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actual coupler separation is larger than the designed value of

2 . 0 owing
to the finite undercut which occurs during the RIE
process. In general, the discrepancy between BPM and measured
data is caused by the uncertainty in the actual coupler separation
and the limitation of BPM to accurately simulate wide angle
waveguide bends. E.g., our present BPM method is limited to Sbend angles 4 degrees to avoid spurious numerical loss. Our
devices have S-bends slightly >5 degrees. We suspect that with
improved BPM to handle larger S-bend angles, a better agreement
between design and experiment would be obtained.

SOREF, R.A., SCHMIDTCHEN, J., and PETERMANN, K.: 'Large singlemode rib waveguides in GaSi-Si and Si-on-SiO,', IEEE J. Quantum
Electron., 1986, QE-27, pp. 1971-1974
BURBACH. G.: 'Low-loss singlemode optical waveguides with large
cross-section in silicon-on-insulator', Electron. Lett., 1991, 27, pp.
3 RICKMAN. A.G., and REED, G.T.: 'Silicon-on-insulator optical rib
waveguides: loss, mode characteristics, bends and y-junctions', IEE
Proc, Optoelectron., 1994, 141, pp. 391-393

Long-wavelength multimode waveguide

photodiodes suitable for hybrid optical
module integrated with planar lightwave

Y. Akatsu, Y. Muramoto, K. Kato, M. Ikeda, M. Ueki,

A. Kozen, T. Kurosaki, K. Kawano and J. Yoshida

Fig. 3 Measured near-field image and linescan output waveguides of 3

dB directional coupler

h = 1.55 pm
a Measured near-field image
b Linescan of output waveguides


0 5





0 1




coupling 1 e n g t h . p

5 00

Fig. 4 Power split ratio against coupling length

In conclusion, we have fabricated integrated optical directional

couplers using rib waveguides on SO1 wafers. We have demonstrated, for what we believe is the frst time, a 3dB coupler on SO1
wafers. The device has an excess insertion loss as low as 1.9dB.
Such devices are useful for optical clock distribution in silicon
VLSI circuits and are also key building blocks of Mach-Zehnder
type wavelength multiplcners/deniultiplexers. This work demonstrates the potential of SO1 technology for low-cost monolithic
optoelectronic circuits.
Acknowledgment: This work has been sponsored by ARPNONR
contract N 00014-95-1-0675.
0 IEE 1995

19 October 1995

Electronics Letters Online No. 19951453

P.D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan and B. Jalali (Department of Electrical

Engineering, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA
90095-1594, USA)


The authors propose a multimode waveguide photodiode utilising

asymmetric waveguide structure which is suitable for optical
hybrid integration without coupling lenses, and has a high
responsivity of 0.95An;v at a wavelength of 1.31pm. Its 1dB
coupling tolerance to a planar lightwave circuit is S p m in the
vertical direction.



Indexing terms: Photodetectors, Optical waveguides, Integrated


Introduction: A side-illuminated waveguide photodiode (WGPD)

is an attractive device for making compact and low-cost hybrid
optical modules because it can be coupled directly with fibres or
sihca-waveguides in planar lightwave circuits (PLCs). Moreover, it
can be attached more easily on the PLC than a surface-illuminated
photodiode, without additional mounting components such as
angled mirrors. The WGPD can also be integrated with a laser
diode on a PLC platform that has a silica-on-terraced-silicon
structure [l, 21, by using the same assembly method as the laser
To ensure a high coupling efficiency between the WGPD and a
fibre or a silica-waveguide of a PLC, without using coupling
lenses, the photoabsorption layer of the photodiode must be thick.
However, a single thick photoabsorption layer is difficult to
deplete in a conventional InPLnGaAsRnP waveguide photodiode.
We proposed a multimode WGPD [3] that has a doped intermediate-bandgap layer between a core layer and a cladding layer to
enlarge optical field distribution. This multimode structure allows
the photoabsorption layer to be depleted. Conversely, from the
viewpoint of epitaxial growth and the fabrication process, it is
desirable to make epitaxial layers thin.
In this Letter, we propose 1 . 3 multimode
waveguide photodiodes that are suitable for optical hybrid integration, and have a
high coupling efficiency and a large alignment tolerance. We also
use an asymmetric waveguide structure to reduce the total thickness of the epitaxial layers without increasing coupling loss.
Design: To calculate the coupling efficiency, we considered two
WGPD models. One is a symmetric structure consisting of an InP
cladding layer, an InGaAsP intermediate-bandgap layer, an
InGaAsP core layer, an InGaAsP intermediate-bandgaplayer, and
an InP substrate. The other is an asymmetric structure that has
only an InGaAsP intermediate-bandgap layer on one side of the
core layer. The bandgap energy of the core layer is designed to
exhibit wavelength-dependent responsivity. The bandgap energy of
the intermediate-bandgap layers is set to be greater than that corresponding to a 1 . 3 wavelength.
The coupling efficiency between a WGPD and a dispersionshifted fibre that produces a Gaussian beam with a 4 pm spot size,
was calculated by considering the overlap integral between the
optical field of the fibre and that of the WGPD [4]. This coupling


