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CHAPTER

6

61 Fatigue in Metals

62 Fatigue-Life Method

The Stress-Life Method 36

Fracture Mechanics Method 46

The Endurance Limit 56

66 Fatigue Strength

67 Endurance Limit Modifying Factors

69 Fluctuating Stresses

610 Failure Criteria for Fluctuating Stress

611 Torsional Fatigue Strength

6-12 Combinations of Loading Modes

6-13 Cumulative Fatigue Damage

When machine parts are subjected to time varying loading, their behavior is entirely

different from what they could behave when they are subject to static loading. These and

other kinds of loading occurring in machine members produce stresses that are called

variable, repeated, alternating, or fluctuating stresses.

Machine members are found to have failed under the action of repeated or fluctuating

stresses.

The actual maximum stresses were well below the ultimate strength of the material, and

quite frequently even below the yield strength. The most distinguishing characteristic of

these failures is that the stresses have been repeated a very large number of times. Hence

the failure is called a fatigue failure.

62 Fatigue-Life Methods:

The three major fatigue life methods used in design and analysis are the:

1. Stress-Life Method

2. Strain-Life Method

3. Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method

These methods attempt to predict the life in number of cycles to failure, N, for a specic level of

loading. Life of

1 N 10

N >103 cycles.

The stress-life method, based on stress levels only, is the least accurate approach, especially for

low-cycle applications. However, it is the most traditional method, since it is the easiest to

implement for a wide range of design applications, has ample supporting data, and represents

high-cycle applications adequately. It can be summarized as:

High Cycle Fatigue ( N > 1000)

It is based on stress levels.

Predictions of life are based upon nominal stresses in a component

Use empirical correction factor (surface finish, groove, )

The least accurate approach, but most used method, since it is the easiest

to implement for a wide range of design applications.

The strain-life method involves more detailed analysis of the plastic deformation at localized

regions where the stresses and strains are considered for life estimates. This method is especially

83

good for low-cycle fatigue applications.

Low Cycle Fatigue (N < 1000)

Involves more detailed analysis of the plastic deformation at localized

regions where the stresses and strains are considered for life estimates.

The Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method:

It assumes a crack is already present and detected.

It is then employed to predict crack growth with respect to stress

intensity.

It is most practical when applied to large structures in conjunction with

computer codes and a periodic inspection program.

63 Stress-Life Method:

To determine the strength of materials under the action of fatigue loads, four types of tests are

performed: tension, torsion, bending, and combinations of these.

In each test, specimens are

subjected to repeated forces at

specified magnitudes while the

cycles or stress reversals to

rupture are counted.

For the rotating-beam test,

a constant bending load is

applied, and the number of

revolutions

(stress

for failure is recorded. The first

test is made at a stress that is

somewhat under the ultimate strength of the

material. The second test is made at a stress that is less than that used in the first. This process is

continued, and the results are plotted as an S-N diagram.

The figure blow is the S-N diagram for typical UNS G41300 steel.

It should be noted that from the N-S diagram for the case of steel:

6

A knee occurs around N=10

and beyond this knee failure will not occur, no matter

The strength corresponding to the knee is called the endurance limit Se , or the fatigue

limit.

For nonferrous metals and alloys, the graph of S-N diagram will never be horizontal.

Meaning of N:

A stress cycle ( N=1 ) constitutes a single application and removal of a load and then

83

another application and removal of the load in the opposite direction.

Thus, N=0.5 , means the load is applied once and then removed, which is the case

N=1

to

N=103

cycles is

3

A stress cycles greater than 10 , is classified as high-cycle fatigue.

The boundary between the finite-life region and the infinite-life region can be defined

only for a specific material such as steel as shown above in which it lies somewhere

between

N=10 N=10

S-N method does not work well in low-cycle application, where the applied strains have

Mischke has analyzed a great deal of actual teat data from several sources and concluded that

endurance limit can be related to tensile strength.

For Steel:

S ,e = 0.5 Sut Sut 1460 MPa

700 MPa Sut >1460 MPa

, where:

S ut

Aluminum and Magnesium alloys do not have an endurance limit, and the fatigue strength is

usually based on 5(108) cycles of stress reversal and it is given in table A-26 and A-27.

