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CT & VT PARAMETERS

By
Vivek Pushpakar
Dy MANAGER(EMD)
NTPC BARH

BASICS OF ONE AND


HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1

1. IN THIS TWO BUSES ARE PRIOVIDED.

BUS-1

BUS-2

BUS-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1

2. THESE TWO BUSES ARE INTER-CONNECTED BY THREE CIRCUIT BREAKERS.

BUS-1

BUS-2

BUS-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1

3. THEY ARE DESIGNATED AS 1-52 CB, 2-52 CB, 3-52 CB.

1-52 CB

BUS-1

1-52 CB

BUS-2

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

2-52 CB

3-52 CB
BUS-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1

4. LINE - 1 IS CONNECTED IN BETWEEN 1-52 CB & 2-52 CB.


5. LINE - 2 IS CONNECTED IN BETWEEN 3-52 CB & 2-52 CB.

1-52 CB

LINE-1

BUS-1

1-52 CB

BUS-2

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-2
2-52 CB

3-52 CB
LINE-1
BUS-2

LINE-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1
1-52 CB

LINE-1

6. LINE-1 HAVING TWO FEEDING PATHS i.e


A. VIA BUS-1 & 1-52 CB
B. VIA BUS-2, 3-52 CB & 2-52 CB
7. LINE-2 HAVING TWO FEEDING PATHS i.e
A. VIA BUS-2 & 3-52 CB
B. VIA BUS-1, 1-52 CB & 2-52 CB

BUS-1

1-52 CB

BUS-2

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-2

2-52 CB

3-52 CB
LINE-1
BUS-2

LINE-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1

8. FOR INTURUPTING LINE-1 THE 1-52CB AND 2-52CB IS TO BE TRIPPED.


9. FOR INTURUPTING LINE-2 THE 3-52CB AND 2-52CB IS TO BE TRIPPED.

1-52 CB

LINE-1

BUS-1

1-52 CB

BUS-2

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-2
2-52 CB

3-52 CB
LINE-1
BUS-2

LINE-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1

10. FOR ANY PROBLEM IN LINE-1 OR LINE-2 ALONG WITH MAIN BREAKER
THE MIDDLE BREAKER OR SAY TIE BREAKER (2-52 CB) MUST TRIP.

1-52 CB

LINE-1

BUS-1

1-52 CB

BUS-2

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-2
2-52 CB

3-52 CB
LINE-1
BUS-2

LINE-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1
1-52 CB

LINE-1

11. NORMALLY IN ALL TYPES OF BUSBAR CONFIGUARATIONS ONE BREAKER


IS SUFFICIENT FOR ONE FEEDER.
12. HERE TWO FEEDERS ARE CONTROLED BY THREE BREAKERS.
13. SO THESE TWO FEEDERS CONTROLLED BY THREE CIRCUIT BREAKERS
IT IS CALLED ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM.

BUS-1

1-52 CB

BUS-2

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-2
2-52 CB

3-52 CB
LINE-1
BUS-2

LINE-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


1-52 CB

LINE-1

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

BUS-1

14. THE BAY BETWEEN BUS-1 & LINE-1 IS CALLED MAIN BAY FOR FEEDER-1.

BUS-1

2-52 CB

LINE-2

3-52 CB

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

1-52 CB

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-1
BUS-2

BUS-2

LINE-2

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION

2-52 CB

LINE-2

3-52 CB

15. THE BAY BETWEEN LINE-1 & LINE-2 IS CALLED TIE BAY FOR FEEDER-1 & 2.

BUS-1

1-52 CB
MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

LINE-1

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2

1-52 CB

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

BUS-1

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-1
BUS-2

BUS-2

LINE-2

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2.

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION

3-52 CB
BUS-2

BUS-1

1-52 CB

BUS-2

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-1

LINE-2

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2.

MAIN BAY(3RD BAY) FOR FEEDER-2

LINE-2

16. THE BAY BETWEEN BUS-2 & LINE-2 IS CALLED MAIN BAY FOR FEEDER-2.

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

2-52 CB

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2

LINE-1

MAIN BAY(3RD BAY) FOR FEEDER-2

1-52 CB

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

BUS-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION

3-52 CB
BUS-2

BUS-1

1-52 CB

BUS-2

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-1

LINE-2

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2.

MAIN BAY(3RD BAY) FOR FEEDER-2

LINE-2

17. IN THIS SYSTEM FULL DIA MEANS 2 FEEDERS CONTROLLED BY 3 CBs.


18. HALF DIA MEANS 1 FEEDER CONTROLLED BY 2 CBs.
(Nothing but Double CB System)

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

2-52 CB

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2

LINE-1

MAIN BAY(3RD BAY) FOR FEEDER-2

1-52 CB

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

BUS-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION


BUS-1

3-52 CB
BUS-2

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

1-52 CB

BUS-2

3-52 CB

2-52 CB

LINE-1

LINE-2

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2.

MAIN BAY(3RD BAY) FOR FEEDER-2

LINE-2

BUS-1

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

2-52 CB

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2

LINE-1

MAIN BAY(3RD BAY) FOR FEEDER-2

1-52 CB

GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU


ADE/MRT/ T&C/400KV SS/
O/O CE/400KV / L&SS/ VS
APTRANSCO, HYDERABAD
gk_aptransco@yahoo.co.in
Mobile: 9440336984

SUBSTATION DESIGN/LAYOUT
(I-CONFIGUARATION)

BAY16
BAY17
BAY18

BAY14

BAY13

DIA6

BAY15

BAY6

FEEDER11

DIA5

BAY11

BAY7

BAY5

BAY1
BAY2
BAY3

DIA4
BAY10

DIA3

BAY4

DIA2

FEEDER9

FEEDER7

BAY8

BUS-1 DIA1

FEEDER5

BAY12

FEEDER3

BAY9

FEEDER1

BUS-2

FEEDER2

FEEDER4

FEEDER6

FEEDER8

FEEDER10

FEEDER12

SUBSTATION DESIGN/LAYOUT
(D-CONFIGUARATION)
FEEDER10
BAY14

BAY13

BAY7

DIA1

FEEDER9

BAY8

BAY3

BAY1

BAY2

FEEDER6

DIA3

BAY15

FEEDER5

FEEDER2

BAY9

FEEDER1

DIA5

BUS-1

BAY5

FEEDER3

BAY11

FEEDER4

FEEDER7

DIA6

BAY18

BAY16

DIA4

BAY12

BAY10

DIA2

BAY6

BAY4

BUS-2

BAY17

FEEDER8

FEEDER11

FEEDER12

SUBSTATION DESIGN/LAYOUT
(DOUBLE BUS & DOUBLE BREAKER SYSTEM)
FEEDER1

FEEDER3

FEEDER1

FEEDER3

BAY6

BAY5

BAY2

BAY1

BAY7

BAY5

BAY3

BAY1

BUS-1

BUS-1

BAY8

BAY7

BAY4

BAY3

BAY8

BAY6

BAY4

BAY2

BUS-2

BUS-2

FEEDER2

FEEDER4

FEEDER2

FEEDER4

FOR ECONOMICAL& RELIABULITY PURPOSE THIS SYSTEM ADOPTED IN 800KV SYSTEM

FEEDER 8

FEEDER 1

1-52 CB

FEEDER 2

2-52 CB

8-52 CB

3-52 CB

MESH / RING
LAYOUT

FEEDER 7

7-52 CB

4-52 CB

5-52 CB

6-52 CB
FEEDER 6

FEEDER 3

FEEDER 5

FEEDER 4

SUBSTATION DESIGN/LAYOUT
(DOUBLE MAIN BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM)
T/F-1

T/F-2

BUS COUPLER

BUS-1

BUS-2

BAY1

BAY2

FEEDER1 FEEDER2

BAY4

TRANSFER BUS

BAY5
TRANSFER BUS
COUPLER

BAY3

BAY6

BAY7

BAY8

FEEDER3 FEEDER4

FOR ECONOMICAL& RELIABULITY PURPOSE THIS SYSTEM ADOPTED IN 400 & 220 KV SYSTEM

SUBSTATION DESIGN/LAYOUT
(DOUBLE MAIN BUS & CB BYPASS ISO SYSTEM)
T/F-1

BAY1

BAY2

T/F-2

BAY6

BAY4

BAY7

BUS-2

BAY3

BUS COUPLER

BUS-1

BAY5

WHEN ANY CB PROBLEM OR FOR


PREVENTIVE MAINTANENCE THEN ALL
OTHER FEEDERS SHIFTED TO ANOTHER
BUS OF FAULTED CB BUS AND CLOSE
THE
BYPASS
ISOLATOR,
THEN
PROTECTION IS SHIFTED TO BUS
COUPLER AND OPEN THE FAULTY CB.