23rd November 7995 Vol. 37

No. 24

at 1.31pm owing to wavelength-dependent responsivity. The 3dB

bandwidth of the PD was >3GHz.

total thickness, p,m
Fig. 1 Calculated coupling efficiency against total thickness of core
layer and intermediate-bandgap layer
Thickness of core layer is a constant of 3pm, when total thickness of
asymmetric structure slightly exceeds 4.5brn coupling efficiency
increases dramatically to 92%

The measured average coupling loss between WGPDs and

cleaved dispersion-shifted fibres was 0.44dB without coupling
lenses, assuming no reflection from the surface of the WGPD.
This result indicates that the proposed asymmetric structure has a
high coupling efficiency and is suitable for optical hybrid integration. Fig. 2 shows the measured coupling tolerance curves of the
WGPD with the dispersion-shifted fibre and with the PLC that
produces a 4pm spot-size Gaussian beam and has a 0.75% refractive index difference between the core and the cladding layer, in
the vertical direction. The measured tolerance is consistent with
the calculated curve (a broken line). The 1dB tolerance is k2pn in
the vertical direction. We also obtained a 1dB tolerance of fl7pm
in {he horizontal direction and S 7 p m in the light-incident direction. These results reveal that this WGPD has a large alignment
tolerance, which is sufficient for coupling with PLC and fibre by a
passive alignment technique.

efficiency is shown in Fig. 1 against the total thickness of the core

layer and the intermediate-bandgap layer. When the total thickness of the asymmetric structure slightly exceeds 4.5pn, the coupling efficiency increases dramatically to 92%. This is because the
higher-order modes and odd-order modes contribute to coupling
efficiency. Conversely, for the symmetric structure, the coupling
efficiency increases gradually as the total thickness increases,
owing to contributions from only even-order modes, and reaches
92% at the total thickness of 6.0pm. Comparing these curves indicates that it is possible to make the epitalxial layers thinner by
using the asymmetric structure.
Results: The epitaxial layers were grown on a semi-insulating InP
substrate by low-pressure metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy
(MOVPE). These layers comprised a 1. O p thick unintentionally
doped InP cladding layer, a 3 . 0 thick
unintentionally doped
) layer, and a 1 . 5 thick
~ n+-InGaAsP
InGaAsP (h, = 1 . 4 ~core
(h, = 1 . 2 ~intermediate-bandgap
layer on the InP substrate. A
1 .OW thick p-type region that was 3 0 wide
~ and 2 0 p long was
formed in the InP cladding layer by the Zn-diffusion method.
After diffusion, the mesa was formed by the dry etching technique
and buried with polyimide.

0 2 r 1 I


- 40

- 35

average received power, dBm

Fig. 3 Bit error rate performance of28.8Mbit/s NRZ lightwave signal

0lit error rate of WGPD module

0 conventional PD
h= 1 . 3 1 ~
Sensitivity is 41.7dBm

Fig. 3 shows the bit error rate performance of the WGPD measured for a pseudorandom (P3- l), 28.8MbiUs [5] NRZ lightwave
signal using a CMOS receiver IC [6].The open squares show the
bit error rate of the WGPD module and the sensitivity at a bit
error rate of 1 x 1W is 41.7dBm, which is the same as that of the
conventional surface-illuminated photodiode (solid circles).





axial shift, 11 m
Fig. 2 Measured coupling tolerance curves of WGPD to DSF and PLC
with a refractive index difference ofO.75% in v,ertical direction
Calculated tolerance is shown as a broken line
0coupling tolerance curves of WGPD to DSF
0 coupling tolerance curves of WGPD to PLC

This asymmetric WGPD with an antireflection coating had a

high responsivity of 0.95AiW at a wavelength of 1 . 3 1 p . The
~ 27dB lower than that
responsivity at a wavelength of 1 . 5 5 wa:j

Co,sclusion: We have designed and fabricated an improved multimode waveguide photodiode using an asymmetric structure to
reduce the thickness of the epitaxial layers. This proposed photodiode had a high responsivity of 0.95AiW at a wavelength of
1.31 pm. The average coupling loss between photodiodes and
cleaved dispersion-shifted fibres was 0.44dB without coupling
lenses. The 1 dB coupling tolerance to fibre and PLC was + 2 p in
the vertical direction. These results indicate that the proposed
asymmetric waveguide photodiode is a promising device for optical hybrid integration on PLCs, by the use of the passive alignment technique.
0 IEE 1995

21 September 1995

Electronics Letters Online No: 19951444

Y . Akatsu, Y. Muramoto, K. Kato, M. Ikeda, M. Ueki, A. Kozen, T.