Endurance limits for various classes of cast irons, polished or machined, are given in table A-24

We could also use for Cast Iron and Cast Steel:

S ,e = 0.45 S ut S u 600 MPa

275 MPa Sut > 600 MPa

The most widely used fatiguetesting device is the R. R. Moore highspeed rotating-beam

machine. This machine subjects the specimen to pure bending (no transverse shear) by means of

weights.

The specimen is very carefully machined and

polished,

with

final

polishing

in

an

Other fatiguetesting machines are available for applying fluctuating or reversed axial stresses,

torsional

stresses,

or

combined

stresses

to

the

test

65 The Strain-Life Method:

83

explain the nature of fatigue failure is called

A fatigue failure almost always begins

at a local discontinuity such as a

notch, crack, or other area of stress

concentration.

When the stress at the discontinuity exceeds

If a fatigue fracture is to occur, there must

Thus we shall need to investigate the behavior of materials subject to cyclic

deformation.

Figure 62 has been constructed to show the general

appearance of these plots for the rst few cycles of

In this case the strength decreases with stress

repetitions, as evidenced by the fact that the reversals

occur at ever-smaller stress levels. As previously

noted, other materials may be strengthened, instead,

The graph has been reproduced as Fig. 62, to explain

the graph, we rst dene the following terms:

'

Fatigue ductility coefcient F is the true

strain corresponding to fracture in one reversal (point A in Fig. 63). The plastic-strain

'

Fatigue strength coefcient F is the true stress corresponding to fracture in one

reversal (point A in Fig. 63). Note in Fig. 62 that the elastic-strain line begins at

,

F

E .

Fatigue ductility exponent c is the slope of the plastic-strain line in Fig. 62 and is the

power to which the life 2N must be raised to be proportional to the true plastic-strain

amplitude. If the number of stress reversals is 2N, then N is the number of cycles.

Fatigue strength exponent b is the slope of the elastic-strain line, and is the power to

83

Now, from Fig. 63, we see that the total strain is the sum of the elastic and plastic

components. Therefore the total strain amplitude is half the total strain range:

e p

=

+

( a)

2

2

2

The equation of the plastic-strain line in Fig. 62 is:

p

c

=( ,F ) ( 2 N ) ( 61 )

2

The equation of the elastic strain line is:

e ,F

b

= ( 2 N ) (62 )

2

E

Therefore, from Eq. (a), we have for the total-strain amplitude:

,

,

c F

=( F ) ( 2 N ) + ( 2 N )b ( 63 )

2

E

, which is the Manson-Cofn relationship between fatigue life and total strain.

66 The Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method: See Textbook Section 6-6 (p270-274).

A fatigue failure has an appearance similar to a brittle fracture, as the fracture surfaces are flat

and perpendicular to the stress axis with the absence of necking.

The fracture features of a fatigue failure, however, are quite different from a static brittle fracture

arising from three stages of development:

Stage I: Is the initiation of one or more micro-cracks due to cyclic plastic deformation followed

by crystallographic propagation extending from two to five grains about the origin.

Stage II: Progresses from micro-cracks to macro-cracks forming parallel-like fracture surfaces

separated by longitudinal ridges. The plateaus are generally smooth and normal to the direction of

maximum tensile stress. These surfaces can be wavy dark and light bands referred to as beach

marks or clamshell marks.

Stage III: Occurs during the final stress cycle when the remaining material cannot support the

loads, resulting in a sudden, fast fracture cannot support the loads, resulting in a sudden, fast

fracture.

67 The Endurance Limit:

83

For steels, simplifying our observation of Fig. 64, we will estimate the endurance limit as:

,

S e=

100 kpsi Sut >100 kpsi

700 MPa Sut >1460 MPa

(6 - 8)

Se

rotating-beam specimen itself. We wish to reserve the unprimed symbol Se for the endurance limit of

any particular machine element subjected to any kind of loading. Soon we shall learn that the two

strengths may be quite different. Soon we shall learn that the two strengths may be quite different.

68 Fatigue Strength:

The purpose of this section is to develop methods of approximating the S-N diagram for

steels when the results of the simple tension test

are known, in the high cycle region.

