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Keynote Report

4368 130021

300MW600MW

1.

300MW600MW
1000MW

2.
60 1966 50kW
1967 1.5 MW
2000
2001 9 6 MW

2003 200MW ,:

-3-

2004 10 2300MW

2005 4 2600MW

-4-

2008 6 2600MW

2008 7 600MW

-5-

2010 12 21000MW

2014

2004

4110

MW

4110

MW

100.00
%

MW

0.00
%

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

13310

10000

17550

22650

22540

22650

28755

19837

33905

22265

200152

13310

10000

17550

19050

19480

13125

16270

8750

13630

7520

125375

100.00

100.00

100.00

84.11

86.42

57.95

56.58

44.11

40.20

33.77

62.64

3600

1860

9525

12485

11087

20275

14745

74777

0.00

0.00

0.00

15.89

8.25

42.05

43.42

55.89

59.80

66.23

37.36

-6-

25000

MW

20000

15000

10000

5000

0
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

2009

3.
2014 300MW 157
-7-

114 600MW 51 600MW

600MW 2012

g/kWh
%
23
324.44
6.48

42
336.30
7.99

126
305.27
4.64

72
316.29
5.35

60 5

600MW

120

115

1
2

kg/kWh
0.31
0.31
1.12
1.31

kg/kWh
1.96
0.43

300MW

1
2

300MW 2011

g/kWh
%
27
340.78
7.65
209
331.09
6.00
300MW

201

142

kg/kWh
0.35
1.73
kg/kWh
2.14
0.79

600MW

600MW 4500

104t
MW
104kWh
660
297000
90.10
660

297000

104t
92.07

86.50

537.57

3.66

-445.50

600

270000

83.50

83.70

600

270000

80.80

569.70

2.72

-486.00

4.
2004 600MW

1.

2.

3.

4 .

-8-

1.

2.

-9-

3.

4.

-10-

5.

1
-11-

DL/T 244-2012

(DL/T 1290-2013)

5.
5.1

(1)
(2)
(3) 100%
75kPa-85kPa

mm

m2

MW

mm

m2

450

600

620

680

4.52

940

1100

8.33

150MW

200MW

300~600MW

600MW

600~1000MW

1000MW

435

540

665

720

910

1050

2.42

4.43

6.0

7.60

9.2

135MW

300~600MW

600MW

600~1000MW

1000MW

-12-

MW

mm

m2

MW

410

658

661

770

863

1030

2.25

4.17

4.85

6.47

7.5

9.5

135MW

200MW

300~600MW

600MW

600~1000MW

1000MW

5.2

-13-

6.
6.1

6.2

6.3
6.4
6.5

6.6


4368
(P.C.):130021
(E-mail): huichao@nepdi.net
(Tel): 0431-85798434

-14-

Developments of direct ACC in China


HuiChao ChenChengXian MengLingGuo ZhaiYingJun
ACC Technology Center of China Power Engineering Consulting Group Co., Ltd.
No.4368 130021,Renmin Street,ChangChun City

Abstract: The ACC technology, which has solved the contradiction between power development
and limited water resources by means of the excellent performance of water saving, has become
the best option of a large power plant in the areas rich in coal and scanty in water. In the past ten
years, China has built a number of 300MW, 600MW level of air cooling units. This paper
focuses on the summary of the development process of direct ACC in China.
Key words: Direct ACC Development
1. Summary
The ACC technology, which becomes the best option of a large capacity plant in the coal
richness and water shortage area, resolves the contradiction effectively between power
development and scarce water resources at its superior water saving performance. In the past ten
years, our country has built a number of 300MW, 600MW air cooling units in the north of water
shortage areas , and the capacity is more and more. Especially the operation of 1000MW direct
air cooling unit becomes a landmark in China's air cooling technology development. It has
accumulated a lot of valuable experience for the development of large air cooling units in China.
2. Development and capacity of direct ACC units in China
The direct air cooling technology of our country's power plant was started in the 60's,and the test
of the direct air cooling system was carried out in the 50 kW unit of Harbin Institute of
Technology in 1966. The industrial direct air cooling system was carried out directly in the 1.5
MW unit of Houma Shanxi power plant in 1967. The actual operation in the industrial was in
2000, and its expansion of the application has been rapid since that time.
Our own design, manufacturing and installation of the first 6 MW direct air cooling unit, which
was in power plant owned by Shanxi Jiaocheng Yiwang factory ,was built and put into operation
in September 2001.

-15-

The first 200MW direct air cooling unit was successfully put into operation in 2003 in Shanxi,
Datang Yungang Thermal Power Co. Ltd.

2x300MW subcritical direct air cooling unit of Huaneng Yushe was put into operation in October
2004.

-16-

2x600MW subcritical direct air cooling unit of Shanxi Datong No.two power plant was put into
operation in April 2005.

2x600MW supercritical direct air cooling unit of Huaneng Shangan Power Plant was put into
operation in June 2008.

-17-

The first 600MW sub.critical direct air cooling unit of China's own design, manufacturing and
installation in Tongliao power plant was put into operation in July 2008.

2x1000MW ultrasupercritical direct air cooling unit of Huadian Lingwu power plant was put into
operation in December 2010.

-18-

At of the end of 2014, the capacity of direct and indirect air cooling units in china as follows :
year

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Total

construction
units
capacity
MW

4110

13310

10000

17550

22650

22540

22650

28755

19837

33905

22265

200152

4110

13310

10000

17550

19050

19480

13125

16270

8750

13630

7520

125375

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

84.11

86.42

57.95

56.58

44.11

40.20

33.77

62.64

3600

1860

9525

12485

11087

20275

14745

74777

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

15.89

8.25

42.05

43.42

55.89

59.80

66.23

37.36

Direct air
cooling
units
capacity
(MW)
Proportion
of direct air
cooling
units (%)
Indirect air
cooling
units
capacity
(MW)
proportion
of indirect
air cooling
units (%)

The chart based on the above form as follows:


25000

MW

20000

15000

10000

5000

0
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

It could be seen from the above chart that China's direct air cooling units of power plant
construction reached a peak in 2009. The direct air cooling units which had been put into
operation gradually exposed some problems at that time: such as high operating backpressure in
summer, weakness of anti wind capability. And at the same time, the domestic steam coal price
was at a high point, see the figures as below:
-19-

Therefore, the indirect air cooling unit whose operating cost is relatively low, and the units with
stronger wind-resistance capability have gradually developed in China.
3. Operating conditions of direct air cooling units in China
The more than 300 MW of the direct air cooling power plants in production and construction
were 157 units until the end of 2014. There were 114 power plants in total which were put into
operation, and more than 600 MW were 51 power plants. According to the electrical assembly
unit benchmarking report, above 600 MW capacity air cooling units coal consumption, power
supply and water consumption are as follows:
Item

Supercritical
cooling unit
Subcritical
cooling unit
Supercritical
cooled unit
Subcritical
cooling unit

Form of operating parameters of the 600MW unitw ( annual average in 2012)


Statistical units
Coal consumption
Plant power
Water
(set)
of power supply
consumption rate
consumption rate
g/kWh)
%
kg/kWh
air
23
324.44
6.48
0.31
air

42

336.30

7.99

0.31

water

126

305.27

4.64

1.12

water

72

316.29

5.35

1.31

Note: The direct air cooling unit are 60 sets, and indirect air cooling unit are 5 sets.
No.
1
2

600MW wet cooling units average water consumption rate


Classification condition
Statistical units (set)
Water consumption rate
kg/kWh
Closed cycle
120
1.96
Open cycle
115
0.43

Air cooling units above 300MW electricity consumption and water consumption rate of the
-20-

average values as follows:


Form of operating parameters of the 300MW unit (2011 Annual Average)
Statistical units
Coal consumption
Plant power
Water
(set)
of power supply
consumption rate
consumption rate
g/kWh
%
kg/kWh
Air cooling unit
27
340.78
7.65
0.35
Water cooling unit
209
331.09
6.00
1.73
Item

No.
1
2

300MW wet cooling units average water consumption rate


Classification condition
Statistical units (set)
Water consumption rate
kg/kWh
Closed cycle
201
2.14
Open cycle
142
0.79

According to the above statistics of data , one 600MW unit are as follows:

Unit type

600MW unit annual consumption of coal consumption and water consumption


coal consumption water consumption
annual power supply
capcityMW
104t
104t
104kWh

Supercritical air
660
297000
cooling unit
Supercritical water
660
297000
cooling unit
Increased value of air cooling unit
Subcritical air
600
270000
cooling unit
Subcritical water
600
270000
cooling unit
Increased value of air cooling unit
Note: (4500 h per year).

90.10

92.07

86.50

537.57

3.66

-445.50

83.50

83.70

80.80

569.70

2.72

-486.00

4. The development of direct air cooling technology research in China


Relying on the 600MW subcritical direct air cooling unit in Tongliao power plant , China began
to design the direct air cooling system. It mainly carried out the following research projects:
1.direct air cooling system optimization design and technology research
Including:Determination of air cooling system design temperature;Determination of
thermodynamic calculation of direct air cooling system, air resistance calculation and
optimization calculation method; environmental wind effects on the cooling condenser system
performance.
2.Research on design and technology of direct air cooling exhausted steam pipe
Design of large diameter and thin wall negative pressure exhausted steam pipe.
3.Research on design and technology of supporting structure for air cooling condenser
Including: the diagonal section of reinforced concrete circular column, the influence of the wind
disturbance force on the vibration of the platform structure, the overall seismic performance of
the platform structure, the mechanical performance of the truss joints.
4.Design of condensate system for super critical air cooling unit
Selection of ion exchange resin for the treatment of condensate water.

-21-

And a large number of experiments have been carried out, including:


1. Simulator test regarding the effect of ambient air on the direct air cooling system and the
layout of air cooling condenser

2. Wind tunnel simulation experiment of air cooling system

-22-

3. Mathematical and physical model tests of the characteristics of the fluid in steam
exhausted pipes

4.Finite element analysis of structural strength of air cooling units pipe system

-23-

5.Large model test of air condenser bracket structure

Design of direct air cooling system with independent intellectual property rights:

Air cooling island in 3D views 1

-24-

Air cooling island in 3D views 2

Formulate a series of standards and codes by summing up the experience and lessons in all
aspects:
Technical specification for design of direct air cooling system of thermal power plant
Direct air cooling system performance test codeDL/T 244-2012
Direct air cooling system acceptance guideelectric power industry standard
Direct air cooling unit vacuum tightness test method(DL/T 1290-2013)
Guide for operation of direct air cooling system of thermal power plant
Single row tube bundle of power plant direct air cooled condenser
Standard for construction and acceptance of exhausted steam pipe for power plant air
cooling island
Standard for construction and acceptance of steel structure for power plant air cooling
island
Power station air cooling fan
Specification for all aspects of the direct air cooling system.
5.Main Equipments of ACC
5.1 Direct air cooling steam turbine
The direct air cooling steam turbine is developed on the basis of wet steam turbine. Air cooling
steam turbine focus economy under the low pressure (high load capacity) and safety and
reliability under high pressure and minimum volume flow rate. The former allows but not
economic; the latter is not allowed to appear. Main reasons as follows:
(1)The operating conditions changes frequently with the ambient air temperature.
(2)The high pressure can easily happen under different loads in the actual operation.
(3)Abnormal situation such as load shedding under the highest summer temperature, and
some damaged air cooling fans. At this time, maximum backpressure can reach up to
75kPa-85kPa under the condition of the highest temperature plus 100% shedding load bypass
and damaged fans. The breakers will definitely stop because of blower overheat.
The domestic main steam turbine manufacturers have specialized in developing the respective
characteristics of the air cooling steam turbines:
-25-

HTC

STC

DEC

terminal
blade length
mm
circular area
m2
application
models
MW
terminal
blade length
mm
circular area
m2
application
models
MW
terminal
blade length
mm
circular area
m2
application
models
MW

450

600

620

680

4.52

940

1100

8.33

150M
W
class

200MW
class

300~600M
W class

600MW

600~1000M
W

1000MW

435

540

665

720

910

1050

2.42

4.43

6.0

7.60

9.2

135M
W
class

300~600M
W class

600MW

600~1000M
W

1000MW

410

658

661

770

863

1030

2.25

4.17

4.85

6.47

7.5

9.5

135M
W
class

200MW
class

300~600M
W class

600MW

600~1000M
W

1000MW

5.2 Direct air cooling condenser


Air cooling condenser is one of key equipments in power plant, single row tube condensers most
widely used in the direct air cooling unit. It has been researched and developed successfully and
supplied a lot by domestic manufactures.
Single row brazed welding pipe device:

-26-

Automatic welding tube:

Deposited fouling from air infulence on air cooling equipment heat transfering test:

6. Development tendency of direct air cooling system


6.1 We know the direct air cooling and indirect air cooling with all aspects after nearly10 years
of exploration and summary. We will be more rational on construction of power plants.
6.2 Air cooling system is good at water saving, but it causes high coal consumption. Air cooling
steam turbine parameters will be further improved, so the coal consumption is further reduced.
6.3 Direct air cooling condenser cooling efficiency is devoloped towards a higher direction;
-27-

6.4 The direct air cooling system with the ability of anti wind is more competitive;
6.5 It has been applied at some points that water supply pump turbine, the main engine
isometric drive technology, and the exhausted steam of water supply pump goes into the host air
cooling system directly.
6.6 Direct air cooling system with natural ventilation is applied with small scale.
About the author:
Hui Chao ,director of air cooling technology center ,China Power Engineering Consulting Coopertation Group.
Post Address: No,4368,Renmin street,Changchun city.
(P.C.):130021
(E-mail): huichao@nepdi.net
(Tel): 0431-85798434

-28-

Air-Cooled Condenser Users Group


ACCUG established 2009

ACC Industry
Status and Developments

Website: http://acc-usersgroup.org/
Look under Presentations tab for presentations
from the first 7 years of meetings.

Dr. Andrew G. Howell


International Air-Cooled Condenser Meeting
October 13-15, 2015 Xian, China

Dry (Air) Cooling

Evaporative (Wet) Cooling Tower

Air Cooled Condenser: Under Construction

Parallel Cooling

-29-

Main Turbine Exhaust Duct: 35 (11 m)


diameter

-30-

Typical Large
Air-Cooled Condenser
45 fans, drawing ~8 MW combined
9 streets or bays, 20,358 tubes total
tubes:
single-row
35.3 feet (10.8 m) length
8.2 by 0.75 inch (21 by 2 cm) cross-section
carbon steel with aluminum exterior fins
0.059 inch (1.5 mm) wall thickness
1,158,902 ft2 internal (107,000 m2)
16,514,080 ft2 external (1,500,000 m2)

-31-

From Craig Ripley 2011 ACCUG meeting

Coating process options


Note: only high-pressure cladding and molten aluminum
dipping are believed to have been used for Al coating
of ACC tubes at this point.
High pressure cladding
costly process although costs have

lowered
strong steel-to-aluminum bond

-32-

Element

Wt%

Al

99

Si

Fe

<1

Totals

100

Coating process options

Coating processes

Influence of manufacturing process on

Dipping tubes in molten aluminum

internal tube Al contamination is uncertain


dipped tubes risk internal Al if not enclosed
adequately (parallel with known problem for
Zn-coated tubes)
brazing temperature is too low for Al
volatilization

lower cost
lower thickness
uniformity and durability of coating

uncertain

Concerns regarding Al coating

Possible ingress of Al to tube interior during

manufacture
deposition on HP section of steam turbine

and loss of turbine performance


limited options for removal of Al deposits

from HP turbine other than turbine outage


(7 to 10-year cycle)

Element

Weight%

Atomic%

Na

17

25

Al

18

23

Si

20

25
2

Fe

21

13

Cu

18

10

Totals

100

Improper Galvanic Tube Coating

-33-

Air Cooled Condenser Design


Last major design change in direct-cooled
ACCs was in 1991: single-row finned tubes

Air Cooled Condenser Design

Changes since that time have been relative minor:

Indirect-cooled ACCs have not seen widespread use


worldwide, but have some favorable characteristics

tube coating / fin spacing

investigating electric vs geared fan power

wind considerations shields, siting etc.

lower energy requirements

fan blade material / variable speed motors

easier to design limited water cooling support

fast starting capability

control & freeze protection strategies

uncertainties about materials (aluminum heat


exchange tubing)

construction efficiency to lower labor cost

can be retrofitted to an existing wet-cooled plant


much easier than with a direct-cooled ACC

enhanced controls

performance improvement with available water

Air Cooling Alternatives

Research is ongoing into various alternative dry cooling


technologies, but none has reached full-scale
implementation at this point

Electric Power Research Institute, U.S. National Science


Foundation, U.S. Department of Energy, European
Union projects

Air Cooled Condenser Applications

Initially applied in water-deficient regions of the world:


South Africa
Australia
Western United States
China

Recent installations in areas with plenty of water, due to


environmental regulations limiting water use.

Air Cooled Condenser Applications

Initially applied in water-deficient regions of the world:


South Africa
Australia
Western United States
China

-34-

Recent installations in areas with plenty of water, due to


environmental regulations limiting water use.

Concentrated solar plants often use dry cooling

Hybrid (wet-dry) cooling is an important option where


adequate water is available.

Distribution of Air-Cooled Condensers


for Power Generation: North America

Distribution of Air-Cooled Condensers


for Power Generation: North America

USA more than 100, most direct-cooled

Estimated that 20-40% of new plants in North

combined cycle plants, some coal and solar, a


few parallel wet-dry cooled units

America will be dry-cooled, a steady to


increasing trend

Mexico growing number of direct-cooled

Lack of access to water is promoting ACCs

combined cycle plants

even where plenty of water is present,


including difficulty getting water use permits

Canada a few combined cycle plants

Increasing interest in hybrid cooling,

including retrofit, although few have been


installed at this point

Distribution of Air-Cooled Condensers


for Power Generation:
Central / South America

Distribution of Air-Cooled Condensers


for Power Generation: Europe

ACC units in Peru, Venezuela, Argentina,

ACC units in Ireland, United Kingdom, Spain,

Brazil, Trinidad & Tobago direct-cooled,


combined cycle plants

Belgium, Luxemburg, Italy, Greece

Distribution of Air-Cooled Condensers


for Power Generation: Middle-East

Distribution of Air-Cooled Condensers


for Power Generation: Africa

most direct-cooled, limited indirect-cooled

ACC units in Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Saudi

ACC units in Algeria, Morocco, South Africa,

Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain

Ivory Coast

most direct-cooled, combined cycle plants

direct-cooled, limited indirect-cooled; coal

and combined cycle units, several solar


installations

-35-

Distribution of Air-Cooled Condensers


for Power Generation: Asia

Distribution of Air-Cooled Condensers


for Power Generation: China

Increasing installation of direct-cooled ACCs,

~ 1,430 GW of total power generation: ~10%

including India, Bangladesh, Indonesia,


Vietnam, Pakistan, Taiwan, Japan, China,
Russia

use ACCs, approaching half of thermal power


generation in rapidly-growing sector

China: more than 100 ACCs and increasing

rapidly. Many are direct-cooled, more recent


emphasis on indirect-cooled due to power
savings; virtually all are on coal-fired units.

Distribution of Air-Cooled Condensers


for Power Generation: Australia

Conclusions
Dry Cooling is an important technology for
thermal power generation that is increasing in
its application. It is anticipated that both
direct and indirect dry cooling will continue to
be major options for new plant construction in
the next few decades, with hybrid cooling
installations, including retrofits, also likely to
increase.

Several ACCs, coal-fired and combined cycle

applications

Input appreciated regarding


status / trends with ACCs

SPX
Evapco-BLCT
GEA
SPIG

-36-

ACC Come in Many Sizes

ACC Corrosion/FAC
and
Cycle Chemistry
International ACC Conference
Xian, China
13th 16th October 2015

Barry Dooley
But the FAC / Corrosion damage is the same worldwide with all chemistries

Courtesy of Eskom.

Corrosion/FAC in ACC and The Consequences

There is an ACC Corrosion


Index to Categorize Corrosion
and Track Improvments

High concentrations of iron around the cycle


- Boiler/HRSG deposits (expensive chemical cleaning)
- Boiler/HRSG Tube Failures (overheating and TF)
- Steam Turbine Deposits (including aluminum)
Need for Iron Removal Processes
- Condensate Polishing and/or Filters
Limitations around the cycle
- Condensate polishing (may have to change mode)
Overall an ACC controls the unit cycle chemistry
- International Guidelines now available for ACC
and two-phase flow (IAPWS Volatile Guidance 2015)

DHACI
(Dooley, Howell, Air-cooled Condenser,
Corrosion Index)

-37-

DHACI for Tube Inlets

DHACI for Lower Ducts

1. Tube entries in relatively good shape (maybe some


dark deposited areas)
2. Various black/grey deposits on tube entries as well as
flash rust areas, but no white bare metal areas
3. Few white bare metal areas on a number of tube
entries. Some black areas of deposit
4. Serious white bare metal areas on/at numerous tube
entries. Lots of black areas of deposition adjacent to
white areas
5. Most serious. Holes in the tubing or welding. Obvious
corrosion on many tube entries

A. Ducting shows no general signs of two-phase damage


B. Minor white areas on generally grey ducting. Maybe
some tiger striping with darker grey/black areas of
two-phase damage
C. Serious white bare metal areas in the hot box and at
numerous changes of direction (eg. at intersections of
exhaust ducting to vertical riser). White areas are
obvious regions of lost metal.

Examples included on later slides


Dooley & Howell et al, PPChem 2009

Dooley & Howell et al, PPChem 2009

We know what the Corrosion Looks Like

and what Holes at Tube Entries Look Like

DHACI 4
DHACI 3

DHACI 3

DHACI 5

The FAC / Corrosion damage is the same worldwide with all cycle chemistries

-38-

Inspections Worldwide show the same Features

Inspections Worldwide show the same Features

Combined Cycle with ACC after ~ 15,000 hrs.

750 MW Supercritical on OT at pH 9, ~4,000 hrs.

DHACI 4
DHACI 3

Concentration of Two-phase
FAC beneath Supports
Concentration of Two-phase
FAC beneath Supports

Source: Richardson and Joy, ACCUG 2011

Inspections in China

So is the ACC Corrosion Mechanism


Low Temperature Two-Phase FAC?
which is
Dependent on Removing the
Saturation of Fe3O4 at the Surface and
Precipitating/Depositing it Adjacently

650 MW Supercritical with Shuang Liang ACC. 15 Months.


DHACI 3
ACC Duct Work not Passivated

(Two ACC Tubes with damage (white areas) have been


analyzed)
Concentration of Two-phase
FAC beneath Supports

-39-

Inside diameter surface of an ACC Tube

Normal Two-phase FAC in Flowing Turbulent Flow


(Removes the Saturation of Fe3O4)

Shiny white metal

The black areas are where the


Fe3O4 is Precipitated/Deposited
Locally
Dooley, PPChem 2008

Second Tube Showed the Same Features

Typical Microscopic Appearance of FAC and ACC


Corrosion

FAC Damage in ACCs


(white areas)

Normal FAC in Fossil Feedwater


and in Combined Cycle/HRSG
Circuits

6 inch section of ACC tube and detail of the surface showing black deposits and white bare metal areas

-40-

So do we Fully Understand the


Environment and the Corrosion
Mechanism?

To Understand the Corrosion Here we need to


Understand the Environment in the PTZ

Solutions are already being applied


Increase bulk pH up to 9.8
Increase local pH (amines including filming)
Filters (average and absolute) and condensate polishers
Coatings (epoxy), Sleeves, Inserts
Alternate Materials to CS
Designs

Generation of the ACC Environment is in the PTZ

The PTZ Environment in the LP Steam Turbine is


Mollier Diagram
Completely Understood
A.Fossil Reheat Turbine
B. Backpressure Turbine
C. Reheat Turbine in a
nuclear LWR plant
3800
bar
200

3600

20

50

100

10

C
600
500

3400

Entha lpy (k J /k g)

400

3200

300

3000
200

2800

100

2600

Droplets <0.1m

Generation of the ACC Environment

Heterogeneous droplet
Nucleation and
Liquid Films on ST Blades

L-0 and
L-1
Blades

(Droplets and Liquid Films in


the ACC vary from
0.1 50 microns and dont
contain any oxygen until during
shutdown)

<100m

Liquid Films
<120m

2400

0.95
0.90

2200
2
bar 1 0.5 0.2

2000
5.5

0.85
0.1

0.05

High Charge
Density to Exhaust

0.80

6.5
Entropy (kJ/kg/K)

7.5

8.5

Source: IAPWS Technical Guidance Document 2013

-41-

To ACC

Damage takes time to repair

The Liquid in ACC Upper Ducts


(Lower pH and higher chlorides)
Chloride

35
30

DHACI 2

duct

(ex. 2 Years with pH 9.8)

Cross member
LDI not quickly
repaired by pH

cpp

25
20

pH

12

15
10

10

5
8

6
4
duct

cpp

Courtesy Setsweke Phala, Eskom

DHACI 2

DHACI 4
Source: Richardson and Joy, ACCUG 2011

Damage takes time to repair

Plant Improvements in ACCs (reduction of total iron) are Directly in Agreement


with theIroninCondensate(ug/L)
Dooley/Aspden relationship

(15 Months with pH 9.8)

100

90

Operation
atpH9.5

Operation
atpH9.0

Operationat
pH9.8

80

70

Dooley/Aspden
pH/Fe Relationship.
PPChem 2009

60

50

DHACI 4

DHACI 2

40

30

20

10

0
6/Aug/2007

Source: Barnett & Olszewski, 2013 FAC Conf. Washington

14/Nov/2007

22/Feb/2008

1/Jun/2008

9/Sep/2008

Source: Richardson and Joy, ACCUG 2011

-42-

18/Dec/2008

28/Mar/2009

6/Jul/2009

14/Oct/2009

22/Jan/2010

2/May/2010

Summary
Thoughts on corrosion in air-cooled condensers

Some aspects relate to (LT Two-phase) FAC

Based on work conducted in Australia, Chile, China, Dubai, India, Ireland, Mexico,
Qatar, South Africa, UK and US

Adjacent black and white areas in severe turbulent areas


Increasing local pH reduces damage

Increasing condensate pH to 9.8 will gradually


eliminate the FAC damage at the tube
entries and iron levels will reduce to IAPWS
suggested levels (5 - 10 ppb). Documented
by reducing the DHACI

But some aspects dont (normal FAC scalloped appearance and


white areas on cross members is probably LDI)

Environment is known and has been measured


Two-phase mixture formed in PTZ of the steam turbine
Concentrating liquids (Higher in chloride/sulphate, organics )
Lower in pH (0.5) and very low in dissolved oxygen (close to zero)

Repaired two-phase FAC areas turn red slowly

Damage on cross members is not repaired


as quickly by increasing pH. Is this LDI
caused by the larger droplets leaving the
PTZ of the LP Steam Turbine?

Mechanism in ACC is thus not totally understood & what are amines doing?

Results from a number of plants indicate increased Al


levels in turbine and drum deposits
- This may result from initial operation

Copyright Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2015

-43-

Session 1

Condensate Polishing in
Air-Cooled Units

1 2 1 2 1 1
1. 710054
2. 021025
:
(Thermal Power Research InstituteTPRI)

2015 2600MW
10.0 m3
17.7 m3 240
1.8 m3 2.7 m3 120

1
[1]
[2]

0.1%
80% 1.0% 5.0%

TPRI 2011
2012 8 IRIC
Instrument of image recognition
and intelligent control of resins transportation IRIC TPRI
IRIC
IRIC IRIC

2 IRIC
2.1
IRIC

2.2 IRIC
IRIC 3

-47-

IRIC
95%IRIC 1

IRIC

4 100 1280*720
0.5s 3

2 IRIC

2
3

-48-

PLC4 I/O
2400h Windows CELinux
Android 4

2.3 IRIC
IRIC

0.7%~5% 0.1%
1:1 4m3 10min

5~30s 0.03m3~0.2m3
-49-

4m3 0.7%~5% 0.1%


IRIC PLC 0.5s
0.003m3 4 m3
0.07%

mg/L
2:1 3:2 1:1
2:3

IRIC
IRIC

2.4 IRIC
IRIC 13 28 28 60%
IRIC

3
3.1
2600MW 2010 3
3

1 7.64g/L 7.21g/L 4

2 10.0 m3 15.0 m3 67%

3.2

1.7% 5.4%

3.3
3.3.1 IRIC
2015 3 IRIC

1%
3.3.2 PLC
1
-50-

2 PLC

PLC

3.4
2015 6 3
17
4.8m3 3.2m3 3:2
1%
2 1.7% 0.07%
5.4% 0.08%
3 0.2g/L 0.6g/L
3g/L 3g/L DL/T 912-2005

4 10.0 m3 17.7 m3 77%


5 111 70 240
1.8 m3 2.7 m3 35 120 /

4
1IRIC
95%

2 IRIC
0.07% 0.08%
77% 300

[1] [M].2010.
[2] J.200740(12)90- 93.
HAN Lichuan, LI Zhigang. Research on Mechanism and Application of Mixed Bed Polisher[J].Electric Power,
2007,40(12):90- 93.
[3] 2012 1
0398598.5 [P] :2014-05-07.

1968

029-82002108
Email: tianwenhua@tpri.com.cn
-51-

Intelligent

Monitoring of Resins Separation and Transportation for Mixed Bed


Polisher and The Application in Air-cooled Units
Wenhua Tian[1], Jian Li[2], Peng Li[1], Chunren Luo[2], Xiaoliang Zhu[1], Yin Qian[1]

Xian Thermal Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., Xian, Shaanxi, P. R. China, 710054
Guohua Inner Mongolia Hulun Buir Power Generation Co., Ltd, Hulun Buir, Inner Mongolia, P. R. China, 021025

Abstract: The effects of resins separation and transportation for mixed bed (MB) polisher are poor
and unstable as lacking of effective monitoring, negatively impacting operational effects of MB
polisher. Concerning about this issue, Thermal Power Research Institute (TPRI) developed an
intelligent monitoring equipment, which is able to not only accurately inspect the terminal point of
resins separation and transportation, determining resins volume and increasing separation percentage
of exhausted resins, but also adjust the ratio of cation to anion resins, increasing periodic water
production of MB polisher, determining resins transportation rate, avoiding incomplete resins
transportation, monitoring resins total volume and estimating resins leakage without changing the
internal structure of separation vessel. It has been successfully applied in over ten power plants in
China. In 2015, after the 2600 MW direct supercritical coal-fired units in an Inner Mongolia power
plant applied this equipment, MB operation is much more reliable. Periodic water production is
increased from 10, 000 m3 to 17, 700 m3. Resins regeneration times are sharp decreased, saving
high-quality acid and alkaline by 240 ton/year and also reducing the corresponding risk of
dangerous goods transportation and storage. Additionally, 18, 000 m3 demineralized water and 27,
000 m3 fresh water year can be saved annually, which has significant effect at water saving. The
direct benefit is about 1.2M RMB/year.
Keywords: direct air-cooled; condensate polishing; mixed bed polisher; resins separation
percentage; intelligent monitoring; water saving and emission reducing
1. Introduction
Mixed bed (MB) polisher in condensate polishing is of the great importance to guarantee the
feedwater purity. Resins separation arrangements should be operated automatically as designed.
However, Fullsep and Conesep, the most popular and effective resins separation arrangements, are
not able to be program-controlled. The resins separation percentage do not reach the designed value
to meet the requirement of both anion resin in cation and cation resin in anion less than 0.1%.
TPRI found that resins separation percentage of 80% separation arrangements are greater than 1%,
even than 5%, which has a great impact to effluent quality of MB polisher and periodic water
production.
After research and investigation in many power plants, it is found that resins are changed in size,
specific gravity and big difference in color compared with the initial state, resulting in that it is not
able to detect the cation and anion resins interface by photoelectric detection and conductivity
detection. Therefore, resins separation equipment is unable to be program-controlled and resins
separation and transportation have to be manually operated. Concerning about this issue, TPRI
started to research on intelligent monitoring resins interface since 2011. In August 2012, TPRI
developed the intelligent monitoring equipment, named as Instrument of image recognition and
intelligent control of resin transportation (IRIC, Chinese invention patent, No.ZL 2012 1
0398598.5).), and started to apply IRIC in some power plants. Later on, TPRI developed the

-52-

second generation of IRIC by integrating the research result of condensate polishing optimization
with the technology of resins interface monitoring. IRIC 2.0 has been already successfully applied in
many power plants.
2. Technical Introduction of IRIC
2.1 Principle
In the process of resins separation and transportation, dynamic resins images are achieved through
sight glasses of separation vessel. The cation and anion resins interface and resins superface are
estimated by the intelligent image recognition technology. The volume of cation resins, anion resins
and the total resins will be calculated. Then, resins separation steps and control points will be given
according to the monitored results. In this way, resins separation and transportation can be programcontrolled.
2.2 Composition
IRIC is consist of three sections, including resins interface image acquisition, interface images
intelligent recognition, control program of resins transportation. Resins interface image acquisition
section is function of achieving the real time images of resins separation and transportation;
interface images intelligent recognition section is function of analyzing the achieved images and
sending control signals as response; control program of resins transportation acts as "Signal Bridge"
between the two sections above, and is responsible for implementing control instructions. The core
of IRIC is interface images intelligent recognition section, which is developed on the basis of Selfadaption algorithm of resins separation and transportation images, with the accuracy of inspecting
the resins transportation terminal point higher than 95%. Figure 1 is the system diagram of IRIC
applied in Fullsep.

Figure 1. IRIC system diagram in Fullsep

a) Resins interface image acquisition section

-53-

Resins interface image acquisition section is consist of high definition industrial digital camera, high
definition camera, floodlight and special support. High definition industrial digital camera is the
core of this section, with pixel of 1 M, resolution ratio of 720 P and delay time of image data
transmission is just 0.5 s. It can work uninterruptedly. Separation vessel was installed with three
resins interface image acquisition sections, at upper, middle and lower sight glass, respectively.
Upper sight glass section is used to observe the superface of resins; middle sight glass section is
used to observe the resins interface after backwashing and layering; lower sight glass section is used
to observe the location of resins interface at the end of cation resins transportation. Figure 2 is resins
interface image acquisition section installed at lower sight glass and upper sight glass.

(At lower sight glass)

(At upper sight glass)

Figure 2. Resins interface image acquisition section

b) Interface images intelligent recognition section


Interface images intelligent recognition section is consist of host computer and resins interface
image intelligent recognition software, of which intelligent recognition software is the core. Figure 3
is the display interface of this software.

Figure 3. Display interface of interface images intelligent recognition software

-54-

c) Control program of resins transportation section


Control program of resins transportation section is consist of four parts, which are intelligent control
host, control signal circuit, transmission network of resins monitoring image and PLC. Intelligent
control host is the core of this section, composed of industrial grade accessories, such as
switchboard, remote I/O and LCD development board. The average failure-free operation time is
over 2400 h. LCD development board supports embedded operating systems, including Windows
CE, Linux and Android. The intelligent control host is installed by hanging on the wall, easy and
convenient. Figure 4 is an intelligent control host installed at the field.

Figure 4. Intelligent control host

2.3 Function
IRIC is compatible to the resins separation and transportation way after adjusting the resins ratio,
without changing the structure of separation vessel; the whole process of resins separation and
transportation can be program-controlled, releasing manpower and reducing the difficulty of
management; It is able to diagnose and early warn the resins volume and ratio, avoiding resins
leakage.
(1) Basic Function
Accurately inspect the terminal point of resins separation and transportation, precisely measure the
volume of cation resins and anion resins in MB polisher, increasing resins separation percentage.
As stated before, it is not reliable to apply photoelectric detection, conductivity detection and
ultrasonic detection for detecting resins interface. After manually operated resins separation, the
anion resin in cation and cation resin in anion is about 0.7%~5%, obviously exceeding the
standard of 0.1%. For example, assuming resin ratio is 1:1 and resins volume is 4 m3, it takes 10 min
to transport cation resins out of separation vessel. The traditional manual operation is as following:
observe the terminal point of resins transportation, call the control room, confirm by the control
room and stop transportation. This whole process usually takes 5s to 30s, which means 0.03 m3 to
0.2m3 more resins transported out. As resins volume is 4 m3, the excess transported resins is about
0.7%~5% of the total volume (large variable range), obviously exceeding the standard of 0.1%.