FEEDER1

FEEDER2

FEEDER3

FEEDER4

FOR ECONOMICAL& RELIABULITY PURPOSE THIS SYSTEM ADOPTED IN 220KV SYSTEM

SUBSTATION DESIGN/LAYOUT
(SINGLE BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM)
T/F-2

T/F-1

BUS-1
BAY1

FEEDER1

BAY2

FEEDER2

BAY3

BAY4

TRANSFER BUS COUPLER

TRANSFER BUS

BAY5

BAY6

FEEDER3

BAY7

FEEDER4

FOR ECONOMICAL& RELIABULITY PURPOSE THIS SYSTEM ADOPTED IN 220 & 132 KV SYSTEM

CT METHODS
IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME

DIFFERENT CT METHODS OF ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM

CB
LINE
CB
LINE
CB
LINE

CB

CB
4 CT METHOD

CB

CB

CB

AT/F
AT/F

CB

CB

6 CT METHOD
CB

LINE

CB

5 CT METHOD

LINE

LINE

CB
3 CT METHOD

CB

CB

6 CT METHOD
CB

CB
6 CT METHOD

CB

AT/F
AT/F
AT/F
AT/F

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(3CT METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

3-89

1-52CB
1-CT

3-52CB

P2

P2

P1

P1

1-89A

3-CT
3-89A

2-CT

3
3

P1

2-89A 2-52CB
1-89L

P2

2-89B
3-89T

LINE 1
T/F-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(4CT METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

3-89

1-52CB
1-CT

3-52CB

P2

P2

P1

P1

1-89A

3-89A

P2

2-89A

P1

2-BCT
P1

2-52CB

2-ACT

1-89L

3-CT

P2

2-89B
3-89T

LINE 1
T/F-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(5CT METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

3-89

1-52CB

3-52CB
P2

1-CT

P2

P1

3-CT

P1

1-89A

3-89A

2-CT
P1

2-89A

2-52CB

P2

2-89B

1-89L
1L-CT

3-89T

P2

P2

P1

P1

3T-CT

LINE 1
T/F-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(6CT METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89
P2
P1

3-89

3 1A-CT

3A-CT

1-52CB
P2

P2
P1

3-52CB

P1

3B-CT

1B-CT

1-89A

P2
P1

3-89A

P2

2-89A

P1

2B-CT

2A-CT

1-89L

P1

2-52CB

P2

2-89B
3-89T

T/F-1
LINE 1

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(6CT METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

3-89

1-52CB
P2

3-52CB

P1

3-CT

1-CT

1-89A

P1

2B-CT

P2

2-89A

P1

2-52CB

P2

2-89B

1-89L
P1

P1

3-89A
2A-CT

P2

P2

3-89T

3 1L-CT

3T-CT

P2

P1

T/F-1
LINE 1

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(6CT METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

P2

P1

P2

1-CT

P1

1-52CB

3-89A

P2

2-89A

P1

2B-CT

2A-CT

P1

2-52CB

P2

2-89B

1-89L
P1

3-CT

3-52CB

1-89A

P2

3-89

3-89T

3 1L-CT

3T-CT

P2

P1

T/F-1
LINE 1

TYPICAL ONE & HALF BREAKER


SYSTEM ADOPTED IN GIS
DS : DISCONNECTOR SWITCH, GS: GROUNDING SWITCH, CT: CURRENT TRANSFORMER, VD: VOLTAGE DIVIDER

TYPICAL ONE & HALF BREAKER


SYSTEM ADOPTED IN GIS
DS : DISCONNECTOR SWITCH, GS: GROUNDING SWITCH, CT: CURRENT TRANSFORMER, VD: VOLTAGE DIVIDER

1-1/2 CB SYSTEM
(SIEMENS VATECH)
VD

VD

CT
DS

CT
CB

CT
DS

DS

CT
CB

GS

GS

GS

GS

VD
GS

GS

GS

GS

VD

CT
DS

DS

CT

CB

DS

CORE WISE
APLICATION OF
CTs IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 3CT METHOD
1 CT
2 CT
3 CT
BUSBAR-1
2CTs SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CORE 1
( PS)

CORE 2
( PS)

CORE 3

PROTECTION

CONNECTED TO MAIN PROTECTION FOR TRANSFORMER

BUSBAR-1 CHECKUP
PROTECTION (SPARE)

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND


CONNECTED TO BACKUP PROTECTION AFTER LBB/BFR
FOR TRANSFORMER

SPARE

METERING & ENERGY METER FOR AT/F

( 0.5 / 0.2)

CORE 4

METERING & ENERGY METER FOR FEEDER

SPARE

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND


CONNECTED TO MAIN-2 PROTECTION AFTER LBB/BFR FOR
FEEDER

BUSBAR-2 CHECKUP
PROTECTION (SPARE)

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND


CONNECTED TO MAIN-1 PROTECTION FOR FEEDER

BUSBAR-2
PROTECTION

(0.5 / 0.2)

CORE 5
( PS)

CORE 6
( PS)

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 3CT METHOD
1 CT
2 CT
3 CT
BUSBAR-1
2CTs SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CORE 1
( PS)

CORE 2
( PS)

CORE 3

PROTECTION

CONNECTED TO MAIN PROTECTION FOR TRANSFORMER

BUSBAR-1 CHECKUP
PROTECTION (SPARE)

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND


CONNECTED TO BACKUP PROTECTION AFTER LBB/BFR
FOR TRANSFORMER

METERING & ENERGY METER FOR FEEDER

SPARE

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND


CONNECTED TO MAIN-2 PROTECTION AFTER LBB/BFR FOR
FEEDER

BUSBAR-2 CHECKUP
PROTECTION (SPARE)

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND


CONNECTED TO MAIN-1 PROTECTION FOR FEEDER

BUSBAR-2
PROTECTION

(0.5 / 0.2)

CORE 4
( PS)

CORE 5
( PS)

BUSHING CT
METERING
CORE (0.5 / 0.2)

NORMALLY THIS SYTEM ADOPTS, WHEN ONE SIDE LINE, OTHER SIDE AUTO
TRANSFORMER / BUS REACTOR IS PROVIDED IN A DIA OF ONE AND HALF BREAKER
SYSTEM, IF BUSHING CT METERING CORE IS AVAILABLE, THEN IT IS USED FOR
METERING & ENERGY METER FOR AT/F OR BUS REACTOR.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 4CT METHOD

CORE-1
(PS)

CORE-2
(PS)

CORE-3
(0.5/0.2)

CORE-4
(PS)

CORE-5
(PS)

1- CT

2-BCT

2-ACT

3-CT

CT SECONDARY
CORE IS
CONNECTED TO
BUSBAR-1
PROTECTION

SPARE

SPARE

CT SECONDARY
CORE IS
CONNECTED TO
BUSBAR-2
PROTECTION

BUSBAR-1
CHECKUP
PROTECTION
(SPARE)

SPARE

SPARE

BUSBAR-2
CHECKUP
PROTECTION
(SPARE)

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
PANEL METERS & ENERGY METER

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
PANEL METERS & ENERGY METER

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
MAIN-2 PROTECTION
AFTER LBB/BFR

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
BACKUP PROTECTION
AFTER LBB/BFR

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL AND CONNECTED TO
MAIN-1 PROTECTION

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL AND CONNECTED TO
MAIN PROTECTION

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 5CT METHOD
1-CT

1-LCT

2-CT

3-TCT

3-CT

CORE-1
(PS)
CORE-2
(PS)

BUSBAR-1
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 1&2)

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 2&3)

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 2&3)

BUSBAR-2
PROTECTION

BUSBAR-1
CHECKUP
PROTECTION
(SPARE)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 1&2)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 2&3)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 2&3)

BUSBAR-2
CHECKUP
PROTECTION
(SPARE)

CORE-3
(0.5/0.2)

SPARE

METERING &
ENERGY
METER

SPARE

METERING &
ENERGY
METER

SPARE

CORE-4
(PS)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 1&2)
AFTER
LBB/BFR
(1-52)

MAIN-2
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 1&2)
AFTER
LBB/BFR
(2-52)

BACKUP
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 2&3)
AFTER
LBB/BFR
(3-52)

CORE-5
(PS)

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 1&2)

MAIN-1
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 1&2)

MAIN
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 2&3)

Paralleling of 2Nos CTs to the Main-1/Main-2/Backup line protection is not required. This gives better
transient response. Separate STUB protection can be connected (Nothing BUT TEED Protection).