High-Cycle fatigue extends from

6

N=10

N=103

to

Ne )

( S,f )N = ,F ( 2 N )b ( 69 )

At 103 cycles:

b

( S,f )10 = ,F ( 2.103 ) =fSut

3

( S,f )10

b

,F

3

f = ( 2. 10 ) =fS ut ( 610 )

S ut

'F = 0 m , with

'

F

'

F

H B 500

may be used:

83

To nd b, substitute the endurance strength and corresponding cycles,

'

S e ,N e ,

log ( 'F /S 'e )

( 612 )

b=

log ( 2 N e )

S 'F = 'F (2 N )b

'

Eq . ( 612 ) b=

log ( 155/52.5 )

Eq .(6 10) f =

log ( 2 . 106 )

=0.0746

0.0746

155 (

2. 103 )

=0.837

105

'

'

and for Eq. (69), with S f =( S f ) N

'

S f =155 ( 2 N )

0.0746

=147 N

0.0746

( a)

The process given for nding f can be repeated for various ultimate strengths. Fig. 65 is a

plot of f for

. To be conservative, for

'

Se

0.5 S ut

than

S ut <70 kpsi

is reduced to

Se

, let f 0.9.

found from Fig. 65. Equation (a), for the actual mechanical component, can be written in

the form:

b

S f =aN ( 613 )

3

, where N is cycles to failure and the constants a and b are dened by the points 10 ,

( Sf )10

6

and 10 ,

gives:

2

a=

( fSut )

Se

( 614 )

Se

with

3

83

b=

fS

1

log ut ( 615 )

3

Se

( )

is given, setting

1 /b

N= a ( 616 )

a

( )

Low-cycle fatigue is often dened (see Fig. 61) as failure that occurs in a range of

1 N 103 cycles. On a log-log plot such as Fig. 61 the failure locus in this range is nearly

3

linear below 10

f Su t

and

1, Sut

(transformed)

( log f ) / 3

3

S f S ut N

1 N 10 ( 617 )

EXAMPLE 61:

Given a 1050 HR steel, estimate:

6

1. The rotating-beam endurance limit at 10 cycles.

4

cycles to failure

3. The expected life of a polished rotating-beam specimen under a completely reversed stress of 55 kpsi.

83

EXAMPLE 6-2:

83

It is unrealistic to expect the endurance limit of a mechanical or structural member to match the

values obtained in the laboratory. Some differences include:

1. Material: composition, basis of failure, variability.

2. Manufacturing: method, heat treatment, fretting corrosion, surface condition, stress

concentration.

3. Environment: corrosion, temperature, stress state, relaxation times.

4. Design: size, shape, life, stress state, stress concentration, speed, fretting, galling.

Marin identied factors that quantied the effects of surface condition, size, loading, temperature,

and miscellaneous items. The Marin equation is therefore written as:

'

S e =k a k b k c k d k e k f S e ( 618 )

, where:

k a = surface condition modification factor

k b = size modification factor

k c = load modication factor

k d = temperature modification factor

k e = reliability factor

k f = miscellaneous-effects modification factor

'

S e = endurance limit at the critical location of a machine part in the geometry and condition of

use

To account for the most important of these conditions, we employ a variety of modifying factors,

each of which is intended to account for a single effect. Or when endurance tests of parts are not

available, estimations are made by applying Marin factors to the endurance limit.

1. Surface Factor

ka

Surface modification factor depends on the quality of the finish of the actual

part surface and on the tensile strength of the part material. Surface factor can

be calculated using the following formula:

b

k a =a S ut ( 619 )

, where S ut

Table 6.1

Factor a

Surface Finish

2.

Ground

Machined or CD

Size Factor

HR

As-forged

i.

1.34

1.58

2.70

4.51

Round bar

14.4

57.7in

39.9

272

-0.085

-0.265

bending

and

-0.718

-0.995

Table 61.

in rotating: For bending and torsional loadings

83

EXAMPLE 6-4:

A rotating shaft supported in a ball bearings at A and D

and loaded by the non-rotating force F as shown in

figure below. If all fillets are 3-mm radius, the

shaft rotates, the load is stationary and the material

is machined from AISI 1050 cold-drawn steel,

estimate the life of the part. Known that, the bending moment for the

shaft is shown in figure b.

83

Fluctuating stresses in machinery often take

the form of a sinusoidal pattern because of

the nature of some rotating machinery.

It has been found that in periodic patterns

exhibiting a single maximum and a single minimum of force, the shape of

the wave is not important, but the peaks on

both the high side (max.) and low side

(min.) are important.