-55-

However, it only takes 0.5s with IRIC by inspecting the terminal point of resins transportation and
sending signal to PLC, with 0.003m3 excess transported resins (less than 0.07% of the total volume,
low variable range). Therefore, manual operation is not capable to meet the requirement of resins
reparation percentage.
(2) Expanding Function
Adjust cation/anion resins ratio and increase periodic water production without changing the internal
structure of separation vessel, estimate resins transportation percentage to prevent incomplete resins
transportation, monitor resins total volume to estimate if leakage or not.
MB is mostly in Hydrogen-type operation. As ammonia content is in the level of mg/L, cation resins
will be exhausted firstly, so resin ratio is better to be 2:1 or 3:2. However, resin ratio is usually set as
1:1 or even 2:3 at present, resulting in cation resins quickly exhausted and short operation cycle. In
order to increase operation cycle, resin ratio is supposed to be adjusted. In this way, resins interface
will not be observed through sight glass, which means the vessel structure has to be changed or
replaced. If applied with IRIC, it is able to adjust resin ratio and extend operation cycle without
changing vessel structure.
On the other hand, IRIC add the function of determining cation resins volume, anion resins volume
and total volume, and further to expand the function of determining the resin transportation rate and
detecting resins leakage. These upgrade will guarantee the accuracy of resin transportation and
avoiding resins leakage.
2.4 Application
2012.IRIC has been successfully applied to 28 units in 13 power plants so far, of which over 60%
are (ultra) supercritical units. Among these 22 units, there are both air-cooled and water-cooled;
both Fullsep and Conesep for separation. Specifically, the application effects are as following.
3. Case in direct air-cooled units
3.1 Introduction
The 2600 MW direct supercritical coal-fired units in an Inner Mongolia power plant were put into
operation in 2010. There are three powdex fiters and three MB set for condensate polishing system.
MB resins is regenerated by external regeneration with Fullsep. After estimation, TPRI found out
the problems as following:
(1) At the end of MB operation, the peak value of chloride ion and sodium ion is 7.64g/L and
7.21g/L in effluent water, which is over four times higher than in influent water. Chloride
leakage and sodium leakage are serious.
(2) The periodic water production is 100,000 m3, only 67% of the designed 150,000 m3, negatively
impacting the safe, stable and economic operation.
3.2 Analysis
With further analysis, it was found reasons to the problems above:
(1) Resins separation and transportation are manually operated, resulting in chaos resin ratio and
low accuracy of resins separation and transportation. The anion resin in cation and cation
resin in anion is up to 1.7% and 5.4%. Cross contamination of resin is serious, leading to

-56-

chloride leakage and sodium leakage at the end of MB operation. Moreover, the working
exchange capacity of resins is impacted, leading to a shorter operation cycle.
(2) Some steps and parameters are improperly set in MB operation and regeneration process,
resulting in lower working exchange capacity of cation resins and less periodic water production.
3.3 Solution
3.3.1 Apply IRIC
After installation and commissioning of IRIC, resins separation and transportation are all
automatically operated, with deviation of transported resins less than 1%.
3.3.2 Process optimization and PLC modification
(1) Process optimization
Diagnose the MB operation and each step of regeneration (external separation, transportation,
regeneration, mixture), then perform optimization to the improper steps and parameters. The
optimized steps are as following: adjust the boost step of MB, ensure MB is in empty condition
before regenerated resins transported in, decrease the flowrate into MB, add the step of second
resins mixture, etc. In addition, optimize flowrate and the process of water flowing into MB of
resins transportation, backwash flowrate of separation vessel.
(2) PLC modification and commissioning
In order to make the process of resins separation and transportation and the optimized steps to be
program-controlled, the corresponding programmed logic is also modified, including: add early
warning signal of resins volume deviation; add control signal of cation resins transportation terminal
point; modify PLC as the corresponding modification to process steps.
3.4 Implementation Effect
With three months operation after the implementation of IRIC, there are some effects:
(1) It is much more reliable to control the terminal point of resins separation and transportation. The
volume of seven sets of resins and resin ratio is the same as design all the time (cation resins
volume is 4.8 m3, anion resins volume is 3.2 m3, resin ratio is 3:2).
(2) Resins separation percentage is obviously increased. After resins separation, anion resin in
cation is decreased from 1.7% to 0.07%, and cation resin in anion is decreased from 5.4% to
0.08%.
(3) During an operation cycle, the average concentration of sodium ion, chloride ion, silicon dioxide
and total iron in effluent water is less than 0.2g/L, 0.6g/L, 3g/L and 3g/L. Each index is
superior to the requirement of DL/T 912-2005 Quality Standard for Water and Steam in
Supercritical Thermal Power Units.
(4) The regeneration MB-time is reduced from 111 times to 70 times, saving high-quality acid and
alkaline by 240 ton/year, demineralized water by 18, 000 m3/year, fresh water by 27, 000
m3/year and the cost of supplemental resins by 35, 000 RMB/year. The direct benefit is about
1.2M RMB/year.

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4. Conclusion
(1) Instrument of image recognition and intelligent control of resin transportation is a
breakthrough technology in monitoring MB operation. The accuracy of inspecting terminal point of
resins separation and transportation is over 95%. IRIC is capable of accurately inspecting terminal
point of resins separation and transportation, determining resins volume and increasing resins
separation percentage. IRIC is able to adjust resin ratio, increase periodic water production of MB
polisher, determine resins transportation rate, avoid incomplete transportation, monitor resins total
volume and estimate resins leakage without changing the internal structure of separation vessel.
(2) After applied IRC in this Inner Mongolia power plant, anion resin in cation and cation resin
in anion is 0.07% and 0.08%. The effluent water quality is significantly improved, completely
solving the problem of sodium leakage and chloride leakage. Periodic water production is
highly increased by 77%. The project cost of waste water Zero Emission is saved by over 3M
RMB. It has the significant effect of water saving and emission reducing and quality improving
and effect increasing.
Reference:
[1] HAN Lichuan, Wang Deliang. Condensate Polishing in Thermal Power Plant[M]. Beijing: China Electric
Power Press, 2010.
[2] HAN Lichuan, LI Zhigang. Research on Mechanism and Application of Mixed Bed Polisher[J].Electric Power,
2007,40(12):90- 93.
[3] TIAN Wenhua, ZHU Xiaoliang, QIAN Yin. Instrument of Image Recognition and Intelligent Control of Resin
Transportation and the Monitoring Control Technique. China, 2012 1 0398598.5 [P]:2014-05-07.

Biography:
Wenhua Tian, Ph. D in Tsinghua University, research in the area of condensate polishing.
Tel 86-29-82102108, Mobile Phone: 13991302260
E-mail: tianwenhua@tpri.com.cn

-58-

Ion Exchange Resins for Condensate Polishing in Air-cooled Ultra Super


Critical Thermal Power Plants
Izuru Tokumaru (Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation), Japan
Li Huanfang (Huadian Ningxia Lingwu Power Generation Co.,Ltd.), China
Abstract: Huadian Ningxia Lingwu Power Generation Co., Ltd. No.3 and No.4 Units
(21,060MW) are the first 1,000MW class air-cooled ultra super critical power plants in
the world. In air-cooled power plants, because the temperature of condensate is very
high, mixed bed resin for condensate polishing (CP) requires high durability. For this
requirement, high-crosslinked gel type cation exchange resin (CSK40) and porous type
anion exchange resin (CPA12) were applied to CP in Huadian Ningxia Lingwu Power
Generation Co., Ltd. No.3 and No.4 Units. The resins used in these power plants had
still maintained high quality and performance after 3 years operation. Additionally, in
the lab scale evaluation, CSK40 showed high oxidation resistant ability (durability),
and CPA12 indicated superior PSS (Polystyrene sulfonate) adsorption capability which
relates to the property of anti-organic-fouling. These results show the combination of
CSK40 and CPA12 has high durability as mixed bed resins for CP. Therefore it is
considered that this type of resin combination has high conformity to CP of air-cooled
power plants in which the condensate temperature is very high and operating
conditions are very sever for resins.
Key wards: air-cooled thermal power plant; condensate polishing; ion exchange resin;
mixed bed; oxidation resistance

1.

Introduction
In some areas of inland China, the water resource is insufficient. Air-cooled type

coal-fired power plants with high water saving effect are suitable for such areas, and
the introduction of air-cooled type plants is actually progressing. In air-cooled type
power generation units, air is used as a coolant of condensers. Therefore air-cooled type
units can save the consumption of water by about 70% as compared with water-cooled
type units. However, in air-cooled type units, because the cooling effect of condensers is
lower than that of water-cooled type, the temperature of condensate is relatively high
and exceeds 60 in summer, and sometimes may reach about 80. [1.] Therefore, it can
be said that conditions are very severe for ion exchange resins used in the condensate

-59-

polishing (CP) system of air-cooled type power units.


In regards to the CP system of air-cooled type units, precoat filter of mixed powder
resins have mainly been adopted to cope with such severe conditions in the past.[1.],[2.],[3.]
With increases in the scale of power generation units, the required level of water quality
will enhance and the importance of ion exchange resins for CP will also be higher and
higher. Application of precoat filter of powder resins + mixed bed or precoat filter of
powder resins + cation bed + anion bed as a CP system is recommended to the
large-scale supercritical air-cooled power units.[3.]
Huadian Ningxia Lingwu Power Station No.3 and No.4 units (21,060MW) are the
first 1,000MW class air-cooled ultra-supercritical power units in the world, which have
precoat filter of powder resins + mixed bed as their CP system. With regard to mixed
bed resins for CP of air-cooled power units, because the temperature of condensate is
very high, good durability is required as well as high water-treatment ability. In these
No.3 and No.4 units, high-crosslinked gel type cation exchange resin with good
durability and porous type anion exchange resin, which has a property of anti-organic
contamination (fouling), were applied and showed good quality and performance after
15, 25 and 34 months of operation.[4.],[5.],[6.] This report will introduce the time course of
the quality and performance of these CP resins during 34 months of operation again and
also present the consideration about their applicability to CP of air-cooled power units.

2. Operation situation of Linwu Power Station No.3 and No.4 units


The startup time of Linwu Power Station No.3 and No.4 units is in January and April
of 2011, respectively. Concerning the CP system, there are four mixed bed vessels per
one unit, and the two units share one set of resin regeneration equipment. The mixed
bed of CP is basically operated as H-OH form. The temperature of condensate is:
55-60 in winter (from November to April), 65-75 in summer (from May to October).

3.

Ion exchange resin to be applied


In air-cooled power units, since condensate temperature is very high and the

operation condition of CP is severe to ion exchange resin, the combination of CSK40 and
CPA12 was applied, which has good durability and high water-treatment ability. CSK40
is high-crosslinked (14%) gel type cation exchange resin with high oxidation-resistance
and less leachables. CPA12 is porous type anion exchange resin with property of
anti-organic contamination (fouling). This kind of resin combination has been applied

-60-

in CP of PWR type nuclear power plants in Japan and high water quality has been
achieved.

4.

Resin samples for evaluation


The new resins and the resins taken from the plant were used as samples for

evaluation. The sampling was carried out 4 times at the timing after 10, 15, 25 and 34
months of operation.

5.

Evaluation items

The evaluation items are as follows:


- Ion exchange capacity
- Water content
- Particle size
- Uniformity coefficient
- Whole bead count
- Appearance
- Sphericity after osmotic-attrition (Mechanical strength)
- Eluting rate of PSS with high-M.W. (Cation resin)
(PSS: polystyrene sulfonic acid)
- Oxidation elution test (Cation resin)
- Mass transfer coefficient (MTC) (Anion resin)
- PSS adsorption capacity (Anion resin)
Eluting rate of PSS with high molecular weight (M.W.) (= PSS eluting rate) is an
index for checking and comparing the degree of the oxidative degradation of cation resin,
and its value increases with an increase in oxidation degree. The measurement method
is as follows: put a certain amount of pre-treated cation resin into a certain amount of
pure water, and incubate it at 80 with shaking for 20 hours. Then, measure the
amount of PSS elution in the water phase by measuring absorbance (A225nm) and the
ratio of high-M.W. PSS (M.W. 3,000) by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Using
these values, calculate the value of eluting rate of PSS with high-M.W. (mg/L-Rh).
Oxidation elution test is done to check the oxidation resistant ability (durability) of
cation resins. Cation resins with high oxidation resistance show less leachables (= low
TOC) and low high-M.W. PSS ratio. The measurement method of oxidation eluting
test is: put a certain amount of cation resin with iron-loaded (2g-Fe/L-R) into a certain

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amount of hydrogen peroxide solution, and incubate it at 40 with shaking for 24


hours (= oxidation treatment). Then, put the oxidized resin into a certain amount of
pure water, and incubate it at 40 with shaking for 24 hours. After that, measure the
TOC conc. and high-M.W. PSS ratio (M.W. 3,000, by GPC) in the water phase.
Mass transfer coefficient (MTC) and PSS adsorption capacity are the indexes for
checking and compering the degree of surface contamination (organic fouling) of anion
resin. PSS adsorption capacity can also show the anti-organic fouling property.
The measurement method of mass transfer coefficient is: put a certain amount of
pre-treated anion resin into a column. Then, pass the raw water containing a certain
conc. of Na2SO4 through resin layer at constant flow rate, and measure the conc. of SO4in inlet and outlet water. After that, calculate the MTC value (m/s). MTC value becomes
lower with surface contamination of anion resin becoming more severe. [7.]
PSS adsorption capacity was measured by dynamic adsorption method: put a certain
amount of pre-treated anion resin into a column. Then, pass the raw water containing a
certain conc. of PSS (e.g. M.W: 10,000) through resin layer at constant flow rate, and
measure the conc. of PSS in outlet water. The total amount of PSS adsorption by resin
at the timing when PSS conc. in outlet water reaches 50% of raw waters (at 50% leak) is
defined as PSS adsorption capacity (mmol/L-R). The lower the PSS adsorption capacity
value of used resin, the more severe the surface fouling. On the other hand, regarding
new anion resin, high PSS adsorption capacity means high anti-organic fouling
property.

6.

Results and discussion

6.1 Change of quality and performance of cation resin CSK40


The analysis results of the cation resin samples (new resin and resin after 34 months
operation) are shown in table 1. As for each analysis item, no significant change was
seen after 34 months operation. Although ion exchange capacity decreased a little, the
falling rate of ion exchange capacity after 34 months operation was only 3.4%. (fig.1)
Concerning the values of sphericity after osmotic-attrition (mechanical strength),
there was no decrease after 34 months of operation the mechanical strength was
well maintained. (fig.2)
The value of PSS eluting rate gradually increased for an initial 15 months, but it
decreased to very low level after 25 months of operation. (fig.3) We think the reason
why the value of PSS eluting rate increased in the early period and then decreased, is
that there was small amount of residual PSS in new resin particles and the residual

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PSS was gradually eluted in early period, but the remaining PSS was almost completely
released by the 15th month, then, the value of PSS eluting rate went down. Since the
value was kept at a very low level after 34 months of operation, it is thought that the
cation resin practically had not be oxidized, consequently, no deterioration of the quality
and performance was not observed after 34 months operation.
From the above results, the cation exchange resin CSK40 maintained good quality
and performance after about 3 years of operation in CP of air-cooled power units,
therefore, results proved that CSK40 had high oxidation-resistant ability and good
durability.
Table 1 Analysis results of quality and performance of cation resin CSK40 and anion
resin CPA12 before and after use
Item

Unit

Ion Exchange Capacity


Weakly Basic Capacity
Water Content
Effective Size
Uniformity Coefficient
Whole Bead count
Mechanical Strength
PSS eluting rate
Mass Transfer Coefficent
PSS Adsorption Capacity

mmol/mL
mmol/mL
%
mm
%
%
mg/L-R/h
10^-5(m/s)
mmol/L-R

Cation Resin CSK40


Spec
New Resin
34 Months
2.4
2.64
2.55
29-39
34.6
33.9
0.55-0.70
0.593
0.604
1.2
1.03
1.05
95
99
97
90
99.56
98.92
0.0012
0.0001
-

Anion Resin CPA12


Spec
New Resin 34 Months
1.2
1.33
1.16
0.04
45-55
51.9
52.6
0.50-0.71
0.517
0.520
1.4
1.30
1.31
95
99
98
90
95.31
81.20
6.5
6.4
0.16
0.18

Fig. 1 Time course of ion exchange capacity of cation resin CSK40 and anion resin
CPA12

-63-

Fig.2

Time course of mechanical strength of cation resin CSK40 and anion resin

CPA12

Fig.3 Time course of PSS eluting rate of cation resin CSK40

6.2 Change of quality and performance of anion resin CPA12


The analysis results of the anion resin samples (new resin and resin after 34 months
operation) are shown in table 1. The gradual decline of ion exchange capacity was
observed, and the falling rate after 34 months operation was 12.8%, as compared with
new resin. (fig.1)

It is thought that because condensate temperature of air-cooled

power units is very high, the strongly basic anion exchange groups were decomposed by
heating and turned into weakly basic anion exchange groups or completely lost their
anion exchange capability.
The mechanical strength value slightly decreased in the early period of operation, but
after that, it had been stably maintained around 80%. Moreover, regarding the resin
strength, there was no practical problem after about 3 years of use. (fig.2)

-64-

The MTC value had been very stable and no big change was observed during 34
months operation. (fig.4) The PSS adsorption capacity value gradually decreased and
reached about 44% of new resins level after 15 months of operation. But after that, the
value was stable for a certain period, and after 34 months of operation, it recovered to
the same level as that of new resin (fig.4). It is thought that PSS adsorption capacity of
anion resin gradually decreases during long time of use because of surface fouling by
leachables eluted from cation resin. In this investigation, the decrease behavior of PSS
adsorption capacity of anion resin (fig.4) accords with the increase behavior of PSS
eluting rate of cation resin (fig.3). We think that, after that, the amount of PSS eluted
from cation resin significantly decreased, as a result, PSS adsorption capacity recovered
by repeated use and regeneration.
With regard to anion resin, since the heat-resistance of the strongly basic anion
exchange group is low, in general, the reduction rate of anion exchange capacity
relatively high. But the capacity of CPA12 still remained about 87%, even if it had been
used under the high temperature condition of air-cooled power unit for about 3 years.
Concerning the situation of organic fouling, although a certain reduction in PSS
adsorption capacity was observed in the early period, MTC had been kept at high level
all the time during operation. So it is considered no severe surface fouling had occurred
during 34 months of operation.
On the whole, it can be said that anion resin CPA12 still maintained good quality and
performance after about 3 years of use.

Fig.4

Surface contamination situation of anion resin CPA12 during 34 months

operation. (Time course of MTC and PSS adsorption capacity.)

6.3 Observation of appearance


The appearance pictures of cation and anion resins before use and after 34 months

-65-

use are shown in Fig.5. Both resins maintained good appearance after 34 months of use,
and a noticeable deterioration in appearance such as cracks or breaking of resin
particles was not observed.

Fig.5 Appearance of cation and anion resins before use and after 34 months use

6.4 Quality of CP outlet water


The quality of CP outlet water of both No.3 and No.4 units had met water quality
control standard (table 2) during 34 months operation, and there had been no problem
about demineralization performance of CP.
Table 2 Quality standard of CP outlet water (DL/T912-2005 Quality criterion of
water and steam for supercritical pressure units in fossil-fired power plant)

6.5 Lab evaluation of oxidation resistant ability (durability) of cation resin CSK40
and PSS adsorption capacity (anti-organic fouling property) of anion resin CPA12
The oxidation elution test was conducted using new sample of CSK40 (gel type, 14%
cross-linkage) and other gel type resin samples (cross-linkage degree: 8%, 10%, 16%) at
the lab in order to verify the superiority of oxidation resistant ability (durability) of
CSK40. The result is shown in Fig.6. The TOC value and high-M.W. PSS ratio of

-66-

CSK40 after oxidation treatment was controlled at very low level. It means CSK40 has
high oxidation resistant ability (durability).

Fig.6

Oxidation resistant ability of cation resin CSK40 with 14% cross-linkage

(Cross-linkage degree vs. leachables after oxidation treatment)


Regarding the anti-organic fouling property of anion resin CPA12 (porous type,
meddle cross-linkage), its PSS adsorption capacity value was compared with the values
of gel type anion resin (middle cross-linkage) and highly porous type anion resin (high
cross-linkage). The result is shown in Fig.7. Porous type anion resin CPA12 showed
much higher PSS adsorption capacity than gel type and highly porous type anion resins.
Therefore, it is proved that CPA12 has superior anti-organic fouling property.

Fig.7 comparison of PSS adsorption capacity among CPA12 (porous type), gel type and
highly porous type anion resins

-67-

7.

Conclusion
In Huadian Ningxia Lingwu Power Station No.3 and No.4 units (21,060MW,

air-cooled type), high-crosslinked gel type cation exchange resin CSK40 and porous type
anion exchange resin CPA12 were applied for their CP systems. Resin samples were
taken out after 10, 15, 25 and 34 months of operation, and the analysis of each sample
was carried out. And lab evaluation was also conducted with new resins in order to
verify the superiority of CSK40 in oxidation resistant ability (durability) and CPA12 in
anti-organic fouling property.
Cation resin maintained good quality and performance after 34 months of operation,
and the decreasing rate of ion exchange capacity after 34 months operation was 3.4%
Regarding anion resin, the ion exchange capacity decreased 12.8% after 34 months of
operation. Although PSS adsorption capacity decreased in the early period, it recovered
to the original level in the latter period, and a decrease of MTC values was not observed
all the time during 34 months operation. Therefore it is considered that the surface
contamination (organic fouling) did not occur during 34 months of operation. Since the
porous type anion resin has a property of anti-organic fouling, and cation resin used
together has high oxidation resistant ability and less leachables, the quality and
performance of anion resin had not been affected by organic fouling even after 34
months of operation.
From the consideration about resin analysis results and CP outlet water quality, the
resins applied in CP of No.3 and No.4 units still maintained good quality and
performance after 34 months of operation.
The results of lab evaluation also show that cation resin CSK40 has high oxidation
resistant ability (durability), and anion resin CPA12 has superior PSS adsorption
capacity (anti-organic fouling property).
As a result of analysis of used resins taken from the actual air-cooled power plant and
lab evaluation of new resins, it is considered that combination of high cross-linked gel
type cation resin CSK40 and porous type anion resin CPA12 has high durability as
mixed bed resins, and also has a high conformity to CP of air-cooled power plants in
which the condensate temperature is very high and operating conditions are very sever
for resins.

REFERENCES
[1.] Tian Wenhua, He Huiyong, Problems and Measures of Condensate Polishing of

-68-

Direct Air-cooled Power Plants, China Power Plants Chemistry Annual Symposium
2007, 2007: pp.348-352
[2.] Guo Baosheng, Luo Jianghe, Li Jingquan et al., Application of Condensate
Polishing with Separated Bed for Steam and Water Quality of 600MW Direct Air-cooled
Power Plants, China Power Plants Chemistry Annual Symposium 2007, 2007:
pp.344-347
[3.] Wei Huan, Characteristics of Water Treatment Processes of Large Scale Air-cooled
Power Plants and Selection of Condensate Polishing system design, China Power
Generation Demineralizer Technology (Xihu) Power Plants Chemistry Technological
Symposium, 2009pp.27-31
[4.] Li Huanfang, Izuru Tokumaru, Application of High-crosslinked Gel Type Cation
Exchange Resin and Porous Type Anion Exchange Resin for Condensate Polishing in
Air-cooled Thermal Power Plants, Thermal Power Generation, 2013: Vol.42, No.11,
pp.127-129
[5.] Izuru Tokumaru, Li Huanfang, Study of Ion Exchange Resins for Condensate
Polishing in Air-cooled Power Plants, China Power Plants Chemistry Annual
Symposium 2013, 2013: pp.306-311
[6.] Fu Jieqi, Wang Luochun, Ding Huanru, Study of Index of Kinetics Anion Resins
Used in Condensate Polishing and Construction of Test Platform, China Power Plants
Chemistry Annual Symposium 2011, 2011: pp.304-310

-69-


1 2 2 3 2 2
1.100025
2. 710054
3. 073004
pH 9.6~9.8FAC
3~4
TPRI 1:1 3:2
0.77m3 20% IRIC

1396mol/m3R 1967mol/m3R 41%


2013 4 69% 7
3g/L 1g/L
pH

2660MW 3 4 124.5g/m2.a
7 1.44MPa 2.09MPaFAC
2010 7
AVT(O) pH pH 9.6~9.8 30g/L
10g/L pH

pH
TPRI
DL/T 912-2005
TPRI IRIC

1~2
1

g/L

Na+

NH4+

K+

Mg2+

Ca2+`

0.36

79.9

0.2L

0.1L

0.2L

0.42

98.3

0.2L

0.1L

0.2L

0.57

117.3

0.2L

0.1L

0.2L

0.59

134.0

0.2L

0.1L

0.2L

-70-

0.75

162.7

0.2L

0.1L

2
-

0.2L

g/L
-

NO2

SO42-

NO3-

PO43-

CH3COO

HCOO

Cl

0.1L

0.1L

0.42

0.1L

0.1L

0.2L

0.1L

0.39

0.1L

0.11

0.35

0.1L

0.1L

0.2L

0.1L

0.41

0.1L

0.19

0.50

0.1

0.1L

0.2L

0.1L

0.37

0.1L

0.44

1.04

0.1L

0.1L

0.2L

0.1L

0.3L

0.1L

0.20

0.97

0.1

0.1L

0.2L

0.1L

0.3L

4 0.080~0.086S/cm

1g/L DL/T 912-2005

1
H Vc Ec / (Qc CNH3 )

H h
Vc m3
Ec mol/m3R
Qc m3/h
CNH3 NH3 mmol/L
1
pH
pH 9.4 1.0mg/LpH 9.6 2.2mg/L
2.2 pH 9.4
pH 9.6 2.2

4
pH 45%
3 3 6 4

-71-

3
m3

3-1

3.77

3.32

-1.8

-13.5

3-2

3.58

3.37

-6.8

-12.2

3-3

3.87

3.76

+0.8

-2.1

4-1

3.90

3.86

+1.6

+0.5

4-2

3.90

3.62

+1.6

-5.7

4-3

3.54

3.93

-7.8

+2.3

4
.

mg/L

mol/m3R

4-3

3.54

103

45

2.1

1496

4-3

3.90

108

52

2.1

1569

3-2

3.90

58

30

3.2

1448

3-2

3.90

53

28

3.2

1351

3-3

3.60

63

32

2.4

1255

3-3

3.87

93

43

2.0

1242
1393

3 3.84 m 3
1393mol/m3R DL/T333.1-2010
1750~2000mol/m3R
TPRI

4.1
1
13.5%

99.9%
3
0.68 2.12 0
3
4
0.08% 0.07%
DL/T333.1-2010 0.1%
-72-

6
1
2

6mm

4.2

5
5

99.9%

99.9%

-13.5%~0.5%

0.68

2.12

0.1%

0.08%

0.1%

0.07%

0.15S/cm

0.10S/cmNa+

Na+3g/LCl-3g/L

1g/LCl-1g/L SiO2

SiO210g/LFe5g/L

8g/LFe5g/L

1750~2000mol/m3R

1393 mol/m3R

6mm

-73-

4.3

5
5.1

pH pH 9.6

1:1 3:2
5.2
IRIC

5.3

5.4

-74-

IRIC

6
2013 4

6.1
69% 97%
6.2
1967mol/m3R 41% DL/T 333.1-2010
6.3
6g/L
3g/L 0.09S/cm
1g/L GB/T
12145-2008
6.4

168

7
1

2TPRI IRIC
69% 1967mol/m3R
1g/L 3g/L
pH
3 168 3300

sdhyzgw@sohu.com 13811635501

-75-

Operation Optimization of Condensate Polisher and Effect Analysis on


Improving Quality and Efficiency in Dingzhou Power Plant
Guangwen Zhang1, Wenhua Tian2, Huiyong He2, Yong Guo3, Peng Li2, Yuping Jia2
1 Guohua (Beijing) Electric Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., Beijing, P. R. China
2 Xian Thermal Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., Xian, P. R. China
3 Guohua Dingzhou Power Generation Co. Ltd., Hebei, P. R. China

Abstract: Researches show that when feedwater pH is up to 9.69.8 in direct air-cooled


supercritical unit, flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) in condenser could be prevented effectively,
reducing iron content tremendously in water-steam cycle. However, it will result in a shorter
operation cycle of mixed bed (MB) as adding more ammonia, only 34 days for shortest. With
researches in Dingzhou Power Plant, TPRI found solution to this issue. First, adjust the ratio of
cation to anion resin from 1:1 to 3:2, increase filling volume of cation resin by 0.77m3extending
the operation cycle by 20%. Second, develop an instrument of image recognition and intelligent
control of resin transportation (IRIC), which can improve the accuracy of resin transportation,
avoid cross-contamination of cation and anion resins, ensure a higher resin regeneration degree,
meanwhile, modify the defects of water distribution plate in MB, improving the water
distribution effects Then the working exchange capacity is raised from 1396 to 1967 mol/m3R
with a corresponding increment of operation cycle by 41%. After these measures applied to
Dingzhou Power Plant, operation cycle of MB is raised up to more than 7 days, resulting in 69%
more cycle water production. Irons content in effluent is lower than 3 g/L, and the
concentration of chloride and sodium ion are both lower than 1 g/L, without salt deposits,
corrosion and scaling ever occurred on steam turbine.
Keywords: air-cooled units; mixed bed; high pH; operation cycle; resin ratio of cation and anion;
image recognition and intelligent control of resin transportation
Introduction
Direct air-cooled supercritical units are developed quickly for water-reducing and energy-saving
in water-deficient areas of northern China recent years. It is required very high water quality for
direct air-cooled supercritical units. The main water quality indicators, like sodium ion, chloride
ion, silicon dioxide and iron, are all strictly controlled. For direct air-cooled units, the cooling
area of air cooling island is very large, leakage of CO2 and O2 are likely to happen, and corrosion
products content is high. If there are problems with condensate polishing, it is likely to have salt
deposit, corrosion and scaling on steam turbine, which is a serious security threat.
In Dingzhou Power Plant, 4 months after the 660MW NO.3 direct air-cooled supercritical unit
put into operation, scaling rate of economizer was up to 124.5 g/m2a high, boiler pressure
difference increased from 1.44 MPa to 2.09 MPa. In July 2010, in order to inhibit flow
accelerated corrosion (FAC) in water supply and drainage system, and decline the scaling rate of
boiler heating surface, Dingzhou Power Plant requested the international known chemical expert
to come up with the solution. He researched and found that the problem would be resolved if
change the feedwater treatment mode from AVT (O) to oxygenated treatment in high pH, with
pH ranging from 9.6~9.8. With this solution, total iron content in condensate water dropped off
dramatically, from 30g/L to less than 10g/L. However, with a higher pH feedwater, more
ammonia should be added to the system, resulting in a frequent resin regeneration in MB, an
obviously decline in operation cycle of MB, a shorter resin service life, a higher operational cost
and that the use of regeneration apparatus is close to saturation. Therefore, for oxygenated
-76-

treatment to boiler feedwater in high pH, it is desirable to extend the operation cycle of MB.
Concerning about the new issue, TPRI estimate the spherical MB of the condensate polishing
system in supercritical 2660MW direct air-cooled unit, and found that water quality met the
expectations of DL/T 912-2005 after treated by condensate purification or polishing system (CPP)
system, which satisfied the requirement of operation, while the operation cycle was relative short,
not meeting the requirement of long cycle operation. Therefore, it is necessary to concentrate on
the theory and technology of long operation cycle. According to the estimation result, there are
two main reasons related to short operation cycle of CPP, which are short of cation resin and low
working exchange capacity of cation resin. TPRI proposed solution, including adjustment of
resin ratio, application of IRIC and optimization procedure of regeneration, elimination of MB
defects. By implementation of this solution, MB issue in Dingzhou Power Plant was completely
resolved.
Analysis on MB Effluent quality
Test the concentration of cation and anion at the end operation stage. The water & steam quality
is also tested in order to estimate the impact of leaking impurities, as shown in Table 1 and Table
2.
Table 1. Tested result of effluent cation concentrationg/L
NO.

Sampling Time

Na+

NH4+

K+

Mg2+

Ca2+`

4h

0.36

79.9

0.2L

0.1L

0.2L

3h

0.42

98.3

0.2L

0.1L

0.2L

2h

0.57

117.3

0.2L

0.1L

0.2L

1h

0.59

134.0

0.2L

0.1L

0.2L

0h

0.75

162.7

0.2L

0.1L

0.2L

Table 2. Tested result of effluent anion concentrationg/L


NO.

Sampling Time

F-

CH3COO-

HCOO-

Cl-

NO2-

SO42-

NO3-

PO43-

4h

0.1L

0.1L

0.42

0.1L

0.1L

0.2L

0.1L

0.39

3h

0.1L

0.11

0.35

0.1L

0.1L

0.2L

0.1L

0.41

2h

0.1L

0.19

0.50

0.1

0.1L

0.2L

0.1L

0.37

1h

0.1L

0.44

1.04

0.1L

0.1L

0.2L

0.1L

0.3L

0h

0.1L

0.20

0.97

0.1

0.1L

0.2L

0.1L

0.3L

Note: Effluent hydrogen conductivity maintains at 0.080~0.086S/cm from 4 hours before splitting to splitting;
L means below the limit of detection (LOD), the value before L means the value of the corresponding
LOD, the same below; For sampling time, x h means x hours before splitting, the same below.

According to Table 1 and Table 2, ammonia-breakthrough occurs when MB being exhausted, and
the concentration of sodium ion also increases. When ammonia-breakthrough occurs and cation
resin is exhausted, concentration of chloride and sodium ion are both less than 1g/L, meeting
the expectations of DL/T 912-2005 Quality criterion of water and steam for supercritical
-77-

pressure units in fossil fuel power plant.


Analysis on approaches to improve operation cycle of hydrogen MB
Condensed water is low in ionic impurities, so the main substance exchanged in resin is
ammonia. Therefore, with the resin exchange capacity to ammonia, the operation cycle of
hydrogen MB can be calculated, as shown in formula (1).
(1)

H Vc Ec / (Qc CNH3 )

where H operation cycle of MB, h;


Vc filling volume of cation resin, m3;
Ec working exchange capacity of cation resin, mol/m3R;
3
Qc average influent flowrate of MBm /h;
C NH average concentration of NH3 in condensed water, mmol/L.
3

According to formula (1), with a constant influent flowrate of MB, the external facotr is
ammonia content (pH) in condensed water while the internal factors affecting MB operation
cycle are cation resin volume and working exchange capacity.Ammonia content has a great
impact to MB operation cycle. For instance, when pH of cendensation water is 9.4, the ammonia
content is 1.0mg/L; when pH of cendensation water is 9.6, the ammonia content is 2.2 mg/L.
This means that operation cycle at pH of 9.4 is 2.2 times longer comparing to at pH of 9.6, under
the condition of equal working exchange capacity of cation resin, equal volume of cation resin
and equal MBcapacity.The filling volume of cation resin is direct propotional to operation cycle
with other factors being equal. Without changing MB structure, the only way to increase cation
resin volume is to increase the proportaion of cation resin.Working exchange capacity of cation
resin is affected by some points, including accuracy of resin transportation, transportation
percentage of exhausted resin, resin separation and mixing coefficient, separation percentage of
exhausted resin,rationality of process control procedure and integrity of water distribution device
in MB.
Estimation of MB operation
For Dingzhou Power Plant, 45% operation cycle reduction at least was caused by high pH. The
only way to extend operation cycle is to increase the cation resin volume and improve working
exchange capacity.
Table 3 is the actual resin volume in Dingzhou Power Plant. Table 4 is the actual working
exchange capacity of cation resin in Dingzhou Power Plant.
Table 3.
MB NO.

Actual resin volume


Actual Valuem3

Cation Resin

Anion Resin

3-1

3.77

3.32

3-2

3.58

3.37

3-3

3.87

3.76

4-1

3.90

3.86

-78-

4-2

3.90

3.62

4-3

3.54

3.93

Table 4.

Actual working exchange capacity of cation resin

MB NO.

Cation resin
volume
m3

Operation
cycle
h

Cycle water
production
kiloton

Average ammonia
concentration in
condensed water
mg/L

Working
exchange capacity
of cation resin
mol/m3R

4-3

3.54

103

45

2.1

1496

4-3

3.90

108

52

2.1

1569

3-2

3.90

58

30

3.2

1448

3-2

3.90

53

28

3.2

1351

3-3

3.60

63

32

2.4

1255

3-3

3.87

93

43

2.0

1242

average

1393

The design cation resin volume is 3.84m, while the volumes of three sets of resin are lower than
the design value dramatically; the average working exchange capacity of cation resin is 1393
mol/m3R, not meeting the standard DL/T333.1-2010Technique requirements of condensate
polishing in thermal power plant Part 1:Water-cooled unitsof 1750~2000mol/m3R.
It is still possible to have more filling catoin volume and cation working exchange capacity in
Dingzhou Power Plant. Therefore, TPRI will estimate the factors affecting cation resin volume
and working exchange capacity of CPP system in Dingzhou Power Plant.
1. Factors affecting MB operation
Factors affecting MB operation include accuracy of resin transportation, transportation
percentage of exhausted resin, resin separation and mixing coefficient, separation percentage of
exhausted resin, rationality of process control procedure and integrity of water distribution
device in MB.
(1) Accuracy of resin transportation
Estimating the accuracy of resin transportation, when there is a deviation between actual and
design is up to 13.5%, operation cycle will be affected inevitably. Additionally, when there is a
large difference in resin volume and ratio, resin transportation and procedure of separation and
mixing will be easily confused, causing adverse impact to resin transportation percentage,
separation percentage and mixing effect, which further impact the effluent quality and operation
cycle adversely. The main reason of low resin transportation accuracy is inappropriate working
of photoelectric apparatus of interface inspection. Resin separation and transportation node are
controlled by operating personnel, resulting a poor accuracy on resin transportation control.
(2) Transportation percentage of exhausted resin
There is no resin leftover in MB. The exhausted resin is thoroughly transported, meeting the
required standard of more than 99.9%.
-79-

(3) Resin separation and mixing coefficient


Under hydrogen operation, resin separation coefficient is 0.68 meeting the requirement of more
than 0; mixing coefficient is 2.12, meeting the requirement of more than 3. This means, resin has
good separation performance, which can be easily separated in backwashing.
(4) Separation percentage of exhausted resin
After exhausted resin separated, there are 0.08% cation resin contained in anion resin, and there
are 0.07% anion resin contained in cation resin, both meeting the standard DL/T333.1-2010 of
less than 0.1%.
(5) Rationality of process control procedure
Some critical points are not controlled rationally, resulting in resin leakage during regeneration.
(6) Integrity of water distribution device in MB
Transport the exhausted resin to high-tower separation system, and inspect the inner condition of
MB. Figure 1 shows gap between water distribution plates, Figure 2 is single-speed strainer.