Kurosaki, K. Kawano and J. Yoshida (NTT Opto-electronics
Laboratories, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa, 243-01

ELECTRONICS LETERS 23rd November 1995 Vol. 31 No. 24


KOBAYASHI, M.: 'Silica-based

optical waveguide on terraced silicon
substrate as hybrid integration platform', Electron. Lett., 1,993,29,
pp. 444-446
INOUE, Y., AKAHORI, Y . , and NAGASE, R.: 'A hybrid integrated optical

WDM transmitter/receiver module for optical subscriber systems

utilizing a planar lightwave circuit platform'. Tech. Dig. OFC'95,
1995, (San Diego), PD-12
KATO, K , HATA, S., KOZEN, A., and KAWANO, K.: 'High-efficiency
waveguide InGaAs pin photodiode with bandwidth of over
40GHz', IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 1991, 3, pp. 473474
KATO, K., HATA, s., KAWANO, K., YOSHIDA, J , and KOZEN, A.:'A highefficiency 50 GHz InGaAs multimode waveguide photodetector',
IEEE J. Quantum Electvon., 1992, QE-28, pp. 2128-2735
OKADA, K., and MIKI, N.: 'Fiber-optics subscriber systems for pointto-multipoint transmission architecture'. ECOC'92, 1992, (Berlin),
We A11.2
1994 Custom Integrated Circuits Conf., 1994, pp. 629-632

phase responses [SI.



Fig. 1 Layout of a 1.3/1.55

ic optical waveguide 1.31/1.55pm

WDM with -50dB crosstalk over 100nm
Y.P. Li, C.H. Henry, E.J. Laskowski, H.H. Yaffe and
R.L. Sweatt

Indexing term: Community antenna television, Wavelength division

multiplexing, Optical waveguide components

The authors have designed and fabricated monolithc optical

waveguide 1.31/1.55pWDMs with -50dB crosstalk over l o o m
bandwidth and fibre-to-fibre insertion loss of c IdB. They have
used these WDMs to multiplex and demultiplex 60 analogue
CATV channels at 1 . 3 1 and
~ 85 digital video channels at
1 . 5 5 on
~ a single optical fibre.
Many telecommunications applications seek a broadband wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer(WDM) with rectangular
amplitude response and low crosstalk to combindseparate the 1.31
and 1 . 5 5 communication
bands. Various devices have been
proposed or used to fiil these demanding requirements, but none
were fully satisfactory. Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometers [11
have been widely employed, but they have a sinusoidal response,
giving rise to strongly wavelength-dependent transmission and a
narrow rejection band. The resonant coupler [2]has an inherently
narrow stopband. Lattice and transversal fiters [3, 41 have been
used only in narrowband applications. In some commercial
devices, thin f h filters are employed to reduce the crosstalk of a
simple coupler or M Z WDMS, but these hybrid devices are more
expensive to fabricate.
We have designed and fabricated monolithic optical waveguide
1.31/1.SSpn WDMs with high performance that were previously
only achievable with hybrid thin film filters. Moreover, our
WDMS are made by mass production integrated circuit techniques, and can be integrated with other components to perform
complex circuit functionalities.
Our waveguide WDM comprises a chain of optical couplers
linked by differential delays. Its design is based on the following
principle of the sum of all optical paths [5]. The transfer function
from any input port to any output port of a chain of N couplers
and N-l differential delays consists of the unweighted sum of contributions of all (2N-1)distinct optical paths. The contribution of
each path is a product of 2N-1 factors: traversing a coupler without crossing gives cos$, and i sin$ with crossing; traversing the
longer arm of a differential delay gives ea@,
and the shorter arm ele.
Here @ = 7c1/2L,where I is the length of the coupler, L is the coupling length, 8 = mii/h, s and n are the length difference and
effective refractive index of the delay waveguides, and h is the


we have used these

ultiplex 60 analogue CATV chan~ a sinchannels at 1 . 5 5 into

1 (49dB) is degraded by only

fabricated monolithic 1.31/
tential applications in optical
0 IEE 1995

C.H. Henry and E.J. Lasko

600, Murray Hill, NJ 07974,

I 1 September 1995

T&T Bell Laboratories, PO Box

ELECTRONICS LETERS 23rd Noverhber 1995

Vol. 31

No. 24