardware Platform.................................................................................11

IP A Interface Dimensioning..........................................................................11

Bandwidth Calculations for All BSCs...........................................................12

Engineering Guide for AoIP Transformation................................................13

8
8.1
8.2

Feasibility of AoIP..........................................................................................14
AoIP vs. AoTDM : OPEX..................................................................................14
AoIP vs. AoTDM : CAPEX................................................................................14

Abbreviations.................................................................................................15

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FIGURES
Figure 1 System Architecture of A Interface over TDM.............................................................2
Figure 2 System Architecture of A Interface over IP.................................................................2
Figure 3 Current Architecture...................................................................................................3
Figure 4 Architecture after AoIP...............................................................................................4

TABLES
Table 1 NEs Involved for Flex Ater..........................................................................................1
Table 2 NEs Involved for A over TDM....................................................................................5
Table 3 Requirement for other NEs for A over TDM................................................................5
Table 4 Summary of Cards for DR 25%..................................................................................7
Table 5 Summary of Cards for DR 40%..................................................................................7
Table 6 Bandwidth Calculations............................................................................................12

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Flex Ater Interface

1.1

NE(s) involved:
Table 1 NEs Involved for Flex Ater
Involved or Not

NE Name

1.2

MS

BTS

BSC

MSC

MGW

SGSN

GGSN

HLR

Special Requirement

iTC is required.

Feature Introduction

In the GSM system, the device used for conversion and rate adaptation between various speech codes
and the 64K PCM code over an air channel is called TransCoder (TC). TC can be either built in BSC or
configured externally. Transcoder Pool (TC POOL) is an external TC device that provides largecapacity transcoders. The TC resources in this pool are allocated in a dynamic mode, and are shared
by all BSCs connected to the pool. The interface between TC POOL and BSC is called Ater interface.
The external connections of TC POOL are shown in figure below

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Figure 1 TC Pool External Connections


As shown in Error: Reference source not found, on the Ater interface side, a TC POOL can provide TC
resources for multiple BSCs, and each BSC can be connected to multiple TC POOLs for load sharing.
On the A interface side, MSCs and TC POOLs can also be cross-connected. Such network
architecture provides excellent load sharing and disaster recovery backup functions.
When constructing a network, an operator can use small-capacity BSC without TC in remote areas,
and place TC POOL close to MSC in central cities in order to cut the transport cost involved in network
construction. When a new service needs a new complex transcoder, like WB-AMR, it is easy to add a
TC unit, not only preventing replacement of quantities of hardware but also cutting equipment cost
needed for network upgrade.

1.3

Networking in the Flex Ater Mode

The ZXG10 iTC system works with the ZXG10 iBSC system to implement global sharing and dynamic
allocation of TC resources. In terms of networking relations between iTC and MSC/BSC, there are two
structures:
Networking Mode 1
The A interface adopts E1/STM-1, and its signaling and data both pass through iTC with no more
channel dedicated to signaling transfer between MSC and BSC. This structure is characterized by
clear networking topology, but its reliability is affected to some extent as the A interface signaling needs
to be transmitted through iTC and thus occupy iTC resources.

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Figure 2 Flex Ater Networking Mode 1


Networking Mode 2
By contrast with the first mode, only the A interface speech and data are transmitted through iTC, and
a direct connection between MSC and BSC is added for transfer of the A interface signaling. In this
mode, the A interface signaling does not pass through iTC, so it has higher security, but relatively
complex networking topology.

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Figure 3 Flex Ater Networking Mode 2


To save transmission resource, iTC is usually located on the MSC side. One iBSC can be connected to
16 iTCs at most for flexible connection of Ater. The Ater interface between iBSC and iTC, and the A
interface between iTC and MSC support E1/T1 (TDM), STM-1, and IP (signaling) connection modes.
An iTC is needed for transcoding of the speech data between iBSC and MSC. When the Ater interface
is E1/T1/STM-1, its signaling adopts the MTP2/MTP3/SCCP protocol stack. When the Ater interface is
IP based, its signaling adopts the IP/SCTP protocol stack.