In characterizing the force pattern. If the

largest force is

force is

Fmin

Fmax

constructed as follows:

Fm =

F max + F min

2

Fa =

F max F min

2

, where Fm is the midrange steady component of force, and Fa is the amplitude of the alternating

component of force. Figure 67 illustrates some of the various stress-time traces that occur. The

following relationships and definitions are used when discussing mean and alternating stresses:, some of

which are shown in Fig. 67d, are:

min =minimum stress m =midrange component

max =maximum stress a=amplitude component

83

r =range of stress s =staticsteady stress

The following relations are evident from Fig. 67:

m=

max + min

a= max min ( 635 )

2

2

R=

min

( 636 )

max

A=

a

( 636 )

m

A steady or static stress is not the same as the mean stress. In fact, it may have any value between

min and max. The steady state exists because of a fixed load or preload applied to the part, and it is

Notes:

For simple loading, it is acceptable to reduce the endurance limit by either dividing the unnotched specimen endurance limit by Kf or multiplying the reversing stress by Kf (More safe

because it gives less life cycles).

For combined loading, which may involve more than one value of fatigue-concentration factor,

the stresses are multiplied by Kf.

In the case of absence of a notch,

mo

a and

ao

and

K f ao

and

material remains without plastic strain. In other words, the fatigue stress concentration factor

Kf

When the steady stress component is high enough to induce localized notch yielding, the designer

has a problem. The material properties ( Sy and Sut) are new and difcult to quantify. The nominal

mean stress method (set

a =K f ao m = mo

stress method, but both are approximations. For the purposes of this course, for ductile materials

in fatigue, the steady stress component stress-concentration factor Kfm as:

83

K f K f | max, o|<S y

S K f ao

K fm= y

K f | max ,o|> S y ( 637 )

| mo|

0 K f | max , o min, o|>2 S y

If the plastic strain at a notch cannot be avoided, then use Eqs. (637); or conservatively, set

a =K f ao

, and use

K f m=1

m = mo

, that is,

Varying both the midrange stress and the stress

amplitude, or alternating component, will give some

information about the fatigue resistance of parts

when subjected to such situations.

Three methods of plotting the results of such tests

are in general use and are shown in figures 6.8,

6.9, and 6.10.

m

All other components of stress plotted on the yaxis.

The modified Goodman diagram (MGD) consists

of the lines constructed to

Se

(or

Sy

Sy

Sf

Sy

max

exceeded

Useful for analysis when all dimension of the part are known and the stress components can be

easily calculated. But it is difficult to use for design when the dimension are unknown.

83

The x-axis represents the ratio of the midrange strength

Sm

The y-axis represents the ratio of the alternating strength to the endurance limit.

The line BC represents the modified

Goodman criterion of failure.

Existence of midrange stress in the

compressive region has little

effect on the endurance limit.

Any Stress state, such as at the

one at A, can be described by the

minimum

and

maximum

alternating components.

Safety is indicated whenever the

point

described

by

the

stress

constant-life line.

m

When

is compression,

failure

occurs

whenever

or

whenever

a =S e

max =S yc

analysis and design purposes.

They are easy to use and the

results can be scaled off directly.

here existed a position which

divided

safe

combinations of

from

a

unsafe

and

amplitude and the mean force can

usually be calculated or determined.

Considering the modied Goodman line as a criterion, point A represents a limiting point with an

alternating strength Sa and midrange strength Sm. The slope of the load line shown is dened as

83

S a /S m

1) Soderberg line:

Sa Sm

+ =1 ( 638 )

Se S y

a m 1

+ = ( 639 )

Se S y n

Sa Sm

+ =1 ( 640 )

S e S ut

a m 1

+ = ( 641 )

S e Sut n

Sa Sm 2

+

=1 ( 642 )

S e S ut

n a n m 2

+

=1 ( 643 )

Se

Sut

( )

( )

n a 2 n m 2

+

=1 ( 645 )

Se

Sy

4) The ASME-elliptic:

2

2

Sa

S

+ m =1 ( 644 )

Se

Sy

( )( )

S a + Sm =S y ( 646 )

a + m=

( )( )

Sy

( 647 )

n

r=S a /S m= a / m

Principal intersections are tabulated in Tables 6-6 to 6-8 (see your textbook).