Figure 1. Gap between water distribution plates (Influent)

Figure 2. Strainers (Effluent)

Water distribution plate is consisted of 6 parts. Gap between plates is obviously large, which is 6
mm for maximum. During operation, it results in high flowrate in the gap, and resin exchange
layer will be rushed and confused, leading to bias flow. Part of strainers are single-speed,
resulting in more water flow out. This might be a reason of the short operation cycle.
Cation resin volume is affected by factors of (1), (2) and (5), working exchange capacity of
cation resin is affected by factors of (1) through (6).
3. Result summary
Summarizing the estimation result, the optimization scheme is provided for long safe operation,
-80-

as shown in Table5.
Table 5.

Summary of diagnostic result

NO.

Diagnostic Content

Standard Requirement

Accuracy of resin
transportation

No deviation

Transportation
percentage of
exhausted resin

99.9%

Resin separation and


mixing coefficient

Separation
percentage of
exhausted resin

Actual Situation

Satisfied
or Not

Deviation-13.5%~0.5%

99.9%

Separation coefficient0
Mixing coefficient3

Separation coefficient 0.68


Mixing coefficient 2.12

Cation resin in anion0.1%


Anion resin in Cation0.1%

Cation resin in anion 0.08%


Anion resin in Cation
0.07%

Rationality of process
control procedure

No resin leakage

Some critical points are not


controlled rationally,
resulting in resin leakage
during regeneration

Integrity of water
distribution device in
MB

No gapStrainers are
double-speed

Maximum gap is 6mmPart


of strainers are single-speed

4. Analysis of the estimation result


According to the inspection result, the main problems are listed as following:
(1) Inappropriate resin ratio of cation and anion, less filling volume of cation resin result in a
short operation cycle.
(2) The photoelectric inspection apparatus of interface cannot be normally operated, resulting
that the actual resin volume is deviated from designing and resin ratio is confused. Inappropriate
procedure of operation, resin leakage occurs in resin regeneration, further leading the confusing
of resin ratio.
(3) There are some defects in the inner MB, easily leading to bias flow and disturbance of resin
layer, and then adversely impacting the cycle water production.
The 3 problems above are interactive. Photoelectric apparatus of interface inspection cannot
work properly, leading to the deviation of resin filling volume and resin ratio confusion; resin
leakage further confuses the resin ratio. Then resin ratio confusion and inappropriate operational
procedure result in the poor effect of resin mixing, reducing the resin regeneration percentage.
Then, in the condition of low resin regeneration percentage, less filling volume of cation resin
and inner defects of MB, cycle water production is obviously reduced.

-81-

Optimization schemes
1. Adjust the filling volume and ratio of resin
For hydrogen mixed bed, the principle of determining resin filling volume and ratio is to have
the most cycle water production and operation cycle with the guarantee of water quality. For
Dingzhou Power Plant, the feedwater treatment mode is oxygenated treatment in pH of 9.6. It is
unable to have a higher cycle water production with the given resin filling volume and ratio. In
order to have more cycle water production and operation cycle, the proportion of cation resin
should be increased. Taking into account all aspects, adjust the cation to antion ratio from 1:1 to
3:2.
2. Apply the Instrument of image recognition and intelligent control of resin transportation (IRIC)
and optimize the process control procedure
The accuracy of separation and transportation are relatively low in Dingzhou Power Plant. IRIC
can be used to better control the end of transportation and have a more accurate transportation
control for Dingzhou Power Plant.
3. Eliminate inner defects of MB
For the defective MB, install angle steel at the gap between water distribution plates to change
the flow direction not rush down directly, avoiding bias flow. Also replace part of the
single-speed strainers, as shown in Figure 3 and 4.

Figure 3. Installation of angle steel at plates gap (Influent)

Figure 4. Replacement of strainers (Effluent)

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4. Optimization the procedure of MB operation and regeneration


Additionally, optimize the procedure of MB operation and regeneration. Install and debug the
optimized procedure, resulting in no maintenance required for middle drainage in regeneration
tower, avoiding problems of resin leakage and so on, improving the resin mixing effect,
consolidating the optimization of MB.
The four optimization schemes are linked each other. First, increasing cation resin volume and
adjusting the resin ratio make every set of resin are all identical in volume and ratio. Additionally,
in order to accurately control resin in the process of separation and transportation after adjusting
resin ratio, it is necessary to install IRIC developed by TPRI. IRIC can not only accurately
control the resin separation and transportation, but also reduce cross contamination of resin to
improve the resin regeneration percentage. Optimizing the operation and regeneration procedure
of MB can enable automation of procedure and modify effect of resin reparation and mixing.
Finally, eliminating defects of MB and improving uniformity of water distribution solve the
problem of bias flow and resin layer disturbance fundamentally, ultimately achieving the
objective of increasing operation cycle with guarantee of water quality.
Implementation effect
Optimization was completed in April 2013, the field operation data shows that the MB
performance is obviously improved and under stable operation.
1. Increment of cycle water production
Cycle water production increases 69% on average after optimization.
2. Increment of working exchange capacity of cation resin
Working exchange capacity of cation resin is 1967 mol/m3R on average after optimization,
increasing 41%, meeting the requirement of DL/T 333.1-2010.
3. Standardized effluent quality
After optimization, under normal operation, in effluent of condensate polishing, the average
concentration of SiO2 is less than 6g/L, the concentration of total iron is less than 3g/L, and
hydrogen conductivity is less than 0.09S/cm; at the end of operation, the concentration of
sodium increases as increasing of ammonia, with no change of chloride; when splitting, the
concentration of sodium and chloride are all less than 1g/L in effluent, meeting the expectations
of DL/T 912-2005, resulting in a further improvement of water quality.
4. Increment of direct economic benefit
After optimization, regeneration cycle is longer, make-up water is less required for regeneration,
consumption of acid and base are reduced; service life of resin is longer; annual supplement resin
is reduced; treatment cost of waste water is reduced. The resulted annual direct benefit is about
1.68 million RMB (274,000 USD).
Conclusion
(1) The main problems in Dingzhou Power Plant are inappropriate resin ratio, inappropriate
working of photoelectric apparatus of interface inspection, resin leakage in resin regeneration
and defects of inner MB.

-83-

(2) By optimization of resin ratio and application of IRIC, the cycle water production increases
69%, the working exchange capacity of cation resin increases 1967 mol/m3R, the concentration
of chloride of sodium are all less than 1g/L and total iron is less than 3g/L in effluent. In
addition, problems of resin leakage, inaccurate of resin separation and transportation are all
resolved, achieving the objective of long cycle safe operation of condensate polishing under the
condition of high pH.
(3) After implementation of the project, a significant benefit can be brought to Dingzhou Power
Plant. The resulted annual direct benefit is about 1.68 million RMB (274,000 USD).
Acknowledgments
During the completing of this paper, TPRI Junru Lei and Yiran Liu greatly helped us. Thanks for
their help.
Biography
Guangwen ZhangMale, Manager, Guohua (Beijing) Electric Power Research Institute Co. Ltd.
E-mail: sdhyzgw@sohu.com
Tel13811635501

-84-

1. 710054
2. 835000

1
CO2

95%[1-2]

TPRI

TPRI

2
2.1
2008 TPRI

[3][4]

TPRI

DL/T333.2-2013
2 [5] 2014 4 1

TPRI

-85-

2.2

2.3

DL/T333.2-2013

2.3.1

2.3.2

0.5

2.3.3

2.3.4

2.4
2.4.1
1
1-1
C C2
100%
N= 1
C1
1-1

N %
C 1 g/L
-86-

C 2 g/L

2
1-2

N No
= i
100%
Ni
1-2

%
Ni /mL
N o /mL
2.4.2
12-1
S = (C1 C2 ) T 10-6

2-1

S kg
C1
g/L
C2
g/L
T m3

2-2

Rs =

Sr
Ss

2-2

R s
Sr
kg
S s kg
0.5

22-3
Sv = 106 qt (V1,t V2,t )T
2-3

S v L
qt
t m3/h
V1,t

t 10-3L/L

V 2 ,t

t 10-3L/L
T h

2.4.3

-87-

3
TPRI

3.1
1 Microtrac S3500
0.25m1400m
2 Chemtrac PC8000
2~125m
3
0~62kPa
3.2
2660MW 2009 12
350% 350% 2011
1

TPRI
1 2 23.4% 11.1%
2

3 OFECT

OFECT
3 XTW-C
-88-

3.3
2330MW 2 100%
18g/L
2~4
#1 2015 6 8 TPRI
5

#1 2015.6.9~2015.6.11

5 #1 120~3000 /mL
0~20 /mL 3m #1
90% 3m 0.5%

4g/L 30%~44%

696kg

-89-

pH

3.4
3.4.1
2330MW 100%
2100% 100%
2013 11
0.3~0.5S/cm 2.5S/cm 3

8 4m
350m<5m 0.4%
<15m 3.8% 9 1-1 2-1 15min
2-5m 11 1 5~10m 26 9 10~15m
30
2 15m 15m~50m
15m 3.8%

3.4.2
2660MW 350%
-90-

TPRI #1

10~ 11

10 #1 3

11 1B

10 3 200~300 /mL 10
/mL 95% 11 1B

20min

TPRI Smart Filter


SF

SF 12~13

SF

12

SF

13 SF

4
TPRI
-91-

TPRI

[1] [J].2009306
69-71.
[2] [J].2003851-52.
[3] .[P].2009 1
0023345.8: 2010-12-08.
[4] DL/T333.2-2013 2 [S].
[5] DL/T 1357-2014[S].
1987-

029-8200211315929987372leijunru@tpri.com.cn

-92-

Operational Estimation and Application Case of Powdex Pre-coat Filter


Junru Lei1, Wenhua Tian1, Hongbin Ye2, Peng Li1, Yin Qian1, Nan Li1,Yiran Liu1
1 Xian Thermal Power Research Institute Co., Ltd., Xian, P. R. China
2 Yili Energy Development Co., Ltd., Yining, P. R. China

Abstract: Powdex pre-coat filter is the common and important deironing equipment for
condensation water. However, some common issues exist in powdex pre-coat filter in a number
of domestic power plants, including low iron removal efficiency, exceeding iron content in
effluent water, damaged filter elements, powdex leakage, high operational differential pressure,
etc. Researching on these issues, TPRI developed the intelligent estimation system of powdex
pre-coat filter, with Dynamic Simulation Experiment on the Performance of Filter Element and
Powdexand On-line Intelligent Monitoring as the core. By determining the removal efficiency
of suspended particles and amount of intercepted impurities, the system can provide rapid
estimation on the performance of powdex pre-coat filter and diagnose the issues existing in
filming process, providing the basis to optimize the operation of powdex pre-coat filter. With
application of the intelligent estimation system and the subsequent optimization in some
air-cooled power plants, the powdex pre-coat filters are optimized with significant decreased iron
content in effluent water, much longer operational cycle and longer service life of filter elements,
meeting the requirement of efficient, safe and economic operation.
Keywords: powdex pre-coat filter; dynamic simulation; performance test; on-line monitoring;
intelligent estimation; filtering effect

Introduction
In air-cooled units, the condition of high temperature, much iron corrosion products and high
CO2 of condensation water brings the strict requirements to prefilter of condensate polishing
system. The most common prefilter in air-cooled units is powdex pre-coat filter (short for
powdex filter), which has the high content iron corrosion products removal efficiency of higher
than 95% , ensure iron content in feedwater meeting the standard.
At present, the main control index of operation for powdex filter is differential pressure. When
differential pressure meets the specified splitting value, the process of pre-coat explosion will be
performed and iron corrosion products will be discharged with powdex. Theoretically, there is no
iron pollution to filter elements and mixed-bed resins. Additionally, total iron content is also the
control index of operation for powdex index. The current method (ultraviolet spectrophotometry,
atomic absorption method) to determine iron content is complicated, and power plants only take
the determination of iron content for powdex filter once a week, so it is hard to find the problem
of exceeding iron content when differential pressure meets the standard.
Investigation and research in over ten air-cooled power plants indicate some main issues in
powdex filter, including low iron removal efficiency, exceeding iron content in effluent water,
damaged filter elements, powdex leakage, high operational differential pressure, etc. Especially
when filter elements damage, r=theleakage of powdex will lead decreasing of corrosion ions,
together with the issue of exceeding iron content. The worse quality of steam and water is easy to
cause corrosion of boiler tube, bringing serious threat to units operation. Concerning about these
issues, TPRI developed the technology of operational estimation and optimization for powdex
filter.
-93-

Technology of Operational Estimation for Powdex Filter


Development Process
In 2008, under the research projects of China Huneng Group, TPRI started to research on the
condensate polishing system of large-scale direct air-cooled units. Concentrating on the technical
requirements of powdex filter (or elements of prefilter) to condensation water in high
temperature and reducing operation differential pressure of powdex filter, TPRI developed
Testbed of Dynamic Simulation Experiment on the Performance of Filter Element and
Powdex, bringing forward the test method of thermostability of filter element, solving the
issue of fast increasing of operation differential pressure in powdex filter of one power plant.
With development of research and service in condensate polishing, it is identified the reason of
issues existing in powdex filter. TPRI bring forward the index of suspended iron removal
efficiency and amount of intercepted impurities in order to represent the operation status of
powdex filter, and raise it to the power industry sandard DL/T333.2-2013 Technique
requirements of condensate polishing in thermal power plants Part 2: Air-cooled Units". This
standard is officially carried out since April 1, 2014, applied for process selection, system
configuration, equipment operation and performance evaluation of condensate polishing system
in air-cooled units, stating the technical requirements for condensate polishing system in
air-cooled units. This standard regulates model selection and operation control of prefilter, and
also provides the evaluation index and standard of prefilter operation.
Over the past year, TPRI bring forward the removal efficiency of suspended particles as another
technical index, making up the lack of differential pressure and iron content. Additionally, the
intelligent on-line monitoring equipment is developed to real-time monitor the operation status
of powdex filter, completing an integral Intelligent Estimation System of Powdex filter. The
system can provide estimation and optimization from key filter elements to equipment operation
status for powdex filter.
Significance of Estimation
When powdex filter is in operation, the quality of condensation water varies as the change of
units load. In addition, the filming effect of filter elements is affected by powdex quality and
filming process. Moreover, the damage and pollution of filter element is a slow and long
accumulative process. Therefore, the regular and low frequency iron content is not able to
indicate the operation status of filter. People will be aware of the matters only when steam and
water quality seriously exceeds the standard or operation cycle decreases dramatically. In order
to take preventative measures and solve problems in time, it is supposed to real-time estimate the
operation status of powdex filter.
Technical Overview
The operation estimation technology of powdex filter is based on the theory of iron corrosion
products removal, with Dynamic Simulation Experiment on the Performance of Filter Element
and Powdexand On-line Intelligent Monitoring as the core. The optimization scheme can be
made according to the estimation result.
With real-time and on-line monitoring on suspended particles of influent and effluent water,
calculation and determination of performance of filter elements, this technology will give a more
accurate result of filter effect, pollution, damage, powdex leakage and filming effect. The entire
operation status estimation of powdex filter is the basis to figure out the optimization solution.
-94-

Estimation of filter effect


Powdex filter mainly removes suspended iron and colloid iron, so filter effect is estimated by
manually determining the removal efficiency of suspended iron or on-line monitoring the
removal efficiency of suspended particles. Basically, removal efficiency is lower as a lower
suspended particles (iron content) in influent water. Estimation is not performed when suspended
particles (iron content) is relatively low.
Estimation of Filter Element Pullution
Operational staff can observe a fast increasing of differential pressure when filter elements are
polluted. Polluted level should be estimated by the coefficient of intercepted impurities amount,
amount and size distribution of on-line monitored suspended particles. When the coefficient of
intercepted impurities amount is less than 0.5, and suspended particles of small size in effluent
water is much decreased than regular, it indicates that filter elements are polluted.
Estimation of Filter Element Damage
Testbed of Dynamic Simulation Experiment on the Performance of Filter Element and Powdex
and on-line particle monitor are applied to test filter elements precision, flowrate and operation
differential pressure curve. The damaged level of filter elements is estimated by operation
differential pressure, amount and size distribution of suspended particles. When operation
differential pressure of filter elements increases slow, and suspended particles of big size
increase dramatically, it indicates that filter elements are damaged.
Estimation of Filming Effect
Filming can increase removal efficiency of corrosion products. If filming effect is poor, the
overall filter precision will be decreased, resulting in a significant increasing of big size
suspended particles in effluent water. The difference between poor filming effect and damaged
filter elements is the different size distribution of suspended particles. The size of particle
through damaged filter elements is bigger.
Technical Index
Removal Efficiency of Suspended Solids
(1) Removal efficiency of suspended iron
Effect of iron removal of powdex is estimated by determining the removal efficiency of
suspended iron, calculated by the following equation
N

C1 C 2
100%
C1

equation 1-1

With
N
C1
C2

Removal efficiency of suspended iron%


Suspended iron content in condensation waterg/L
Suspended iron content in effluent water of powdex filterg/L.

-95-

(2) Removal efficiency of suspended particles


On-line monitor the amount of suspended particles in influent and effluent water of powdex filter,
and calculate the removal efficiency of suspended particles as equation (1-2). It can also analysis
the graded removal efficiency in terms of different size distribution as required.
N No
equation 1-2
i
100%
Ni

With

Ni
No

Removal efficiency of suspended particles%


Amount of suspended particles in influent water of powdex fitlerNO./mL
Amount of suspended particles in effluent water of powdex fitlerNO./mL.

Amount of intercepted impurities


(1) Amount of intercepted impurities for one powdex filter is calculated by equation (2-1)
S C1 C2 T 10-6

equation 2-1

With
S Amount

of intercepted impurities for one powdex filterkg


Average of total suspended solids in condensation water within one operation
cycleg/L
C
Average of total suspended solids in effluent water of powdex filter within one
operation cycleg/L
3
T Cycle water productionm .
C1

Amount of intercepted impurities for one powdex filter can be estimated by calculating the
coefficient of intercepted impurities amount, as calculated by equation (2-2)
Rs

Sr
Ss

equation 2-2

With
Rs
Sr
Ss

Coefficient of intercepted impurities amount


Amount of intercepted impurities at present operation conditionkg
Initial amount of intercepted impuritieskg.

When the coefficient of intercepted impurities amount is less than 0.5, in addition to filter
elements pollution, the issue of filming process should be also concerned. Filming process
should be modified.
(2) The volume of intercepted impurities is calculated by equation (2-3)
Sv 106 qt V1,t V2,t T

equation 2-3

With
S

Amount of intercepted impurities of powdex filterL


Influent flowrate of powdex at moment tm3/h
V
Volumetric concentration of suspended particles in influent water of powdex
fitler at moment t10-3L/L
V
Volumetric concentration of suspended particles in effluent water of powdex
v

qt

1,t

2 ,t

-96-

fitler at moment t10-3L/L


T Time interval between two sampling times of influent and effluent waterh.
Operation differential pressure
When powdex filter is in operation, filter elements pollution will cause the increasing of
operation differential pressure, further to decrease the output of equipment and cycle water
production, so it is supposed to estimate the operation differential pressure.
When unpolluted filter elements are put into operation, it is supposed to sketch the curve in terms
of powdex filter flowrate and the corresponding operation differential pressure as the estimation
basis. After a period of time operation, when operation differential pressure is four times higher
than the initial condition at the same flowrate, it has to perform chemical clean to filter elements
or replace with new one.
Case Introdution
TPRI applied this technology to estimate and optimize condensate polishing system of many
power plant in China. The following are some real cases of different issues in powdex filter of
air-cooled units, introducing the application of this technology.
Estimation Apparatus
Size distribution of powdex: determined by Microtrac S3500 laser particle size analyzer. Size
range is 0.25m1400m.
Amount and size distribution of suspended particles: determined by Chemtrac PC8000 particle
counter. Size range is 2~125m.
Initial operation differential pressure: determined by testbed of dynamic simulation experiment
on the performance of wound filter element and powdex. Pressure range is 0~62kPa
Case I: Low iron removal efficiency of powdex filter
A direct super critical air-cooled coal-fired units of 2660MW in Gansu Province was put into
operation in December 12, 2009. The condensate polishing system is consisted of three 50%
condensation water flow powdex filters and three 50% spherical mixed-beds. Over the year of
2011, the iron content of steam and water system in both units generally exceed standard. Iron
content is showed in Figure 1.
40.0
Iron contentg/L

35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0

Samples

Fig.1 Determination result of iron content

After diagnosed with the two units, it was found that the main reason of exceeding was low iron
removal efficiency of powdex filter. The iron removal efficiency of unit 1 and unit 2 is only 23.4%
-97-

and 11.1%. There are three reasons


r
of low iron reemoval effiiciency, in cluding filter elementss
passagee blocking by corrosio
on productss (see Figu
ure 2), nonuniform fil ming and incompletee
pre-coatt explosionn. It was deetected by tthe testbed that the performance of powdex
x and fiberr
power is poor, resuulting in film
ming like too be nonunifformly and high pressu re between film layerss
after filming. Thee critical point
p
of fiilming and
d pre-coat explosion process is controlledd
impropeerly, resultinng nonunifo
orm filmingg and incom
mplete pre-co
oat explosi on.

Fig.2 Contaminatted filter

Fig. 3 After cleaning filter

Accordiing to the reeason of issues, optimizzation is proposed as following.


f
F irst, clean the
t pollutedd
filter ellements byy Off-line Filter
F
Elem
ments Clean
n Technology (OFEC T), the cleeaned filterr
elementts are show
wed in Fig
gure 3. Sec ond, apply
y the betterr performan ce powdeex, XTW-C
C
developped by TPRI. Third, optimize the critical paraameters of filming andd pre-coat ex
xplosion byy
the dynamic simulaation testbeed. With the optimized parameters and test, f igure out th
he optimum
m
process of filming and pre-coaat explosionn to ensure the
t best effeect operationnally (filmiing effect inn
Figure 44).

Fig.4
F
Optimizzed filming effect

Case III: Exceedin


ng iron conttent in efflu
uent water of powdex filter
In a subbcritical airr-cooled pow
wer plants in Xinjiang
g Provoince, condensa te polishing
g system iss
consist of two 1000% condensation waterr flow powd
dex filters (short for si ngle powdeex system)..
The issuue of condeensate polishing is thatt iron content in effluen
nt water al ways exceeds standardd
(18 g/L
L in maximuum) and op
peration cyc le is relatively short (2 ~ 4 days un der high lo
oad).
After U
Unit 1 start up on June 8, 2015, TPRI traceed the operration. Figuure 5 is thee monitoredd
particless number off filter influ
uent and effl uent water..

-98-

Samplle

Fig. 5 Monitored particles results

Figure 5 showed that the range of particle number distribution in influent water is large (120 ~
3000/mL). The range of effluent water is relatively constant (0~20/mL), with the particle size of
less than 3m;The removal efficiency of suspended particles in Unit 1 is at least 90%.
Additionally, the powdex of less than 3m is no more than 0.5% in total, which means there is
no damage, leakage of the filter elements. However, even there is no damage to the filter
elements, the iron content in effluent water still exceeds standard. With further investigation, it
was found the reason is that dissolved iron content is high (about 4g/L), which is a large
proportion of total iron (30%~40%). On the other hand, according to the transfer test, the iron
corrosion products is mainly from air-cooled condenser. Besides, the short operation cycle is
mainly resulted from large iron content of condensation water, low powdex filming and filter
elements pollution.

12
y = 3.889x
R = 0.994

10
8
kPa

Initial differential pressure

Apply the dynamic filming test by the dynamic simulation testbed (Figure 6). Based on the
present amount of powdex for filming and filming process in this power plant, this test is helpful
to observe the whole filming process. Estimate the effect of filming from by film forming effect
and initial operation differential pressure. The relationship between initial differential pressure
and flowrate after filming is showed in Figure 7 (before optimization). The dynamic filming
effect shows the poor effect of present filming process, which means some improper setting of
critical parameters in filming process.

6
4
2
0
0.5

1.5

2.5

Fllowratem3/h

Fig.6 Dynamic simulation testbed

Fig.7 Relationship between initial differential pressure and flowrate

Concerning about these reasons, the optimization scheme is given as the following. Increase the
pH of feedwater to decrease the iron content; Modify the overflow pipe of filming auxiliary tank
to ensure the filming flowrate meets the requirement; Change the type of cation resin, adjust the
-99-

ratio of cation and anion resin and increase the amount of powdex for filming in order to increase
the iron removal efficiency of powdex filter and cycle water production; Optimize the filming
process to improve filming effect and increase the removal efficiency of suspended iron.
Case III: Powdex leakage of powdex filter
Fast increasing of hydrogen conductivity of boiler water
In a direct subcritical air-cooled units of 2330MW in Ningxia Province, condensation water is
treated by medium pressure polishing system of 100% water flow. Powdex filters of 2100%
condensation water flow are set for each polishing system, with 100% bypass system.
Since November 2013, the hydrogen conductivity of boiler water would be fast increased after
several minutes operation of powdex filter, increase from 0.3~0.5S/cm to 2.5S/cm at serious
condition. It will take three days to back to the normal hydrogen conductivity even with
continuous draining. This phenomenon is resulted from the powdex leakage. Basically, there are
two reasons for powdex leakage. First one is that the size of powdex is too small, which can be
determined by the size distribution test. Second one is that filter elements are damaged. Usually,
one or several filter elements are randomly selected out after splitting, then test the integrity and
precision of filter element to estimate if it is damaged. However, this process is complicated and
cant avoid contingency, so the result is not representative.
Therefore, on-line particle counter is applied to test suspended particles of influent and effluent
water and size distribution to estimate if filter elements are damaged. In this way, it is not
required to open filter and take sample, which is more convenient. The result will be accurate,
reliable and representative.
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

Fig.8

Powdex size

Fig.9 Su
uspended particles monitorred results

From Figure 8, the minimum and maximum particle size of this powdex is 4m and 350m. The
particle of less than 5m is 0.4%, and particle of less than 15m is 3.8%. Figure 9 shows, after
15 min operation of filter 1-1 and 2-1, the suspended particle of 2~5m are increased by 11 times
and 1 time compared to condensation water. Particles of 5~10m are increased by 26 times and 9
times, and particles of 10~15m are even increased by over 30 times.
The suspended particle size of two filters are both less than 15m, but there are suspended
particles of 15m~50m existing in the effluent water. Considering about the test result of size
distribution (particles of less than 15m is 3.8%), it indicates that particles of 15m~50m are
all leaked powdex, resulted from the loose and fracture winding of filter elements.

-100-

Large inncreasing off suspended


d particles iin effluent water
w
of filteer
In a direect supercriitical air-coo
oled units o f 2660MW
W in Gansu Province, three mediu
um pressuree
powdex filters of 50%
5
water flow are eq uipped for each unit. In the nor mal operatio
on of unit 1
and iniitial operatiion of filters, on-lin e monitorin
ng is performed to the numbeer and sizee
distribuution of susppended partiicles at the iinfluent and
d effluent water sampli ng opening
g of powdexx
filter, ass Figure 10 and 11.

Fig.10 #1 suspennded particlesse monitored results

Fig.11 1B Suspended par ticles monitorred results

As Figuure 10 show
ws, the susspended par ticles of influent water in 3 po wdex filterss are aboutt
200~300/mL, whille the suspeended partic les of effluent water are about le ss than 10//mL, givingg
the susppended parrticle remov
val efficien cy of higher than 95%. In Figu re 11, the suspendedd
particless of 1B pow
wdex filter at
a initial op eration are about the same as at n ormal operation, whilee
the susppended partticles in totaal and in eaach size rang
ge are obviously incre ased, and decreased
d
too
normal level in thee end, with duration
d
of 220 min. The reason to these issue s are mainly
y caused byy
poor fillming proceess and sho
ort cycle tim
me, resultin
ng in incom
mplete filmiing of powd
dex, partiall
powdexx leakage annd large ratio of small s ize powdex
x.
Concernning about these issuees, the Inteelligent on-line Monito
or of Prefiltlter (Smartt Filter, SF,,
developped by TPRII) can autom
matically s witchover am
mong multi water pass ages, monittoring multii
water paassages by single on-liine particle counter. Th
he optimum sampling a nd distribution system
m
can be designed foor each speecific powe r plant, witth the comm
munication mode or in
ndependentt
softwaree system coompatible to
t the automatic contrrol system of power p lants. SF can
c providee
real-tim
me monitorinng to the op
peration sta tus of preffitler. SF is already ap plied in sev
veral powerr
plants, ssystem scheeme and reaal equipmen t are showeed in Figure 12 and 13.
The bassic functions of SF inclludes on-linne monitorin
ng of suspended partic les removal efficiencyy,
the equuivalent filteer precision
n of filter eelements an
nd the integrity of filt er elementss. Based onn
these baasic functionns, there aree still some practical ex
xpanding fu
unctions.

-101-

Fig.13
3 Smart Filter
er equipment

Fig.12 Smartt Filter system


m scheme

Conclusion
Accordiing to the theory and
d characterss of iron co
orrosion products rem oval, on th
he basis off
researchh and fieldd services, TPRI
T
devellop this tecchnology frrom theory to practice, bringingg
forward the new inndex to reprresent the opperation staatus of powdex filter in order to make up thee
lack of differential pressure and iron co ntent. The intelligent estimation system dev
veloped forr
estimatiing the opeeration statu
us of powd ex filter, can quickly estimate th e operatio
on status off
powdexx filter andd diagonose the effecct of filterring and filming, pro viding thee basis forr
optimization. Afteer applying the intelliigent estimation system and sub sequent op
ptimization,,
many aair-cooled power
p
plan
nts resolve the problems existing in powd ex filters. Intelligentt
On-line Monitor of Prefilter can be thee intelligen
nt housekeep
per of wa ter treatment in powerr
plants, gguaranteeinng the safe, effective
e
annd economicc operation of condensa te polishin
ng.
Biogrraphy
Junru Lei
L 1987- engineerin g, scientific research an
nd technical service of condensatee

polishhing in TPR
RI.
Tel0029-82002113
3, 159299873372
Email
leijunru@ttpri.com.cn

-102-

660MW
1

1. 744200
2. 710054
2660MW

1.7g/L 0.9g/L 7.9g/L 0.5g/L 0.65g/L 0.45g/L


pH 9.5~9.6 10.0 m3 15.3
m3

2660WM 2010 11 12 1
350% 350%
2:1
pH pH 9.3
9.5-9.6 34g/L 14.3g/L pH

1 1.7g/L 70%
1.2g/L
7.6g/L 7.9g/L
2 10.0 m3 72%

3
-103-

3
3.1
4
4

IRIC

3.2
3.2.1

6 5.0m3 2.5m3
3.2.2

3.3
3.3.1

3.3.2

3.4

3.5

-104-

4.1
4.1.1

IRIC

4.1.2
5.6% 1.2% 0.08% 0.09%

4.1.3
1.7:1 2.4:1
1.9:1 2.2:1
4.1.4
550m3 430m3

4.1.5
1371mol/m3 1828mol/m3
4.2
2 3
2

: g/L

Sample name

Na+

F-

CH3COO-

HCOO-

Cl-

NO2-

SO42-

NO3-

PO43-

#1

0.54

0.20

0.32

0.23

1.25

0.1L

0.74

0.21

0.95

1A

0.32

0.22

0.17

0.48

0.1L

0.1L

0.52

0.1L

0.72

#1

0.48

0.16

0.42

0.15

0.1L

0.1L

0.66

0.1L

0.53

1A

0.21

0.12

0.29

0.20

0.1L

0.1L

0.83

0.1L

0.60

#1

0.76

0.15

0.62

0.35

0.10

0.1L

0.22

0.1L

0.57

1A

0.35

0.14

0.27

0.34

0.27

0.1L

0.20

0.1L

0.3L

100

150

270

-105-

Na+

NH4+

F-

CH
C 3COO-

HCOO-

Cl-

SO42-

S/cm25

#1

1A

g/L

6.75/0.096

1.466

975.1

0.12

0.1L

0.13

0.18

0.552

0.124/-

0.577

19.72

0.10

0.22

0.08

0.14

0.441

0.141/-

0.622

24.32

0.10

0.1L

0.1L

0.19

0.333

0.150/-

0.855

25.74

0.09

0.31

0.20

0.45

0.228

NO
O2-NO3- PO
O43- K+ M
Mg2+ Ca2+

1g/L
L

3g/L
3

3gg/L
0.6g/L
L

GB/T
T
12145-20008

0.15S/cm
m

0.85g/L
1.7g/L

0.41g/L 7.99g/L

0.45g/L
L 0.65g/L

GB/T 1214
45-2008

4.3

pH

10.0 m33 15.3


3 m3

53 %

5
1

2 IRIC

GB/T 12
2145-2008

53%

900

[1]

[M]
20010
[2]
.

[J].
.2010.
[3] GB122145-2008


[S].
2008.
[4]

[M].
.2008.
[5] 660M
MW

[M
M].

.2011.

744200
1519337
70156
lxbxl-866
6@163.com
-106-

Study on Operation and Optimization of High-speed Mixed Bed for


Condensate Polishing through 660MW Supercritical Once-through DC
Generating Unit
Li Xiaobin1,Yi Shengfeng1,Li Peng2,Li Jiandong1
1.Power China Gansu Energy Chongxin Power Generation Co.,Ltd, Pingliang City Gansu
2.Xian Thermal Power Research Institute Co,Ltd, Xian Shanxi.