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A over TDM

2.1

Brief Introduction

In the initial GSM specifications, the A interface is based on TDM. At present, the 3GPP incorporates
the implementation of the control-plane signaling over IP, which is based on the SIGTRAN protocol
stack. Additionally, the IP-based control plane is supported. This feature transforms the A over TDM
function to the A over IP function, thus facilitating network evolution.

2.2

NEs Involved
Table 2 NEs Involved for A over TDM
NE Name

Involved or
Not

MS

No

BTS

No

BSC

iTC

Table 3 Requirement for other NEs for A over TDM


NE Name

2.3

Involved or
Not

MSC

MGW

SGSN

GGSN

HLR

Technical Description

As IP networks are developing rapidly, IP bearer will play a more important role, and the UMTS
network will become an all-IP network in the future. Therefore, shifting from A over TDM to A over IP is
unavoidable. From the perspective of the operator, IP is much cheaper than TDM, and thus using IP
bearer can enhance the core competitiveness of the operator. Many operators request A interface over
IP in their bid documents. To satisfy the operators' needs, meet the requirements for technology
development in the future, and improve competitiveness of the product, it is extremely urgent to
develop A interface over IP.

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In case of A interface over TDM, the TC, which resides on the BSS side, implements the conversion of
2G codes to TDM PCM codes in voice services and 64k adaptation in data services.

Figure 4 System Architecture of A Interface over TDM

2.4

Transmission Modes - A over TDM


1. The A interface of iBSC supports TDM A and IP A transmission modes.
2. TDM A mode is a traditional transmission mode on the A interface. This mode is
used in the scenarios of built-in TC and external TC.
3. TDM A transmission mode supports E1 and STM-1.

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Hardware Requirement Flex Ater and A


Over TDM
Boards
1. STDB (Ater side)
2. SDTB (A Side)
3. GUP (Ater side)
4. GUP (A Side)
5. BUSN

The summary of the cards required for DR 25% and DR 40% is as below

Table 4 Summary of Cards for DR 25%

BSC/iT
C

BSC

iTC
Total

SDTB
circle Ater
WB
ORISSA
BIHAR
WB
ORISSA
BIHAR

2
1
2
2
1
3
11

GUP
Ater
10
14
15
4
3
9
55

SDTB
(A)

GUP
(A)

6
4
12
22

BUSN

12
8
27
47

2
1
3
6

Table 5 Summary of Cards for DR 40%

BSC/iT
C

BSC

iTC
Total

circle
WB
ORISSA
BIHAR
WB
ORISSA
BIHAR

SDTB
(Ater

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5
1
2
2
2
3
15

GUP
Ater
11
22
18
6
5
12
74

SDTB
(A)

GUP
(A) BUSN

12
9
21
42

24
20
45
89

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2
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A Interface Over IP Transformation

4.1

Overview

In case of A interface over IP, the MSC Server (MSCS) and MGW reside on the CN side. The control
plane of the BSC connects the MSCS, and the user plane connects the MGW. The interface between
the MSCS and the MGW is Mc. The TC unit is moved to the MGW; the user-plane codes include HR,
FR, EFR and AMR. The MGW implements the conversion of various codes.

Figure 5 System Architecture of A Interface over IP

In this document, the A interface over IP is realized in this way: The A interface control signaling
BSSAP is over IP, and the user plane is over RTP/UDP/IP.

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4.2

Current Architecture

The current A-interface has TDM transmission with transcoding always located inside the BSS. The
only Codec defined for this TDM A-Interface is PCM. In addition TFO may exist, which tunnels
compressed speech through this PCM link between TRAU and MGW.

Figure 6 Current Architecture

4.3

Architecture after AoIP transformation

Figure 7 Architecture after AoIP


In this case the recommended network architecture is that Media Gateways (MGWs) are co-located at
the same site where the transcoders are. This is always desirable, but the high transport volume

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makes it quite important. To achieve better bandwidth efficiency at the A interface IP-multiplexing
techniques shall become an option. The packetization time may be either 5 ms or 20 ms (FFS).The
main advantage of this approach relates to the fact that IP solves problems related to the inflexible
physical connectivity of TDM. The solution introduces the freedom to place a BSC/TRAU somewhere
in an IP network.