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 6CT METHOD
(GIS or AIS with DEAD TANK CBs)
1B-CT
CORE-1
(PS)
CORE-2
(PS)

BUSBAR-1
PROTECTION

BUSBAR-1
CHECKUP
PROTECTION

(SPARE)

CORE-3
(0.5/0.2)

SPARE

1A-CT

2B-CT

2A-CT

3A-CT

2CTs SECONDARIES
ARE CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
MAIN-1 PROTECTION

2CTs SECONDARIES
ARE CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
MAIN-1 PROTECTION

2CTs SECONDARIES
ARE CONNECTED IN
PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
MAIN-2 PROTECTION
AFTER LBB/BFR

2CTs SECONDARIES
ARE CONNECTED IN
PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
BACKUP PROTECTION
AFTER LBB/BFR

2CTs SECONDARIES
ARE CONNECTED IN
PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
PANEL METERS &
ENERGY METER

2CTs SECONDARIES
ARE CONNECTED IN
PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
PANEL METERS &
ENERGY METER

3B-CT
BUSBAR-2
PROTECTION

BUSBAR-2
CHECKUP
PROTECTION

(SPARE)

SPARE

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 6CT METHOD
1-CT

1L-CT

2A-CT

2B-CT

3T-CT

3-CT

CORE-1
(PS)
CORE-2
(PS)

BUSBAR-1
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 1&2)

SPARE

SPARE

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 2&3)

BUSBAR-2
PROTECTION

BUSBAR-1
CHECKUP

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 1&2)

SPARE

SPARE

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 2&3)

BUSBAR-2
CHECKUP

CORE-3
(0.5/0.2)

SPARE

METERING &
ENERGY
METER

SPARE

SPARE

METERING &
ENERGY
METER

SPARE

CORE-4
(PS)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 1&2)

MAIN-2
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 2&3)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 1&2)

BACKUP
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 2&3)

CORE-5
(PS)

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 1&2)

PROTECTION
(SPARE)

PROTECTION
(SPARE)

AFTER LBB/BFR
(1-52)

AFTER LBB/BFR
(2-52)

MAIN-1
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 2&3)

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 1&2)

AFTER LBB/BFR
(3-52)

MAIN
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 2&3)

CT CORES
CONEECTION
DIAGRAMS IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME

3
3
3

BB-EVT
/ CVT
1-52CB

3
3
3

CORES
3
4

MAIN-1 PROTECTION

MAIN-2/BACKUP PROTECTION

BUS

METERING

1-89

BUS BAR CHECKUP PROT

P2

BUS BAR PROTECTION

SINGLE BUS SYSTEM


1-CT
5
P1

1-89L

1-CVT

ONE & HALF BREAKER ( 3 CT METHOD) WITH PROTECTION SCHEME


87BB1
BUSBAR-1

79
CVT
VBB1

21M1
VBB1

VL1

25

VL1 / VL2
OR VBB2

BF
87L

21M2

VL1

CVT

VL1
FEEDER1 / LINE1

79
VL1 / VBB1

VL2 / VBB2

25

BF

FEEDER2 / LINE2
MAIN-1
BF
VL2 / VL1
OR VBB1
CVT
VBB2

VBB2

CVT VL2

MAIN-2 PROTECTION OF LINE2


(OR TRANSFORMER, IF APPLICABLE)

79
25
BUSBAR-2
87BB2

FOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION &


METERING VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS
FOR BUS-1, BUS-2& LINE ARE PROVIDED .

ONE & HALF BREAKER ( 4 CT METHOD) WITH PROTECTION SCHEME


87BB1
BUSBAR-1

79
CVT
VBB1

21M1
VBB1

VL1

25

VL1 / VL2
OR VBB2

BF
87L

21M2

VL1

CVT

VL1
FEEDER1 / LINE1

79
VL1 / VBB1
VL2 / VBB2

25

BF

FEEDER2 / LINE2
MAIN-1
BF
VL2 / VL1
OR VBB1
CVT
VBB2

VBB2

CVT VL2

MAIN-2 PROTECTION OF LINE2


(OR TRANSFORMER, IF APPLICABLE)

79
25
BUSBAR-2
87BB2

FOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION &


METERING VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS
FOR BUS-1, BUS-2& LINE ARE PROVIDED .

ONE & HALF BREAKER ( 6 CT METHOD) WITH PROTECTION SCHEME


87BB1
BUSBAR-1
CVT

21M1

VBB1

BF

79

VBB1

VL1

25

87L

VL1 / VL2
OR VBB2

21M2

VL1

CVT

VL1
FEEDER1 / LINE1

79
VL1 / VBB1
VL2 / VBB2

25

BF

FEEDER2 / LINE2
CVT VL2

MAIN-1
VL2 / VL1
OR VBB1
CVT
VBB2

VBB2

BF

79

MAIN-2

PROTECTION OF LINE2
(OR TRANSFORMER, IF APPLICABLE)

25
BUSBAR-2
87BB2

FOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION &


METERING VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS
FOR BUS-1, BUS-2& LINE ARE PROVIDED .

ONE & HALF BREAKER ( 5 CT METHOD) WITH PROTECTION SCHEME


87BB1
BUSBAR-1
21M1

79

87 TD1 HZ

CVT
VBB1

VBB1

VL1

25

VL1 / VL2
OR VBB2

BF

87L

87 TD2 LZ

21M2

VL1

CVT

VL1
FEEDER1 / LINE1

79
VL1 / VBB1

VL2 / VBB2

25

BF

FEEDER2 / LINE2

.
BF
VL2 / VL1
OR VBB1
CVT
VBB2

VBB2

CVT VL2
MAIN-1
PROTECTION OF LINE2
(OR TRANSFORMER, IF APPLICABLE)
MAIN-2

87 TD2 LZ

79
87 TD1 HZ

25

BUSBAR-2
87BB2

FOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION &


METERING VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS
FOR BUS-1, BUS-2& LINE ARE PROVIDED .

ONE & HALF BREAKER ( 6 CT METHOD) WITH PROTECTION SCHEME


87BB1
BUSBAR-1
21M1

79

87 TD1 HZ

CVT
VBB1

VBB1

VL1

25

VL1 / VL2
OR VBB2

BF

87L

87 TD2 LZ

21M2

VL1

CVT

VL1
FEEDER1 / LINE1

79
VL1 / VBB1
VL2 / VBB2

25

BF

FEEDER2 / LINE2

.
BF
VL2 / VL1
OR VBB1
CVT
VBB2

VBB2

CVT VL2
MAIN-1
PROTECTION OF LINE2
(OR TRANSFORMER, IF APPLICABLE)
MAIN-2

87 TD2 LZ

79
87 TD1 HZ

25

BUSBAR-2
87BB2

FOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION &


METERING VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS
FOR BUS-1, BUS-2& LINE ARE PROVIDED .

ONE & HALF BREAKER ( 6 CT METHOD) WITH PROTECTION SCHEME


87BB1
BUSBAR-1
21M1

VL1

87 TD1 HZ

CVT
VBB1

BF
79
VBB1

87L

87 TD2 LZ

21M2

VL1

CVT

VL1

25

VL1 / VL2
OR VBB2

FEEDER1 / LINE1

79
VL1 / VBB1
VL2 / VBB2

VL2 / VL1
OR VBB1
VBB2

25

BF

FEEDER2 / LINE2
79
CVT VL2
25

MAIN-1
PROTECTION OF LINE2
(OR TRANSFORMER, IF APPLICABLE)
MAIN-2

87 TD2 LZ

BF

VBB2
CVT

87 TD1 HZ
BUSBAR-2
87BB2

FOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION &


METERING VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS
FOR BUS-1, BUS-2& LINE ARE PROVIDED .