Abstract: Diagnosis and optimization have been carried out on the operation of
condensate-polishing high-speed mixed bed of two 660MW supercritical direct air cooled units
in Gansu so as to address the problems that the periodic water output is low, sodium ion
contained in effluent water exceeds limits, and sulfate ion leaks at the end of the operation. After
the optimization, the effluent quality of the high-speed mixed bed has improved substantially; at
the end of the operation, in the effluent water, the peak of sodium ion has dropped from 1.7g/L
to less than 0.9g/L, that of sulfate ion has decreased from 7.9g /L to below 0.5g/L, and that
of chloride ion has gone from 0.65g/L down to less than 0.45g/L; the periodic water output of
the high-speed mixed bed has received a marked increase, and its average periodic water output
has gone from 100,000m3 up to 153,000m3 with the pH value of the condensate being 9.5~9.6.
Meanwhile, it has also solved the problems of the low resin off-line separation and poor
conveying accuracy of the high-speed mixed bed, with the operation, offline conveying and
regeneration of the high-speed mixed bed being controlled based on programming, and thus, it
has ensured safe and economic operation of the units.
Keywords: High-speed mixed bed;Ion leaks; Periodic water output; Operation optimization;
Resin interface monitoring
1. Introduction
Supercritical DC generating unit gradually become a leading generating unit in thermal power
industry, along with rapid development of the power industry; the operation of the generating
unit puts forward more restrictive requirements in relation to the water and steam quality. As an
important measure and mean to ensure the water and steam quality, the condensate polishing
system plays a critical role in controlling the water and steam quality. The key factor for water
and steam control and monitoring of supercritical DC air-cooled unit is to ensure normal
operation of the condensate polishing system. To some extent, the operation level of the
condensate polishing system reflects the water and steam quality of the generating unit.
Put into operation successively in November and December 2010, the two 660WM supercritical
direct air cooled units in Gansu Province are both equipped with a set of condensate polishing
system which consists of a powdered resin precoat filter (hereinafter referred to as powdered
precoat filter) (350%) and a spherical high-speed mixed bed (hereinafter referred to as
high-speed mixed bed) (350%). The off-line separation of resin in high-speed mixed bed
adopts high-tower separation method, with the ratio of cation resin to anion resin being 2:1. The
plant conducts a test aiming at increasing pH value of the water supply and reducing the iron
-107-

content contained in the condensate to reduce the iron content contained in the condensate.
Finally, the pH value of the water supply is raised from 9.3 to 9.5-9.6, with the iron content
dropping from 34g/L to 14.3g/L. Due to the high-speed mixed bed with polishing system
adopting hydrogen-type operation mode, the ammonia content contained in water and steam will
increase upon the increase of pH value in the water, and the operation cycle of the high-speed
mixed bed will be shortened remarkably. Beyond that, the resin regeneration system of the
plants high-speed mixed bed is not equipped with any resin interface monitoring device, and
thus, the whole resin regeneration process relies on artificial observation entirely, which leads to
not only poor resin separation degree but also serious cross contamination. Meanwhile, there
are deviations between resin volumes and the designed ones, accompanied with a disordered
ratio, which seriously impacts the effluent quality and periodic water output of the condensate
polishing. These problems directly cause not only corrosion, salification and scale formation of
the thermodynamic system of the generating unit but also turbine blade breaking, boiler tube
explosion, and other accidents in severe cases. For those reasons, it is necessary to carry out
optimization on the operation of the high-speed mixed bed for the condensate polishing so as to
improve the quality of the water and steam and ensure safe and reliable operation of the
generating unit.
To this end, the plant conducts an overall evaluation and diagnosis aiming at high-speed mixed
bed operation for the condensate polishing and off-line regeneration of the resin to analyze the
problems existing in the mixed bed operation, with optimization plan being studied and
formulated. After the plan is implemented, it has completely resolved the problem that the resin
regeneration in high-speed mixed bed lacks interface monitoring devices, realizes program
control of the operation of the high-speed mixed bed, the off-line conveying, and the
regeneration, extends the operation cycle of the high-speed mixed bed, and improves quality of
effluent water.
2. Evaluation and Diagnosis of the Operation of the High-speed Mixed Bed
According to evaluation on the operation of the plants high-speed mixed beds, major problems
exposed include:
1 At the end of the operation of the high-speed mixed bed, the sodium ion contained in
effluent water exceeds the limit, and its peak is 1.7g/L, 70% higher than the standard. And
during the normal operation and at the end of the operation, sulfate ion leakage is very obvious
in the effluent water. During the normal operation, the sulfate ion content in the water supply is
1.2g/L, and that in the effluent water is 7.6g/L; at the end of the operation, that in the effluent
water is up to 7.9g/L.
2The periodic water output is 100,000m3 on average, only accounting for 72% of the
designed value, relatively low.
According to the diagnosis on the operation of the high-speed mixed bed, the main causes of
these problems are that:
1The resin separation and conveying progress are not equipped with any monitoring device,
and thus, the resin separation effect and conveying terminal rely on the onsite artificial control of
-108-

operators, leading to poor resin separation and conveying accuracy, which, thus, causes low resin
separation degree and serious cross contamination. Meanwhile, deviations occur between resin
volumes of the high-speed mixed bed and the designed values, accompanied with a disordered
ratio.
2The low resin degree and serious cross contamination have degraded the regeneration of
resin, plus the disordered operation of the mixed bed with polishing system as well as the
unreasonable program control procedures and parameter settings, which leads to relatively low
working exchange capacity of cation resin, and thus causes the result that the sodium ion
contained in the effluent water exceeds the limit at the end of the operation, with the periodic
water output of the high-speed mixed bed going down at the same time.
3The regeneration of the resin is low, plus the poor mixed effect of resin in high-speed mixed
bed, which leads to a high content of sulfate ion in the effluent water of the high-speed mixed
bed.
3. Optimization Scheme and Measures
3.1 Selection and installation of reliable resin interface monitoring device
Through the study and analysis of the reliability and advantage & disadvantages of five types of
simple device for the resin interface such as domestic current photoelectric measurement method,
colorimetry method, conductivity measurement method, ultrasonic measurement method and
image collecting and processing measurement method, the first four methods are greatly
influenced by the resin separation and conveying; according to the use situation of the power
plants in China, such four methods need on-site observation and participation by the operating
personnel; for those reasons, it lacks good reliability, effluent quality of the mixed bed cannot be
guaranteed and the operating personnel has large workload and lower efficiency. The
regeneration system for the condensate polishing fails to realize automatic control, but basically
relies on the artificial observation. Beyond that, under the premise of total resin quantity in the
mixed bed having no deviation, in the case of the manual operation with free choice,
unreasonable cation-anion resin volume and proportion in any set of the mixed bed will result in
chain reaction, causes disordered proportion of the resin quantity in all resin groups and further
leads to larger cycle difference existing in the operation of the mixed bed. The image collecting
and processing measurement method mainly focuses on the IRIC resin interface monitoring
system developed by Xian Thermal Power Research Institute; such system can realize precise
identification and accurate control of the resin interface of high-speed mixed bed for the
condensate polishing, effectively avoid the problems existing in the traditional resin interface
monitoring system, accurately monitor and control cation-anion resin interface, control total
resin quantity in the high-speed mixed bed for the condensate polishing and effectively prevent
the resin ratio in the high-speed mixed bed from being disordered further to influence the
operation cycle and effluent quality. For those reasons, IRIC resin interface monitoring system is
finally selected, along with the installation and commissioning, to improve the separation and
conveying accuracy of the resin in the high-speed mixed bed and resolves the problems of poor
separation degree of the resin and disordered proportion of the cation-anion resin.

-109-

3.2 Recovery of the loading volume of the resin


3.2.1 Recovery of the loading volume of the cation resin and anion resin in the high-speed mixed
bed
The installation of the resin interface monitoring device can resolve the problem of poor
separation and conveying accuracy of the resin and avoid disordered proportion during the
separation of the resin; it should conduct on-site measurement to the loading volume of the resin
in six sets of high-speed mixed bed one by one; meanwhile, it should recover the loading volume
of the resin by means of the supplement and removal. Finally, the loading volume of the cation
resin reaches 5.0m3 and the loading volume of the anion resin reaches 2.5m3 through the design.
3.2.2 Replacement and recovery of the resin at mixed resin layer in the separation tower
According to the implementation process of the optimization work on site, finely-divided cation
resin contained in mixed oil of the anion resin at the mixed resin layer is difficult to be separated
even under the premise of the backwashing zonal flowrate complying with the requirements; for
that reason, the anion resin layer in the separation tower should be replaced to ensure the
separation degree and the effluent quality upon the regeneration and prevent the finely-divided
cation resin from mixing into the anion resin to influence the regeneration. Meanwhile, recovery
should be made according to the quality and quantity of the mixed resin layer in the separation
tower, which make it comply with the cation-anion resin ratio and the quantity and quality of the
mixed resin layer.
3.3 Parameter optimization for regeneration program control procedures in the high-speed
mixed bed
3.3.1 Added discharge procedures of fine resin
Two procedures such as increased pressure and water discharge through surrounding area should
be added during the program control procedure of the resin to suspended matters contained in the
water and fine resin contained in the cation resin and anion resin are discharged out through the
middle drainage pipes and the drainage pipes at the bottom under the action of the pressure, in
the case of the completion of the resin scrubbing. Due to the pressure in the separation tower
being released instantly, the suspended matters contained in the water and fine resin can be
rapidly discharged out through two outlets arranged on the middle part and the bottom part.
Based on the facts above, it can improve the separation degree of the resin and avoid the
backwashing and drainage device blocking due to too many fine resins to lead to the flowrate not
complying with the requirements to further influence the stratification effects of the
backwashing.
3.3.2 Parameter optimization for regeneration program control procedures
According to evaluation and diagnosis, for part of control parameters during the regeneration of
the resin in the high-speed mixed bed, the key parameters (like water discharge time prior to the
air scrubbing and backwashing flowrate) control is unreasonable, which results in poor
regeneration effects. As a result, to ensure the stratification effects and the regeneration degree of
the resin, it should conduct further on-site optimization to the key flowrate and time parameters
like the backwashing flowrate for the regeneration, water discharge time, air scrubbing time,
replacement and order washing upon addition of the regeneration liquid, to ensure that all
-110-

procedures during the regeneration obtain deserved results and further to ensure the regeneration
level of the resin.
3.4 Improvement of the mixing effects of the resin in the high-speed mixed bed
For the purpose of poor mixing effects of the resin in the high-speed mixed bed during the
diagnosis work, it should ensure the mixing effects of regenerated resin in the cation tower
(implementation during the optimization of the procedure control); meanwhile, it should also
avoid the secondary stratification of the resin during the conveying. Firstly, the water discharge
procedures should be added prior to the resin input in the high-speed mixed bed. Due to main
drainage pipes of the high-speed mixed bed forming U-shaped arrangement, blowdown valve at
the bottom of the resin trapper for the water discharge to fully discharge residual water in the
high-speed mixed bed. Hint window should be added into the procedure control to prevent the
operating personnel from forgetting to open the blowdown valve of the resin trapper; for that
reason, the system will give an automatic hint, namely, Please open the blowdown valve of the
resin trapper for complete discharge prior to the startup of the resin input procedures in the
high-speed mixed bed, which further ensures the mixing effects of the resin to the greatest extent.
Secondly, pneumatic conveying time (the resin is conveyed to the mixed bed) should be
extended to reduce the conveying time of the steam and water conveying time to the greatest
extent under the premise of full conveying of the resin; due to small density of the anion resin, it
should avoid the secondary stratification happening to the anion resin and cation resin in the case
of the high-speed mixed bed not being filled.
3.5 Establishment of the measures for the resin blocking the water hat for the water supply
arranged on the top
To prevent the upper water hat from being blocked by the resin to influence the periodic water
output of the high-speed mixed bed, on one hand, it should avoid the secondary resin mixing in
the high-speed mixed bed as much as possible to control the air entering from the bottom due to
the secondary resin mixing to fill up the resin further to get into the upper water hat; on the other
hand, through the analysis of the impact of the water hat blocking on the high-speed mixed bed,
in the case of severe water hat blocking, it is bound to have reduced periodic water output; for
that reason, in the case of marked changes in periodic water output, it should open the manhole
of the high-speed mixed bed timely to check the top water hat blocking; in the case of the resin
blocking, it should remove them timely to avoid influencing the periodic water output due to the
resin blocking.
4.Effects of Optimization
The effects of optimization evaluate contents of two aspects, namely evaluation on improvement
effects through the re-inspection of the unqualified items discovered in the diagnosis on the
operation of the high-speed mixed bed before optimization as well as the re-inspection of the
effluent quality and the periodic water output in the operation of the high-speed mixed bed.
4.1 Evaluation on the Operation Diagnosis
4.1.1 Resin Separation and Conveying Accuracy
-111-

Before the implementation: the resin separation effect and conveying terminal rely on the onsite
artificial control of operators, leading to poor resin separation and conveying accuracy, which,
thus, causes deviations arising from the volumes of the cation resin and anion resin and the
designed values, accompanied with a disordered ratio and a relatively low volume of cation resin.
With IRIC as the resin separation and conveying monitoring device, the plant has received
higher resin separation and conveying accuracy, ensured the quantitative resin output from the
separation tower, and effectively avoid disordered resin volumes and ratio.
4.1.2 Separation Degree of Resin
Before the optimization plan is implemented, the cation resin accounts for 5.6% of the anion
resin, and the anion resin accounts for 1.2% of the cation resin; after the implementation, the
cation resin accounts for 0.08% of the anion resin, and the anion resin accounts for 0.09% of the
cation resin, both of which comply with the requirements.
4.1.3 Resin Mixing Effects
Before the optimization plan is implemented, the cation-anion resin ratio on the upper part of the
high-speed mixed bed is 1.7:1, and that on its lower part is 2.4:1; after the implementation, that
on the upper part is 1.9:1, while that on the lower part is 2.2:1, which means an improvement on
resin mixing effects.
4.1.4Program Control Procedures
After the optimization plan is implemented, the consumption of self-regenerated-and-consumed
water drops to 430m3 from 550m3, the value before the implementation; it adds discharge
procedures for the fine resin; it improves the water level before the air scouring of resin by
adjusting the parameters and thus, ensures good air scouring effects; it also achieves program
control for the operation of high-speed mixed bed, off-line conveying of the resin, and the
regeneration process.
4.1.5 Working Exchange Capacity of the Cation Resin
After the optimization is implemented, the working exchange capacity of the cation resin rises
from 1371mol/m3 to 1828mol/m3, consistent with the standard.
4.2Quality of Effluent Water
After the optimization, cation and anion contents detected during the normal operation and at the
end of the operation of the high-speed mixed bed are shown in Table 1 and Table2.
Table 1 Ion contents detected in the effluent water during the normal operation of the optimized high-speed mixed
bed(Unit: g/L)
Operating hours
of high-speed
mixed bed

Sample

Na+

F-

CH3COO-

HCOO-

Cl-

NO2-

SO42-

NO3-

PO43-

0.54

0.20

0.32

0.23

1.25

0.1L

0.74

0.21

0.95

h
100

No.1
condensate

-112-

1A effluent
water of the

0.32

0.22

0.17

0.48

0.1L

0.1L

0.52

0.1L

0.72

0.48

0.16

0.42

0.15

0.1L

0.1L

0.66

0.1L

0.53

0.21

0.12

0.29

0.20

0.1L

0.1L

0.83

0.1L

0.60

0.76

0.15

0.62

0.35

0.10

0.1L

0.22

0.1L

0.57

0.35

0.14

0.27

0.34

0.27

0.1L

0.20

0.1L

0.3L

high-speed
No.1
condensate
150

1A effluent
water of the
high-speed
No.1
condensate

270

1A effluent
water of the
high-speed

Table 2 Ion contents detected in the effluent water at the end of the operation of the optimized high-speed mixed bed

Sample

hydrogen
conductivity/specific
conductance

Na+

NH4+

F-

S/cm25
No.1 condensate

1A effluent water of the high-speed

CH3COO-

HCOO-

Cl-

SO42-

g/L

6.75/0.096

1.46

975.1

0.12

0.1L

0.13

0.18

0.52

0.124/-

0.57

19.72

0.10

0.22

0.08

0.14

0.41

0.141/-

0.62

24.32

0.10

0.1L

0.1L

0.19

0.33

0.150/-

0.85

25.74

0.09

0.31

0.20

0.45

0.28

According to Table 1, during the normal operation, compared with contents of anionic impurities
in condensate, all of those in the effluent water drop somewhat and are lower than 1g/L.
Meanwhile, according to the data in the operation report of the power plants condensate process
and that in regular check of water and steam, during the whole operation cycle, after the
optimization, the content of silicon dioxide is lower than 3g/L, that of the total iron is lower
than 3g/L, and that of sodium is lower than 0.6g/L in the effluent water of the high-speed
mixed bed, with all water quality better than the expected value specified in GB/T 12145-2008.
According to Table 2, the effluent conductivity of the high-speed mixed bed keeps increasing till
it reaches 0.15S/cm (the splitting condition) at which point the peak of sodium ion is 0.85g/L
(1.7g/L before optimization), that of sulfate ion is 0.41g/L (7.9g /L before optimization), and
that of chloride ion is 0.45g/L (0.65g/L), better than the expected value specified in GB/T
12145-2008, which has, once and for all, solved the problems that the sodium ion exceeds the
limits and the sulfate ion leaks at the end of the operation of the high-speed mixed bed.
4.3 Periodic Water Output
After the optimization, with the pH of the condensate being unchanged, the average periodic
-113-

water output of the high-speed mixed bed has gone from 100,000m3 up to 153,000m3, a 53 %
increase compared with the value before optimization.
5. Conclusion
1Primary reasons for unreliable operation cycle and effluent water of the high-speed mixed
bed for the condensate polishing are poor resin conveying control accuracy, disordered resin
volume and low resin regeneration degree during the resin regeneration in the high-speed mixed
bed.
2The installation of the IRIC resin interface monitoring device resolves the problem of poor
resin conveying control accuracy during the resin regeneration and realizes the conveying
procedure control during the resin regeneration in the high-speed mixed bed. Key parameters
such as the flowrate and water level during the regeneration are adjusted to improve the
separation and mixing effects of the resin further to obtain the expected goal.
3After the optimization, effluent quality of the high-speed mixed bed fully complies with the
expected values specified in Quality Criterion of Water and Steam for Supercritical Pressure
Units in Fossil-fired Power Plant (DL/T 912-2005); the periodic water output is increased by
53%.Tthe power plant can gain direct economic benefits of about 900,000 Yuan annually, with
significant water saving and emission reduction effects.
References (Boldface in little No.5 character)
[1] Han Lichuan and Wang Deliang, Condensate Treatment of Thermal Power Plant [M]. Beijing: China
Electric Power Press, 2010.
[2] Han Lichuan and Hui Yong, Definition and Application of Resin Separation Coefficient and Mixing
Coefficient [J].Thermal Power Generation, 2010.
[3] Quality Criterion of Water and Steam for Generating Unit and Steam Power Equipment (GB/T
12145-2008) [S].Beijing: Standards Press of China, 2008.
[4] Water Treatment and Water Quality Control of Thermal Power Plant [M]. Beijing: China Electric Power
Press, 2008.
[5] Chemical Part of Training Materials for 660MW Ultra-supercritical Thermal Power Generating Unit [M].
Beijing: China Electric Power Press, 2011.

About the author:


NameLi Xiaobin; Professional qualification: engineer; Graduation school: North China
Electric Power University; Major: Applied chemistry; Professional work: Professional
chemical skills management of the thermal power plant.
Contact address: Chongxin Power Plant, Pingliang City, Gansu Province; Company
name: Power China Gansu Energy Chongxin Power Generation Co., Ltd.
Post code: 744200; Contact number: 15193370156; E-mail: lxbxl-866@163.com

-114-


1 1 2
1. 311106
2. 266031

1
2013
2 80~85

2013 1

2
2013 3 2

95100h 8528d #2

28 9
28

2.1 7 2 A8A9 A1A5


A7A8A9 5 DL/T519-2004
DL/T771-2001 28 85

2.2 28 85A1A5A7A8A9 5
6.83%1.31%1.73%2.40%6.01%
2.3 A1A5A7A8A9 5 3.6%0.33%
0.74%2.46%3.36% 28

2.4

3
3.1
#12 100%
3 1
7 55
30~40 19951996
4 300MW 2 2013
2

-115-

3.2
3 100~120 3
1 #2 4
4

1 #2

760
t/h

870
t/h
2

2.65
MPa

3.5
MPa
3

85

90

DN2200

DN800

DN1300/DN2100

DN1200

DN1500

DN1200

1:1

2 100%
3
1 3 3
1 100% 4
2 100%3
1 100%
7 3
3 1

2 100% 1

4
2
4.1
2 2013 11 20 11
0.14MPa 720~800t/h 80~82
1.4~1.8MPa 4~5 48
0.06s/cm 0.06s/cm
-116-

20g/L
2017 D201

2014 2
2014 4 2014 4

300MW

4~5

4.2

2 2014 11 16 9
2015 4 0.14MPa
720~800t/h 80~82 1.4~1.8MPa 5~8
48 0.06s/cm 7g/L
0.12s/cm 7g/L 2015 4

4.3
4.3.1
4.3.1.1

Name

51.69

50.86

+1.63

mmol/g()

4.59

4.60

-0.22

mmol/ml

1.80

1.81

-0.55

g/ml

1.25

1.26

g/ml

0.81

0.80

(0.5~0.8mm)%

98.5

98.0

1.16

1.19

95.65

96.23

-117-

-0.60

4.3.1.2 1

64.50

62.04

+3.97

mmol/g()

3.83

4.06

-5.67

mmol/g()

3.61

3.98

-9.30

mmol/ml

0.99

1.09

-9.17

g/ml

1.06

1.07

g/ml

0.72

0.71

(0.5~0.8mm) %

98.6

98.3

1.17

1.18

93.87

95.42

-1.62

1 9.30%
9.17% 1.62%
4.3.2 2013

4.3.3 2014 50%


14g/L
1 ASTM
470mmol/L-R

5
ZGC580GW ZGA580GW
300MW

-118-

Use of High Temperature-resistant Mixed-bed Resin


In Condensate Polishing System
Jianghua Shen1, Bin Xu1, Min Zhou2
1.Ningbo Zhengguang Resin Co.Ltd., Zhejiang Ningbo, 311106
2. Huadian Qingdao Power Generation Co.Ltd.,Shandong Qingdao, 266031

Abstract: This article mainly introduced use of high temperature-resistant homogeneous particle
mixed-bed resin in condensate polishing system.
Key word: high temperature; resin; condensate polishing; homogeneous particle; use
1.Foreword
In order to respond to the national energy saving and reducing consumptionheat recovery of
steam condensate in the heating period in winter, Huadian Qingdao Power Generation Co.Ltd. in
2013 during the overhaul of unit two high back pressure transformation. When the high back
pressure steam turbine running water temperature as high as 80~85, the original condensate
water treatment equipment and resin is difficult to meet the requirements of operationneed to
increase new high-temperature condensate polishing treatment equipment and resin. There is no
mature case of high temperature resistant for condensate water, in order to guarantee the safe
and stable operation of high back pressure, in January 2013Huadian Qingdao Power
Generation Co.Ltd. and Shandong Electric Power Research InstituteZhengguang resin factory
consultation and cooperation in research and development of high temperature resinby the test
to determine the feasibility of high temperature resistant resinand then in Huadian Qingdao
power Generation Co.Ltd. for filed operation of unit 2.
2. Development and comparison test of high temperature resin
In march 2013Huadian Qingdao Power Generation Co.Ltd. and Shandong Electric Power
Research Institute, Zhengguang resin factory to determine the Test scheme for the heat
resistance of the ion exchange resin for the transformation of condensate water treatment in the
unit two of Qingdao power plant. Entrust Shandong Electric Power Research Institute to carry
out the sample selection and comparison testhas 95 100h and 85 28d two stages of static
simulation experiment. Specific conclusion see Qingdao#2 screening of ion exchange resin for
high temperature condensate water treatment of unit heating and the evaluation of the test report
on the temperature resistance. Two methodsstandard temperature tolerance testlab 28 days
heat resistance testwere used in this project to test the temperature resistance of nine ion
exchange resins. First of all through the standard temperature resistance test to choose the
temperature resistance of the five groups of resinand then to the five of lab 28 days heat
resistance test. The main conclusion are as follows
2.1 After the standard screening test of resistance temperature performance for the seven resins
from Zhengguang factory and two imported resins A8A9. Choose A1,A5,A7,A8,A9 five
resins meet the DL/T519-2004,Acceptance criterion for ion exchange resins used in water
treatment in thermal power plantsand DL/T771-2001Guide for selecting ion exchange resins

-119-

used in water treatment of thermal powerthe requirements of the physical and chemical
propertiesfor 28 days 85 heat resistance test.
2.2 Laboratory test for 28 days 85 heat resistancethe decline rate of A1A5A7A8
A9 strong type of five anion resin was 6.83%1.13%1.73%2.40%6.01%.
2.3 In the standard heat resistance testthe decline rate of A1A5A7A8A9 strong type
of five anion resin was 3.6%0.33%0.74%2.46%3.36%. The selected two methods
namely the standard resistance temperature performance test methodlaboratory 28 days long
time heat resistance test method trends are basically identical.
2.4 Determine the selection of domestic condensate precision processing resinaccording to the
filed operation to provide a suitable particle size range of the resin.
3.Equipment general situation and profile modification
3.1Equipment general situation
The introduction of Huadian Qingdao Power Generation Co.Ltd. the existing condensate water
treatment equipment system: installment#12 unit condensate water 100% deep desalting
treatmentbypass valve closedthe two units were equipped with three sets of high-speed
mixed bed of condensate water treatmenttwo of them were usedand the other one was
standby, share a set of regeneration system. By using smoke in regeneration process, condensate
polishing processing resin is USA Dow resin, a total of seven sets, the temperature of the design
is not higher than 55the actual operating temperature is generally at 30-40. Since
1995,1996 put into operationin addition to normal aging of the resinthere is no other
problems.
Huadian Qingdao Power Generation Co.Ltd. has a total of four stages of 300MW units, which
unit two during overhaul in 2013,the implementation of high back pressure. Therefore, the unit
of condensate water treatment of unit two is also transformed to meet the requirements safety
and economic operation of the unit and ensure the quality of the whole system.
3.2 Profile modification
Specific reform content includethree new lining of butyl rubbertemperature resistance
100-120of high mixthe original three lined with natural rubber high mixed resinstorage
tank instead. Add one set of regeneration systemfor the #2 adopts the back pressure methods is
runningfour sets of high temperature resistant domestic medium-pressure resin regeneration
add four sets of high temperature resistant domestic medium-pressure resin. High temperature
resistant domestic medium-pressure resinthe reliability of the laboratory data and industrial
operationresin strengthexchange capacityresistance to high temperature cycledecay
perioddegradation products and the chemical physical impact on the subsequent thermal
systemis the core issue of this reform project.
Condensate water treatment system parameters
1#2unit to deal with the condensate water
Rated
760
t/h
Max
870
t/h
-120-

2Water inlet pressure in condensate polishing treatment system


Rated
2.65
MPa
Max
3.5
MPa
3Water inlet temperature in condensate polishing treatment system
Rated
85

Max
90

Main equipment specification


Number

Name

Specification model

Unit

Quantity

Remark
1:1

high-speed mixed bed

DN2200

table

resin trapper

DN800

table

resin separation tank

DN1300/DN2100

table

anion regeneration tank

DN1200

table

DN1500

table

DN1200

table

5
6

cation regeneration and


storage tank
wastewater discharge resin
trap

After the implementation of the reform programwhen the heat load of the heating period is
relatively high in winterand the two unit is operated by the back pressure method. 100% deep
desalting treatment, bypass valve closed. Add three new lining of butyl rubber high mix adopts
domestic medium-pressure resintwo of them were usedand the other one was standbynew
one regeneration system is used when the failure of the domestic medium-pressure resinthe
original three sets of imported resin placed in the original three natural rubber lined with high
mixed resin storage tank for standby application . One unit depth of 100% desalination treatment
four sets of original imported resin adopt the original regeneration system for regeneration.
In the non-heating periodunit 2 run with condensing steam extraction methods100% deep
desalting treatment, bypass valve closed. the three lined with natural rubber high mixed adopt
imported resintwo of them were usedand the other one was standbyafter the failure of the
imported resin used the original regeneration system. One unit depth of 100% desalination
treatmentthe two units of seven sets of condensate water treatment resin are used in the
original regeneration system. Add three new sets of domestic medium-pressure resin placed in
the original three natural rubber lined with high mixed resin storage tank for standby application,
add one set of domestic medium-pressure resin placed in the regeneration of the new system for
standby application.
In this way, can guarantee the unit 2 under two kinds of operation mode100%operation and
regeneration of condensate water polishing treatment systemat the same timeit dose not
affect the normal operation and regeneration of the condensate water treatment system of unit 1
so as to ensure the quality of the whole thermal system.

-121-

4. High temperature mixed bed operation


Since the implementation of the transformationhigh temperature mixed bed has run two
heating periodsthe overall effect is good. Briefly analyze the situation as follows
4.1 operation of the first heating period
At 11oclock in November 20,2013, unit 2 condensate water polishing treatment mixed bed and
high temperature resin put into operationand the operation was basically stable, that is, two
high mixed operation, other one standby, bypass differential pressure 0.14MPa. The total flow
rate of the condensate water is 720-800t/hthe temperature is 80-82and the pressure is
1.4-1.8MPaeach high mixed regeneration one time after running 4 or 5 daysregeneration 48
hours at a time. At normal operationthe water quality of the conductivity is 0.06s/cmeach
indicator meets the requirementsbut at the high speed of running to the failure pointthe
water quality of the conductivity is 0.06s/cm meet the requirementswhile the silicon in the
20g/L is out of standard. The main reason may be caused by colloidal silica in water. Resin
manufacturers have been done the application test about the high temperature resistant resin
group single bed and mixed bed desilicon at normal condition. Basically has the same ability to
remove silicon with 2017or D201just a little lower cycle capacityColloidal silica is a kind
of molecular state rather than the ion stateso it is not easy to be exchanged by anion resin.
Under the condition of high temperatureColloidal silica is not to bondand the molecular
aggregation ability is poorand it is not easy to be filtered by the resin. In February 2014
because of the equipment lead to loss part of anion resinpart of macroreticular anion resin
were added to the heating period until the end of the April 2014high mixed high temperature
resin is running basically normal. Minor repairs in April 2014verification to the supervision
and inspection of chemicalscale formation and deposition of high pressure and the operation
conditions of the whole heating perioddrumwater bagfour tube and the turbine through
flow parts until thermal system key parts of corrosion and scalingbasically normal.
That explained Zhengguang resin factory developed high temperature cation resinanion resin
can meet the Huadian Qingdao Power Generation Co.Ltd.300MW high back pressure turbine
high temperature condensate water processing.
For the high mixed operation cycle is only about four or five daysgreatly increase the
operating strength for the operator, and for the problem of this batch of macroreticular anion
resin ,cation resin, the difference of color is not obvious, resin manufacturers for the existing
problems in the operation plan to optimize in the next stage.
4.2 operation of the second heating period
According to the operation of the first heating periodall of the macroreticular anion resin were
changed by modified ultra high temperature anion resincation resin was used as macroreticular
cation resin for the first heating period. At 9 oclock in November 16, 2014, unit 2 condensate
water polishing treatment mixed bed and high temperature resin put into operation until the end
of the heating period in April2015. and the operation was basically stable, that is, two high
mixed operation, other one standby, bypass differential pressure 0.14MPa. The total flow rate of
the condensate water is 720-800t/hthe temperature is 80-82and the pressure is
1.4-1.8MPaeach high mixed regeneration one time after running 5 or 8 daysregeneration 48
-122-

hours at a time. When high mixed runningthe water quality of the conductivity is 0.06s/cm,
meets the requirementssilicon under 7g/L meets the requirement. When the high mixed
running to the failure point, the water quality of the conductivity is 0.12s/cm out of the standard,
while the silicon around 7g/L meets the requirement. Minor repairs in April 2014verification
to the supervision and inspection of chemicalscale formation and deposition of high pressure
and the operation conditions of the whole heating perioddrumwater bagfour tube and the
turbine through flow parts until thermal system key parts of corrosion and scalingbasically
normal.
4.3 After two heating cycles of the operation of the resin were sampled for analysisthe
results are as follows
4.3.1 The detection results of cation resin and anion resin are as follows
4.3.1.1 Cation resinhas been used for two heating periods
Sodium Type Indictor
Name
Moisture Content %
Total Exchange Capacity
mmol/g()
Total Exchange Capacity
mmol/ml
TureWetDensity g/ml
Shipping Weight
g/ml
Particle Size Range (0.5~0.8mm)%
Uniformity Coefficient
Sphericity After Attrition %

Old Resin

New Resin

Remark
%

51.69
4.59

50.86
4.60

+1.63
-0.22

1.80

1.81

-0.55

1.25
0.81
98.5
1.16
95.65

1.26
0.80
98.0
1.19
96.23

-0.60

4.3.1.2 Super Gel Anion Resin has been used for one heating period
OH Type Indictor
Name
Moisture Content %
Total Exchange Capacity
mmol/g()
Strong Base Exchange Capacity
mmol/g()
Total Exchange Capacity mmol/ml
TureWetDensity g/ml
Shipping Weight
g/ml
Particle Size Range
(0.5~0.8mm) %
Uniformity Coefficient
Sphericity After Attrition %

Old Resin

New Resin

Remark
%

64.50
3.83

62.04
4.06

+3.97
-5.67

3.61

3.98

-9.30

0.99
1.06
0.72
98.6

1.09
1.07
0.71
98.3

-9.17

1.17
93.87

1.18
95.42

-123-

-1.62

Data analysis
Cation resin after two heating periods operation of the physical and chemical indicators and
volume of the exchange capacity has declined slightlybut all meet the relevant technical
requirements;
Ultra high temperature gel anion resin after one heating period operation of the alkali group
exchange capacity fell 9.30%the volume exchange capacity decreased by 9.17%sphericity
after attrition fell 1.62%are all in the reasonable range.
4.3.2 After the operation of one heating period in 2013the macropore high temperature anion
resin can meet the technical requirementsbut there is a problem of the short period and the
high water silicon.
4.3.3 After the improvementthe ultra high temperature anion resin after the operation of
heating period in2014running the water cycle to extend more than50%and the effect of
silicon removal was significantly improvednormal running water silicon is 14g/Lother
water quality can meet the requirements of the condensed water quality. The ultra high
temperature anion resin after the operation of heating period, according to the United States
ASTM method to detect the average exchange capacity of ultra high temperature anion resin is
470mmol/L-R.
5. Conclusion
To sum upZhengguang Resin Factory developed high temperature cation resin ZGC580GW
and after improvement of ultra high temperature gel anion resin ZGA580GW composition high
temperature mixed bed can meet the Huadian Qingdao Power Generation Co.ltd. 300MW high
back pressure turbine high temperature condensate water processing.

-124-

Session 2 Design Optimization of


Air-Cooled Condenser



4368 130021

1.

1000MW

2.
600MW
1 1

-127-

420MW

510MW

600MW

TMCR

TRL

MW

421.279

517.3

599.7

642.3

600

t/h

885.6

1339.2

1600.9

1303.4

1349

kPa

19.373

28.442

32.058

13.1

32

kPa

0.121

0.423

0.727

0.586

0.359

kPa

0.072

0.115

0.146

0.225

0.104

kPa

0.049

0.308

0.581

0.364

0.255

40

73

80

62

71

kPa

0.254

0.404

0.643

0.785

0.517

kPa

0.244

0.392

0.504

0.748

0.347

kPa

0.01

0.012

0.139

0.037

0.17

21.6

4.7

33

kPa

0.446

0.562

0.74

1.1

0.717

kPa

0.335

0.543

0.705

1.052

0.812

kPa

0.111

0.019

0.035

0.048

-0.095

%
kPa
kPa
kPa
%

33
0.229
0.208
0.021
10

3
0.385
0.337
0.048
14

5
0.483
0.439
0.044
10

5
0.781
0.71
0.071
10

-12
0.543
0.508
0.035
7

TMCR TRL 2
2 TMCRTRL

kPa

TMCR

13

13.1

38.19
ITD

kPa
0.973

36.63
ITD

m2
1653379

kJ/kWh
8087.07

g/kWh
302.96

g/kWh
330.38

104 t/a
107.31

1653379 m2

kPa
1.371

kPa
13.63

36.85
ITD

kJ/kWh
8097.57

g/kWh
303.36

g/kWh
330.81

104 t/a
107.45

13.1KPa/32 KPa
35.96
ITD

-128-

TRL
32
32
38.59
0.451
38.26
1653379
8583
321.54
350.64
106.11
0.876
32.56
38.35
8596.76
322.06
351.21
106.28
37.94

1701395
m2

48016
m2

1. 8.3%2. 5500
3. TMCR 643989kw4. TRL 600000kw

1701395
48016

TMCR 0.43 g/kw.hTRL


0.57g/kw.h

3.

0.1kPa

2
3

TMCR

1653379 m2

0.785

kPa
12.83

36.49
ITD

kJ/kWh
8081.94

g/kWh
302.77

g/kWh
330.17

104 t/a
107.23

13.1KPa/32 KPa
36.94
ITD

2
1630162
m

TRL
0.517
32.05
38.25
8584.24
321.59
350.69
106.12
38.21
1630162

4.

-129-

660MW

MW

660

660

660

660

1 t/h

57.28

59.08

62.77

66.44

kJ/kwh

7869

7869

7870

7872

t/h

281.3

281.3

281.5

281.7

t/d

6752

6752

6757

6760

36.65%

36.65%

36.62%

36.60%

1
3 0.03% 1 kj/kwh 5 5
0.05% 3 kj/kwh 8

5.

2600MW
506m3/s
103.5Pa
9.144m
40
16
82.7kW

132kW;

kW

-20.1

30.29

-16.5

27.11

-7.3

45.00

3.1

86.96

11.4

52.22

16.7

65.91

19.8

94.06

17.6

94.43

11.0

93.41

10

2.3

60.73

-130-

11

-9.3

48.41

12

-15.5

30.83

4 P=60.78 kW

6.
1

3
4


4368
(P.C.):130021
(E-mail): huichao@nepdi.net
(Tel): 0431-85798434

-131-

Actual measurement of direct air cooling system and comparative analysis of


design data
HuiChao ,ShiZhikui ,WangWei
ACC Technology Center of China Power Engineering Consulting Group Co., Ltd.
No.4368 130021,Renmin Street,ChangChun City.