4.4

iBSC with Megabit Platform

On the megabit platform, the physical name of IPI can be BIPI, which can be used in AoIP mode.
When it is necessary to provide 4 FE electrical interface each used both internally and externally, it is
suggested to use the BIPI (in slots 5~8 and slots 11~14 of the megabit resource shelf). When the GUP
is used as logic board, it is necessary to configure two network interfaces of the media plane. Hence, it
is suggested to place the GUP in slots 5~8 and slots 11~14. If inserted in slots 1 to 4, 15 and 16, the
adjacent slots can not be configured with board using media plane network port.
Rules for configuring BIPI under AoIP:

Each (each pair of) BIPI board can process 6500 lines of traffic, and the traffic
volume is 6500*0.7= 4550 ERL. BIPI board can adopts 1+1 configuration (working
under active/standby mode).

Configuration principle of GUP board under AoIP:


Each DSP of GUP board processes 125 lines of traffic, thus 14 DSPs of each board
can process 1750 lines of traffic, supporting a traffic volume of 1750*0.7=1225ERL.

4.5

Mega iBSC Hardware Platform

Board Capacity Estimation


Boards to be added:
1. BIPI interface board
2. Rare Board : RMNIC
3. GUP
Calculations
Traffic volume processed by each (each pair of) BIPI board: 6500*0.7= 4550 ERL.
The DSP of each GUP board can process 125 lines of traffic, and each board has 14 DSPs, which can
process 1750 lines of traffic and support a traffic volume of 1750*0.7=1225ERL.

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4.6

MGW Hardware Platform


Table 5 MGW Hardware Requirement
Hardware Type

Description

GIPI

IP media interface board

BUSN

Switching shelf

IP A Interface Dimensioning

Total Bandwidth = Total iBSC Erlang * User Plane bandwidth per user (Kbps)
User plane bandwidth per user = Size (Payload) + Size (Header) * 8/ 20ms * 1000

Service

Service
IP A (Byte)

IP Payload
(Byte)

User Plane Bandwidth/User


(kbps)

FR

33

58

36.4

HR

14

58

28.8

IP payload= MAC header+ IP header + UDP header + RTP header


= (18+20+8+12)
= 58
Assumptions
Consider Current iBSC of Bhuwaneshwar (BSC ID 1 )with 1600TRX
Current GUP for Ater (TDM) = 3 (One GUP supports 3360 TCH= 2352 Erlang)
Current Erlang=2352*3=7056
GUP Card required for AoIP interface supports = 1225 Erlang
Total GUP Cards required = 6
Total Erlang with AoIP will be = 6*1225=7350
HR Ratio = 50% (Average based on current traffic)

BSC Type

No. of BTS
Supported

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BSC Total Erl


(70% Load))

IP A (VAD=60% )
Bandwidth

IP A(70% Load)
Bandwidth

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1600TRX

149

7350 Erlang

143Mbps

204Mbps

Throughput of A interface = Erl*(FR Bandwidth*FR Ratio + HR Bandwidth*HR Ratio)/1000


=7350 * (36.4*0.5+28.8*0.5) / 1000 (with 60% VAD)
=143Mbps

Bandwidth Calculations for All BSCs


Table 6 Bandwidth Calculations

Circl
e

BIHAR

ORISS
A

BS
C
ID

TRX
Capaci
ty

GUP
Availab
le

GUP
Neede
d

Curren
t
Erlang

GUP
Card
required
for AoIP
interface
based on
current
erlang

6
7
8
5
1
2
18
19
15
10
16
3
24
23
13
11
4
9
5
2
1
3
14
9
4

1400
1400
1640
1400
1400
1640
1400
1400
600
1200
1400
1600
1200
1400
1400
1400
1400
1400
1400
1600
1600
1400
1600
1600
1600