COMPARISION BETWEEN DIFFERENT CT METHODS


CT
PURPOSE

3 CT
METHOD

4 CT
METHOD

6 CT (S)
METHOD

5 CT
METHOD

6 CT (T1)
METHOD

6 CT (T2)
METHOD

BUSBAR &
BUSBAR
CHECKUP
PROTECTION

1 CT

1 CT

1B CT

1 CT

1 CT

1 CT

3 CT

3 CT

3B CT

3 CT

3 CT

3 CT

MAIN-1
MAIN-2
PROTECTION
&
METERING

1 - CT & 2 - CT

1 CT & 2 B - CT

1 A CT & 2 B CT

1 L - CT

1 L - CT

1 L - CT

ADDITIONAL
PROTECTION
AVAILABLE

BLIND
ZONE

ADVANTAGES

ABOVE FOR BUS-1

&

BELOW FOR BUS-2

ABOVE CT SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED PARALLEL FOR FEEDER-1


BELOW CT SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED PARALLEL FOR FEEDER-2
3 - CT & 2 CT

3 - CT & 2 A - CT

3 A - CT & 2 A - CT

ABOVE FOR FEEDER-1


BELOW FOR FEEDER-2
3 L - CT

3 L - CT

3 L CT

STUB-1 & STUB-2 PROTECTION


FOR LINE & AT/F

TEED-1 & TEED-2 PROTECTION


FOR LINE & AT/F

STUB-1 & STUB-2 PROTECTION IS A NORMALLY INBUILT


PROTECTION FOR MAIN-1 & MAIN-2 RELAYS, IN CASE OF LATEST
NUMERICAL RELAYS. STUB PROTECTION WORKS WHEN LINE
ISOLATOR OPEN CONDITION ONLY.

TEED1 IS NORMALLY HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY &


TEED-2 IS NORMALLY LOW IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY.
THESE ARE NOT INBUILT FUNCTIONS OF MAIN-1 & MAIN-2
RELAYS.

A FAULT BETWEEN CIRCUIT BREAKERS AND CT (END FAULT) MAY THEN STILL BE FED FROM ONE SIDE
EVEN WHEN THE BREAKER HAS BEEN OPENED. CONSEQUENTLY, FINAL FAULT CLEARING BY CASCADED
TRIPPING HAS TO BE ACCEPTED IN THIS CASE. THIS SITUATION LBB/BFR OPERATES AND TIME TAKEN TO
CLEAR FAULT IS ABOUT 300 mSECs. THIS IS BLIND ZONE AREA.
MINIMUM CT
METHOD. REDUCING
THE COST OF CTs

TIE CB BLIND ZONE


AREA IS TAKEN
CARE.

MAIN CB & TIE CB


BLIND ZONE AREA IS
TAKEN CARE

WHEN THE FAULT IS TAKEN PLACE BETWEEN THE MAIN


CB, TIE CB & LINE ISOLATOR, DURING SERVICE ONLY,
DISTANCE SCHEME SHOULD TAKE CARE.

BLIND ZONE FOR


MAIN CB & TIE CB

TIE CB BLIND ZONE


AREA IS TAKEN CARE

TIE CB BLIND ZONE


AREA IS TAKEN CARE

WHEN THE FAULT IS TAKEN PLACE BETWEEN THE MAIN CB, TIE CB &
LINE ISOLATOR DURING SERVICE ONLY, TEED PROTECTION IN
ADDITION TO DISTANCE SCHEME SHOULD TAKE CARE.

400KV C.T. INFORMATION


P1

PRIMARY CONNECTIONS : P1 P2
CURRENT RATING : 2000 AMPS

1000/ 1A

500/ 1A

1S1 1S3

1S1 1S2
1S2 1S3

__

BUSBAR
PROTECTION

PS

BUSBAR
CHECKUP 2S1 2S3
PROTECTION

2S1 2S2
2S2 2S3

__

CORE-3 0.5 / 0.2

METERING

3S1 3S3
3S4 3S2

3S1 3S2
3S4 3S3

CORE-4

MAIN-2
4S1 4S3 4S1 4S2
4S1 4S4
PROTECTION
4S4 4S2 4S4 4S3
MAIN-1
5S1 5S4
PROTECTION

5S1 5S3
5S4 5S2

3
3

5S1
5S2
5S3
5S4
4S1
4S2
4S3
4S4

3S1
3S2
3S3
3S4

PS

5S1 5S2
5S4 5S3

3S1
3S2
3S3
3S4

CORE-5

PS

3S1 3S4

2S1
2S2
2S3

CORE-2

1S1
1S2
1S3

PS

CORE-1

2000/ 1A

PURPOSE

P2

CLASS

P1

3
3

CORES

SECONDARY CONNECTIONS
CURRENT RATING : 1A

P2

HAIR
PIN /
U SHAPE
DESIGN

EYE BOLT
DESIGN

DEAD TANK DESIGN

CT PARAMETERS

Current Transformers (Paper/Oil) up to 765 kV

1. Top cover
2. Oil level indicator
3. Oil expansion device
4. Metal box LV screen and cores
5. Bar-type or wound type primary
6. Paper-oil insulation
7. Porcelain insulator
8. LV screens
9. Secondary terminal box
10. Base

Eye Bolt Design


Primary conductor (1,2 or 4 turns)

Primary steel pipe

Paper insulation

Secondary cores

IT range

Current Transformers (Paper/Oil) up to 420 kV

1. Dome
2. Nitrogen filling valve
3. Primary terminal
4. Collar
5. Porcelain insulator
6. Primary conductor with
insulation
7. Adaptor cylinder
8. Secondary cores
9. Base
10. Oil drain plug

Hair-Pin design

Current Transformers (Paper/Oil) up to 245 kV

1. Oil filling plug


2. Dome
3. Nitrogen filling valve
4. Collar
5. Primary terminal
6. Porcelain insulator
7. Insulated primary
8. Cover plate for tank
9. Tank
10. Secondary cores

Eye bolt design

FUNDAMENTALS

WHAT IS CT?
WHEN IS CT REQUIRED ?
WHY IS CT REQUIRED?
HOW IS CT CONNECTED?
WHERE IS CT CONNECTED?
WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?

WHAT IS CT?

ITS AN INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER


WHICH TRANSFORMS CURRENT FROM
ONE LEVEL TO ANOTHER LEVEL SUCH AS
1000/1 (CT RATIO) i.e. TRANSFORMS
CURRENT OF THE LEVEL OF 1000 AMPS
INTO CURRENT OF 1 AMP LEVEL.

back

WHEN IS CT REQUIRED ?

ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS IN WHICH LARGE


AMOUNT OF CURRENT ( TO THE TUNE OF
100AMPS OR MORE) FLOWS , DIRECT
MEASUREMENT OF THAT CURRENT IS
NOT POSSIBLE AS DEVICES USED FOR
MEASUREMENT OF CURRENT ARE NOT
DESIGNED TO HANDLE SUCH HUGE
AMOUNT OF CURRENT.
back

WHY IS CT REQUIRED?

THE SYSTEM WHICH CARRIES CURRENT


MEANS THERE IS A SOURCE
WHICH
INJECTS THE CURRENT INTO THE SYSTEM
AND THERE IS A LOAD WHICH CONSUMES
THE CURRENT (OR POWER/ENERGY).SUCH
A
SYSTEM
HAS
TWO
BASIC
REQUIREMENTS:
METERING OF ENERGY SOURCED OR
CONSUMED.
PROTECTION OF THE ELECTRICAL
SYSTEM
FROM
FAULTS
AND
back
DISTURBANCES.

HOW IS CT CONNECTED?

CT HAS A PRIMARY AND ONE OR MORE


SECONDARY WINDINGS. SECONDARY
WINDING IS WOUND AROUND THE
MAGNETIC
CORE.
METERING
AND
PROTECTION DEVICES ARE CONNECTED
TO THE SECONDARIES OF THE CT.

HOW IS CT CONNECTED?
contd
Is

S1
PRIMARY
P1

M/R

Ip

P2
S2
back

WHERE IS CT CONNECTED?

FOR METERING AND PROTECTION OF


A FEEDER, CT IS CONNECTED AT THE
BEGINNING OF THE FEEDER.