EXAMPLE 6-5:

83

83

The existence of a torsional steady-stress component not more than the torsional yield strength

has no effect on the torsional endurance limit, provide the material is ductile, polished, notchfree, and cylindrical.

The torsional fatigue limit decreases monotonically with torsional steady stress when the material

has stress concentration, notches or surface imperfections.

S =0.67 S ut

In constructing the Goodman diagram: su

Also, from chapter 5,

S sy =0.577 S yt

Combinations of Loading Modes:

How do we proceed when the loading is a mixture of axial, bending, and torsional loads?

This type of loading introduces a few complications in that there may now exist combined

normal and shear stresses, each with alternating and midrange values, and several of the

factors used in determining the endurance limit depend on the type of loading. There may

also be multiple stress-concentration factors, one for each mode of loading. The problem of

how to deal with combined stresses was encountered when developing static failure theories.

The distortion energy failure theory proved to be a satisfactory method of combining the

multiple stresses on a stress element into a single equivalent von Mises stress. The same

1) The rst step is to generate two stress elementsone for the alternating stresses and one for the

midrange stresses.

2) Next, apply the appropriate fatigue stress concentration factors to each of the stresses; i.e., apply

( K f )bending for the bending stresses, ( K fs )torsion for the torsional stresses, and ( K f )axial for the

axial stresses. Then calculate an equivalent von Mises stress for each of these two stress

'

ka , kb , kc

'

Se

kc

nor divide by

elements, a , and

Kf

or

Kf s

. If

83

k c =0.85

'

a

{[

'

m

( a )axial

o .85

+3 [ ( K fs )torsion ( a )torsion ]

2

1

2 2

( 648 )

1

2 2

} ( 649 )

Soderberg [see Eq. (638) to (647)]} to complete the fatigue analysis.

4) Conservative check for localized yielding using von Mises stresses, as:

S

'a + 'm= y ( 650 )

n

5) For rst-cycle localized yielding, the maximum von Mises stress is calculated. Then substitute

max and max into the equation for the von Mises stress. A simpler and more conservative method

'

'

'

is to add Eq. (648) and Eq. (649). That is, max = a + m .

Example 6-6:

A 38 mm diameter bar has been machined from AISI 1050 CD steel. This part is to withstand a

fluctuating tensile load varying from zero to 71.2kN. Because of the ends and the fillet radius, a fatigue

stress-concentration factor

Kf

Goodman method.

is 1.85 for

nf

106

ny

Sa , Sm

83

The method used here amounts to a variation of the rain-ow counting technique. The Palmgren-Miner

cycle-ratio summation rule, also called Miners rule, is written as:

C=

ni

( 651 )

Ni

, where ni is the number of cycles at stress level i and Ni is the number of cycles to failure at stress level

i. The parameter C has been determined by experiment; it is usually found in the range

0.7< c<2.2

Using the deterministic formulation as a linear damage rule we write:

D=

ni

( 652 )

Ni

, where D is the accumulated damage. When D = c = 1 , failure ensues. And the total number of cycles is

obtained as:

D=

i 1

n

i= i ( 653 )

Ni N

N

83

Problem

630

48 kpsi

for

4 (10 )

operation can be

expected at this stress level? For the

part,

S ut =76 kpsi ,

f =0.9

strength of

83

Problem

631

A rotating-beam specimen with an endurance limit of 50 kpsi and an ultimate strength of 100 kpsi is

cycled 20 percent of the time at 70 kpsi, 50 percent at 55 kpsi, and 30 percent at 40 kpsi. Let

83

Problem

68

A solid round bar, 25 mm in diameter, has a groove 2.5-mm deep with a 2.5-mm radius

machined into it. The bar is made of AISI 1018 CD steel and is subjected to a purely

reversing torque of 200 N m. For the S-N curve of this material, let f = 0.9 . (a) Estimate

the number of cycles to failure. (b) If the bar is also placed in an environment with a

temperature of 450 oC , estimate the number of cycles to failure.

83

Problem

617

The cold-drawn AISI 1018 steel bar shown in the gure is subjected to an axial load fluctuating

between 800 and 3000 lbf. Estimate the factors of safety n y and nf using (a) a Gerber fatigue

failure criterion as part of the designers fatigue diagram, and (b) an ASME-elliptic fatigue

failure criterion as part of the designers fatigue diagram.

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