AbstractThe measures of the energy saving and exhaustion reducing of the domestic thermal
power generating units have been constantly enforced , as direct air cooling generating unit
direct air cooling system of main auxiliary systems also faced to enhance the level of energy
consumption and cost-reducing. Based on Actual measurement of direct air cooling system and
comparative analysis of design data, discussed the exhaust pipe, exhaust equipment and
frequency conversion fans of direct air cooling system influence on the design and operation of
the unit.
KeywordDirect air cooling

exhaust pipe

degree of supercooling energy-saving

1. Outline
Air cooling technology of power plant for its superior saving water performance and effective
solution to the contradiction between power development and relative lack of water resources,
has become the best choice for large capacity power plant between in coal-rich and area of water
shortage. In the past ten years, more and more large-capacity air-cooled units have been put into
operation, especially 1000MW of operation of direct air cooling unit, which has been a milestone
in the development of air-cooling technology in China. Meanwhile, in face of the grim situation
of energy saving and emission reduction, the domestic thermal power generating units,
energy-saving and consumption reduction will be constantly increased and energy saving and
emission reduction have become the one of the main tasks of each generation enterprises. The
direct air cooling system, as a main auxiliary systems of direct air cooling electricity generating
units, is also facing the issues energy saving and emission reduction.
2. Exhaust pipe resistance
Direct air cooling system of a 600MW power plant sub-supercritical adopts dual-row air cooled
condensers from exhaust equipment to outlet of counter flow bundles pressure test results are
as follows:

-132-

Working condition

Unit

420MW

510MW

600MW

TMCR

TRL

Load

MW

421.279

517.3

599.7

642.3

600

exhaust steam flow

t/h

885.6

1339.2

1600.9

1303.4

1349

Low pressure cylinder exhaust steam flow

kPa

19.373

28.442

32.058

13.1

32

exhaust device resistance


Actual measurement exhaust device resistance

kPa

0.121

0.423

0.727

0.586

0.359

Calculate the resistance of the exhaust device

kPa

0.072

0.115

0.146

0.225

0.104

Actual measurement and calculation difference

kPa

0.049

0.308

0.581

0.364

0.255

Actual measurement and calculation error

40

73

80

62

71

Exhaust pipe resistance


Measured average pipe resistance

kPa

0.254

0.404

0.643

0.785

0.517

Calculate average pipeline resistance

kPa

0.244

0.392

0.504

0.748

0.347

Actual measurement and calculation difference

kPa

0.01

0.012

0.139

0.037

0.17

Actual measurement and calculation error

21.6

4.7

33

Tube Bundle resistance


The measured resistance of flow tube bundle

kPa

0.446

0.562

0.74

1.1

0.717

Calculation of downstream tube bundle resistance

kPa

0.335

0.543

0.705

1.052

0.812

-133-

Flow actual measurement and calculation difference

kPa

0.111

0.019

0.035

0.048

-0.095

Flow actual measurement and calculation error

33

-12

The measured resistance of counter flow tube bundle

kPa

0.229

0.385

0.483

0.781

0.543

Calculation of counter flow tube bundle resistance

kPa

0.208

0.337

0.439

0.71

0.508

Counter Flow actual measurement and calculation difference

kPa

0.021

0.048

0.044

0.071

0.035

Counter Flow actual measurement and calculation error

10

14

10

10

The parameters of the TMCR and TRL operating conditions are as follows: using the measured
resistance correction.
Item
Design temperature
Design back-pressure

Unit
TMCR
Original unit design parameters
13

kPa
13.1

TRL
32
32

Design ITD

38.19
38.59
Design calculation system total
resistance
kPa
0.973
0.451
(Not containing tube bundle)
Air cooled condenser ITD

36.63
38.26
Design calculation of air cooling area
m2
1653379
1653379
Calculation of heat consumption
kJ/kWh
8087.07
8583
The coal consumption for power
g/kWh
302.96
321.54
generation
The power supply coal consumption
g/kWh
330.38
350.64
Annual consumption of coal
104 t/a
107.31
106.11
Under the condition of the original design of air cooling area of 1653379 m2, the correction of the measured
resistance is used.
Total resistance of the system after the
measured modification
kPa
1.371
0.876
not containing tube bundle
Unit back pressure
kPa
13.63
32.56
Air cooled condenser ITD

36.85
38.35
After Revising turbine heat rate
kJ/kWh
8097.57
8596.76
After Revising coal equivalent
g/kWh
303.36
322.06
calculation
After Revising power supply coal
g/kWh
330.81
351.21
consumption
After Revising Annual consumption of
107.45
106.28
104 t/a
coalstandard coal
under the original design of back pressure 13.1KPa/32 KPa, using the measured resistance to amend the
calculation of the air cooling area
Measured the amended air cooled

35.96
37.94
condenser ITD
Calculation of the air cooling area after
m2
1701395
1701395
the actual measurement
Relative to the original design increase
48016
48016
m2
area
Description1. Auxiliary Power consumption rate calculated by the 8.3% power supply coal consumption
2. Annual utilization hour by 5,500 hours calculations year coal consumption 3.TMCR generated power is
643989kw 4. TRL generated power is 600000kw

As stated above data calculating ,standard coal consumption of unit TMCR than design value
-134-

increase by 0.43 g/kw.h, TRL standard coal consumption than design value rose by 0.57g/kW.h
on the unit's economic influence is considerable. If you want to keep the original design back
pressure, need to add the cooling area of about two units.
3. Exhaust device resistance
In recent years, the design of the direct air cooling steam turbine generator in order to simplify
equipment and pipelines of the steam-water system , reducing exhaust pipes to thrust of low
pressure cylinder exhaust steam mouthmost exhaust equipment designed with deoxygenization
function. The advantage of the steam exhaust device is simplified system and deoxidizing effect
better. Disadvantage is the greater resistance of exhaust equipment, steam turbine plant produces
the design value is generally 0.1kPa.
Due to the exhaust unit is a square structure, and in the state of negative pressure the strength and
deformation must be set within a large number of forming three-dimensional lattice structure of
steel pipe supports, thus causing the resistance is too large, actual resistance far outweigh the
theoretical design value of factory provided.

Figure 3-1 The original structure model graph of the low pressure cylinder exhaust pipe.
Item
Unit
TMCR
TRL
Under the condition of the original design of air cooling area of 1653379 m2, cancel the exhaust equipment,
calculated by the measured force modified
Total resistance of the system after
canceling the exhaust device
kPa
0.785
0.517
not containing tube bundle
Canceling the back pressure of the unit of
kPa
12.83
32.05
exhaust device
Canceling exhaust device after air cooled
36.49
38.25

condenser ITD
Canceling the exhaust device after the
kJ/kWh
8081.94
8584.24
turbine heat rate.
Canceling the exhaust device after the
g/kWh
302.77
321.59
coal consumption of power generation
-135-

Canceling the exhaust device after the


g/kWh
330.17
350.69
power supply coal consumption
Canceling the exhaust device after annual
107.23
106.12
104 t/a
coal consumptionstandard coal
under the original design of back pressure 13.1KPa/32 KPa, cancel the exhaust equipment using the measured
resistance to amend the calculation of the air cooling area
Canceling exhaust device after air cooled
36.94
38.21

condenser ITD
Canceling exhaust device after calculating
1630162
1630162
m2
area of air cooling

Through the above actual measurement results and analytical calculation, resistance of exhaust
equipment is larger, so the canceling of the exhaust equipment can reduce the area of air cooled
heat exchanger or lower turbine back pressure, thereby improving the economy of air cooling
island. After removing exhaust equipment steam and water pipe system will be complex, but
investment of equipment and pipeline will not increase. If you select the appropriate vacuum
deaeration device, deaeration effect will be guaranteed.
4.Reduce supercooling
Due to the exhaust unit of direct air cooling through the exhaust steam device, exhaust steam
pipes, steam distribution pipe, air-cooled condenser and heat exchanger , along with the loss of
on-way and local resistance , the condensate water return water temperature is lower than the
corresponding saturation temperature of steam turbine exhaust pressure, which is the degree of
supercooling of direct air cooling system.
Taking 660MW supercritical direct air cooling steam turbine as an example, the main parameters
are changed:
NO.

Item

Contents

Output of power unitMW

660

660

660

660

Degree of supercooling

t/h

57.28

59.08

62.77

66.44

Turbine heat ratekJ/kwh

7869

7869

7870

7872

281.3

281.3

281.5

281.7

6752

6752

6757

6760

36.65%

36.65%

36.62%

36.60%

No 1 extraction flow of low pressure


3
4

Designing coal consuming of coal


5

qualityt/h
Designing coal consuming of coal

qualityt/d
Overall plant efficiencylow heating

7
valueDesign coal

From above calculation , supercooled degrees at about 1 , on unit efficiency basic no effect,
coal-fired volume also basically no difference; when degree of supercooling at 3 , unit
efficiency declines 0.03%, turbine hot consumption will increase 1 kJ/kWh and day coal-fired
-136-

volume increase around 5 tons; supercooled degrees in 5 , unit efficiency drop of 0.05%,
turbine hot consumption increased 3 kJ/kWh, day coal-fired volume increased 8 tons around. It
will have a certain influence on the Design indicators and future operation of the unit.
5.Using the inverter to adjust effectively fan operation parameters
The fan units are the major energy-consuming equipment of direct air cooling system most of
using the frequency conversion speed regulation in design, under ensuring back pressure
condition of the steam turbine, according to the four seasons difference in temperature, adjusting
the fan speed or reducing the number of running wind machines directly. The power
consumption of fan should be reduced.
A 2600MW subcritical direct air cooling units, air cooling machine configuration as follows:
Air volume506m3/s
Fan full pressure103.5Pa
Fan diameter9.144m
Parallel fan number40
Upstream fan number16
Shaft power82.7kW
Air cooling fan motor
Name plate rating132kW
According to the history data ,the average monthly power of actual operation of fans air cooler
fan in different months is as follows :
Month

Average temperature

Power of fankW

January

-20.1

30.29

February

-16.5

27.11

March

-7.3

45.00

April

3.1

86.96

May

11.4

52.22

June

16.7

65.91

July

19.8

94.06

August

17.6

94.43

September

11.0

93.41

October

2.3

60.73

November

-9.3

48.41

December

-15.5

30.83

Drawing average power curve of fan actual consumption for each month is as follow:

-137-

Figure5-1

Average power curve of each fan actual consumption for each month

According to table 5-1: single blower average power of year-round running: P=60.78 kW,
depending on the air cooling unit running different steam load and ambient temperature, By
means of the inverter regulating air cooled axial flow cooling fan speed, controlled starts and
stops benefits are obvious in the energy-saving field , and design data are basically consistent.
6. Conclusion
1Optimized arrangement of steam pipes and steam distribution pipe and of valves is reasonable,
making the steam distribution uniformity, reducing exhaust resistance in favor of energy-saving
operation.
2With regard to the design condition single-tube air cooler flow area is larger than double
row and third row to reduce the resistance of steam and condensate water supercooling degree is
lesser, the turbine back pressure is relatively low.
3Proposed new direct air cooling unit to cancel the exhaust device, which will set up separate
low vacuum deaerating heater.
4With regard to direct air cooling unit of the exhaust device, because the existing exhaust
device structure of the steam turbine manufacturers is not exactly the same, the turbine exhaust
steam and condensate return water have some contact, contact area is relatively small, no
obvious effect on reducing supercooling degree of condensate water, exhaust steam device
should be considered for making further improvements.
5Frequency converter regulates air cooled axial cooling fan speed controlling starts and stops
in the energy-saving benefits are obvious.
About the author:
Hui Chao ,director of air cooling technology center ,China Power Engineering Consulting Coopertation Group.
Post Address: No,4368,Renmin street,Changchun city.
(P.C.):130021
(E-mail): huichao@nepdi.net
(Tel): 0431-85798434

-138-

ImprovedACCperformance

AclientinTheNetherland
neededanACCreplacement

Howtoenhancetheperformance
withanacceptablepricelevel

Nexttothebasicdesignasperspecificationthe
followingwasrequested.
Improvedperformanceinsummer
Limitedperformancelossduetoairleakage
Nopitsforpumps
Limitedsteamductflowresistance.
Indoorlocationforpumpsandvalving
Freezeprotectionduringlowsteamsteamflows.
Vibrationmonitorringgearboxesinsteadofvibration
switches

Originalsituation

FanDrives
Designoffanmotorandgearboxwasbasedon
thespecifiedcapacity.
Foranamountof$3500. percellthegearboxes
andmotorswereupgradedfrom45kWto95kW
Theinverterswereprovidedbytheclientand
hadacapacityof150kW.

ThelocationforthenewACCwasbehingthe
exisitngACC.Thesteamducthadtoberouted
aroundtheoldACC.
AllequipmentaroundthenewACCwas
operationalduringtheentireproject.

Thefanwasinstalledinawaythatwith50Hz
Thespecifiedperformancewasguaranteed.
Byincreasingthefrequencyto60Hzmotorpower
became90kWwith61%moreairflow.

DuringwintertheairinletoftheACC
wasalmostcompletelyclosedtoreduce
theairflowasnowfancontrolwas
present.

Airleakage

Calculationexample

Astheturbinewasexistingandinoperationformanyyears,airleaksweretobeexpected.
Fromthethermalcalculationstheairtobeextractedwas5kg/h
Thesteamejectorsystemwasdesignedfor20kg/h.

ACCdata
Volume 200m3
Ambienttemp. 15C
Pressure 100MbarA
Extraction 5kg/h(HEI)
Leakrate100%duty
1000mBarx5kg/h =0.34mBar/min
200m3x1.22kg/m3x60
Thisisanidealsituation
Asmallamountofadditionalleakageandthe
extractiondutyisnotsufficient

Duringcommissioningwefoundanairleakof44mbarperminute.
Thiswastheequivalentof44/1000x100m3x0.075Barax60min=16.5kgair

Theextractioncouldmaintainthevacuuminanacceptableway.Leaving
afewblackspotsneartheextractionpoints.

-139-

Leakdetection

Locationonsite

Duringcommisioningtheclienthastobeconvincedthattheleakswerefromtheold
turbineandnottheACC.
Thiswasclearedbyusingaheliumdetectiontest

Thelocationwascompletelysurrounddwith
processequipment.
Manypipingandgroundcableswerefound.
Forthisreasontheconstructionofpitswas
notallowed.

Duetoalloperationalprocessequipment,250bar
storagetanks,liftingofsteamductswere
aspecialexercise
Allweldsontheductingweretested
withhelium.
Theleaksfoundwereintheturbinecasing
andglandsteamcondenser
ACCwascompletelytight.

LiftingofACC

Steamductdesign

Solutionwasfoundinthefollowing;
LiftingthecompleteACC2meters
Usingthedifferenceinpressureofthecondensatetank
andejectorsurfacecondensertosuckthecondensate
Fromthesurfacecondenserstothetankwhilecondenser
andtankwereinstalledatthesameheight.
FordrainpumpalowNPSH(0.17m)wasused,

DuetothepresenceoftheoldACCthesteamductwaslongerthan
normallyinstalled.
Thesolutionwasthincreasethediameteroftheduct,whichmeant
moreplatematerial.
Theincreaseindiameterwasfrom48to56inch.
Additionalplate1.2ton,price$2500.
Pressuredropdifference2mBar

Theresultwasasimplelayout,
maintenancefriendlyandreliable

Indoorlocationforpumpsandvalving,
andfreezeprotection

Vibrationmonitoringfananddrive.

Toprotectthesteamejectors,pumpsandvalvingagainsttheelement
andfreezinginwinter,aroomwasbuildaroundtheequipment.
Calculationsontheairflowtothefansshowedthattheadditional
airflowresistancewasminimal.
Allpipingtothisspacewasselfdraining
andneedednoheattracing

Asaspecialrequestfromtheclient
thevibrationswicheswerereplace
byvibrationsensors,contenuous
monitoringvibrations.
MakewasBenleyNevada.
TheDCSanalysiswasusedtostop
thefanduringheavyvibrations.
Thelocationofthesensorwas
verycriticalandwasfixedtogether
withthegearboxsupplier.
Moutingonthebaseplateor
Gearboxcasing,gave
4timesheaviervibrations

-140-

Contructionprocedures
Anexpensiveactivityduringconstructionwastheweldingofthesteam
ductontopofthebundles.
Thiswasduetosafetyproceduresforworkingontheinsideoftheduct.
Itwasdecidedtoweldthesteamductfromtheoutside.Eliminatingthe
safetycrewandfasterwelding.

-141-



10176

ABSTRACT: With the wide application of indirect air cooling systems, radiator freezing accidents become
constraints of indirect cooling systems performance and units safety. Main engines are confronted with high back
pressure and forced shut-down to restore frozen air cooling bundles, and then air cooling system takes no
advantage since the system shall perform steadily. Form a close loop of design, construction and adjustment, to
comprehensively analyze root cause to find breakthrough.
KEY WORD: indirect air-cooling systemradiator finned tubefreezinganti-freezing measures

1
Fig1 Indirect air-cooling system working principle schematic
-142-

,
,

2.1

2.2
1



2



3

-143-

3.1
1

30

Y -X
5.5,22.5

-144-

5-8-6-9-7-10

FATHOM

3.2
1

-145-

3.3
1
2

3
30 20% 10

N+1 N
1

5
,

2350MW
-36
2660MW -28

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

.[M]..1992
.[M]..2008
..
..
-146-

010-8785980115810082417
zhanglx@bjlylq.com.cn 11

-147-


1 1 1 2 3 1*
1. 28 710049
2. 29 210016
3. 8 030001
ypdai@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

2600 MW

[1]

[2]Gao[3]

Meyer and Krger[4]

[5]
Gu[6]

Zhao[7]
CFD
Van Staden[8]
Matimba
Rooyen[9]

Liu[10]

-148-

[11]

CFD2600 MW

2
2.1
2600 MW 112
1 9.144m

2(a) 180.8m
88.2m 45m 15m

ACSC

(a)

-149-

(b) 112
2

2600 MW

1122(b)716
A32
A60
3
30m1m2m3
A
A

900m900m300m294
6,670,000

(a) Lw=1 m

(b) Lw=2 m
3

2.2
SIMPLEk-
-150-

[12]

vx v y u z

t
x
y
z

S
x x y y z z

(1)

1, 0, S 0

T , / Pr t / T

x direction

vx , eff t , S

v
v
v
p
eff x eff y eff z +FX
x x
x y
x z
x

y direction

v y , eff t , S

v
v
v
p
eff x eff y eff z +FY
y x
y y
y z
y

z direction

vz , eff t , S

v
p
eff x
z x
z

v y
vz

y eff z z eff z FZ

k , t / k , S Gk +Gb

, t / , S

C1Gk C2 C1C3Gb

t eff

t C

k2

(2)

GbBoussinesq

t T
T z

(3)

1
T

(4)

Gb g
,

-151-

Gk

v 2 v 2 v 2 v v 2
2 x y z x y
x y z y x
Gk t

2
vx vz 2 v y vz


z x z y

C3
C

tan h

z
v

v
1
1 k-

C1

C2

0.09

1.44

1.92

0.85

1.0

1.3

FLUENT

p f 173.92 - 3.33vn - 0.61vn 2

(5)

pf vn

1
v f C v f 2
2

(6)

Cf

pe C

1
v f 2 n
2

(7)

n n=0.22 m
C=139.5

-152-

z
v v ( )0.2
w 10

(8)

vw =22.5
2

3
Lw=0m1m2m
306K101,325 Pa
TRL3msps
a
3 TRLACSC

ms (kg/s)

ps (kPa)

a (%)

738.5

29

96.4

ps (Pa)
820

Lwvm = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 m/s
22.5LwLw

3.1
112
Lw
-153-

5 2 m/s 10 m/s Lw 1
1 [1]
Lw 1
Lw
1 vm= 10 m/s
vm= 2 m/s Lw

/%

1.15

1.15

1.10

1.10

1.05

1.05

1.00

1.00

Lw=0m

0.95

0.95

Lw=1m
Lw=2m

0.90

0.90

0.85

0.85

0.80

0.80
1

(a) vm= 2 m/s

/%

1.1

1.1

1.0

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

Lw=0m
Lw=1m

0.7

0.7

Lw=2m

0.6

0.6
0.5

0.5

0.4

0.4
1

(b) vm= 10 m/s


5

2 m/s 10 m/s Lw 6
=22.5
Y
vm= 10 m/s
vm= 2 m/s

-154-

/%

10

11

12 13

14

15 16

1.08

1.08

1.06

1.06

1.04

1.04

1.02

1.02

1.00

1.00

0.98

Lw=0m

0.98

0.96

Lw=1m

0.96

0.94

Lw=2m

0.94
0.92

0.92

0.90

0.90
1

10

11

12 13

14

15 16

(a) vm= 2 m/s

/%

10 11 12 13

14 15 16

0.96

0.96

0.94

0.94

0.92

0.92

0.90

0.90

0.88

0.88

0.86

0.86

0.84

0.84
0.82

0.82
0.80

Lw=0m

0.80

0.78

Lw=1m

0.78

0.76

Lw=2m

0.76
0.74

0.74
1

10 11 12 13

14 15 16

(b) vm= 10 m/s


6

7 Lw 112 Vt Vt Lw Vt
Lw vm= 2 m/s Vt Lw=0 m 53608.8 m3/s Lw=2 m 54751.8
m3/s a 1143 m3/s vm= 10 m/s Vt Lw=0 m 44143.3 m3/s Lw=2 m
46414.2 m3/s a 1997.9 m3/s

/(m3/s)

10

56000

56000

54000

54000

52000

Lw=0m

50000

Lw=2m

52000

Lw=1m

50000

48000

48000

46000

46000

44000

44000
2

/(m/s)

10

-155-

3.2

A
32 8 32

/(MW)

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

55

55

54

54

53

53

52

52

Lw=0m

51

51

Lw=1m
Lw=2m

50

49
0

50

49
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

(a) vm= 2 m/s

/(MW)

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

54

54

52

52

50

50

48

48

46

46

44

44

42

42

Lw=0m

40
38

Lw=1m

40

Lw=2m

38

36
0

36
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

(b) vm= 10 m/s


8

1 1
vm= 2 m/s vm= 10 m/s vm= 2 m/s
Lw Lw= 0 m 52.94 MW Lw= 2 m 53.75 MW

vm= 10 m/s Lw
1 Lw Lw
Lw
Lw= 0 m 45.72 MW Lw= 2 m 46.88 MW
-156-


9 Qt Lw vm= 2
m/s Qt Lw=0 m 1694.0 MW Lw=2 m 1720.1 MW 26.1 MW vm= 10 m/s
Qt Lw=0 m 1462.9 MW Lw=2 m 1500.3 MW 37.4 MW

10
1750

1750

Lw=0m

1700

1700

Lw=1m
Lw=2m

/(MW)

1650

1650

1600

1600

1550

1550

1500

1500

1450

1450
2

10

/(m/s)

pb 10
TRL
TRL pbpb vm= 2 m/s
27.3 kPa 25.7 kPa vm= 10 m/s 47.5 kPa 41.1 kPa

10

50

50

Lw=0m

45

45

Lw=1m
Lw=2m

/(kPa)

40

40

35

35

30

30

25

25

10

/(m/s)

10

4
2600 MW

1.

2.

-157-

3.

[1] He W F, Dai Y P, Wang J F, et al. Performance prediction of an air-cooled steam condenser using UDF
method[J]. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2013, 50(1):13391350.
[2] Liu P, Duan H, Zhao W. Numerical investigation of hot air recirculation of air-cooled condensers at a
large power plant[J]. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2009, 29(10):1927-1934.
[3] X GaoC ZhangJ WeiB Yu. Numerical simulation of heat transfer performance of an air-cooled steam
condenser in a thermal power plant[J]. Heat Mass Transfer, 2009, 45:14231433.
[4] Meyer C J, Kr02ger D G. Air-cooled heat exchanger inlet flow losses[J]. Applied Thermal Engineering,
2001, 21:771786.
[5] He W, Dai Y, Ma Q, et al. Numerical Investigation of Hot Air Recirculation in an Air-Cooled Steam
Condenser Under Ambient Conditions[C]// ASME 2011 Power Conference collocated with JSME ICOPE
2011. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2011:367-373.
[6] Gu Z, Chen X, Lubitz W, et al. Wind tunnel simulation of exhaust recirculation in an air-cooling system at
a large power plant[J]. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 2007, 46:308317.
[7] Zhao W S, Wang S L, Gao Y F, et al. Numerical Simulation and Analysis of the Hot Air Recirculation
Phenomenon Observed in Direct Air-Cooling Systems[J]. Journal of Power Engineering, 2007,
27(4):487-481.
[8] Van Staden, 1995. Numerical modeling of the effects of ambient conditions on large power station air
cooled steam condensers. American Society of Mechianical Engineering, 221, pp. 145-150.
[9] Kr, J A V R G, ger. Performance trends of an air-cooled steam condenser under windy conditions[J].
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines & Power, 2008, 130(2):277-285.
[10] Liu P, Duan H, Zhao W. Numerical investigation of hot air recirculation of air-cooled condensers at a
large power plant[J]. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2009, 29(10):1927-1934.
[11] He W, Dai Y, Ma Q. Numerical Investigation and Performance Optimization of an Air-Cooled Steam
Condenser Cell Under Ambient Conditions[C]// ASME 2011 Turbo Expo: Turbine Technical Conference
and Exposition. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2011:2061-2068.
[12] He W F, Dai Y P, Li M Q, et al. Influence mechanism on flow and heat transfer characteristics for
air-cooled steam condenser cells[J]. Heat & Mass Transfer, 2012, 48(9):1663-1674.

13259737743turbineyy@163.com
ypdai@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

-158-

Numerical investigation of the internal walkway in the air cooled steam


condenser
Yi Yanga, Jiaying Wanga, Yi Wua, Weifeng Heb, Longying Zhangc, Yiping Daia*
a. Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, China
b. Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016, China
c. Shanxi Electric Power Research Institute, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001, China
*E-mail address: ypdai@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

AbstractAir cooled steam condensers (ACSCs) have been widely used to reject waste heat in
power industry to save water resources. The performance of ACSC is always influenced by the
ambient conditions, resulting in the hot air recirculation and reducing the air cooled condenser
effectiveness. Thus, wind walls are extensively popularized to reduce the hot air recirculation.
However, wind walls also result in the hot air gathering between wind walls and the exchangers,
reducing volume flow rates of fans. As a result, the flow field around 2600 MW direct air
cooled power plant at different wind speeds is numerically simulated, to investigate the
performance of ACSC under the influence of the space between wind walls and edge exchangers,
namely, the internal walkway. Three appointed parameters, volumetric effectiveness, heat
transfer rate and back pressure are chosen to evaluate the internal walkway effects. It is found
that the increasing internal walkway width leads to an increase in volumetric effectiveness of
fans, especially edge fans near wind walls. Heat transfer rate of the whole air cooled condenser
also enhances with the internal walkway width. Finally, the back pressure, according to the
comparison between the computational heat transfer rate and the ideal heat rejection, drops as the
internal walkway width increases.
Keywords: Air cooled steam condenser; wind wall; internal walkway
1Introduction
As the cooling work medium of the thermal power plant, plenty of water is pumped to cool the
waste heat from the turbine exhaust. However, in the water-deficient area, limited water can not
satisfy the power industry. As a result, it is necessary to popularize the air cooling technology,
especially the direct air cooling technology in the places which are rich of coal but lack of
water[1].
In air cooled steam condensers, turbine exhaust condensates in the finned tube exchangers, while
the ambient air generated by forced draft axial fans flows outside. Thus, Wind conditions
including the wind speed, the wind direction and the ambient temperature around the ACSC
platform, are the main factors influencing the normal operation of the ACSC[2]. Gao[3] studied the
effects of ambient wind speed and direction, the air-cooled platform height, and the location of
the main factory building and terrain condition. The results show that the direct factors affecting
the ACSC performance are hot air recirculation and the reduction of cooling air flow rate through
the axial flow fan. Meyer and Krger[4] simulated the flow field in the vicinity of an axial flow
fan, and the comparison of the numerical results with experimental data indicated the accuracy of
the fan model in its prediction of the axial fan performance characteristics.
Hot air recirculation increases the temperature of the fan inlet and deteriorates the heat transfer
environment between the turbine exhaust and the ambient air[5]. In order to reduce the influence
of wind conditions and the hot air recirculation, wind walls are widely adopted so as to promote
the efficiency of the ACSC. Gu[6] described a method of simulating exhaust air recirculation at an
-159-

ACSC platform using a wind tunnel, and applied to a proposed ACSC addition at an existing
power plant. It was found that wind speed and the height of an ACSC platform have a significant
impact on recirculation. Wind direction was also found to be significant, due to the interference
of the buildings adjacent to the ACSC platform. Zhao[7] simulated the hot air recirculation
phenomenon, and analyzed the causes of the hot air recirculation and its influence on air-cooled
units with the help of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The results indicated that
the hot air recirculation was provoked by the arrangement of the air-cooled island and the
environmental condition around the direct air-cooled system, especially the strong wind. Van
Staden[8] simulated the effect of ambient conditions nearby the Matimba power station. The
effects of the hot air recirculation on the fan performance and the steam turbine backpressure
were predicted, and the effects of the wind speed and the wind direction on the cooling
efficiency of the ACSC were discussed. It was found that the cooling efficiency and the turbine
backpressure were very sensitive to the wind speed and wind direction. Rooyen[9] investigated
the performance trend and thermal-flow characteristics about and through the ACSC. The model
analyzed showed that wind does influenced the performance of an ACSC significantly. The flow
distortions and corresponding low-pressure region at the upstream edge fans contributed mainly
to the net decrease in the ACSC performance as the wind speed was increased, but the wind had
a positive influence on certain fans. Due to the relatively high wind wall, the effect of plume air
recirculation was shown to have a small influence on the effectiveness. Liu[10] considered the
effects of different wind speed and wind direction on the hot air recirculation under the constant
ambient temperature qualitatively by applying the concept of the hot recirculation rate. The
mechanism of occurrence of hot air recirculation were presented and analyzed. It was found that
when considering about the existing and normally operating power plants, the hot air
recirculation is more sensitive to wind direction and wind speed. Thus, two improved measures
increasing the wind-wall height and accelerating the rotational speed of the fans near the edge of
the ACC platform were developed to effectively reduce the hot air recirculation.
Although much research has been devoted to the disadvantage of the hot air recirculation and the
effect of wind walls, little research has been done on the optimization of wind walls. On the one
hand, wind walls can prevent the hot air from being drawn back into the fan and suppressed the
hot air recirculation. On the other hand, wind walls influence the normal outflow of the hot air
from the exchangers because the hot air gathers between wind walls and the exchangers,
resulting in a decrease of the volumetric effectiveness[11]. To some extent, the performance of
wind walls depends on the internal walkway, the space between wind walls and heat exchangers.
Thus, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the effect of the interval between the wind wall and
edge heat exchangers, namely the internal walkway width, on the ACSC performance. A
numerical model of a 2600 MW power plant is established in the current investigation to
simulate the flow field around the ACSC with the help of computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
software. The influence of the internal walkway is emphatically analyzed, and the corresponding
mechanism is illustrated. The result provides references for the design of direct air-cooled steam
condensers wind walls.
2.Physical model and numerical method
2.1physical model and computational grids
For a 2600 MW power plant, the forced draft condenser consists of 112 ACSC cells. Fig. 1
shows the structure of the ACSC cell, and it is made up of an axial-flow fan, 9.144m in diameter,
and several single finned tube exchangers. As mentioned above, turbine exhaust flows into the
exchangers along the steam duct while ambient air flows outside under the forced draft effect of
-160-

the fan. Fig. 2(a) shows the geometry structure of the power plant, and the turbine and boiler
houses are located next to the platform. The ACSC platform, 45 m in height, covers a plot area of
180.8 m88.2 m. Wind walls, 15 m in height, are equipped to prevent the hot air recirculation.

Fig. 1 Representative structure of the air-cooled steam condenser cell.

Boiler houses
Turbine
houses

ACSC

Wind
walls

(a) geometry structure of the power plant

(b) arrangement of 112 ACSC cells in the platform


Fig. 2 Geometric model of the ACSC platform in a 2600 MW power plant.

The arrangement of 112 ACSC cells, arranged in 7 rows16 columns, is presented in Fig. 2(b),
and it is assumed that each A-frame configuration along the row direction of the condenser has
two large heat exchangers. So there are totally 32 heat exchangers in the current ACSC, and the
angle of the A-frame configuration is 60.

-161-

Our objective of this paper is to obtain the changing laws of the ACSC performance at different
internal walkway width, Lw, the interval between the wind wall and heat exchangers. Thus, three
internal walkway width, Lw=0 m, 1 m, 2 m, are selected, and the corresponding schematic
diagrams are presented in Fig. 3.
Flow field around the ACSC should be concentrated upon, and the mesh inside the A-frame
configuration, fan drum and exchanger zones is refined. Non-conformal mesh is applied between
the fan drum outlet and the inlet of the A-frame configuration to raise the mesh quality.
Interfaces are applied to ensure that the physical quantities will transport exactly. Wedge-shaped
grids are widely utilized around the ACSC platform due to the complicated structure, and grids
in the other regions are all structured. The whole domain, 900m900m300m, contains about
6,670,000 grid elements in total, and it is divided into 294 volumes to raise the grid quality.
Qualified mesh guarantees the convergence and accuracy of the problem according to the CFD
theory.

(a) Lw=1 m

(b) Lw=2 m
Fig. 3 Top view of the ACSC platform.

2.2 Numerical method and boundary conditions


The SIMPLE algorithm is implemented in FLUENT for a steady-state solution. Turbulence is
modeled using the standard k- model. Buoyancy effect is considered during simulation.
Governing equations are the mathematical description of the conservation laws. The general
governing equations are as follows[12]:

vx v y u z

t
x
y
z


S
x x y y z z

(1)

where stands for different variables, the corresponding generalized diffusion coefficient and
-162-

S the corresponding source term.


For the continuity equation:

1, 0, S 0
For the energy equation:

T , / Pr t / T
For the momentum equation:
x direction

vx , eff t , S

v
v
v
p
eff x eff y eff z +FX
x x
x y
x z
x

y direction

v y , eff t , S

v
v
v
p
eff x eff y eff z +FY
y x
y y
y z
y

z direction

vz , eff t , S

v
p
eff x
z x
z

v y

y eff z


vz
eff
FZ
z
z

For k equation:

k , t / k , S Gk +Gb
For equation:

C1Gk C2 C1C3Gb
k
where is the viscosity, t the turbulent viscosity, and eff the effective turbulent viscosity.
, t / , S

t C

k2

(2)

Gb represents the generation of turbulent kinetic energy due to buoyancy effect which is
caused by temperature variations in the flow domain, and density is treated as a constant value in
all the governing equations except for the buoyancy term in the momentum equations using the
Boussinesq mode.

Gb g

t T
T z

(3)

is the thermal expansion coefficient, and can be defined as:

1
T

(4)

Gk is a term which generates because of turbulence kinetic energy k caused by the gradient of the average
velocity.

-163-

v 2 v 2 v 2 v v 2
2 x y z x y
x y z y x
Gk t

2
vx vz 2 v y vz


z x z y

C3 is constant determining the degree to which is affected by the buoyancy.


C

tan h

z
v

where v is the component of the flow velocity perpendicular to the gravitational vector.
According to the recommended value, the empirical constants which appear in the turbulence
equations are assigned the values shown in Table 1:
Table 1 Values of the constants in the turbulence equations
C

C1

C2

0.09

1.44

1.92

0.85

1.0

1.3

FAN boundary condition in FLUENT is applied to simulate the pressure jump when the air flows
through the rotor. The fan surface located at the center of the wind tube, and the performance
curve is fitted according to the supplied information by the fan manufacture:
p f 173.92 - 3.33vn - 0.61vn 2

(5)

where pf is the pressure rise; vn is the normal velocity to the fan surface.
The mechanical energy loss resulting from the fin tube exchangers (corresponding pressure drop)
is taken into account by a viscous and an inertial loss with porous media model. The flow loss
term added to Navier-Stokes equations can be defined by:

1
S v f C v f 2
(6)
2

where is the dynamic viscosity; is the permeability; is the density; C is the inertial loss
coefficient; f is the frontal velocity. In the paper, only the inertial loss is considered during the
simulation, and the corresponding pressure drop is expressed:
1
pe C v f 2 n
(7)
2
where n is the thickness of the exchanger. n=0.22 m. Experimental results on the exchanger
resistance are employed to determine the coefficient, C=139.5.
Table 2 Details of the boundary conditions of the investigated numerical model
Items

Boundary conditions

-164-

Domain inlet

Velocity inlet

Domain outlet

Pressure outlet

Ground

Wall with ambient temperature

Side surfaces

Symmetry

Top surfaces

Symmetry

Turbine exhaust condensing in the exchangers is affected by the ambient conditions. The
temperature, pressure, specific heat and other physic parameters of the steam are all variable
during condensation. The complex calculation makes it very difficult to simulate the
condensation. As a result, UDF based on the actual water and steam property is utilized to
simulate the condensation of the steam in the fin tube exchangers. The turbine exhaust turns to
be saturated liquid water at first and then to be sub-cooled if possible. The heat exchanger is
consider to be fluid zone during simulation, and heat release in each grid is obtained initially and
then the sum of the grid release is just the total heat transfer rate between the ambient and the
turbine exhaust.
The computational domain is shown in Fig. 4. The entrance of the domain is treated to be a
velocity inlet under wind conditions, and the exponential wind speed distribution is applied:
z
(8)
v v ( )0.2
w 10
where vw is the wind speed at the height of the measuring location. As the design wind conditions,
the local prevailing wind at
22.5 is considered during the numerical simulation. The details
of the boundary conditions are shown in Table 2.

Fig. 4 Boundary conditions of the investigated computational domain including the air-cooled steam
condenser.

3. Results and discussion

In order to obtain the impact of the internal walkway width on the effectiveness of the ACSC,
the ACSC performance at 3 different Lw, 0 m, 1 m, 2 m, are discussed in this paper. In addition,
the atmosphere pressure pa is 101,325 Pa and the ambient temperature Tw is 306 K.
It is assumed that the power plant operates at the turbine rating load (TRL) mode initially, and
the exhaust steam parameters are shown in Table 3. So the steam parameters including mass flow
-165-

rate, ms, pressure, ps, and quality a, in the table are set to be the initial state of the steam flowing
into every exchanger zone in the numerical model and the flow loss is also considered.
Table 3 Steam parameters of the ACSC under TRL mode
Item

ms (kg/s)

ps (kPa)

a (%)

Value

738.5

29

96.4

ps (Pa)
820

Five wind speeds, vm = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 m/s, are involved in the simulation to investigate the
enhancing effect of Lw at various ambient conditions. The wind direction, , is chosen to be 22.5
in this paper, and different wind directions will be studied in the future research. The following
statements discuss and analyze the influences of the Lw on the volumetric effectiveness, heat
transfer rate and back pressure in the air-cooled steam condenser.
3.1 Fan volumetric effectiveness

For the ACSC consisting of 112 cells, cell performance including the fan flow rate is inevitably
different from each other. Volumetric effectiveness is used to characterize the influence of Lw,
and it is the actual fan volume flow rate, V, divided by the ideal fan volume rate, Vid. Fig. 5
shows the impact of Lw on the row volumetric effectiveness under two wind speeds, 2 m/s and 10
m/s. The volumetric effectiveness of the 1st row is the lowest, because the 1st row, which is the
windward row, is very sensitive to the wind speeds [1]. Obviously, the volumetric effectiveness
of all seven rows increases with an increase in Lw, and the 1st row volumetric effectiveness
enhances more observably than other rows, as it is the windward row closest to the wind wall.
The internal walkway width affects edge fans near wind walls directly, and an increase in Lw
weakens the hot air gathering effect between wind walls and edge fans, thus, leading to a larger
raised degree at the 1st row. The increasing amplitude of the average row volumetric
effectiveness at vm= 10 m/s, is larger than that at vm= 2 m/s. It means that effectiveness at high
wind speeds is more sensitive to Lw, and the internal walkway should be paid more attention at
strong wind region.
1

1.15

1.15

1.10

1.10

1.05

1.05

V/Vid

1.00

1.00

Lw=0m

0.95

0.95

Lw=1m
Lw=2m

0.90

0.90

0.85

0.85

0.80

0.80
1

Row number

(a) vm= 2 m/s

-166-

V/Vid

1.1

1.1

1.0

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

Lw=0m
Lw=1m

0.7

0.7

Lw=2m

0.6

0.6
0.5

0.5

0.4

0.4
1

Row number

(b) vm= 10 m/s


Fig. 5 Row volumetric effectiveness of the ACSC under the effect of internal walkway width at two different
wind speeds.