WHERE IS CT
CONNECTED?
contd
Power Station to be protected
One prim two or more sec
One prim one sec

Unit
prot

Nonunit
prot

meter

Unit
prot

prot

meter

Dist
prot

meter

back

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?

METERING: IF WE WANT TO MEASURE


CURRENT FOR METERING PURPOSE, WE
DESIRE THAT:
WHATEVER CURRENT WE MEASURE,
THAT SHOULD BE VERY ACCURATE AS
THE METERED DATA MAY BE USED FOR
TARIFF PURPOSE i.e. MONEY EXCHANGE
IS INVOLVED AMONG VARIOUS PARTIES.
MOREOVER, THE DATA IS USED FOR
DECISION MAKING SUCH AS DECISION
ON RAISING/LOWERING OF POWER
OUTPUT etc.

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
Contd metering

WHAT IS INACCURACY?
THE SECONDARY CURRENT WHICH WE
GET IS NOT TRUE REFLECTION OF ITS
PRIMARY CURRENT. FOR EXAMPLE, FOR A
CT WITH CT RATIO OF 1000/1AMPS, IF WE
GET 0.99 AMPS IN SECONDARY LEADING
PRIMARY CURRENT BY 15 MINUTES FOR
PRIMARY CURRENT OF 1000AMPS, SO THE
CT HAS RATIO ERROR OF (0.99-1)/1 x 100=1% AND PHASE ERROR OF 15 MINUTES.

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
Contd metering

CURRENT OR RATIO ERROR AS PER IEC IS:

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
Contd metering

NOW SECOND QUERY WHICH COMES IN


MIND IS WHY AT ALL CTS ARE
INACCURATE?

THE CULPRIT IS CORE LOSS AND


MAGNETISING
CURRENT,
WHICH
INTRODUCES RATIO AS WELL AS PHASE
ERROR.

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
Contd metering

THE INTSRUMENT CONNECTED TO THE


SECONDARY
ESPECIALLY
ANALOG
INDICATING METER SHOULD NOT GET
DAMAGED DURING PRIMARY FAULT
CONDITION.
FOR
THIS
INSTRUMENT
SECURITY
FACTOR (FS) IS DEFINED WHICH IS RATIO
OF MINIMUM PRIMARY CURRENT AT
WHICH COMPOSITE ERROR OF THE CT (AT
RATED BURDEN) IS EQUAL TO OR
GREATER THAN 10% OF RATED PRIMARY
CURRENT.
THE TYPICAL VALUES ARE 5,10 etc.

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
contd

IEC60044-1 HAS LAID DOWN STANDARDS ON


THIS:

25

25

25

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
Contd metering

FOR ACHIEVING ABOVE, A CT IS


CHOSEN
HAVING
VERY
HIGH
PERMEABILITY
AND
HIGH
REMANENCE

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
Contd metering

THE ABOVE CT PARAMETERS ARE


THEREFORE SPECIFIED AS FOR
EXAMPLE: CTR:1000/1,0.2FS5 ,30VA
etc.
IN NTPC, WE TYPICALLY SPECIFY,
CTR: 2000/1, 0.2,FS 5, 20VA

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
contd

PROTECTION CLASS:
HERE, MAIN REQUIREMENT IS ABILITY OF
CT TO FAITHFULLY TRANSFORM THE
PRIMARY
CURRENT
DURING
FAULT
CONDITION.

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
Contd protection PR

DURING FAULT CONDITION, VALUE OF


PRIMARY CURRENT MAY BE 10 TO 20 TIMES
THE
RATED
PRIMARY
CURRENT.
PROTECTIVE
RELAY
BURDEN
IS
CONNECTED TO THE CT SECONDARY. AT
SUCH HIGH LEVEL OF PRIMARY CURRENT,
IF CT IS NOT PROPERLY DESIGNED, IT MAY
SATURATE AND RELAY WILL RECEIVE
VERY LESS CURRENT AND, THEREFORE,
DOES NOT TAKE RIGHT DECISION.

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
Contd protection PR

FOR NON-UNIT TYPE PROTECTION SUCH


AS O/C TYPE OF PROTECTION, CLASS PR
TYPE CTs ARE USED.

THE PARAMETERS THAT ARE DEFINED


FOR THE CT ARE:
STANDARD

ACCURACY

LIMIT

FACTOR(SALF):
= RATED ACC. LIMIT PRIMARY CURR.
RATED CURRENT

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
Contd protection PR

WHEREAS, RATED ACCURACY LIMIT

PRIMARY CURRENT IS THE VALUE OF


THE PRIMARY CURRENT UPTO WHICH
CT
WILL
COMPLY
WITH
THE
REQUIREMENT OF COMPOSITE ERROR.
STANDARD

5,10,15,20,30

VALUES

OF

SALF

ARE

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
Contd protection PR

THE ABOVE CT PARAMETERS ARE


THEREFORE SPECIFIED AS FOR
EXAMPLE: CTR:1000/1, 5PR20
@
30VA etc.
IN
NTPC,
FOR
GENERATOR
PROTECTION
WE
TYPICALLY
SPECIFIY CTR 10000A/5A,5PR20 @
75VA

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
Contd protection

FOR UNIT TYPE PROTECTION:

HERE , REQUIREMENTS ARE RATHER


STRINGENT AS WE COMPARE CURRENT
OF TWO OR MORE CTS AND RELY ON THE
THEIR
MUTUAL
FAITHFULL-NESS.
MOREOVER, OUR AIM IS THAT THE
PROTECTION MUST BE STABLE FOR EVEN
WORST THROUGH FAULT AND FAST
ACTING FOR INTERNAL FAULT.

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
Contd protection PX

FOR THIS PX CLASS OF CTs ARE


NEEDED (THESE CTs ARE SIMILAR IN
ALL RESPECTS TO CLASS PS OF IS2705 AND CLASS-X OF BS-3938 WITH
SOME ADDITIONAL FEATURES)

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
Contd protection PX

THE PARAMETERS WHICH ARE DEFINED


IN THIS CT ARE:
KNEE POINT VOLTAGE (KPV):

That minimum sinusoidal voltage (r.m.s.) at rated


power frequency when applied to the secondary
terminals of the transformer, all the terminals
being open-circuited, which when increased by
10% causes the r.m.s. exciting current to increase
by no more than 50%.

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
Contd protection PX

FOR WORST THROUGH FAULT, CTs


SHOULD NOT GET SATURATED.WHEN ONE
OF THE CTs GETS SATURATED, LARGE
AMOUNT OF CURRENT MAY FLOW
THROUGH DIFFERENTIAL CIRCUIT AND
RESULT
IN
OPERATION
OF
RELAY.HOWEVER, IF RELAY IS SET
ABOVE THIS VALUE
i.e. Iset= Ifx (Rct+2xRl),
Rstab

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
contd protection PX

MAGNETISING CURRENT AT KPV OR


%AGE THEREOF:

TWO OR MORE CTs USED FOR UNIT


PROTECTION SHOULD WORK LIKE CLONE
BROTHERS i.e. FOR THROUGH FAULT
CONDITION,
THE
SPILL
CURRENT
SHOULD BE IDEALLY ZERO. BUT
PRACTICALLY, THIS IS NOT THE CASE.

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
contd protection PX

IF
TWO
CTs
HAVE
DIFFERENT
MAGNETISING CURRENT AND HIGH
LEAKAGE
REACTANCE,
IT
WILL
INTRODUCE HIGH CURRENT AS WELL AS
PHASE
ERROR.THUS,
RESULTANT
CURRENT OF THESE CT SECONDARIES
MAY LEAD TO HIGH SPILL(DIFFERENTIAL)
CURRENT DURING THROUGH FAULT.THIS
MAY LEAD TO PROTECTION OPERATION
DURING THROUGH FAULT.

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
Contd protection PX

CT DC RESISTANCE AT 75 deg C(Rct):


THIS VALUE IS VERY IMPORTANT FROM
THE
POINT
OF
VIEW
OF
KPV
CALCULATION AS IT IS ONE OF THE
LIMITING FACTORS TO THIS. THEREFORE,
IT IS DEFINED.

TURN RATIO ERROR: LIMITED TO 0.25%.