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

7056
7056
7056
7056
7056
7056
7056
7056
4704
7056
7056
7056
7056
7056
7056
7056
7056
7056
7056
7056
7056
7056
7056
7056
7056

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

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Total
Erlang
with
AoIP
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350
4900
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350
7350

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IP A
(VAD=6
0% )
Bandwi
dth

IP A
(70%
Load)
Bandwid
th

143
143

204
204

143
143

204
204

143
143

204
204

143
143

204
204

95
143
143

135
204

143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143

12

204
204
204
204
204
204
204
204
204
204
204
204
204
204
204

A Interface over IP Implementation Scheme Internal Use Only

WB

12
7
17
8
16
13
10
15
11
7
12
6

1400
1400
1600
1600
600
1400
1400
1200
1600
1000
1400
1800

3
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
2
3
4

3
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
2
3
4

7056
7056
7056
7056
4704
7056
7056
7056
7056
4704
7056
9408

6
6
6
6
4
6
6
6
6
4
6
8

7350
7350
7350
7350
4900
7350
7350
7350
7350
4900
7350
9800

143
143

204
204

143
143

204
204

95
143

135
204

143
143

204
204

143
95

204
135

143
191

204
272

5
2
4
11
17
8
19
10
9

1200
1000
1400
1000
1400
1200
1600
1800
1800
Total

3
2
3
2
3
3
3
4
4

3
2
3
2
3
3
3
4
4
136

7056
4704
7056
4704
7056
7056
7056
9408
9408

6
4
6
4
6
6
6
8
8

7350
4900
7350
4900
7350
7350
7350
9800
9800

143
95

204
135

143
95

204
135

143
143

204
204

143
191

204
272

191

272

Engineering Guide for AoIP


Transformation

AoIP reformation faces higher technical difficulties and complexibilities, heavier work load, and higher
troubleshooting requirements than other engineering operations.
1.

Scheme preparation phase---including collection of information related to on-site configuration,


traffic volume and hardware resources, communication about and confirmation of networking
schemes, as well as completion of first draft of overall reformation scheme;

2.

Scheme verification phase---Assess and verify overall reformation schemes and plans, and refine
detailed engineering scheme for each step as per the overall scheme. For example: the schemes
can be divided into pre-AoIP-reformation engineering preparation scheme, IP interface integration
scheme, AoIP service handover scheme and so on as per the implementation phases.

3.

Scheme implementation phase---Implement detailed reformation schemes step-by-step, and


verify carefully until completion of the engineering.

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Feasibility of AoIP

8.1

AoIP vs. AoTDM : OPEX

Single transport technology


1. Operating one transport technology instead of multiple ones is more cost-efficient
2. AoIP is only one part of the big picture

Node configuration
1. Reduced node configuration effort in BSC, MGW and MSC-S

Service availability
1. Better service availability

Speech quality
1. Transcoder Free Operation doesnt reduce voice quality
2. Same can be achieved with TFO in AoTDM

8.2

AoIP vs. AoTDM : CAPEX

Transcoderless BSS
1. No need for transcoders in BSS anymore
2. Transcoder equipment savings

Transcoding in MGW
1. MGW capacity is impacted due to new transcoding functionality

Transmission equipment
1. TDM ports in BSC and MGW are replaced by Ethernet ports
2. Less Ethernet ports are needed than TDM ports and typically Ethernet ports are also less
expensive

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Abbreviations
Abbreviations

AoIP
AoTDM

English Text

A over IP (using IP as the bearer of the user plane of A


interface
A over TDM (using TDM as the bearer of the user plane
of A interface

IP

Internet Protocol

FE

Fast Ethernet

GE

Gigabit Ethernet

UDP

User Data Protocol

RTP

Realtime Transfer Protocol

SCTP

Stream Control Transfer Protocol

CN

Core Network

MSC

Mobile Switch Centre

MGW

Media GateWay

BIPI

BSC IP Interface board

GUP

GSM Universal Processing board

BUSN

Backplane of Universal Switch Network

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