The impact of Lw on the column volumetric effectiveness under two wind speeds, 2 m/s and 10
m/s, is presented in Fig. 6. It can be found that the changing amplitude of column volumetric
effectiveness is smaller than that of row volumetric effectiveness. The wind speeds at the wind
angle,
22.5, has a large Y component in the model, perpendicular to the column direction,
thus, leading to the large changing amplitude of row volumetric effectiveness. As the same as the
changing law of row volumetric effectiveness, we can observe that the 1st column volumetric
effectiveness increasing amplitude is larger than other columns, for the 1st column is closest to
the wind wall. The increasing amplitude of the average column volumetric effectiveness at vm=
10 m/s is larger than that at vm= 2 m/s. So, Lw is significant to the direct air cooled steam
condenser at strong wind region, and it should be taken into account in the design for the air
cooled power plants.

V/Vid

10

11

12 13

14

15 16

1.08

1.08

1.06

1.06

1.04

1.04

1.02

1.02

1.00

1.00

0.98

Lw=0m

0.98

0.96

Lw=1m

0.96

0.94

Lw=2m

0.94
0.92

0.92

0.90

0.90
1

10

11

Column number

(a) vm= 2 m/s

-167-

12 13

14

15 16

V/Vid

10 11 12 13

14 15 16

0.96

0.96

0.94

0.94

0.92

0.92

0.90

0.90

0.88

0.88

0.86

0.86

0.84

0.84
0.82

0.82
0.80

Lw=0m

0.80

0.78

Lw=1m

0.78

0.76

Lw=2m

0.76
0.74

0.74
1

10 11 12 13

14 15 16

Column number

(b) vm= 10 m/s


Fig. 6 Column volumetric effectiveness of the ACSC under the effect of internal walkway width at two
different wind speeds.

Fig.7 illustrates the influence of internal walkway width on the total air volume of 112 fans. We
can see that the total air volume, Vt, is correlated with Lw, and an increase in Lw leads to an
increase in Vt. In the case vm= 2 m/s, the increasing amplitude of Vt reaches 1143 m3/s, from
53608.8 m3/s at Lw=0 m to 54751.8 m3/s at Lw=2 m. In the case vm= 10 m/s, the increasing
amplitude of Vt reaches 1997.9 m3/s, from 44143.3 m3/s at Lw=0 m to 46414.2 m3/s at Lw=2 m.
Therefore, an appropriate internal walkway width significantly improved the total air volume.

Vt/(m3/S)

10

56000

56000

54000

54000

52000

Lw=0m

50000

Lw=2m

52000

Lw=1m

50000

48000

48000

46000

46000

44000

44000
2

wind speed/(m/s)

10

Fig. 7 The total air volume of 112 fans under the effect of internal walkway width at five different wind
speeds.

The figures mentioned above discuss and analyze the influence of the internal walkway width on
the volumetric effectiveness under different wind speeds comprehensively. The simulated
changing laws indicate that the internal walkway can reduce adverse effects of the hot air
gathering effect resulted from the wind wall, and increase the operating performance of the direct
air cooled steam condenser, especially edge ACSC cells. Thus, it could provide some guidance to
-168-

the design of the direct air cooled steam condenser so that the power plant will operate at a more
efficient condition.
3.2 heat transfer rate and back pressure

As the volume flow rate increases with the internal walkway width, the heat transfer rate of the
air cooled condenser also changes due to the volume flow rate varying. It has been assumed
above that each A-frame configuration along the row direction of the condenser has two large
heat exchangers. So there are totally 32 heat exchangers in the current ACSC. Fig. 8 displays the
influence of internal walkway width on heat transfer rate of 32 heat exchangers, and the odd
number is windward heat transfer while the even number is leeward heat transfer. As adjacent
heat exchangers are windward and leeward respectively, the heat transfer rate of adjacent heat
exchangers fluctuate significantly. More notable is that the heat transfer rate of each heat
exchanger not always rises when the internal walkway width increases, because the internal
walkway width not only affects the volume flow rate but also the temperature distribution at the
inlet of fans and the outlet of exchangers. Obviously, we can obtain that the 1st heat exchanger
heat transfer rate increases markedly with Lw at both vm= 2 m/s and vm= 10 m/s, as it is the
windward heat exchanger nearest to the wind wall. Almost all heat exchangers heat transfer
rates rises due to the increasing Lw at vm= 2 m/s. The average heat transfer rate of all heat
exchangers rises from 52.94 MW to 53.75 MW when Lw is from 0 m to 2 m. It indicates that
within a reasonable range, a large internal walkway width could enhance the heat transfer rate of
each heat exchanger at low wind speeds, resulting in the increasing heat transfer rate of the
whole air cooled condenser. However, not all heat exchangers heat transfer rate rises with Lw at
vm= 10 m/s. All heat transfer rate of windward heat exchangers except the 1st one decreases as Lw
rises, while all heat transfer rate of leeward heat exchangers increases. It means that increasing
Lw enhances the fluctuation of adjacent heat transfer rates. The average heat transfer rate of all
heat exchangers rises from 45.72 MW to 46.88 MW when Lw is from 0 m to 2 m. We could
conclude that the within a reasonable range, a large internal walkway width could enhance the
heat transfer rate of whole air cooled condenser at high wind speeds, but not each heat
exchangers heat transfer rate.

Heat transfer rate/(MW)

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

55

55

54

54

53

53

52

52

Lw=0m

51

51

Lw=1m
Lw=2m

50

49
0

50

49
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

Heat exchanger number

(a) vm= 2 m/s

-169-

Heat transfer rate/(MW)

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

54

54

52

52

50

50

48

48

46

46

44

44

42

42

Lw=0m

40
38

Lw=1m

40

Lw=2m

38

36
0

36
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

Heat exchanger number

(b) vm= 10 m/s


Fig. 8 Heat transfer rate of 32 heat exchangers under the effect of internal walkway width at two different wind
speeds.

Fig. 9 depicts the influence of internal walkway width on the total heat transfer rate of all 112
cells. It is found that the total heat transfer rate, Qt, is correlated with Lw, and an increase in Lw
leads to an increase in Qt. In the case vm= 2 m/s, the increasing amplitude of Qt reaches 26.1 MW,
from 1694.0 MW at Lw=0 m to 1720.1 MW at Lw=2 m. In the case vm= 10 m/s, the increasing
amplitude of Qt reaches 37.4 MW, from 1462.9 MW at Lw=0 m to 1500.3 MW at Lw=2 m. Thus,
within reasonable limits, a large internal walkway width could improve the heat transfer rate of
the whole air cooled condenser at both low wind speeds and high wind speeds.
2

10
1750

1750

Lw=0m

1700

1700

Lw=1m
Lw=2m

Qt/(MW)

1650

1650

1600

1600

1550

1550

1500

1500

1450

1450
2

Wind speed/(m/s)

10

Fig. 9 The total heat transfer rate of 112 cells under the effect of internal walkway width at five different wind
speeds.

The changing law of back pressure, pb, is shown in Fig. 10 under the effect of internal walkway
width. The back pressure of the ACSC is completely determined by the heat transfer status
between the ambient air and the turbine exhaust in the finned tube exchangers. The ACSC can
operate stably if the ideal heat rejection at the TRL case can be carried away by the ambient air
around. So, pb is achieved by iterating many times until the computational heat transfer rate is
equal to the ideal heat rejection at the TRL case. pb drops from 27.3 kPa to 25.7 kPa at vm= 2 m/s
and from 47.5 kPa to 41.1 kPa at vm= 10 m/s. It could be conclude that the back pressure will fall
-170-

with a large internal walkway width in a reasonable range, leading to the high operating
economy for the air cooled power plant.
2

10

50

50

Lw=0m

45

45

Lw=1m
Lw=2m

pb/(kPa)

40

40

35

35

30

30

25

25

Wind speed/(m/s)

10

Fig. 10 The back pressure under the effect of internal walkway width at five different wind speeds.

4. Conclusions

In the paper, a detailed numerical model of a 2600 MW air cooled power plant is established.
Performance of the axial fan and exchangers is described with the supplied experimental data by
the manufacture, and flow field around the air cooled condenser is simulated. The changing laws
of fan volumetric effectiveness, heat transfer rate and back pressure is obtained at three
appointed internal walkway width under different wind speeds:
1. The effect of the internal walkway width is remarkable to the volumetric effectiveness of
fans, especially edge fans near wind walls. In a certain cope, an increase in the internal walkway
width could weaken the hot air gathering effect between wind walls and edge fans, and increase
the volumetric flow rate of the whole air cooled condenser. In addition, the volumetric
effectiveness is more sensitive to the internal walkway width at high wind speeds.
2. The changing law of the heat transfer rate is more complicated. All heat exchangers heat
transfer rates could rise at low wind speeds with the increasing internal walkway width, but only
leeward heat exchangers could rise at high wind speeds. In general, an increasing internal
walkway width could enhance the heat transfer rate of the whole air cooled condenser at both
low wind speeds and high wind speeds.
3. The back pressure also could drop as the internal width rises, especially at high wind speeds,
reducing the temperature of turbine exhaust directly, and promoting the operating economy for
the air cooled power plant.
The work analyzes the influence mechanism resulting from the internal walkway width on the
numerical model, and the related results show significance for the design of an air cooled power
plant.
References
[1] He, W. F., Dai, Y. P., Wang, J. F., Li, M. Q., & Ma, Q. Z. (2013). Performance prediction of an air-cooled
steam condenser using udf method. Applied Thermal Engineering, 50(1), 13391350.
-171-

[2] Liu, P., Duan, H., & Zhao, W. (2009). Numerical investigation of hot air recirculation of air-cooled
condensers at a large power plant. Applied Thermal Engineering, 29(10), 1927-1934.
[3] Gao, X., Zhang, C., Wei, J., Yu, B. (2009). Numerical simulation of heat transfer performance of an
air-cooled steam condenser in a thermal power plant. Heat Mass Transfer, 45, 14231433.
[4] Meyer, C. J., Kr02ger, D. G. ( 2001). Air-cooled heat exchanger inlet flow losses. Applied Thermal
Engineering, 21, 771786.
[5] He, W., Dai, Y., Ma, Q., & Xie, D. (2011). Numerical Investigation of Hot Air Recirculation in an
Air-Cooled Steam Condenser Under Ambient Conditions. ASME 2011 Power Conference collocated with
JSME ICOPE 2011 (pp.367-373). American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
[6] Gu, Z., Chen, X., Lubitz, W., Li, Y., & Luo, W. (2007). Wind tunnel simulation of exhaust recirculation in
an air-cooling system at a large power plant. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 46, 308317.
[7] Zhao, W. S., Wang, S. L., Gao, Y. F., & Cui, N. (2007). Numerical simulation and analysis of the hot air
recirculation phenomenon observed in direct air-cooling systems. Journal of Power Engineering, 27(4),
487-481.
[8] Van Staden, 1995. Numerical modeling of the effects of ambient conditions on large power station air
cooled steam condensers. American Society of Mechianical Engineering, 221, pp. 145-150.
[9] Kr, J. A. V. R. G., & ger. (2008). Performance trends of an air-cooled steam condenser under windy
conditions. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines & Power, 130(2), 277-285.
[10] Liu, P., Duan, H., & Zhao, W. (2009). Numerical investigation of hot air recirculation of air-cooled
condensers at a large power plant. Applied Thermal Engineering, 29(10), 1927-1934.
[11] He, W., Dai, Y., & Ma, Q. (2011). Numerical Investigation and Performance Optimization of an
Air-Cooled Steam Condenser Cell Under Ambient Conditions. ASME 2011 Turbo Expo: Turbine
Technical Conference and Exposition (pp.2061-2068). American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
[12] He, W. F., Dai, Y. P., Li, M. Q. (2012). et al. Influence mechanism on flow and heat transfer
characteristics for air-cooled steam condenser cells. Heat & Mass Transfer, 2012, 48(9), 1663-1674.

-172-

210046

Co-ah

60% 19% 21% 2


1 2 135MW
12 173.94
7.61 336.85

200MW 40% 60%


[1]
[2] 1

100
75.5

80
61.5
60

69.5
63

57.5

52.5

60
50.5

40
20
0

[3-4]
[5] Co-ah
NCB[6-7]

[8]

[1,2,9]
Co-ah

-173-

2
2.1
Co-ah

2.2
2 2 135MW

#1

#2

#1

#1

#2

Co-ah

Co-ah 40 12
22kPa15kPa 1 2
1 73.9MW2
53.5MW
2.3
3 [10-11]
12

-174-

2 3
1 1 1 2

3 Co-ah
1 [12]

4 2
2 1

3.

3.1
3.1.1

Qr

(t4 t1 ) G1 4.1868
3600

Qr MW G1 t/h t4
t1
3.1.2

QZ

G2 (h f hc )

3600

QZ MW G2 t/h h f
kJ/kg hc kJ/kg

-175-

3.1.3

Q f Qr QZ

Q f MW
3.1.4

Qr ( rb )

(t4 t2 ) G1 4.1868
3600

Qr ( rb ) MW t2 2

3.1.5

Qr ( yr 2) Qr Qr ( rb )

Qr ( yr 2) #2 MW
3.1.6 #1

Qr ( yr1) Q f Qr ( yr 2)

Qr ( yr1) #1 MW
3.1.7

1
2
3#1
4#2
3.2
1
0.21%
1

41.93

41.25

m3/h

4532.60

4532.49

52.82

53.19

#2

kPa

15.26

15.55

#2

MW

56.90

62.44

MPa

0.25

0.25

239.98

240.46

126.13

126.41

t/h

53.93

54.50

MW

38.31

39.27

-176-

75.32

75.44

#1

kPa

21.32

21.36

#1

MW

77.12

75.31

MW

134.03

137.75

MW

172.34

177.02

kW

73.26

81.82

#2

MW

64.78

64.91

#2

MW

#1

MW

#1

MW

MW

MW

146.48

MW

185.27

64.84
81.86

81.42
81.64

146.64

146.33

1 #1 81.64MW#2
64.84MW#1 73.9MW #2 53.5MW 7.74MW 11.34MW
100%
4 60% 19%
21%

1%

23%

19%

21%
36%

#2

#1

3.3
2
1

1
2 15kPa 5

-177-

#1

#2

180

MW

150
120
90
60
30
0
15

17

19

21

23

25

#1 kPa

2
15kPa 402 1

1 1 15kPa 26kPa
66MW 2 1 15kPa
1
1
13

3.4
0.325 /kWh 27.5 /GJ 2

T15-15kPa

T15-18kPa

T15-22kPa

T15-26kPa

#1

kPa

15.00

15.00

15.00

15.00

#2

kPa

15.54

17.69

21.36

26.12

#1

MW

38.27

63.23

75.31

101.36

-0.18

-0.90

-2.12

-3.71

kWh

217.89

1075.03

2543.56

4446.25

kWh

0()

857.13

2325.66

4228.36

GJ/h

0()

89.83

133.35

227.13

/h

0()

-349.38

-826.66

-1445.03

/h

0()

2470.44

3667.17

6246.04

-178-

/h

0()

2121.05

2840.52

4801.01

2 1

4.
11 3

2 135MW 173.94
78% 7.61
3

t/h

MW

MW

MW

GJ

2013 11

4050.02

141.88

36.26

105.62

273762.29

2013 12

4651.45

181.70

32.91

148.79

398513.84

2014 1

4829.14

189.27

35.48

153.79

411902.26

2014 2

4901.03

187.25

34.72

152.52

368987.02

2014 3

3651.26

131.51

24.67

106.84

286217.05

55W/m
336.85

5.
1 Co-ah

3 60%
19% 21%
4 2 1
1
5 2 135MW 173.94
7.61 336.85

[1].
[J].2011,121470-472
[2] . LiBr [J]. 20151:69-72
[3]Yan LiLin FuShigang Zhanget al.A new type of district heating system based on distributed absorption
heat pumps[J].Energy,2011(36):4570-4576.
[4]. [J].
2009105580-584
[5]. Co-ah [J]. 2009,10
610-614
[6].[J].2010101010-14
-179-

[7]. [J]. 2012121231-34.


[8]. [J]. 2012,1019:194-195
[9].[J]. 2010,4011

71-75
[10]. 135MW [J].
2014,6160
24-27
[11]. [J]. 2013,6
359-62
[12]. Co-ah [J].2008,99
1377-1380
[13].[J].2013,4
237-40
025-89620821 13921422161
ywz6121963@126.com
10 210046

-180-

Application of Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system in direct air


cooling power plant
Yang Wen-zheng, Huang Qi-long, Dai Wei-bao, Shao Feng, Huang Xin-chang
(Guodian Science and Technology Research Institute, JiangSu NanJing 210046)

AbstractThe exhaust steam for direct air cooling unit are high quality and in large quantities.
Absorption heat pump can utilize this low taste heat energy effectively. This article analyzed the
technical advantages and calculated the operational date about Multi-level series exhaust heat
recovery system which based on Co-ah cycle applied by a cogeneration plant heating
improvement project. The analyzed results indicate that heat energy obtained by direct heat
exchange is about 60%, by absorption heat pump is about 19% in each part of waste heat
recovery module when the drive steam output power is about 21% in the Multi-level series heat
recovery system; When the exhaust pressure of unit 2 steam turbine remained stable, the overall
heat power recovery of steam exhaust is an increasing trend with the exhaust pressure of unit 1
steam turbine increased gradually. Analyzed the operational date of Multi-level series exhaust
heat recovery system which applied to 2 sets of 135MW Air Cooling units, the power plant
recovery exhaust heat 173.94GJ during the heating period; That is equivalent to saving 76100
tons of standard coal, can meet heating needs about 3368500 square meters of urban areas. It has
significant economic benefits.
Key words: air cooling unite; Multi-level series; exhaust heat recovery system; absorption heat
pump
1. Introduction
In recent years, we have constructed a lot of direct air cooling power plant which mitigated water
and energy shortages in northern China. Because of the high exhaust pressure compared with wet
unit, air cooling unit contained heat energy are high quality and in large quantities in the steam
turbine exhaust.
For 200MW coal-fired power pant, the total fuel combustion heat energy, only about 40%
conversed to electricity, while about 60% of the heat energy lost to the environment primarily
through the boiler chimney and steam turbine condenser cooling water. In this part of the energy
losses, the vast majority are steam turbine exhaust. The document [2] listed the percentage of total
heat loss of exhaust energy in different parameter steam turbine, as shown in Fig 1. How to
recover and utilize this part of low temperature waste heat has become one of the most important
way for conservation and emission reduction.

-181-

Steam trubine exhaust heat loss%

Total energy loss%

100
75.5

80
61.5
60

69.5
63

57.5

52.5

60
50.5

40
20
0
Medium parameter

High parameter

Super high
parameter

Supercritical
parameter

Fig.1 Energy loss of steam turbine with different parameters

Absorption heat pump can effectively utilize low taste heat energy, such as geothermal energy,
solar energy and thermal power plant waste heat[3-4]. Thermal-power central heating technology
based on absorption cycle[5], short for Co-ah cycle raised by Dr Fu-ling which compared to low
vacuum heating technology, NCB new type unit heating technology, compression heat pump
waste heat recovery heating technology, absorption heat pump heating technology, have more
technical advantages[6-7].
Currently, in reconstruction scheme of waste heat utilization which most coal-fired power plant
have adopted, the low taste heat mainly from cooling water and steam turbine exhaust of air
cooling unit. Extraction method is divided into electrically-driven compression heat pump and
steam-driven absorption heat pump. When the heating condition is same, absorption heat pump
has more energy efficiency than compression heat pump[8]. Use existing heating extraction
driven absorption heat pump unites to recover steam turbine exhaust condensing heat to increase
urban heat supply is more valued. In recent years, North China, Northeast China, Northwest
China has carried out waste heat utilization project, and achieved significant energy-saving
benefit[1,2,9].
This paper analyzed the technical advantages and calculated the operational date about
Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system which based applied by 2135MW cogeneration
plant heating improvement project. The results of research have reference value for further
transformation and operation.
2. Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system
2.1 The principles of Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system
Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system based on the low temperature of heating network
backwater which caused by Co-ah cycle. Follow the theory of temperature matching, cascade
utilization, heating network backwater is heated step by step, by adjusting the steam turbine
exhaust pressure between the two air-cooled units. Because of the small temperature difference
between heat transfer medium, the waste heat energy has been used efficiently.
2.2 The system process of the project case
Fig 2 shows the Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system flow diagram, which applied by
2135MW cogeneration plant heating improvement project.
-182-

G
Extraction of heat steam backwater

#1
Unit 2

Unit 1

Exhaust system

Exhaust system

Heating
network
station
Heater 1

Heating network
supply water

Heater 2

Pre-heater

Absorption heat pump

Go to exhaust system of unit1

Go to exhaust system of unit2

Heating network backwater

Fig.2 Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system flow diagram

The thermal power plant use Co-ah cycle technology to meet the needs of urban heating, and
constructed it with local heating company which can increase the heating capacity. The project
was divided into two parts, a part of construction is in the thermal power plant, and another is
outside the power plant which is constructed by local heating company.
Heating network backwater temperature can be reduced to 40, because of Co-ah cycle
technology. When the system begins to work, exhaust pressure of No.1 and No.2 steam turbine
were maintained at 22kPa and 15kPa, heating backwater was heated by first heater, second heater,
absorption heat pump, heating network station, finally, sent it to users. Between unit1 and unit2,
the designed recovery power is 73.9MW and 53.5MW.
2.3 The advantage of Multi-level serious exhaust heat recovery system compared to conventional
system
Fig 3 shows the most expansive technical solution of exhaust heat recovery in direct air cooling
power plant[10-11], each steam turbine installed one absorption heat pump, heating extraction
steam as the drive steam. Heating network backwater is heated by No.1 and No.2 absorption heat
pump separately, then entered heating network together.

Fig.3

Conventional parallel exhaust heat recovery system flow diagram


-183-

The Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system as shown in fig 2 compared with
conventional parallel exhaust heat system as shown in fig 3 have the following advantages.
(1) Multi-level serious exhaust heat recovery system only need one absorption heat pump,
primary heating and secondary heating by using heat exchanger which can achieve waste heat, so
it can reduce the investment cost of exhaust heat recovery system.
(2) Follow the theory of temperature matching, cascade utilization, heating network backwater
is heated step by step, by adjusting the steam turbine exhaust pressure between the two
air-cooled units. Because of the small temperature difference between heat transfer medium, the
waste heat energy has been used efficiently.
(3) Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system based on Co-ah cycle, therefore reduced
heating network backwater temperature significantly. It created lower energy level and greater
temperature increase, which reduced the difficulty of waste heat recovery significantly, and
heating network transport capacity increased nearly 1 times[12], which can reduce the investment
to rebuilt heating pipe network.
(4) The lower temperature of heating network backwater which created lower energy level, it can
make unit 2 steam turbine run with low exhaust pressure, improved steam turbine economy.
Besides, by maintaining a reasonably high exhaust pressure of unit 1, absorption heat pump can
be more economical operation.
3. Performance analysis of Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system
For researched the actual energy efficiency of Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system,
the author carried out performance test for the heat recovery system by standard test procedures.
3.1 Date processing method
3.1.1 The heating power of heat pump for heating network circulating water

(t4 t1 ) G1 4.1868
1
3600
where: Qr -heating power of exhaust heat recovery system for heating network circulating
water, MW; G1 -flow rate of heating network circulating water, t/h; t4 -the water temperature of
exhaust heat recovery system export, t1 -the water temperature of exhaust heat recovery
system entrance, .
Qr

3.1.2 The drive steam output power


QZ

G2 (h f hc )

3600

where QZ -drive steam output power, MW; G2 -flow rate of drive steam, t/h; h f -drive
steam enthalpy, kJ/kg; hc -drive steam drain enthalpy, kJ/kg.
3.1.3 The waste heat recovery heating power

Q f Qr QZ

-184-

Where Q f -heating power from exhaust waste heat of steam turbine, MW.
3.1.4 The heating power of secondary heater
(t t ) G1 4.1868
Qr ( rb ) 4 2
4
3600
whereQr ( rb ) -heating power of secondary heater for heating network circulating water, MW;
t2 -the entrance water temperature of secondary heater, .
3.1.5 The heating power of primary heater
Qr ( yr 2) Qr Qr ( rb )

Where Qr ( yr 2) -heating power from unit 2 steam turbine exhaust, MW.


3.1.6 The recovery heating power from unit 1
Qr ( yr1) Q f Qr ( yr 2)

Where Qr ( yr1) -heating power from unit 1 steam turbine exhaust, MW.
3.1.7 Correction of the test results
Because of the limited by actual operation conditions, the system operating parameters deviate
from the design value, it necessary to correct important parameters as following:
(1) The temperature of heating network backwater;
(2) The entrance water temperature of secondary heater;
(3) Exhaust pressure of unit 1 steam turbine;
(4) Exhaust pressure of unit 2 steam turbine;
3.2 Testing date and calculate results
Table 1 shows the results of two tests on the same operational conditions. In order to compare
with design values, the testing results corrected to the design boundary parameter, and the
calculated results deviation was 0.21%.
Table 1

The main test and calculate results of exhaust heat recovery system
NAME

UNIT

TEST 1

TEST 2

Heating network backwater temperature

41.93

41.25

Heating network backwater flow rate

m /h

4532.60

4532.49

Entrance water temperature of secondary

52.82

53.19

Exhaust pressure of unit 2 steam turbine

kPa

15.26

15.55

Heating power from unit 2 steam turbine


exhaust

MW

56.90

62.44

Drive steam pressure

MPa

0.25

0.25

Drive steam temperature

239.98

240.46

-185-

Drive steam drain temperature

126.13

126.41

Drive steam flow rate

t/h

53.93

54.50

Drive steam output power

MW

38.31

39.27

Heated water temperature by absorption heat


pump

75.32

75.44

Exhaust pressure of unit 1 steam turbine

kPa

21.32

21.36

Heating power from unit 1 steam turbine


exhaust

MW

77.12

75.31

Recovery total power from waste steam

MW

134.03

137.75

Recovery total power of exhaust heat recovery


system

MW

172.34

177.02

Electric power consumed by exhaust heat


recovery system

kW

73.26

81.82

Corrected recovery power from unit 2

MW

64.78

64.91

Corrected average recovery power from unit 2

MW

Corrected recovery power from unit 1

MW

Corrected average recovery power from unit 1

MW

Corrected recovery total power from waste


steam

MW

Corrected average recovery total power from


waste steam

MW

146.48

Corrected recovery total power of exhaust heat


recovery system

MW

185.27

64.84
81.86

81.42
81.64

146.64

146.33

As shows in table 1, corrected average recovery power from unit 1 is 81.64MW, corrected
average recovery power from unit 2 is 64.84MW; Compared with the design value (unit 1
73,9MW, unit2 53.5MW) respectively, it higher 7.74MW and 11.34MW
If assumed that Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system total heating power is 100%,
then each part of the system get the heating power ratio as shown in fig.4, that direct heat
exchange from exhaust heat is about 60%, absorption heat pump recovered heating power is
about 19%, drive steam heating power is about 21%.
1%

23%

19%

21%
36%

Recovery power from unit 2


Plate heater heating power from unit 1
Driven steam heating power

Fig.4

Pre-heater heating power recovery from unit 1


Absorption heat pump heating power

The percentage of the different heater recovery heating power from waste steam
-186-

3.3 The influence of unit 1 different exhaust pressure for the Multi-level series exhaust heat
recovery system
When the Multi level series exhaust heat recovery system start to work, the exhaust pressure of
unit 2 can flexible adjust the backwater temperature to meet the heating energy level. But the
operating exhaust pressure of unit 1 not only influenced pre-heater performance but also
influenced the absorption heat pump performance. The exhaust pressure of unit 1 is critical effect
for the system, which are most concerned by operator.
During the test, the author calculated heat exchange trends of each module when unit 1 at
different exhaust pressure and unit 2 remained at 15kPa unchanged exhaust pressure.
The heating power of unit 1 pre-heater
Absorption heat pump recovery power from waste steam
Recovery total power from waste steam
Recovery heat power from unit 2
Heating powerMW

180
150
120
90
60
30
0
15

17

19

21

23

25

Unit 1 steam turbine backpressure kPa

Fig.5

Each module heating power at different exhaust pressure of unit 1

The heating power from unit 2 steam turbine exhaust is influenced by heating network backwater
temperature and steam turbine exhaust pressure. If corrected recovery heating power to 15kPa
and heating network backwater is 40, recovery heating power will do not change with exhaust
pressure fluctuate of unit 1 steam turbine.
Unit 1 pre-heating power increased with rising exhaust pressure of unit 1 exhaust pressure. When
exhaust pressure increased from 15kPa to 26kPa, the heating power adds 66MW. When unit 1
and unit 2 steam turbine exhaust pressure also maintained in 15kPa, pre-heater can hardly get
heat energy from waste steam, because of the same energy level.Absorption heat pump heating
power increased firstly and then decreased, which is due to the exhaust pressure of unit 1 and
entrance water temperature. Document[13] researched exhaust heat water temperature and heating
network backwater temperature for the performance of absorption heat pump influenced. When
heating network backwater temperature increased, absorption heat pump heating power
decreased; When exhaust heat water temperature increased, absorption heat pump heating power
also increased. This is the reason why absorption heat pump heating power increased firstly and
then decreased.
From the test results, we can conclude that exhaust heat recovery system heating power is an
increased trend with the exhaust pressure increased of unit 1 steam turbine.
3.3 Economic benefits at different pressure of unit 1
The power plant sales price to power network is 0.325RMB per kilowatt hour, and the sales price
to heating network is 27.5RMB per kilowatt. Table 2 shows the economic benefits at different
-187-

pressure of unit 1.
Table 2

economic benefits at different pressure of unit 1

NAME

UNIT T15-15kPabasis T15-18kPa

T15-22kPa

T15-26kPa

Exhaust pressure of unit 1 steam turbine kPa

15.00

15.00

15.00

15.00

Exhaust pressure of unit 2 steam turbine kPa

15.54

17.69

21.36

26.12

Heating power from unit 1 steam turbine


MW
exhaust

38.27

63.23

75.31

101.36

Corrections of variables exhaust


pressure for power

-0.18

-0.90

-2.12

-3.71

Power loss

kWh

217.89

1075.03

2543.56

4446.25

Power loss compared with base value

kWh

0(base value)

857.13

2325.66

4228.36

Increased heating power

GJ/h

0(base value)

89.83

133.35

227.13

Power benefits

RMB/h

0(base value)

-349.38

-826.66

-1445.03

Heating power benefits

RMB/h

0(base value)

2470.44

3667.17

6246.04

Total profit

RMB/h

0(base value)

2121.05

2840.52

4801.01

From the date in table 2, we can include that power benefits decreased with the exhaust pressure
increased and heating power benefits increased. Consider different sales price of power and
heating power that total profit increased. Therefore, in the premise of safety , unit 1 steam
turbine maintained high pressure is more economical.
4. The application result

The power plant located area heating period is about 5 months. When the heating period is over,
Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system historical operating date were collected and
calculated. The results shows that exhaust heat recovery system got about 1739400GJ from
waste steam which is exhausted by two direct air cooling 135MW units. Scattered small boilers
average efficiency is about 78% from survey results. Considered small boilers efficiency as 78%,
the Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system saved standard coal about 76100 tons.
Table 3 The main date of exhaust recovery system during heating period
Average flow rate
of heating network
circulating water

Average heating
power of the
exhaust heat
recovery system

Average
drive steam
heating
power

Recovery total
power from
waste steam

Recovery total
power from waste
steam per month

t/h

MW

MW

MW

GJ

2013.10

4050.02

141.88

36.26

105.62

273762.29

2013.12

4651.45

181.70

32.91

148.79

398513.84

2014.1

4829.14

189.27

35.48

153.79

411902.26

2014.2

4901.03

187.25

34.72

152.52

368987.02

2014.3

3651.26

131.51

24.67

106.84

286217.05

Month

The building heating index of the power plant located area is 55W/m2, the power plant use
Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system can increased heating area about 3.3685 million
square meters, remarkable economic results have been achieved.
-188-

5. Conclusions

(1) Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system based on Co-ah cycle, therefore reduced
heating network backwater temperature significantly. It created lower energy level and greater
temperature increase, which reduced the difficulty of waste heat recovery significantly, and
heating network transport capacity increased nearly 1 times, which can reduce the investment to
rebuilt heating pipe network.
(2) Follow the theory of temperature matching, cascade utilization, heating network backwater
is heated step by step, by adjusting the steam turbine exhaust pressure between the two
air-cooled units. Because of the small temperature difference between heat transfer medium, the
waste heat energy has been used efficiently.
(3) In the Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system that direct heat exchange from exhaust
heat is about 60%, absorption heat pump recovered heating power is about 19%, drive steam
heating power is about 21%.
(4) When unit 2 steam turbine exhaust pressure unchanged, the total heating power from waste
steam increased with the unit 1 steam turbine exhaust pressure rise. Therefore, operating pressure
of unit 1 steam turbine can regulate to adjust the heating network need.
(5) The results shows that exhaust heat recovery system got about 1739400GJ from waste steam
which is exhausted by two direct air cooling 135MW units. Scattered small boilers average
efficiency is about 78% from survey results. Considered small boilers efficiency as 78%, the
Multi-level series exhaust heat recovery system saved standard coal about 76100 tons.
Reference
[1]Wang Li-biao, Li Ran-sheng, Wang Bin, Ghen Xiao-feng. Application of waste heat recovery technology of
circulating water in thermal power plant base on absorption-type heat pump[J]. Turbine Technology,
2011,12(1):470-472
[2]Cao wei. Application of steam type LiBr absorption heat pump in direct air cooling power plant in the waste
heat recovery technology[J]. Energy project, 2015(1):69-72
[3]Yan Li, Lin Fu, Shigang Zhang, etc. A new type of district heating system based on distributed absorption
heat pumps[J]. Energy, 2011(36):4570-4576.
[4]Liang Zhen-She, Heng-gen, Guo Jian, Fa Zheng-hao. Techon-Econmic nalysis on recovery of condensing
heat in fossil fuel power plants[J]. Journal of Donghua university(natural science) 2009, 10(5)580-584
[5]Li Yan, Fu Lin, Zhang Shi-gang. Application of thermal-power central heating technology based on Co-ah
cycle[J]. Building energy & environment, 2009,10:610-614
[6]Li Yan, Fu Ling, Zhang Shi-gang etc, An overview of application technology for power plant circulating
water[J]. Building science, 2010, 10(10):10-14
[7]He Xiao-hong,Shu Bin. Application analysis of low-temperature waste heat utilization technology in
thermal power plant[J].Energy conservation, 2012,12(12):31-34.
[8]Zhuo Jing-bao, Zhao Guo-bing. An overview of application technology for power plant circulating water
waste heat[J]. Public communication of science & technology, 2012,10(19):194-195
[9]Zhang Shi-gang, Fu Ling,Li Shi-yi etc. Demonstration project of district heating system with cogeneration
based on absorption heat in Chifeng city[J]. Heating ventilating & Air conditioning, 2010,40(11):71-75
[10]Yu Cong, Sun Shi-en,Zhou, Chong-bo. Test study of absorption heat pump on 135MW air-cooled
cogeneration unit[J], Power generation & Air condition, 2014,6(160):24-27
[11]Li Wen-yan, Zhou Yan, Wang Zi-kuang etc. Application of heat pump technology in air cooling steam
turbine[J].Inner Mongolia electric power, 2013,6(3):59-62
[12]Fu Ling, Jiang Yi, Zhang Shi-gang. District heating system based on Co-ah cycles in combined heating
and power system[J].Journal of Tsinghua University(Science and technology), 2008,9(9)1377-1380
[13]Zhou Chong-bo, Yu Cong, Guo Dong etc. The experiment study on waste heat recovery from circulating
water in thermal power plant using large absorption heat pump[J].Modern electric power, 2013,4(2):37-40
-189-

1000MW

036011
21000MW 205

1000MW

0.