WHICH CT IS CONNECTED?
contd

THE ABOVE CT PARAMETERS ARE


THEREFORE SPECIFIED AS FOR
EXAMPLE:
CTR: 1000/1 ,PX , KPV=1000V,
Ie=30mAmp @ KPV/2, Rct< 5OHMS @75
deg C etc. (TYPICAL TO NTPC)

Current Transformers
Causes of Failure and
Monitoring/Maintenance

CT Failure and remedial action


Generally failures can happen due to the following reasons
Opening of C terminal (used for tan delta and
capacitance measurement) when CTs are in
leads to very high voltages resulting in failure.

energisation. This

CT Failure and remedial action

Remedial actions in CT at site to avoid failures

Tangent delta and Capacitance measurement from the C terminal at periodic


intervals every years or during shutdown.
Dissolved gas analysis of oil taken out from CT alteast once in ten years.
Thermo vision scanning of CTs of rating 132kV ( or above).

Multiple Chopped Impulse test


As per IEC 60044-1 ( 2002)
Application of 100 chopped impulses of negative polarity
on CTs of ratings above 300kV. These impulses will be
applied at the rate of one impulse per minute. The test
Voltage shall be 60% of the rated lightning impulse voltage
Before the test and three days after the test the dissolved
gas analysis of oil taken from CT will be carried out.Analysis
procedure and fault diagnosis shall be as per IEC 60599.

Special test

A. Thermal Stability test :


This involves simultaneous application of rated voltage
(1.1Um/Sqrt3) and rated simultaneous current (1.2,1.5 etc)
by using a synthetic test circuit.Capacitance, tangent delta,
secondary resistance and temperature of primary terminal
are recorded until stable values are acquired.
This test demonstrates the insulation capacity (healthiness) under energised
conditions.

Special test
B. Temperature coefficient test:
The CT is heated in a oven to approximately 90Deg C. The tan delta is
measured at ambient, 80 and 90 deg C at voltages of 0.3,0.7,1.0 and
1.1Um/Sqrt3.
This test demonstrates the healthiness at high extreme temperature conditions.

Current Transformers
Type Tests
a) short-time current tests
b) temperature rise test

c) lightning impulse test


d) switching impulse test
e) wet test for outdoor type transformers
f) determination of errors

IEC 600 44-1

CEI 600 44-1


CEI 60-1

Current Transformer
Routine tests

Routine tests
The following tests apply to each individual transformers:
a) verification of terminal markings
b) power-frequency withstand test on primary winding
c) partial discharge measurement
d) power-frequency withstand test on secondary windings

e) power-frequency withstand tests, between sections


f) inter-turn overvoltage test
g) determination of errors
The order of the tests is not standardized, but determination of
errors shall be performed after the other tests.

VT PARAMETERS

FUNDAMENTALS

WHAT IS VT?
WHEN IS VT REQUIRED ?
WHY IS VT REQUIRED?
HOW IS VT CONNECTED?
WHERE IS VT CONNECTED?
WHICH VT IS CONNECTED?

Capacitor Voltage Transformers (Paper/Film/Oil) up to 765 kV

1
2
3
4
5
6

8
9
10
11

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Oil level indicator (optional)


Expansion device
Capacitor units
Insulating oil
Porcelain insulator
Sealing
Electromagnetic unit
Low voltage terminals box/
HF terminal
9. Series inductance
10. Medium voltage transformer
11. Damping circuit against
ferroresonance effects

Capacitor stack

Inductive VT

CCV 72.5 to 765 kV


Oil expansion device
Capacitor elements
Capacitor column
Insulating oil
Insulator flange

Secondary terminal box


Inductance
MV Transformer
Damping circuit

WHAT IS VT?

ITS AN INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER


WHICH TRANSFORMS VOLTAGE FROM
ONE LEVEL TO ANOTHER LEVEL SUCH AS
400KV/3:110V/3
(VT
RATIO)
i.e.
TRANSFORMS VOLTAGE OF THE LEVEL OF
400KV/3 INTO VOLTAGE OF 110V/3
LEVEL.

back

WHEN IS VT REQUIRED ?

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM WHICH HAS


HIGH LEVEL OF VOLTAGE ( TO THE
TUNE OF 3.3KV OR MORE) , DIRECT
MEASUREMENT OF THAT VOLTAGE
IS NOT POSSIBLE AS DEVICES USED
FOR MEASUREMENT OF VOLTAGE
ARE NOT DESIGNED TO HANDLE
SUCH HIGH LEVEL OF VOLTAGE.
back

WHY IS VT REQUIRED?

THE SYSTEM WHICH CARRIES VOLTAGE


AND CURRENT MEANS THERE IS A
SOURCE WHICH INJECTS THE POWER INTO
THE SYSTEM AND THERE IS A LOAD
WHICH CONSUMES POWER/ENERGY.SUCH
A
SYSTEM
HAS
TWO
BASIC
REQUIREMENTS:
METERING OF ENERGY SOURCED OR
CONSUMED.
PROTECTION OF THE ELECTRICAL
SYSTEM
FROM
FAULTS
AND
DISTURBANCES.

WHY IS VT REQUIRED?
Contd

FAULTS CAN BE MANY KINDS. SOME


FAULTS SUCH AS O/C CAN BE DETECTED
SOLELY ON CURRENT MEASUREMENT,
BUT CURRENT DOES NOT PROVIDE
DISCRETION
ABOUT
NATURE
AND
LOCATION OF THE FAULT. FOR HIGHLY
INTERCONNECTED ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
CARRYING HUGE AMOUNT OF POWER,
SUB-SYSTEM ISOLATION SELECTIVITY IS
IMMENSLY DESIRABLE.

WHY IS VT REQUIRED?
Contd

THEREFORE, WHEN VOLTAGE IS ALSO


MEASURED
ALONGWITH
CURRENT
DURING FAULT, WE CAN IN A WAY
COMPUTE POWER OR IMPEDANCE OF
SYSTEM ALONGWITH ITS DIRECTION.
MOREOVER, O/V,U/V, O/F AND U/F
PROTECTIONS ARE ALSO CONFIGURED
FROM VTs.

back

HOW IS VT CONNECTED?

VT HAS A PRIMARY AND ONE OR MORE


SECONDARY WINDINGS.

METERING AND PROTECTION DEVICES


ARE CONNECTED TO THE SECONDARIES
OF THE VT.

HOW IS VT CONNECTED?
contd

M
P
P

INDUCTIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER

HOW IS VT CONNECTED?
contd

M
P
P
back
CAPACITIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER

WHERE IS VT CONNECTED?

FOR METERING AND PROTECTION OF A


FEEDER, VT IS CONNECTED AT THE
BEGINING OF THE FEEDER.

WHERE IS VT
CONNECTED?
contd
Power Station to be protected

back

WHICH VT IS CONNECTED?

AS STATED FOR CT, WE NEED IT FOR


METERING: VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT,

ENERGY, POWER MEASUREMENT.


PROTECTION:

FOR
DISTANCE
PROTECTION, O/V,U/V, O/F AND U/F
PROTECTIONS, FIELD FAILURE, OVERFLUXING,etc.

WHICH VT IS CONNECTED?
contd

FOR METERING VTs WE NEED HIGH


ACCURACY
IN
THE
VOLTAGE
MEASUREMENT
DURING
STABLE
CONDITIONS i.e 80% TO 120% OF NOMINAL
SYSTEM VOLTAGE WITH BURDENS FROM
25% TO 100% OF RATED BURDEN AT
POWER FACTOR OF 0.8. IN VTs ALSO AS IN
CTs, RATIO AS WELL AS PHASE ERRORS
ARE THERE.

WHICH VT IS CONNECTED?
Contd metering

IEC 60044-2 AND 60044-5 DEFINES THIS AS :

WHICH VT IS CONNECTED?
Contd metering

THE ABOVE VT PARAMETERS ARE


THEREFORE SPECIFIED AS FOR
EXAMPLE: PTR: 400KV/3:110V/3,0.2,
50VA etc (TYPICAL TO NTPC)

WHICH VT IS CONNECTED?
contd

FOR PROTECTION VTs WE NEED


FAITHFULNESS
OF
VOLTAGE
MEASUREMENT IN THE HIGHER RANGE
OF VOLTAGE SUCH AS FROM VALUE AS
LOW AS 2% OF NOMINAL VOLTAGE TO
THE RATED VOLTAGE MULTIPLIED BY
RATED VOLTAGE FACTORS SUCH AS
1.2,1.5,1.9 WITH BURDEN OF 25% TO 100%
OF RATED BURDEN AT 0.8pf LAGGING.

WHICH VT IS CONNECTED?
contd protection

IEC 60044-2 AND 60044-5 DEFINES THIS AS :

WHICH VT IS CONNECTED?
Contd protetcion

THE ABOVE VT PARAMETERS ARE


THEREFORE SPECIFIED AS FOR
EXAMPLE: PTR: 400KV/3:110V/3,3P,
50VA etc (TYPICAL TO NTPC)

Capacitor Voltage
Transformer
Causes of Failure and
Monitoring/Maintenance

Capacitor Voltage Transformers


Monitoring and maintenance

Causes of Failure
Due to Ferroresonance caused by primary/secondary disturbances
Oil leak at sealing points leading to ingress of moisture and
degradation of capacitor
Monitoring
Capacitance and tangent measurement using the tan delta kit at
periodic intervals or whenever there is a shut down
Using thermovision camera especially for 220kV to detect any high
temperature abnormalities
IR check on secondary
To check the resistance of the damping wdg externally and also the
condition of the Lightning arrester in the sec terminal box

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Definitions
Element Pack
(or pack)
Pile of elements : 10 to 25 kV

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Definitions
HV Power line

Capacitor Unit
(or unit)
Assembly of elements in an
insulating container: 245 kV.
Can be connected to a HV line

Ground

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Definitions
HV Power line

Capacitor STACK
(or stack)
Assembly of elements to reach
higher voltage levels : 800 kV

In general, the term


CAPACITOR
stands for a capacitor element
as well as a capacitor stack.
Ground

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Definitions
HV Power line

Capacitor Voltage Divider


( or CVT )
Connecting an MV inductive
voltage transformer to a tap.

Ground

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Basics
Intermediate
P1

C1

Voltage :
10 to 20 kV/3

S1

C2

P2

S2

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Magnetic Transformer
Ce

UP

Vp . C1
= k . (C +C
1
2)

L
Rw
Lfs
Rs

La

Ra

Equivalent Diagram
Lfs
Rs

Rw

Us

Zc

= Inductance equivalent to magnetic losses of the magnetic circuit.


= Resistance equivalent to the watt losses of the magnetic circuit.
= Secondary leakage inductance of the magnetic VT.
= Resistance of the secondary winding

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Elements
All PaperCapacitor
Dielectric design
Mixed dielectric design

Paper

PPR film + paper


Copper tabs for
connection

Aluminum foil
folded for contact
with next element

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Damping Circuit
Primary Short Circuit & Transient Response

In steady state, the CVT secondary voltage is a


reliable representation of the primary voltage.
In case of sudden change in the primary voltage
(like a short circuit), the voltage output will be
distorted (high error) during a few cycles.
The above transient error will depend on:
The burden connected to the CVT
The moment of the voltage interruption.
The transient response will be improved by adding
a damping circuit connected on the secondary

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Damping
Circuit
Primary Short Circuit & Transient Response
Vi

Primary voltage
t
Short-circuit at zero crossing

Vs

Secondary voltage
t

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Damping Circuit
Primary Short Circuit & Transient Response
Vi

Primary voltage

Secondary error

IEC today :
max 10% after 20ms

10%

Short-circuit at zero crossing

5%

Vs

Secondary voltage
0

IEC 186
error limits

100

200

300
t

t
[ms]

20 ms

Necessary to add a damping circuit

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Ferroresonance
Ferroresonance according IEC 186
a) After clearance of a short-circuit at the secondary
terminals (fuse blown) , the CVT being energized
at 120% of the rated voltage, the crest value of the
secondary voltage must return to less than 10% error
after 10 cycles.
b) After short-circuit clearance, at 150% of the rated
voltage, the ferroresonnance must be eliminated within
less than 2 seconds

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Damping Circuit
Primary Short Circuit & Transient Response
How to solve transient problems :
R
R-L-C

High
burden
jeopardize
accuracy

R-L-R

Efficient
Easy to design

Efficient
Sophisticated design

Expensive

Economical

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Ferroresonance
Secondary Short Circuit
C1

C2

SGC

Ith

N2

N1
R1

L
D

"Transformer type"
compensating
inductance

L1

L'1
RL

L2

R2

Ferroresonance
Damping device
on inductive PT

L'2

SGL

Ferroresonance
Damping device
on inductance

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Damping Circuit
200
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
-200

Tension
primaire
Primary
Voltage

200

600

550

500

450

400

350

Tension
secondaire
Secondary
Voltage

100
0

350

400

450

500

550

600

350

400

450

500

550

600

-200

300

-100

300

R-L-R
R-L-R

300

Primary Short Circuit & Transient Response

% error
at secondary
% Erreur
secondaire
(transitoire)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Ferroresonance
150
100

50
0

-50
-100

1000

900

800

700

600

500

400

Primary voltage
300

-150

Fuse
operation

800
600

400
Short-circuit
200
0

800

700

600

500

400

Secondary
current

900

Secondary
voltage
800

700

600

500

Without
damping
device

400

500
400
300
200
100
0
-100
-200
-300
-400
-500

300

-800

300

-400
-600

900

-200

750

700

650

600

550

500

450

400

Primary
voltage

750

700

650

600

550

500

450

Secondary
current
400

100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100

350

250
200
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
-250

350

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


Ferroresonance

10 cycles : error < 10%

With
damping
device

600
400
200
0
-200

Secondary
voltage
750

700

650

600

550

500

450

400

-600

350

-400

Capacitor Voltage
Transformers
Routine
Routine
tests tests (IEC 60044-5)
The following tests apply to each individual transformer:
a) Verification of terminal markings

b) Power-frequency withstand tests on primary windings


c) Partial discharge measurement
d) Power-frequency withstand tests on secondary
windings
e) Power-frequency withstand tests between sections
f) Determination of errors.
G) Ferroresonance test
h) Sealing test

Voltage transformers
Protection accuracy classes
IEC 600 44-2

Accuracy classes (Protection)


Maximum error in % of VP
- Voltage between 5 % and fT x VNP
- Burden between 25% and 100% of SN
- Maximum error doubled for VNP=2%
Accuracy
class
Cl 3P

Voltage
(ratio)
error
3%

Phase
displacement
[minutes]
120

Cl 6P

6%

24O

Capacitor Voltage Transformers


Type tests (IEC 60044-5)
a) Temperature-rise test
b) Short-circuit withstand capability test
c) Lightning impulse test
d) Switching impulse test
e) Wet test for outdoor type transformers
f) Determination of errors.

Condition Monitoring
and Failure
Investigations of
Instrument
Transformers

Types of CTs
Hair

Pin Design
Eye Bolt Design
Live tank Design

Live Tank CTs

Dead tank CTs

Hairpin design and Eye Bolt design

CT Standards
IEC
IS

60044 1

2705

CT Design
Core Material The main aim is to
give high accuracy with low
saturation factor.
Core Material is made of CRGO
Silicon steel
For very low loss characteristics,
material (Alloy of Ni-Fe) is used

CT accuracies
As per IEC-60044(1)

Metering Core 0.2 or 0.5% at


rated Currents
Protection Cores 1% at rated
current

Accuracies as per IEC-60044-1


Class

5% of
rated I

20% of
rated I

100% of
rated I

120% of
rated I

0.2

0.75

0.35

0.2

0.2

0.5

1.5

0.75

0.5

0.5

Protection Cores
Class

Current Error at
rated Primary
Current

Composite Error at
rated accuracy limit
Primary Current

5P

1%

5%

10P

3%

10%

Ratio Error
Ratio Error = (KnIs- Ip)*100/ Ip
Kn = Rated transformation ratio
Ip = Actual primary current
Is = Actual secondary current

Phase Angle Error


The difference in Phase between
the Primary and Secondary
current vectors

Knee Point Voltage


10% increase in Voltage will lead to
30% or more increase in Current.