GB/T 50102

DL/T 5339GB 50191


1000MW
Niederaussem 1000MW 200m, 152m

21000MW

1.1000MW
1.1
1.1.1

GB/T 50102-2003
DL/T 5339-2006GB 50191-93
165m
10 10 3
2
/

VGB-R610Ue

1000MW 205

1 9 13

-190-

10 0

13 0

10 180

13 180

2 8
8

-191-

2.5E+006
1E+007

2E+006

8E+006

1.5E+006

6E+006

1E+006
4E+006

500,000
2E+006

-500,000

-2E+006

-1E+006

-4E+006

-1.5E+006
-2E+006
0

-6E+006

30,000
20,000

4E+006

10,000

2E+006

0
-2E+006

-10,000

-4E+006

-20,000

-6E+006

-30,000

-8E+006
0

40,000

6E+006

8E+006

90

1E+007

-8E+006
0

-40,000
0

90

90

3()

1.1.2
1.1.2.1

1.1.2.2

VGB-R610Ue 3.3.3

-192-

ANSYSNASTRANABAQUSADINASAP2000ALGOR

1.2

1.3

1.3.1

200.01m
178.18m
102.45m
28.5m
98.32m
170.0m
X 52
X 1.61.0m
0.31m
1.7m

-193-

1000MW 9
13 13

90
8

1.3.2

4
13.4m
1620
1620

205m
138.50m
105m
32.5m
101.00m
155.606m
X 40
X 2.01.1m
0.33m
2.1m

CFD

1.3.3
1
2 B

1.87 B 1.9
3

-194-

4
X X 0.7g 1.1g

2.1000MW
1000MW SCAL

2.1

13.5
11kPa
30
28kPa

2161806m2
1

2.2

88000m3/h
60000m2
0.5-0.6MPa
2.3
FORGO 6 25.4mm

mm2800274028750
(m/s)1.96
23887 m2
48 W/m2k
mm251
mm 666200
mm 0.25
mm 3.8
2.4
2.4.1

-195-

2.4.2
425% 88000t/h DN3400
Q6.11m3/sH25m N2000kW

2.5

150m

138.5m

205m
/32.5m / 126m
/ 160m / 101m
/
205m /105m

3.
205

1000MW

-196-


[1].GB/T 50102-2003
[2].DL/T 5339-2006
[3].GB 50191-93
[4].VGB-R610Ue
[5]. .[M] 1992
[6].. 1000MW 2009,060062-04
[7]. , 1000MW [J] 2008,243-50
[8].Study of a proposed 200m high natural draught cooling tower at Power plant Frimmersdort/Germany
D.Busch R.Harte H.J.Niemann

1975--
036011
0349-8153121
E-mail: jianghua204680@163.com

-197-

Domestic 1000MW ultra-supercritical units indirect air cooling design


optimization
Jiang Hua
CPI SHENTOU POWER CO., LTD. Shuozhou City, Shanxi Province 036011

Abstract: In this paper, an indirect air-cooled super (especially) the CPI SHENTOU 21000MW
ultra-supercritical unit project (reference works) Large Cold Tower (205 meters high tower) of
the structure, as well as inter-cooling process optimization design system solutions are briefly
elaborated, summed up the experience, put forward relevant proposals to design a similar project
to provide reference.
Keywords: 1000MWlevel; ultra-supercritical; indirect air cooling; design; optimization
0. Preface
Currently, due to design several of the super (special) large cooling tower has broken the
"industrial cooling water design specifications" (GB/T50102), "hydraulic power plant design
specifications" (DL/T5339) and "structures seismic design specification "(GB50191), The world
has yet to have 1000MW ultra-supercritical unit was put into operation indirect air actual
practical experience to follow (the world's tallest tower in Germany's Niederaussem power plant
1000MW unit wet tower, which tower is 200m, zero-meter diameter 152m), Therefore, the
domestic electric power construction unit can build super (special) large indirect cooling tower
caused great concern in the industry parties. Super(special) large cooling towers although there is
no difficulty in the design analysis and calculation, but in the selection of a number of factors
due to limited domestic norms and the current test data when developing national rules are from
smaller cooling tower test results in the past. Given the above, the CPI SHENTOU 21000MW
level indirect air works commissioned domestic research institutes and design units were
multifaceted analysis: modulus computing, a lot of wind tunnel testing, finite element analysis
and nonlinear analysis. In Super (special) large indirect cooling tower structure and process
system design is optimized.
1. 1000MW Ultra (JP) major indirect cooling tower structure optimization
1.1 Super (special) large indirect cooling tower design
1.1.1 Applicability wind load distribution and wind load factor of
At present, the relevant domestic cooling tower structure design standards and regulations have
three "industrial cooling water design specifications" (GB/T50102-2003), "hydraulic power plant
design specifications" (DL/T5339-2006) and "structures seismic design specification
"(GB50191-93). In the first two in this specification are values for wind load factor limiting
tower height within the 165m. Since the value of the method of their different countries
normative system wind loads vary, China's wind load standard is 10 meters high and take a
10-minute average wind speed for maximum design load. Some countries take 3 seconds average
wind speed such as Britain, Australia; Russia and Eastern European countries take the average
wind speed for 2 minutes, and more in some countries to the so-called instantaneous wind speed
as a standard, the United States is rather special in miles/hour standard, it is within the average
wind speed per mile as the standard. Due to the different system of norms, calculate wind loads
countries is different. Germany, for example, "cooling tower design" (VGB-R610Ue) standard,
there is no wind load factors, there is no restriction on the height of the tower. Determine wind
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load distribution tower dimensions are very important. In particular, need to be considered along
with increasing height of the tower, the tower will reduce the frequency characteristic will be
part of the wind energy into a higher frequency spectrum. Effect of wind load can be
decomposed into static, dynamic and resonant components. All of these components can be
considered in the practical application of quasi-static. Indirect cooling tower through large linear
and nonlinear finite element analysis and comparison of the electrical SHENTOU 1000MW class
units over 205 meters high (JP) to obtain the following three conclusions:
1When the wind load is 9 times the standard pressure, cooling tower began to enter the inelastic
state, when 13 times the standard pressure, most of the cooling tower into the inelastic state
region, and with the increase in the cooling tower wind load, there is a clear internal force
redistribution of the phenomenon, and cooling towers tends to be uniform.

Global finite element model

10times0degrees

Elastoplastic model standard pressure under0degrees

Elastoplastic model 10times 180underpressure

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Elastoplastic model under pressure 13 times0degrees

Elastoplastic model 13 times 180 under pressure

2In 8-degree earthquake, most of the area of the cooling tower is linear elastic, the pillars of the
housing units are present at the junction of stress concentration, and into the inelastic state. For 8
degree earthquake zone, with linear elastic dynamic analysis of the design is feasible.

0 degrees on the upper end of the shaft pillar force changes over time (Abscissa: time, vertical axis: axial
force)

90 degrees upper strut axial force change with time (Abscissa: time, vertical axis: axial force)

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90 degrees upper strut axial force change with time (Abscissa: time, vertical axis: axial force)

90 degrees upper pillar radial moment changes over time (Abscissa: time, vertical axis:
radial moment)

3Stability analysis considering only the construction of the cooling tower under wind loads,
construction of the cooling tower of the critical wind load (or critical wind speed) is much
greater than the design wind speed, there is sufficient safety margin, and generally increases with
high towers, critical load lower.
1.1.2 Seismic characteristics and stability and nonlinear problem
1.1.2.1 In the design and analysis calculations of the cooling tower, whether tower body size,
mechanical model of the calculation are the same. Just tower height and diameter exceeding the
scope of the existing norms, when the diameter and height of the tower is such an increase in the
past small tower considers unimportant, super (special) large tower becomes acute again. For
example: seismic force is not important for a small tower, while the super (bits) on the relative
importance of the large tower; due to the large diameter of the tower, the more prominent
unevenness foundation; likewise, after the column diameter and increase in external load under
the influence of various external action and concrete internal factors, along the circumference of
the tower in the meridional direction is more prone to fracture, a great influence on the dynamic
characteristics of such cracks and buckling of the tower; the impact of construction defects time
history analysis of the seismic response, stability of sinking under the unevenness and wind
vibration effect and so are the foundation of a new cooling tower after larger issues to face.
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1.1.2.2 Increase the size of the tower structure, nonlinear problems will be highlighted.
Because the wall thickness of the cooling tower is thin, in terms of static or dynamic analysis
from the perspective of view, super (special) large cooling towers nonlinear problem can not be
ignored. Traditional design uses linear approximation to solve the problem in the tower hours,
the relative error is not great, the super (special) this error will become large tower can not be
ignored.From the structural analysis and design specifications theoretical point of view, national
normative standards in the structural analysis of theoretical calculations are the same, that is not
much difference in the mechanical analysis, but the performance, construction material
requirements, selection coefficients, load selection and computing conditions and other
inconsistencies. In particular, the gap between the choice of a larger wind load, which is caused
by different countries to regulate the system. But national rules currently proposed only linear
analysis, and foreign codes set forth requirements nonlinear analysis. Germany, for example,
"cooling tower design" (VGB-R610Ue) specification 3.3.3 is entitled "Nonlinear calculation
methods," clearly a principled selection and calculation requirements for the material. The
biggest problem the existence of the cooling tower shell structure is its buckling problem is more
prominent, and buckling analysis and calculation is divided into linear and nonlinear analysis
namely bifurcation and extremum problems. Bifurcation method for solving eigenvalues using
linear problem belongs, there is no problem on the current analysis and calculation means for,
and the results are very stable solved. However, extreme value analysis of the problem and
solving the difficulty is relatively large, mainly related to non-linear problems, solving nonlinear
problem is sometimes not converge and higher material relationship model selection is
reasonable and on computer performance requirements. But the results of problem solving
extreme value closer to the actual situation. Now, with computer technology, computational
mechanics and FEM technology, many in the international community launched a commercial
general-purpose finite element analysis software. For example, more well-known ANSYS,
NASTRAN, ABAQUS, ADINA, SAP2000, ALGOR, etc. The software can be used to analyze
and calculate the cooling tower structure, and have a non-linear analysis. It makes large cooling
towers using nonlinear analysis analyze calculation possible, which makes engineering design is
more economic security. With analysis to improve and enhance the means of theoretical
calculations, can design the size and height of the tower greatly increased design efficiency can
be greatly improved.
1.2 Super (special) large cooling tower structure type
Depending on the indirect air-cooled systems natural draft cooling tower structure, it applied to
practical engineering cooling tower main types are: reinforced concrete structures steel natural
draft cooling towers and natural draft cooling tower panel structure of two types. At present,
domestic and international indirect air-cooled thermal power plant cooling tower system uses
reinforced concrete structures based natural draft cooling tower; a small number of thermal
power plants abroad indirect air-cooled system uses a steel panel structure of natural draft
cooling towers, domestic currently no actual project adoption.Steel panel structure of natural
draft cooling tower structure in all the main steel structure, can be mechanized factories
manufacturing, processing, site welding, assembly, saving manpower, but the overall
consumption of metals, a large quantity of steel, higher cost. In contrast, domestic labor costs are
relatively low, low price of reinforced concrete, reinforced concrete cooling tower investment
structure, low cost, its crew and conventional wet cooling tower thermal power of the similar
design and construction technology is relatively mature and rich experience and widely used,
low cost. Thus, in the domestic air-cooling tower of reinforced concrete structure is more
applicable, reference works of reinforced concrete cooling tower structure is recommended.
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1.3 Super (special) large cooling tower Optimization


For reference works super(special) large tower between cold, practical engineering, from the
viewpoint of the design of the cooling tower, infrastructure, investment, security and other
aspects, according to conventional tower type (the so-called conventional tower type, in this case
mainly refers bottom Meridian angle, the top diffusion angle, the bottom area of the throat area
and housing and so the ratio between the relevant regulatory requirements generally follow) and
non-conventional column (compared to a conventional column, the above angle, proportional
relationship data optimized, innovation)They were carried out in-depth studies to conventional
reinforced concrete column based on the development of small angle reinforced concrete column
(unconventional tower).
1.3.1 Conventional reinforced concrete cooling tower type
By static, dynamic, stability calculations to determine the structure of the tower between cold
dimensions are as follows:
Cooling tower: 200.01m;
Cooling tower zero meters in diameter: 178.18m;
Cooling tower outlet diameter: 102.45m;
Inlet height: 28.5m;
Cooling Tower throat diameter: 98.32m
Cooling Tower throat height: 170.0mX
Pillar logarithmic: 52 pairs
X pillar size: 1.6 1.0m
Minimum thickness: 0.31m
Maximum thickness: 1.7m

Linear cooling tower between 1000MW class units, nonlinear finite element analysis indicates
that when 9 times the standard pressure, cooling tower began to enter the inelastic state, when 13
times the standard pressure, most of the cooling tower area inelastic state . The cooling tower is
13 times the standard limit air pressure, air pressure, and wind load increases the cooling tower,
there is a significant redistribution of the phenomenon of internal forces, and cooling tower
internal force tends to be uniform.

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Analysis of seismic dynamic time-history analysis. Analysis showed that the housing connection
pillar stress concentration, and in the 90 degree position of maximum stress. At any moment, at 8
degree earthquake, most of the area of the cooling tower is linear elastic, but in connection with
the tower at the local pillar, because there is a strong stress concentration into the inelastic state.
1.3.2 Reinforced concrete cooling tower type low-angle (unconventional tower)
Terms of reference works, reducing the cooling tower zero meters in diameter, can greatly
improve ground conditions cooling towers. Project is located in northern Shanxi mountains,
ravines site, fill out the ditch digging in the reclamation of the site construction. 4 cooling tower
within the scope of the two gullies, Cooling Tower is set in the backfill, the maximum fill height
of 13.4m meters back, to bring about the difficulty of foundation treatment.In order to avoid the
gully, we need to minimize the diameter of the bottom of the tower. Conventional tower type,
specification requires cooling tower strut inclination in 16~20, the cooling tower is reduced to
zero meters in diameter and tower height increases, increasing rather than reducing the amount
of engineering. Release the pillar 16~20 angle constraint, using a smaller angle, it found not to
change the column outlet diameter and throat curvature premise, can greatly reduce the cooling
tower zero meters in diameter, thereby reducing the tower body reinforced concrete works the
amount.
By static, dynamic, stability calculations to determine the structure of the low-angle tower
dimensions are as follows:
Cooling tower: 205m;
Cooling tower zero meters in diameter: 138.50m;
Cooling tower outlet diameter: 105m;
Inlet height: 32.5m;
Cooling Tower throat diameter: 101.00m
Cooling Tower throat height: 155.606m
X pillars of the number: 40 pairs
X pillar size: 2.0 1.1m
Minimum thickness: 0.33m
Maximum thickness: 2.1m

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Inclined Mathematical modeling of cooling tower comprising: a tower surface aerodynamic


loads CFD computer simulation, static load test combination of conditions structural safety and
design analysis, study the safety assessment structure under dynamic loads, cooling tower
collapse numerical simulation analysis.
1.3.3 Wind tunnel test results of reference works, seismic studies and structural studies are as
follows:
1Tata unconventional type wind and seismic performance to meet regulatory requirements.
2Throat section; rigid load based on other engineering model test results, the use of wind
vibration response consistent coupling analysis, obtained under the conditions of Class B space a
single column of the tower cooling towers for wind response appears sensitive parts of the
leading edge of the wind in the throat a typical node mean wind load factor is 1.87; for the
preliminary design only considered the case of a single tower, wind load factor according to
specifications for class B space hydraulic take 1.9.
3Seismic performance analysis shows that small earthquakes, the tower-type cooling tower to
maintain flexibility, under strong earthquake, did not fall to meet performance targets, and there
is a large safety margin; at the same time to ensure the ductility occurs only in pillars,It
recommends the use of the ability to protect the design of the pile, and pay attention to the details
of construction to strengthen the stirrups column design end plastic hinge region.
4Cooling tower beyond the next generation due to the strong earthquake caused the collapse of
local failure, partial failure may occur relatively weak parts of the bottom of the column have X,
X column end and tower throat. Causing the collapse of the cooling tower at the level of
two-way peak accelerations between 0.7g to 1.1g, were higher than the rare earthquake intensity
(earthquake) peak acceleration corresponding to the cooling tower.
5Using steady and unsteady model within the tower under conditions of a single tower, the
outer surface of aerodynamic loads were analyzed. The tower cylinder, air-cooled radiator outer
surface and a closed roof pressure distribution factor, time average aerodynamic coefficients and
the mean square difference between the aerodynamic loads and other parameters to provide a
reference for the tower structure design wind load selection.
2. 1000MW Ultra (JP) major indirect air-cooled system configuration process optimization
Reference works 1000MW Ultra (JP) Large SCAL indirect air-cooled technology system is
divided into several sub-systems. System Process: Mainly by the Surface Condenser, air-cooled
radiator, circulating pumps, circulating water of the system, radiator flush water systems and
air-cooling towers. Usually made of stainless steel tube condenser, cooling water is
demineralized water closed circulation system.
2.1 The main design parameters of the system
Design temperature: 13.5
Design backpressure: 11kPa
Summer design temperature: 30
-205-

Summer design backpressure: 28kPa


Air-cooled heat sink in the form of: aluminum six-row tube
Total radiator cooling area: about 2161806m2
Air Cooling pylon count: 1
2.2 Surface Condenser
Condensers surface, single back pressure, double flow, cooling pipes made of stainless steel.
Closed system operation, water quality and stability, non-polluting, non-scaling. Condenser
optimized design data as follows:
Circulating water flow: 88000m3 / h
Cooling area: about 60000m2
Design pressure condenser body: 0.5-0.6MPa
2.3 Cooling radiators
The sixth generation of air-cooled radiator FORGO 6 rows of aluminum tubes.
The base of the radiator pipe to pipe, size 25.4mm, large fin fin base pipe and the fins are
connected by expansion joints, are made of aluminum, the surface anti-corrosion treatment by a
special process, the operation does not need special protection. Air-cooled radiator tubes dual
process design.
The main design parameters are as follows:
Cooling triangle size (mm): ~ 2800 2740 28750
Cooling triangular face velocity (m / s): ~ 1.96
The total mass 23887 m2 frontal area
Heat transfer coefficient of 48 W / m2 k
Base pipe diameter thickness (mm): 25 1
Fin feature size (mm): 666 200
Fin thickness (mm): 0.25
Fin spacing (mm): 3.8
2.4 Circulating water system
2.4.1 Water circulating pump Optimization
A circulating pump outlet flow direction is different, there are two water circulation pumps ways:
The first way water: circulating pump outlet into the first air-cooled radiator, and then into the
surface condenser; a second water way: a circulating pump first, the surface of the water entering
the condenser, and then into the air-cooled heat sink. In theory the two water ways are feasible.
Through the analysis of these two different ways of circulating water system, water supply,
computing, system flow and resistance does not substantially change, the power consumption of
circulating pumps only small changes. The following are the main characteristics of the two
circulating pumps arranged: the first circulating pump arrangement: the smaller the power
consumption. The pipeline system, equipment subjected to static pressure is small.

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The second circulating pump arrangement: Compared with the first circulating pump
arrangement, power consumption is slightly larger, and through the Surface Condenser pressure.

The results of the two arrangement, combined with practical experience in the past a lot of
projects, taking into account the long-term pressure equipment and piping water hammer effect,
reference works circulating pump arrangement according to the first approach for the designcirculating pump arranged in hot water pipeline, water to the cooling tower cooling radiators
direction.
2.4.2 Circulating Pump Optimization: Each unit is a circulating pump room, circulating pumps
arranged in a tower zone circulating pump room. Each unit is located 425% domestic cycle
vertical centrifugal pumps operating in parallel. Each unit circulating water 88000t/h, circulating
water main pipeline diameter is DN3400, each circulating pump flow Q6.11m3/s, H25m,
motor nameplate power N2000kW. Consider each unit set up an indirect air-cooling system
circulating pump frequency devices to reduce energy consumption circulating pumps.
2.5 Air delivery system (cooling tower)
Natural draft cooling tower air delivery system consists of air cooling tower, blinds and electric
actuator and other components. Use hyperbolic natural draft cooling tower air density difference
between inside and outside of the pumping force formed to meet the amount of air required for
cooling the radiator. A unit configuration of a cooling tower, air cooling tower optimization main
dimensions:
Cooling radiators Outside diameter: ~150m
Cooling Tower zero meters in diameter: 138.5m
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Cooling Tower overall height: 205m


Inlet height/diameter at inlet: ~ 32.5m /~126m
Throat height/throat diameter: ~ 160m/101m
Exit height/outlet diameter: 205m/ ~105m
3. In conclusion
Reference works 205 m indirect cooling tower as the world's largest tower, completed the
dynamics and the stability studies Super (special) large indirect cooling towers at the same time,
commissioned wind tunnel tests and seismic related domestic research institutes and design unit
of shaking table test results will further ensure the safety extra (special) large cooling tower
structure. 1000MW Ultra (JP) optimized large indirect cooling tower structure and process
system is feasible, with the advance of the construction of reference, is bound to promote the
rapid development of China's air-cooled technology has played a positive role model.
Reference
[1]."Industrial cooling water design specifications" (GB/T50102-2003),
[2]."Hydraulic power plant design specifications" (DL/T5339-2006)
[3]."Structures seismic design specifications" (GB50191-93)
[4]."Cooling tower design" Germany (VGB-R610Ue)
[5]. Ding Er seek power plant air cooling technology [M] Beijing: China Water Power Press, 1992
[6]. Chai Jingyu 1000MW ultra-supercritical Condenser System Model Selection Design Power Construction;
2009,06; 0062-04
[7]. Li Runsen, feasibility studies Zhangchang Bin of 1000MW Air Cooling Unit [J] Power Design, 2008,2;
43[8].Study of a proposed 200m high natural draught cooling tower at Power plant Frimmersdort/Germany
D.Busch R.Harte H.J.Niemann

About the Author:


Jiang Hua (1975--), male, college, engineer, engaged in thermal power production technology management,
the CPI SHENTOU Electric Power, vice president of production technology.
Address: Shanxi Shuozhou Ping Lu district
Zip code: 036011
Phone: 0349-8153121/13453082778
E-mail: jianghua204680@163.com

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030001

1
21
2014 , 2
kW 75% 25%

9.5kPa

2.1
TMCRTHA

TMCRTHA10THATRL3
TRLTMCR

TRL
2.2
THA3
60005

TMCR,8d
,

+8

13.5

15.8

12

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13

5
12

TRL
100150150200
[1]
2.3

123.4136
6272

2.4

2.5

15kPa
57m/sRB
10kPa/minRB
2kPa/min

45kPa
23kPa/minRB
RB
RB

ITD()()
()[1]

10.5Kpa 12Kpa

130m/s, 660MW DN6000

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122m/s
5 ( 5 )

TRL
TMCR CPC TRL
23Kpa
3.1
2600MW

3.1.1

15.5
TRL
30

5m/s

4m/s

0.25 /kwh

16 /

450 /
1

kpa

m/s

10.5

2185

84

-430

11

11

1845

63

-376

11.5

1463

46

-301

17

12

1197

28

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112

13

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10.5

1760

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11

1431

108

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11.5

1114

97

-301

27

12

803

71

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116

10

13

1041

138

2.1

2.2

10.5Kpa

-211-

kPa

10

10.5

11

11.5

12

13

27

28

28

28.5

28

28

228

216

204

192

190

180

206.85

151.43

98.48

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5513

4166

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-395

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36.89

65.56

77.10

107.98

127.99

13.07

15.44

34.03

107.49

113.45

10.5kPa

2.2m/s 11kPa
1.76m/s 10.5kPa

9.5kPa 10.5kPa 9.5kPa


20 m2 28
m2 7m 20m
1.6

2.1m/s2.2m/s,

132KW 660MW
160KW 132KW 25
m2

7000
5000 5000 2014
4706 600MW
4286

1
2350MW 2014 1000
0.5KPa

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10.511Kpa 1010.5Kpa

. J.
.
1981-

255 030001
0351-823272715003515812klsyq@sepec.com.cn

-213-

The optimization of air cooling system design backing pressure


Yu Qing sun
Shanxi Province Electric Power Survey and Design Institute, taiyuan,

AbstractThe biggest characteristic of air cooling technology in power plant is water saving,
which has important significance for building thermal power plant in water shortage area. The air
cooling system for power plant is divided into direct air cooling and indirect air cooling
system. At present, as the impact of the facts, such that the decline in coal prices, and
environmental wind, air cooling system type selection have been paid more and more attention,
most important is the design backing pressure of the air cooling system type choice. It not only
determines the scale of air cooling system equipped, and also determines the requirement for
land of air cooling system. The back pressure design of the air cooling system type choice affects
the choice of the direct cooling and indirect air cooling system relatively large.
Key word: air cooling; system design; backing pressure; air cooling system; type choice
1 Preface:
In order to save water resources, to expand the installing capacity, and to create conditions for
sustainable development of power industry, since the beginning of the 21st century, North China
areas which are in the problem of water-shortage construct a large number of air cooling power
plant. Until the end of 2013, the air cooling unit worldwide has installed capacity more than 1.3
billion kw, in which the direct air cooling unit installed capacity is accounted about 60%, indirect
air cooling unit is accounted about 40%, and the trend continues to develop. Especially in recent
years, in Xinjiang, Shanxi and other areas construct the air cooling unit project more and more
and owners pay more and more attention in the choice of air cooling system type. As a result of
coal prices soaring few years ago, at this stage, in early stage of the project, owners generally
consider the design backing pressure of air cooling system should be lower the better, as a result
the design institutions optimize the design backing pressure as low as possible in the response of
the requirements of project owners (the minimum has reached 9.5KPa). But with the decreasing
coal prices in recent years, the domestic economic slowdown, theeconomic will enter a new
normal mode. In Shanxi Provence the suitable location for power plant which is flat has already
been selected, now most power plants siting need to excavate mountain or fill gully, the
restriction for the overall layout of the site is relatively large Therefore, design of back pressure
in air cooling system optimization is critical, it not only determines configuration scale, and the
requirement of land in the air cooling system, but also determines the total investment of air
cooling system. The design of back pressure influences relatively large the choice should be
either direct cooling or indirect air cooling system. Therefore, according to the actual
engineering optimization results and related to some design parameters, this thesis strives to put
reasonable suggestions.
2 The main considered factors in the back pressure design of the air cooling system
The main factors considered in the air cooling system optimization: design temperature, radiator
area, equipment power consumption, coal, wind environment.
2.1 Design working condition
In this stage, the majority steam turbine treatTMCR condition as the nameplate power of air
cooling unit, replacing the previous standard of the condition of THA as the nameplate power, in
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order to facilitate future adaptation to units of various scheduling.


The exhaust volume of TMCR condition is 10% more comparing to the THA condition,
generating capacity is 3% more as THA and TRL condition.
Because the TRL condition cannot reach its full generating condition, therefore, there is no such
saying as full capacity temperature and back pressure.
But in the actual operation of the unit, the unit back pressure will adjust with changes of ambient
temperature, to select the suitable temperature pair in the actual unit assessment, in the
performance assessment of the unit to TRL working condition, should deduct the affluent amont
off.
2.2 Determination of design temperature
With the characteristic of the steam turbine THA condition, In practical project, the
determination of the air cooling system temperature has three methods, namely 6000 hour
method , the weighted average of + 5 DEG and above method, annually average temperature
method(not a full year arithmetic average value, but positive and negative temperature frequency
rate balance method).
At present, we offer the new method of weighted average temperature of +8 DEG and
belowmethod[1], to calculate the design temperature, which can meet the practical engineering
needs through practice.
The following is the design of an actual project in one of our projects of temperature calculation
contrast value
the

weighted

the

weighted

Positive

average of + 5

average of + 5

negative

DEG and above

DEG and below

temperature

method

method

balance method

and

weighted average
temperature of +8
DEG and below
Design
13.5

15.8

12

13

temperature

The + 5 DEG and below weighted average method is specified in the "thermal power plant
hydraulic design specification "and the "large and medium sized thermal power plant code " as
the design method for calculating, often in the engineering design process of the design
institutions, a certain margin (at least 1 to 2 DEG C) is needed to set aside, according to a fixed
amplitude to increase the design temperature.
In the TRL condition design temperature should be select according to the previous full capacity
temperature, namely in environmental wind design conditions, direct air cooling system in
summer calculation temperature should be selected according to the temperature of 100 to 150
hours correspond, indirect air cooling system in summer is computing the appropriate
temperature according to the temperature of 150 to 200 hours of corresponding selection[1].

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2.3 Determination of heat dissipate area


The cooling area of the air cooling system is the total surface area of all the heat transfer
components which are directly contact with the airthat is, the ratio of the wing times wing
surface area of the tube bundleEach air cooling factorys related radiator of the fin (The total
heat dissipation area of the fin on the area of the unit of the light tube. Engineering for the use of
convenient, often used in the effective form of unit tube bundle area of the total heat dissipation
area as a wing of the ratio) is different, therefore the heat dissipation area will change as well.
According to the current air cooling manufacturers bid data: in the direct air cooling system of
single row tube fin ratio was in the range of 123.4 to 136, in indirect air cooling system of
aluminum radiator fin ratio in the range from 62 to 72. Often according to the area of the radiator
to calculate the total price of the radiator will have relatively large differences because of
different values of the radiator fin ratio. Therefore, it is suggested that in the calculation of
radiators in total, direct air cooling system should be calculated in accordance with the radiator
windward area, indirect air cooling system should be the radiator cooling triangle to calculate the
number.
2.4 Power consumption
The power consumption of the direct air cooling system is mainly referring to the operation of
the wind turbine, power consumption of indirect air cooling system is mainly refers to the
operation of the circulating water pump. In the calculation of the operating cost of equipment, it
is recommended to use the cost price calculation, mainly with the current economic form, often
many power plants cannot be full capacity, namely the use of spare unit load issued electricity to
drive the air cooling system of electric equipment, this will be more reasonable.
2.5 Wind environment
At this stage, owners worried about direct air cooling system is affected by wind environment,
especially the influence of high temperature wind, causing low generation capacity, affect the
unit's economy, therefore, tend to adopt low direct cooling design backpressure, increase the area
of the radiator, this is not reasonable, indirect cooling system also has this problem, but not to the
extent as direct cooling system
In the actual operation of the unit, when in a low back pressure operating, namely pressure (e.g.
15KPa) remain unchanged, for example through the air intake control valve of the main steam
turbine, to maintain the unit output unchanged, when the wind struck (5 ~ 7m/s, or even higher,
instantaneous wind speed) RB function is not immediately put into operation (RB the function
starts only moments such as back pressure rate increased 10KPa/min, then increased steadily),
pressure (2Kpa/min), will enter the next operation mode, the unit will run in the high back
pressure section (no more than a generator, through the exhaust backpressure), which can
increase the amount of steam turbine (the higher, more exhaust back pressure large), to continue
to maintain the unit's output unchanged, only when the pressure reached 45Kpa (for example, the
specific operation can be set according to the demand, then back again) a transient increase (for
example, 2 ~ 3Kpa/min), before the start of the RB function. That when the high temperature
wind struck, RB function does not immediately start down the load, but the unit can be through
its own sliding pressure operation, through variable conditions regulate the steam discharging
amount, continue to maintain the unit of output unchanged, only when the limit (to be more than
unit jump back pressure machine), to rev. RB function, reducing load operation.

-216-

3 Optimization of design back pressure


Back pressure design is defined by the air cooling system optimization calculation of the
corresponding "design temperature" of the steam turbine back pressure. Therefore, the design of
back pressure should be design temperatures plus ITD (air cooling steam condenser (or the air
cooling tower) inlet steam temperature (or water temperature) minus design temperature
difference) values), and plus the low pressure cylinder between the condenser exhaust steam pipe
pressure drop (indirect cooling system is for the condenser end difference), and we can get the
actual design pressure [1]. Which should not be ignored in the direct air cooling unit to emit
steam device and exhaust pipe pressure drop, in actual operation, the pressure drop of the steam
device often than the steam turbine factory is too large, exhaust steam pipe of the pressure drop
and the pipe velocity square proportional relationship, in the low back pressure can choose high
velocity and high back pressure can choose low velocity, for example when 10.5Kpa
corresponding to the row of steam pipe flow and 12Kpa corresponding row of steam pipe
velocity is not the same, can improve the exhaust steam pipe flow. In accordance with the GB
"thermal power plant direct cooling system design specification (Draft) requirements" check
blocking back pressure under the condition of medium flow rate is not greater than 130m/s ", for
example a 660MW Unit, from the exhaust steam device connected the two branch pipe when the
pipe branches is DN6000, in blocking back pressure working condition under the medium
velocity is about 122m/s can meet the requirements.
After determining the design temperature, the optimum scheme is no less than 5 (i.e. 5 different
back pressure values), and the annual cost minimization method is used. To optimize the
computing results after comprehensive analysis, select reasonable optimization scheme, in the
optimization scheme of data in the table, each program years total cost size, theoretically less is
more economical, reasonable configuration, namely the design temperature corresponding to the
exhaust steam pressure for optimal design of air cooling units back pressure. In determining the
design temperature corresponding to the TRL working condition, according to the optimization
calculation with principle of turbine characteristics, boiler and turbine matching, in the optimal
solution, inverse corresponding to the TRL working condition of air cooling unit design pressure
by tmcr condition of cooling capacity (CPC), generally at least set aside 2 ~ 3Kpa on the back of
the rich, is also required to ensure heat dissipation area does not exceed.
3.1 Project example
Following is an example of engineering 2 x 600MW thermal power air cooling unit
Either direct or indirect air cooling system, this design adopts the pumping as steam turbine
driven.
Design temperature

15.5

TRL condition design temperature

30

Outside wind speed

5m/s direct cooling system

Outside wind speed

4m/s indirect cooling system

Power cost

0.25yuan/kwh

Land cost

160000 yuan / mu

Coal cost

450yuan/t

-217-

Table 1 direct cooling design optimization(one unit)

No

Exhaust
pressure

Head
wind
speed

Investment
difference

Operational
difference

Micro
difference

Annual total
cost
difference

kpa

m/s

10000 yuan

10000 yuan

10000 yuan

10000 yuan

10.5

2185

84

-430

11

11

1845

63

-376

11.5

1463

46

-301

17

12

1197

28

-150

112

13

391

basis

Basis

143

10.5

1760

132

-430

11

1431

108

-376

basis

11.5

1114

97

-301

27

12

803

71

-150

116

10

13

basis

1041

basis

138

2.1

2.2

sort

better

As above, the most economic annually cost is 10.5kPa as back pressure.


Table 2 indirect cooling system optimization(two unit)
Design pressure

kPa

Cooling tower

site

Two unit one tower

Radiator type

Aluminum air cooling radiator / tower vertical layout

Radiator height

27

28

28

28.5

28

28

Radiator number

unit

228

216

204

192

190

180

206.85

151.43

98.48

48.00

39.83

basis

5513

4166

3062

2065

1304

Basis

-620

-512

-395

-271

-139

Basis

Land cost difference

10000
yuan

Investment
difference

10000

Coal consumption

10000

difference

yuan

yuan

10

10.5

-218-

11

11.5

12

13

Power consumption

10000

difference

yuan

Annual total cost

10000

difference

yuan

basis

36.89

65.56

77.10

107.98

127.99

13.07

basis

15.44

34.03

107.49

113.45

As above, the most economic annually cost is 10.5Kpa as back pressure.