Insulation Levels
For Windings having Um greater than
300kV, the rated insulation level is
determined by rated switching and
lightning impulse withstand voltage
For voltages < 300kV, insulation levels
are decided by lightning impulse and
power-frequency withstand voltages

Insulation Levels
System
Voltage

1 min
Power
Freq.
Voltage

Switching
Impulse
withstand
Voltage

Lightning
Impulse
withstand
Voltage

220kV

395kV
460kV

950kV
1050kV

400kV

630kV

1050kV

1425kV

Partial Discharge Test


System
Voltage

Pre-stress
Voltage for 1
min

Test Voltage

Um

80% of 1 min
P.F. Voltage

Um- 10pC
1.2Um/3-5pC

Creepage Distances
Pollution Levels

Creepage distance

Light

16mm/kV

Medium

20mm/kV

Heavy

25mm/kV

Very Heavy

31mm/kV

Routine Tests at Factory


Verification of Terminal Markings
Power Frequency withstand test on Primary
winding
Partial Discharge measurement

Power Frequency withstand test on Secondary


winding
Power Frequency withstand tests between sections
Inter-Turn Over voltage Test
Determination of Errors

Pre Commissioning Tests


Polarity Test
Magnetization Curve Test

Ratio Test
Primary Current Injection Test
Secondary Current Injection
Test

Condition Monitoring
Checking of Bellow expansion - M
Visual Inspection for leakages - M
Tan Delta Measurement 2Y
Thermovision Scanning - Y

Nitrogen Pressure Checking 2Y


DGA testing of Oil - SOS

CT TESTING TAN DELTA

CT Insulation

Tan delta measurement

CTs with Test Tap- Ungrounded Specimen Test mode


(UST)
CTs without Test Taps Grounded Specimen Test
(GST) mode with jumpers disconnected
Values to be monitored w.r.t. factory/ precommissioning values
Sudden change in measured values indicate faster
deterioration of insulation.
Precautions: P1/P2 to be shorted. Porcelain surface to
be thoroughly cleaned. Test Tap to be reconnected to
Earth after the Test

Tan delta measurement

Connection of Test Tap to be ensured otherwise it


may lead slow arcing in the soldering area and
insulation may fail in due course of time.
Measurement of Tan Delta of C2 (insulation between
last foil on which test tap wire is soldered to the
ground) to be carried out.
Measurement in GSTg mode with P1/P2 terminal
guarded.

CT Equivalent Circuit

UST Mode of Measurement

Earth will be connected to N Point


Hence only CHL will be measured

GST Mode of Measurement

Here measurement is made for the


Parallel combination of CH and CHL

GSTg Mode of Measurement

Here measurement is done for CHE


as L is guarded

C1 and C2 Tan delta


measurement

For C1: Apply 10kV between HV and test tap on UST mode.
For C2: Apply 500 V between Test tap and Ground with
HV Guarded on GSTg mode

Negative Tan delta

Negative tan delta may result if there is


shunt to ground in between the points of
measurement

Heavily polluted porcelain exterior surface


or porcelain internal surface contamination
may result in negative tan delta reading

In case of Negative tan delta

Porcelain surface and test tap in case of


bushings to be thoroughly cleaned and
measurement to be repeated

In case of CVT, measurement to be done


stack wise. The bottom stack may give
higher tan delta value or negative value due
to poor insulation of the EMU

Negative Tan Delta

Phasor Diagram

CT FAILURES

Reasons of CT Failures

Moisture entry into solid insulation


Wrinkles in aluminium grading
Opening of secondary winding
Opening of tan delta point
Dielectric failure due to pre-mature ageing
Other dielectric failures due to improper
wrapping of paper, improper flux distribution
etc.

Primary Insulation failure


due to moisture entry

Violent failure due to arcing

CT under Flames

CT under Flames

Burnt CT

Puncturing of Paper Insulation

Depression and wrinkles in paper


wrapping

Wrinkles in Paper

Sharp edges on primary


conductor

Failure of Current Transformers


1.5
1
0.5

20
00
20
01
20
02
20
03
20
04
20
05
20
06

99

98

97

96

% age CT
FAILURES

In last 4 yrs, Newly commissioned CTs failed 32 nos.)


Old CTs failed- 24nos

Capacitive Voltage
Transformer
Construction and Condition
Monitoring

CVT Construction Details

CVT Construction Details


There are 280 300 elements in
C1 & C2
C1 will be about 260 to 280
elements
C2 will be 15 to 20 elements
Ratio of C1/ C2 is about 20
400/ 20 = 20kV (Tap Voltage)

Compensating Reactor
Compensating Reactor is provided
to compensate for the phase
displacement in Capacitor elements
L = 1/ (C1+C2)
L = 1/ 2 (C1+C2)

Ferro Resonance
Ferro resonance in CVTs is due to the
Capacitance in Voltage Divider in series with
the inductance of the Transformer and series
reactor. This circuit is brought to resonance
by various disturbances in the network that
may saturate the iron core of the transformer,
over heat electro magnetic unit and lead to
insulation breakdown.

Ferro Resonance Circuit

Ferro resonance circuit is provided in


CVT Secondary to suppress Ferro
resonance oscillations
There can be active or passive Ferro
resonance circuits
It can be RLC circuit (ABB make CVTs)
or RL circuit (CGL, BHEL CVTs)

CVT VA Ratings

VA ratings for core-1, core-2 and core-3 are


generally 200VA, 200VA and 100VA
respectively.
CVT accuracies are guaranteed if connected
burdens are within 25% to 100% of the
rated burdens
In POWERGRID, with static meters and
static/ numerical relays, connected burdens
are 10 to 20 VA in each core which are very
low as compared to rated burdens.

CVT Secondary Voltage


CVT Secondary Voltage v = k * V * C1/ (C1+C2)
V Primary Voltage
k Secondary Transformation ratio
Note:
Puncturing of C1 Secondary Voltage will increase
Puncturing of C2 Secondary Voltage will decrease

Condition Monitoring
Secondary Voltage
measurement
Capacitance and Tan delta
measurement of stacks

Secondary Voltage measurement


Periodic measurement to be carried out. In case
of doubt, simultaneous measurement to be
carried out with another feeder/ Bus CVT.
For 400kV CVTs puncturing of one Capacitor
element in C1 side is likely to increase Secondary
Voltage by about 0.35 0.45% (0.22 0.28V)

Failure of one Capacitor element in C2 side is


likely to decrease Secondary Voltage by 5 6%
(3.2 3.8V)

Capacitance and Tan delta


measurement of stacks
Change in Capacitance value
above 6%, CVT need to be
replaced

Tan delta values more than 0.003


from pre-commissioning value
needs replacement

Reasons for Failure of CVTs

WRINKLES ON ALUMINUM FOIL


POOR SOLDERING QUALITY
POOR QUALITY OF PAPER (LOCAL SOURCE)
PINHOLES IN BELLOWS
SNAPPING OF BELLOW CONNECTION
OVERHEATING OF DAMPING RESISTOR
SHORTING OF TRANSFORMER CORES
FAILURES OF FR CIRCUIT COMPONENTS
RUSTING OF COUPLING BOLTS (BETWEEN
FLANGE AND EMU TANK)
RUSTING OF FLANGE

Reasons for Failure of CVTs

LOOSENESS OF CORE BOLTS


SNAPPING OF CONNECTION BETWEEN
PRIMARY WINDING AND COMPENSATING
REACTOR
FAILURE OF VARISTORS PROVIDED IN
SECONDARY
ENTRY OF MOISTURE IN CAPACITOR
STACKS
MOISTURE ENTRY DUE TO POOR GASKET
QUALITY

CVT Failures

EMU Tank Transformer


winding shorted

Failure of Bellow

Rusting of Coupling bolt


and moisture entry

Rusting of flange

Rusting of EMU Tank

4
3
2
1
0

19
94
19
95
19
96
19
97
19
98
19
99
20
00
20
01
20
02
20
03
20
04
20
05
20
06

% age per
year

Capacitive Voltage Transformers

YEAR

In last 4-1/2 yrs, newly commissioned CVTs failed 40 nos.


Old CVTs failed- 101 nos.

Secondary Voltage measurement Norms


Sr.
No.

Drift in Sec.
Voltage

Condition of CVT

Measurement
Frequency

Upto 0.5 Volts

Healthy

Six monthly

0.5 to 0.8 Volts

Needs monitoring

Three monthly

+0.8 to +1.2 Volts

Needs close
monitoring

+1.2 to +2.0 Volts

Needs close
monitoring

15 days

Above +2.0 volts

Alarming/ critical

Needs replacement

-0.8 to -4.0 volts

Needs close
monitoring

15 days

Less than -4.0 volts

Alarming

Needs replacement

Thank You