With domestic coal prices and air cooling equipment both decreased year by year, direct air
cooling and indirect air cooling system back pressure design also continued to reduce, from the
optimization results, in the face velocity 2.2m/s and row back pressure steam for 11KPa direct
air cooling system of annual total cost is relatively small; in the face velocity of about 1.76m/s,
backpressure for 10.5KPa time connection of air cooling system total cost is relatively small. But
in actual engineering, owners should request, now many tender or bidding of air cooling unit
design pressure are to the direction of the small design optimization, direct and indirect cooling
design reached 9.5Kpa as minimum. When the unit design pressure from 10.5 kPa to 9.5 kPa,
single units of direct cooling system heat dissipation area increased about 20 million m2, increase
the cost of equipment mainly due to the amount of power increase; single unit cooling system
heat dissipation area increased about 28 million m2, air cooling tower height is increased about
7m, tower zero meter diameter increased about 20m, increase the cost of equipment mainly rely
on saving of coal charge used to offset. Which intercooler mainly investment for indirect cooling
tower of the tower body costs, preliminary forecast (reinforced concrete structure) cost of a
machine of the two towers of the tower body at about 1.6 billion, with decreasing pressure, will
also increase cost of the tower, are calculated and compared to the air cooling system, often
appears overrule conclusion .
In the optimization calculation, the value of face velocity of the direct air cooling system should
not be too high (2.1m/s ~ 2.2m/s). When the face velocity changes, the area of the radiator also
will change correspondingly (higher frontal velocity, reduce the area of the radiator, but the fan
power consumption increases), air cooling system heat works mainly by air cooling area, fan
power should not be over 132kw, in the bidding of a 660MW Unit air cooling system, when the
single blower power is 160kW and the radiating area of the single unit than the 132kw single
unit radiating area reduced about 25 million square meters.
In the actual operation of the unit, regardless of indirect air cooling system or direct air cooing
system, throughout the year there is a certain number of hours of load reduction, the general unit
of the annual average operating hours are approximately 7000 (including full hair, less than the
time), accordingly certain proportion of full year equivalent to 5000 hours of actual usage
(engineering optimization), in the actual plant, the usage is less than 5000 hours. According to
the China Power Enterprises Association website "in 2014 the national thermal power utilization
hours is 4706 in the 600MW unit and above, and the national power generation equipment,
average utilization hours is 4286 hours". Namely unit may not all year in full generating capacity.
In practice after investigation, a number of power plants, northern air cooling units are often not
in full load power generation, unit utilization hours are even lower (often one unit working while
the other rests). Therefore, if blindly pursue to reduce the design back pressure, will increase the
burden of the enterprise.
From the above analysis, when air cooling units design pressure slightly decreases (decreased
about 0.5KPa), air cooling heat dissipation area increases, causing the increase of air cooling
equipment cost. But bid prices from nearly 1 year air cooling manufacturers, air cooling
-219-

equipment prices continued to decline, which intercooler system equipment prices decline is
relatively large (2 * 350MW cooling tower equipment price than last year, a decline of about
1000 million), which can offset the cost increase causing by the decrease of back pressure
design.
4 Conclusion
Therefore, combined with the present coal price, unit utilization, and equipment costs,
the region of 10.5 ~ 11Kpa of back pressure in direct cooling system is appropriate, the indirect
air cooling system design pressure value should be in 10 ~ 10.5kPa.
Reference
Zhang xinhai Determination of design parameters of air cooling system in power station [J], Chinese
Institute of electrical engineering branch of air cooling power of the fourth annual conference

Author:
Yu Qing sun (1981 -), male, Han, master, engineer, graduate from Inner Mongolia Industrial University, now
working in Shanxi Province Electric Power Survey and Design Institute, major
areas are power plant air cooling engineering design and scientific research and development aspects of the
work.
Contact:
Name: Yu Qing sun, address: No. 255 Yingze street, Taiyuan City, Shanxi Province, zip code: 030001, Tel:
0351-8232727, 15003515812 Emailklsyq@sepec.com.cn

-220-


1 2
1 014030
2 010020
:

2.1

-221-

2.2

4 4 W
4.5m 2.5m/s 4850mm 2450mm
W 5.00m 2.90m 1 DN150mm
0.45~.05m/sW 2.5m 2

3
3.1
300MW
35 744.6th 2524.2kJkg 100
5m/s VGB-R13Ime
30kPa
100t/h
-222-

100t/h 644.6t/h

t1 =

(744.6 100) 1000 (2524.2 289.3)


1

35 1.5 68.23
3600 6873.5 2.2 1.011 1.005
1 e 1.72

28.9kPa 30 kPa
35 38kPa 8kPa
58kPa

:
1 15

2-5

3.2
200MW

32 20%

32 4 8

1000m3

50m

80MW~90MW

3.3
1
1
1

()

165.46

()

189

-223-

()

43.32

()

311.14

()

1003

3.22

2
23
29.5
23 954 h 140MW
0.206-0.142=0.064[200-14010009540.064/10000] 2=732.67
32 , 29.5 23.0
6.5 810 140MW 622.08 /
10

[1] 20036-9
[2] GB 50660-2011 2012. 2012-03-01
[3] 1992 23-78

zhaoyao@nmdsy.com 18686058569

-224-

The Design and Adhibition to the Air Cooling Facilities With The Auxiliary
Equipment In the Fossil Fired Power Plant
Xiaoyu Ma1, Yao Zhao2
1.Inner Mongolia BAOTOU Vocational Technical Institute, Inner Mongolia BaoTou P. R. China
2.Inner Mongolia Electric Power Survey Design Institute, Inner Mongolia Huhhot P. R. China

Abstract: In different seasons with the change of environmental temperature, air cooling unit
steam exhaust cooling area have different requirements of radiator, air cooled radiator in the cold
season of antifreeze need to run the embattled, in high temperature and time have a need to
increase the cooling area.The present paper deals with the design of air cooling facilities
advocate complementary distribution, and provide practical operation case, provide a reference
for practical use.
Keywords: Direct Air Cooling System; Indirect Air Cooling System; Rush Cooler; Evaporative
Cooler
Introduction
Starting in the 1960 s, to save precious water resources, our country most of the newly built
coal-fired power plant unit steam exhaust cooling adopts air cooling method. In the recent 20
years, the northern region of new thermal power units are all air cooling mode. After years of
development, from the air cooler air cooling system design, manufacturing and running control
experience has formed a mature technology, complete air cooling technology perfected.
Air cooling system compared with the traditional wet water saving effect is obvious, the aim of
the original, but also need to solve new problems, new technology in the face of new problems.
Air cooling system in the face of the main two problems of how to enhance the capacity of heat
dissipation, high temperature in summer time how to prevent freezing winter low temperature
period. In the northern inland areas, these two problems is much more serious.
According to the above problem, this article from the engineering design and running the actual
effect is put forward a solution: empty cold but advocate complementary facilities configuration,
high temperature in summer time, need large cooling area, advocate complementary cooling
facilities all put into operation, meet the requirement of the unit operation; Low temperature
freezing in winter time, separate operation of the main cooling facilities or auxiliary cooling
facilities (low load) mazu unit operation requirements and effectively prevent frostbite.
Cooling Facilities with Main and Auxiliary Configuration Design
Air cooling system configuration facilities advocate complementary form cooling facilities and
configure an auxiliary cooling facilities, parallel operation with the main cooling facilities.
1. The Main And Auxiliary Configuration Design Of Direct Air Cooling System
Evaporative cooler is a cooling and air cooling, heat transfer and mass transfer process
integration and both the efficiency of cooling equipment, it has compact structure, high heat
transfer efficiency, low investment, low operation cost and convenient installation and
maintenance. The main characteristics of evaporative cooler on the one hand to the cooling tower
and heat exchanger, saved a separate circulating water cooling system, reduce the area, plus the
light pipe is applied to make the pipe to make one time investment is greatly reduced; At the
-225-

same time, on the other hand, using light tube evaporative cooler, air resistance decreases, the air
volume is less, plus its cooling water recycling in the equipment itself, evaporation of water
consumption is low, the operation cost decreases.
Evaporative cooler structure diagram is shown in Fig.1

Fig.1 Evaporative cooler structure diagram

2. The Main And Auxiliary Configuration Design Of Indirect Air Cooling System
The Main and auxiliary configuration design of indirect air cooling system will be part of the
circulating cooling water diversion into the auxiliary cooling facilities. From the main circulating
water system, according to the proportion of the cooling water go rush cooler for forced
ventilation cooling. Is equivalent to increase the cooling area system.
For indirect air cooling system, at present has been put into operation more mature auxiliary
configuration is called "rush cooler".
Peak cooler, each group of cooler is composed of four slices of cooling components, four unit
combination a group of rush into the "W" shape cooler, upper with axial wind flow tractor wind
cooling, fan diameter of 4.5 m, right against the face wind speed 2.5 m/s. Each element length
4850 mm, 2450 mm wide, each "W" shape width 5.00 m, 2.90 m high. The bundle in horizontal
of cooling unit. Each unit 1 root inlet and outlet pipe, pipe diameter DN150mm, bundle inner
flow velocity of 0.45 ~ 5 m/s."W" shape of the lower frame is about 2.5 m high.
System structure is shown in figure 2.

-226-

Fig2 System configuration with main and auxiliary for indirect cooling system

Project
1. To Direct Air Cooling System
For 300MW power plant in Inner Mongolia as an example, the use of auxiliary cooling device,
the operation of the summer heat, to achieve the following conditions: air dry bulb temperature
of 35 in the summer, each of the steam turbine exhaust steam flow rate is 744.6 t/h, the
exhaust steam enthalpy is 2524.2 kJ/kg, the fan speed under the condition of 100%, the external
environment wind speed 5 m/s or less (measuring location according to standard VGB - R13Ime),
ensure that the steam turbine exhaust steam mouth back pressure is not greater than 30 kpa.
To meet the above requirements, the shunt 100 t/h steam discharge, use of auxiliary cooling
device cooling, specific optimization calculation is as follows:
Shunt after 100 t/h steam, direct air cooling system of condensing steam turbine exhaust steam
quantity is 644.6 t/h,
(744.6 100) 1000 (2524.2 289.3)
1
t1 =

35 1.5 68.23
3600 6873.5 2.2 1.011 1.005
1 e 1.72
Corresponding saturation pressure of 28.9 kPa, consider air cooling operation correction and
calculation of allowable deviation, parallel running back pressure at about 30 kPa.
Is 35 before modification run back pressure is 38 kpa, back pressure drops 8 kpa, the same
can be calculated for each temperature change back pressure. After transforming system back
pressure can reduce 5-8 kpa, stable in meet the rating of units, each system safe and economic
Line.
Evaporative condenser system technological process: summer operation: direct air cooling
system and auxiliary cooling device (evaporative condenser) joint operation. Exhaust pipe from
the main distribution of steam into the secondary cooling device (evaporative condenser)
condensation, auxiliary cooling device (evaporative condenser) water through a water pipe to the
exhaust steam device, secondary cooling device (evaporative condenser) no non-condensable gas
by vacuum tube after the air cooling system, vacuum pipeline is remitted to sent to the vacuum
pump emissions into the atmosphere.
System running in running in winter, winter antifreeze concrete measures:
-227-

(1) the environment temperature below 15 , the direct air cooling system and auxiliary cooling
device (evaporative condenser) fan, water pump stop, collection pool empty;Cut off the
secondary peak cooling device (evaporative condenser) steam isolation valve, steam in
secondary cooling device (evaporative condenser) condensation, the winter without freezing.
(2) the winter environmental temperature below 5 , the secondary cooling device (evaporative
condenser) fan duct above affix a seal canvas, prevent due to ram the natural convection
cooling.
Through these measures can effectively solve the secondary cooling device (evaporative
condenser) freezing winter possible phenomenon, at the same time the main cooling facilities is
the area of the air cooling condenser heat load relatively full effectively prevent condenser tube
bundle hair frozen phenomenon.
2. To Indirect Air Cooling System
In a power plant 200MW indirect air-cooling unit as an example, the configuration of auxiliary
cooling unit parallel operation to enhance cooling system cooling capacity, reduce the unit back
pressure, improve the output of summer.
Each indirect air cooling units configuration 32 auxiliary cooler.From the main circulating water
system, according to the proportion is 20%, cent gives part of the cooling water into the cooler
for forced ventilation cooling.Is equivalent to increase the cooling area system.
Auxiliary cooler is divided into four cooling section, divided into two row layout, decorate two
cooling section in each row, each including 8 rush cooler, in the middle of the second row is
equipped with high for overhaul trails and up and down the ladder.
Increase underground vent line, used for emergency 1000 m3 underground reservoir and pump,
piping and indirect air cooling tower in the original storage tank.
Layout from net indirect air cooling tower from the position of the 50 m, and in the downstream
from indirect air cooling tower to the dominant wind direction, purpose is to don't appear when
the dominant wind direction hot air impact on air cooling tower.
According to the actual operation results, the same condition, high temperature in summer time
with peak after cooler, increases the loading capacity of 80 mw unit to 90 mw. Therefore,
indirect air cooling units equipped with peak cooling device is an effective way to solve the
output limited period of time of summer high temperature.
3. Economical Comparison
(1) Direct Air Cooling System
To the engineering case, the investment benefit analysis results are as follows:
The Serial
Number
1
2

The Project Name

The Numerical

In saving coal consumption benefits


(10000RMB)
Increase in power generation benefits
(10000RMB)

-228-

165.46
189

Note

Annual operating costs


(10000RMB)

43.32

Annual net income (10000RMB)

311.14

The project total investment


(10000RMB)

1003

Investment recovery periodyear

3.22

Save coal consumption gains


+ years increase generating
revenue - years operating
expenses

The project total investment is


present in net income

(2) Indirect Air Cooling System


For the same project cases, in recent years in summer high temperature of 23 above unit
cannot ManFa, equipped with auxiliary cooler after 29.5 can be ManFa with network load,
not only the social benefit, also to bring economic benefit to power plant, four years to recover
the project investment.
Plants more than 23 high temperature summer hours cannot ManFa for 954 h, electricity
calculated on for many years an average of 140 mw, net profit per kilowatt hour (0.206-0.206 =
0.064) yuan, economic benefit is:[(200-140) x 1000 x 954 x 0.064/10000] * 2 = 7.3267 million
yuan.
With peak cooler by 32 groups, the high temperature ManFa temperature 29.5 , compared with
high temperature steam turbine transformation before ManFa temperature 23.0 , the
temperature increased by 6.5 , corresponding to the number of hours of about 810 hours,
according to the generator of 140 mw load estimation, can increase the economic benefit of
about 6.2208 million yuan/year.
After the air cooling system, to avoid the high vacuum, low load for oil combustion heat
consumption, fuel economy was more than 100000 yuan every day.
Conclusions and Problems
From the above example shows that, regardless of the direct air cooling system or indirect air
cooling system USES advocate complementary configuration facilities can improve the cooling
ability of cooling system, in the same way in winter low temperature environment by running a
less heat dissipation area to satisfy ou pig as well as anti-freezing less pressure.
Currently, advocate complementary facilities configuration problem lies in the auxiliary facilities,
the proportion of size need according to the situation of regional power grid load scheduling, low
temperature time comprehensive consideration.
Biography
Yao Zhao, Male, Electric Power Survey Design Institute.
E-mail: zhaoyao@nmdsy.com, Tel18686058569
-229-

010020

1.

2.

2.1
886.4hPa
29 191h
12.55
0.187 /kWh
20
5500 h
8
2.5
460 /t
2.1-1
2.1-1

(t/h)
kJ/kg
(t/h)
kJ/kg
(t/h)

THA
641.7
2452.9
64.11
2542.1
665.62

TRL
675.54
2537.4
80.89
2617.5
667.89

kJ/kg
(t/h)
kJ/kg

2460.4
54.84
2534.6

2548.2
83.21
2635.9

-230-

1 1

2.2
2.2.1

1
938864 m2
2.0m/s
30
9.754 m
132 kW/
30kPa
14kPa
1 1

39625.3 t/h
1400kW 2

55
20500 m2

921816m2
124
18m
140m
114m0.00m
121m
70 m
28 kPa
12kPa
2.2.2

1
15.2
2 1 15.2~8.9
3 2 8.9~-2
4
-2
-231-


2.2-1 (1)

15.2

2908

2618

15.28.9

1394

8.9-2

2173

-2

2195

2854
1775

(2)

2.2-2 (2)

20.98

15.2

2908

2618

10.52

15.28.9

1394

4.51

8.9-2

2173

-12

-2

2195

2854
1775

(3)
2.2-3

(t/h)

360.28

366.5

214.91

158.97

kJ/kg

2490.4

2490.2

2540.2

2557.2

(t/h)

42.15

41.72

50.39

51.93

kJ/kg

2591.1

2592.4

2570.0

2570.2

g/kWh

290

292

176

222

kPa

8.5

(t/h)

367.86

360.26

208.51

152.77

kJ/kg

2509.95

2471.2

2510.7

2525.7

(t/h)

42.5

41.39

50.1

51.71

kJ/kg

2592.05

2591.4

2570.7

2570.2

g/kWh

293

288

172

218

kPa

10

8kPa 610kPa

36129.007 35913.209
1.2433.55
430.96

-232-

3.

[1]
1972-
0471-6225414
E-mailJhaijun@nmdsy.com

-233-

The design of air cooling unit back pressure selection


Jin Hai jun; Bai Yin mu ren
Inner Mongolia Power Exploration & Design Institute, Hohhot010020, Inner Mongolia

Abstract: This paper introduces the design of air cooling unit pressure selected a new train of
thought. Annual extraction condensing steam turbine generator unit in accordance with the actual
operating conditions, extraction condensing operation, Rather than pure condensing condition,
but the air cooling island is configured in accordance with the pure condensing condition
selection of design, Air cooling island configuration of large capacity, Lower back pressure
operation of the unit, But the unit deviate from efficient area, The unit operation is not economy,
In accordance with the pure condensing condition that optimizing the design pressure is not
reasonable conclusion. Back pressure turbine design, should be in accordance with the actual
operating back pressure can be determined, it will increase the unit operation efficiency, reduce
energy consumption, for a project to bring taller economic benefits.
Key words:

Air cooling unit; Design pressure; Selection

1. Overview
In engineering design. The back pressure of the air cooling unit has a direct impact on the
investment, operation cost and safe operation of the unit. If the back pressure of the unit is not
reasonable, Will result in the increase of unit investment and operating expenses, And even affect
the safety of the unit. Here is a new idea to determine the back pressure of the unit design, Hope
to have some inspiration to the engineering design, can expand the design idea.
2. Air cooling scheme
Usually, In engineering design, To determine the air cooling unit of air cooling island
configuration and unit design back pressure and full back pressure with the total annual cost
method. The total annual fee usage is the sum of the years fixed investment costs, costs of
electricity, coal consumption costs of the year, Annual total cost is the optimal solution. Taking a
pumping condensing turbine generator (cold heat and power generation) as an example to
illustrate the process.
2.1Basic data
The site of atmospheric pressure 886.4hPa
Full fat temperature29Full year of dissatisfaction with the number of hours191h
Design temperature: 12.55, a certain margin is considered.
Power generation cost0.187yuan/kWh
Economic operating period20 years
Annual utilization hours: 5500 h
Investment recovery: 8
Maintenance cost rate 2.5
Standard coal: 460yuan/t
Steam turbine parameters: see table2.1-1
Table 2.1-1 The parameters of the steam turbine
Direct cooling scheme for

Steam turbine condenser


-234-

THA
641.7

TRL
675.54

steam turbine parameters

Cooling scheme of steam


turbine parameters

(t/h)
The steam turbine exhaust enthalpy
kJ/kg
Small steam turbine condenser(t/h)
Small steam turbine condenser
kJ/kg
Steam turbine condenser
(t/h)
The steam turbine exhaust enthalpy
kJ/kg
Small steam turbine condenser(t/h)
Small steam turbine condenser
kJ/kg

2452.9

2537.4

64.11

80.89

2542.1

2617.5

665.62

667.89

2460.4

2548.2

54.84

83.21

2534.6

2635.9

Direct cooling intercooler, two design schemes are considered in the design:
Scheme one: the host is the direct air cooling way, the water supply pump is the steam way, 1
sets of direct air cooling system for each unit, "Small machine" row of "big machine" exhaust
device. Auxiliary cooling by wet cooling system.
Scheme two: the main engine is the indirect air cooling way, the water pump is the steam way,
each unit is equipped with 1 air cooling tower. Each unit is equipped with 1 sets of surface type
condenser, and the "small" unit is arranged in a row of "big" condenser. Auxiliary cooling by wet
cooling system.
2.2 Selection results of alternative options
2.2.1 program optimization
Method to calculate the minimum annual total cost method, first of all according to the factory
conditions, weather conditions and the unit condensing design parameters primaries out different
cooling area scheme can be implemented, for different cooling area for Du Xia ability of
thermodynamic calculation, and then determine the cooling area in the design temperature and
summer full of hair back pressure of steam temperature, and according to the code between the
meteorological conditions calculated the annual total cost.
The overall economy according to the method of dynamic economic analysis that initial
investment by matching equally to the unit of economic life, resulting in fixed investment costs,
to calculate the costs of electricity and coal consumption costs, the costs add up, that is, calculate
the total annual cost, to determine which can satisfy Du Xia ability, comprehensive economy and
is the best scheme.
Optimization is used to calculate the annual total cost minimization, including fixed investment
cost, operation cost and annual coal consumption cost. The results are as follows:
According to the optimization results, the optimal design of the air cooling system is as follows:
Plan one: the host is the direct air cooling way, the water supply pump is the steam way, each
unit is equipped with 1 sets of direct air cooling system.
Air condenser area per unit: 938864 m2
Condenser head wind speed2.0m/s
Each unit cooling unit: 30 groups;
-235-

Fan diameter: 9.754 m;


Fan power: 132 kW/;
Recommended unit full fat back pressure: 30kPa;
Recommended unit design back pressure: 14kPa.
Scheme two: the main engine is the indirect air cooling way, the water pump is the steam way,
each unit is equipped with 1 air cooling tower. Each unit is equipped with 1 sets of surface type
condenser.
Per unit of water consumption: 39625.3 t/h;
Single circulating pump power: 1400kW (2 per unit);
Design cooling ratio: 55 times
Condenser cooling area: 20500 m2
Condenser material: stainless steel
Total area: 921816m2 heat radiator intercooler;
Radiator cooling triangle number: 124 groups;
Radiator cooling triangle height: 18m;
Air cooling tower: 140m;
Air cooling tower diameter: 114m (tower 0.00m);
121m (tower periphery);
Air cooling tower outlet diameter: 70 m;
Recommended maximum back pressure: 28 kPa;
Recommended design back pressure: 12kPa.
2.2.2 the actual operating conditions of the program throughout the year
Because this project is the annual extraction condensing steam turbine generator unit, actual unit
operating conditions, in accordance with the operation of extraction condensing conditions,
rather than pure condensing condition, but air cooling island allocation according to the
condition of pure condensate design choices, air cooling island configuration capacity larger,
therefore, the actual operation condition and design condition will have bigger difference. In
order to explain the problem, the actual operating conditions of the unit should be calculated
according to the actual operating conditions of the unit.
According to the characteristics of steam extraction of the project units throughout the year, the
actual operation condition of the unit is divided into four sections: (1) summer conditions,
ambient temperature 15.2 DEG C; (2) transition season 1: ambient temperature 15.2 DEG C to
8.9 DEG C; (3) the transition season 2: ambient temperature 8.9~-2 DEG C; (4) winter
conditions: ambient temperature - 2 DEG C below. According to the exhaust gas parameters, the
average back pressure of each total condition is calculated. The calculation process is as follows:
Table 2.2-1 (1) All working conditions continue hours:
Season

Ambient temperature

Extended hours

Use of hours

Summer

15.2

2908

2618

Transition season 1

15.28.9

1394

Transition season 2

8.9-2

2173

winter

-2

2195

2854
1775

According to the operating conditions of the whole year, the temperature section of the program
-236-

is determined according to the typical air cooling meteorological model, and the average
temperature of the program is determined by the weighted average method. As the design
temperature.
Table 2.2-2 (2) All working conditions continue hours
Season

Design temperature

Ambient temperature

Extended hours

Use
hours

Summer

20.98

15.2

2908

2618

Transition season
1

10.52

15.28.9

1394

Transition season
2

4.51

8.9-2

2173

winter

-12

-2

2195

of

2854

1775

(3) The operating parameters of each scheme are calculated according to the above design
temperature, and the operating pressure of each working condition is calculated:
Table 2.2-3 The operating parameters of each scheme
Summer

Transition
season 1

Transition
season 2

winter

360.28

366.5

214.91

158.97

2490.4

2490.2

2540.2

2557.2

Small steam turbine condenser (t/h)

42.15

41.72

50.39

51.93

Small steam turbine


enthalpykJ/kg

2591.1

2592.4

2570.0

2570.2

Power generation standard coal


consumptiong/kWh

290

292

176

222

Running back pressurekPa

8.5

Steam turbine condenser


(t/h)

367.86

360.26

208.51

152.77

2509.95

2471.2

2510.7

2525.7

Small steam turbine condenser (t/h)

42.5

41.39

50.1

51.71

Small steam turbine


enthalpykJ/kg

2592.05

2591.4

2570.7

2570.2

Power generation standard coal


consumptiong/kWh

293

288

172

218

Running back pressurekPa

10

Steam turbine condenser


(t/h)
Direct cooling
scheme
for
steam turbine
parameters

Cooling
scheme
of
steam turbine
parameters

The
steam
turbine
enthalpy( kJ/kg

The
steam
turbine
enthalpy( kJ/kg

exhaust

exhaust

exhaust

exhaust

From the above calculation knowable, turbine annual average operating back pressure, direct air
cooling system: about 8, indirect air cooling system: 6 ~ 10KPA. Reason is the project of air
cooling island allocation according to the condition of pure condensate design choice, actual
operation in accordance with the annual extraction operation, air cooling island configuration
-237-

capacity larger, operating pressure lower, resulting from such units deviate from the long-term
turbine design operation and low efficiency. If the engineering design of steam turbine back
pressure, determined according to the actual operating pressure, will improve the unit operation
efficiency, reduce coal consumption. The calculation of the annual coal consumption of
engineering cost, the direct air cooling system: 361290070 yuan, indirect air cooling system:
359132090 yuan. Such as backpressure turbine design, according to the actual operating back
pressure to determine, unit efficiency of about 1.2%, the annual savings in the coal consumption
cost, direct air cooling system: 433.55 wan million yuan and indirect air cooling system:
430.96 wan million yuan.
3.Summary
In engineering design, such as the unit according to the condition of the pure, the design of the
design is reasonable according to the optimized conditions. Such as a unit according to the
annual pumping steam operation, because of the big air cooling island configuration capacity, the
unit running back pressure is low, set off, District, the unit does not run the economy, optimizing
the design pressure was determined according to the condition of pure condensate is
unreasonable. Back pressure turbine design should be determined according to the actual
operating pressure, this will improve the running efficiency of the unit, reducing coal
consumption and bring higher economic benefits for the project.
Reference
[1] Shanxi Power Industry Bureau, Ding Ermou, editor in chief of power plant air cooling technology, water
conservancy and electric power press
Author brief introduction: Jin haijun (1972 -), male, Inner Mongolia, bachelor degree, senior engineer, engaged
in Electric Power Survey and hydraulic technology research and design work. Phone 0471-6225414
E-mailJhaijun@nmdsy.com

-238-

Session 3 Operation Optimization of


Air-Cooled Condenser

Research on Applying Dry Cooling Technology in


Conventional Island of AP1000 Nuclear Power in China
Jingyu Chai, Wuquan Li, Jingwei Zheng
Electric Power Planning & Engineering Institute, Beijing, China

Abstract: In inland nuclear power plant adopted re-recycle water cooling system in conventional
islandthe water consuming is approximately double of the thermal power plant with the same
capacity. When dry cooling technology is adopted, the water consuming is same with the coastal
nuclear power plant, and the fuel do not increase which is always happed in the thermal power
plant cause of the backpressure. The research of the applying dry cooling technology in inland
nuclear power plant is urgent with good prospects. This paper focuses on the construction of
AP1000 nuclear power in water lacking district inland, analyses the using of indirect dry cooling
system, proposes some suggestions for the engineering practice.
Keywords: Indirect dry cooling system; Lack of water region; Conventional island; Application.
0 INTRODUCTION
According to Development plan of nuclear power in medium and long term (2005-2020)
approved by the state council, China will adhere to the basic principle of "promote the
construction of nuclear power actively" for electric power development, and enhance the
construction of 1000MW pressurized water reactor nuclear power generation units. In 2008,
national development and reform committee held a meeting on the development of inland
nuclear power, and proposed that the third generation (AP1000) of nuclear power technology
will be used in inland nuclear plants.
The water consumption of inland nuclear power generation units is double of thermal power
generation units with re-recycle water cooling system. When adopting dry cooling technology,
the water consumption of the conventional island in inland nuclear plants is almost the same as
once-through seawater supply system in coastal nuclear plants, with more than 90% of water
saving rate. Moreover, unlike the variation of fuel cost leaded by the rising of generation
backpressure in thermal power generation units, fuel cost of dry cooling technology would keep
the same level. Therefore, it is prospective and urgent to carry out the application research of dry
cooling technology for inland nuclear power generation units in lack of water area. The science
and technology development plan of China power engineering consulting group CO., LTD,
states that the type selection research of dry cooling system in 1000MW nuclear generation units
should be finished in 2015 and relevant system design combined with engineering projects
would be carried out independently. The type selection and technical scheme of dry cooling
system in AP1000 nuclear generation units are particularly discussed in this paper.
1 INTRODUCTION OF AP1000 NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION UNIT
AP1000 nuclear plant is mainly composed of two circuits. The first circuit is reacted in the
containment. The coolant is heated by the nuclear reactor, and enters the steam generator which
converting the water into steam, then the steam enters the conventional island and drives the
steam turbine. The exhaust steam condenses into liquid when passing the condenser and returns
to the steam generator, which belongs to the second circuit. Cooling water could adopt the oncethrough seawater supply system or re-recycle water cooling system with cooling tower, which

-241-

belongs to the third circuit. Figure 1 shows the system flow of AP1000 nuclear power generation
units.
evaporative cooler
regulator

second
circuit HP

reactor

coolant
pump

circulating
water

turbine
LP

LP

LP

condenser

cooling water

first circuit
Figure 1: System flow of AP1000 nuclear power generation unit

2 SPECIFICATIONS OF DRY COOLING STEAM TURBINE IN CONVENTIONAL


ISLAND
Harbin Steam Turbine Company introduces the Japan design technology of nuclear power steam
turbine from Mitsubishi, digests and absorbs the third generation of nuclear power AP1000
technology, and undertakes the first domestic design and manufacturing tasks of water cooling
steam turbine in AP1000 conventional island. As the design principle of nuclear power capacity
is "the turbine matches the reactor", if the model of nuclear island is determined by investors,
thermal power rating of nuclear steam supply system will also be determined accordingly.
However, the matched generated power of turbine generator units varies with construction places
and type of cooling . The major difference between air- cooling turbine and water-cooling
turbine is the backpressure. The backpressure range of air- cooling turbine is 7-45 kPa(a), but the
backpressure range of water-cooling turbine is 4-11 kPa(a). Under the identical heat
consumption rate, high-and-medium-pressure cylinder models varied slightly, and the main
difference is in the low pressure cylinder module, especially researching the end of blade and the
second end of the blade. Focusing on AP1000 reactor, taking the water-cooling turbine
developed in cooperation as the prototype and keeping the major parameter (flow rate, pressure
and temperature) and high-and-medium-pressure models unchanged, Harbin Steam Turbine
Company mainly studied low pressure cylinder module of air-cooling turbine, and put forward a
preliminary scheme of.air-cooling turbine.The air-cooling turbine of AP1000 nuclear power
adopts the uniaxial and half speed scheme with three cylinders and four exhausts. The flow,
pressure and temperature of the main steam is 6800 t/h, 5.53 MPa, and 270.3 , respectively.
The design back pressure is 11-13 kPa(a), the length of the last stage blade in low pressure is
1200 mm, and the annular area of exhaust steam is approximately 414.9m2. The parameters of
the air-cooling turbine in AP1000 nuclear power plant (TMCR flow) are shown in table 1.
Table 1: Parameters of the air-cooling turbine in AP1000 nuclear power plant (TMCR flow)
Exhaust pressurekPa

11

13

15

17

30

Turbine powert/h

1175.5

1163.4

1150.7

1137.6

1056.2

Exhaust flowt/h

3651.1

3673.8

3694.1

3712.6

3756.1

2374.5

2387.5

2400.8

2414.0

2486.5

Exhaust enthalpy(kj/kg

-242-

For the last stage blade developed, manufacturers must provide the results of design calculations
and practical experiments, to ensure safe and reliable of the blade.
3 TYPE SELECTION OF DRY COOLING SYSTEM IN CONVENTIONAL ISLAND OF
NUCLEAR POWER
The domestic construction and operation of dry cooling system in thermal power plants has
proved that the air cooled condenser system has advantages of small space, highly adjustable by
using mechanical draft system and capital investment saving, but it is too sensitive to
environmental wind. A strong wind in short time would make the backpressure of steam turbine
rising significantly, and then reduce the unit's load more than 20% at most. The steam turbine
with air cooled condenser will even break down in extreme weather conditions. The advantages
of indirect dry cooling system are strong abilities to resist the external environmental wind,
stable operation and low running backpressure. It should pay more attentions to the antifreeze
problems in winter. The air cooled condenser system is two circuits system in a nuclear power
plant, while the indirect dry cooling system is a three circuits system. The system chart of air
cooled condenser system and indirect dry cooling system of conventional island in AP1000
nuclear power plant are shows in Fig.2 and Fig.3, respectively.

ev aporative cooler
regulator

second
circuit HP

reactor

turbine
LP

LP

LP

turbine
exhaust

coolant
pump
first circuit

Air cooled
condenser system
Figure 2: Air cooled condenser system of conventional island in AP1000 nuclear power plant

-243-

evaporative cooler
regulator

second
circuit HP

reactor

coolant
pump

turbine
LP

LP

LP

condenser
circulating
water

first circuit
indirect dry cooling system
Figure 3: Indirect dry cooling system of conventional island in AP1000 nuclear power plant

According to the design requirements of the nuclear power plant, the 1000MW grade nuclear
power units only allow a 10% load step change of the maximum guarantee power, when less
than the rated power. But Air cooled condenser system may exceed this range easily in extreme
weather conditions. In addition, as a two circuits system, there may be influences to steam water
quality in the second circuit of the air cooled condendser system because of the large vacuum
volume, which may lead to an enlargement of the radiation at extreme condition. The indirect
dry cooling system adopts the surface condenser, which is a mature product in water-cooling
turbine of nuclear power plant. However, there have been no application cases of air cooled
condendser system in nuclear power station yet. Considering safety is the primary factor of
nuclear power units, therefore indirect dry cooling system is recommended in AP1000 nuclear
power units.
According to different draft types, indirect dry cooling system can be divided into natural draft
and mechanical draft. Natural draft dry cooling system is used in most thermal power plants both
at home and abroad, e.g. 6686MW generation units of South Africa Kendal power plant, which
is the largest capacity of indirect dry cooling system in the world, and 2600MW generation
units of Shanxi Yangcheng power plant phase two, which uses indirect dry cooling system in
China. According to the characteristics of nuclear power generation units, applying natural draft
indirect dry cooling system in AP1000 conventional island should be discussed.
4 INDIRECT DRY COOLING SYSTEM SCHEME
SCAL indirect dry cooling system consists of surface condenser and air cooled heat exchanger
vertical to air cooling tower, and its specifications are:
1) The recycle process of cooling water is airtight and the water losses are zero theoretically.
This is a water-saving system.
2) The system adopts surface condenser. Cooling water and condensate water has their own
systems, and the treatment of water is according to the respective standard. The cooling water
system uses dematerialized water and runs airtightly. There is almost no block in condenser tube,
which enhances the heat exchange efficiency.

-244-

3) The surface condenser is made of stainless steel tube and the air cooled heat exchanger is
made of steel tube & steel sheet or aluminum tube & aluminum sheet. With controlling the PH of
recycle water in the system for different material of air cooled heat exchanger, the equipment
service life could be ensured by lowering the corrosion.
4) The circulating water system is in the closed state, which leads to a low water pump head and
low power consumption. The circulating water pump can adopt conventional vertical centrifugal
pump, which could save the investment of equipment.
5) When the height of air intake is between 25-30m and the diameter of is less than 200m, the air
cooling tower can be scaled down with a vertical heat exchanger outside the tower instead of a
horizontal heat exchanger inside the tower, which could save the cost of construction.
According to the design and construction level of the super large scale cooling tower at home
and abroad, and taking a nuclear power plant in the north region as an example, preliminary
computation of natural draft indirect dry cooling system in AP1000 conventional island of
nuclear power generation units is carried out. The design parameters of SCAL indirect dry
cooling system are shown in table 2.
The specific data of SCAL indirect dry cooling system is as follows:
1) Surface condenser is single flow, double backpressure and made of stainless steel tube
material with cooling area of about 100,000m2.
2) The air cooled heat exchanger made of aluminum tube & aluminum sheet has advantages of
high heat transfer efficiency, easy to manufacture and transport, light weight and good
anticorrosion effect, etc. The heat exchanger is made of circular aluminum parent tubes and
aluminum plate fin, the diameter of parent tubes is 25mm, tube thickness is 1.0mm, the size of
aluminum plate fin is 650 mm 200 mm, space between the fins is 3.8mm, and thickness of the
fin is 0.33mm, with six pipes. Cooling delta is 27m high.
3) There are 2 air cooling towers for each generator, the bottom diameter of each tower is 176m,
outer diameter of the heat exchanger is 184m, tower height is about 200m, and the air intake is
27m high. Suppose the space between 2 air cooling towers is half of the outer edge diameter of
air cooled heat exchanger, 2 generators with 4 towers will cover an area of 26 hm2, and the
specific layout of towers should be determined according to the results of wind tunnel
experiment for tower group effects.
4) 6 vertical volute pumps are allocated for each generator and run at the same time in summer,
but the running number of circulating water pumps need to be adjusted in other seasons.
5) During the high temperature period in summer, in order to reduce the temperature of
circulating water, the effective measures of thermal power generation units for the summer could
be used, such as spray cooling, etc..
Table 2: Optimal design parameters of SCAL indirect dry cooling system
Item
Annual average temperature /
Height above sea level /m
Design temperature /

Vaule
12
66
16

-245-

Design backpressure / kPa

12
-1

Exhaust flow of turbine /(th )

3673.38

Exhaust enthalpy of turbine /(kj/kg)


Design heat dissipating capacity of air cooling
tower/ MW

2387.5

Surface condenser area /m

21110
100000

-1

Circulating water flow /(m h )

184000
2

Air cooled heat heat exch area /m

2270104

Number of cooling triangles

2212

Number of towers

Bottom diameter of the tower /m


Outer edge diameter of air cooled heat exchanger
/m

176
184

Height of the tower /m

200

5 OPTIMIZATION METHOD OF DRY COOLING SYSTEM


According to the Economic Evaluation Rules of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Project ,
minimum annual cost and maximum present value of earnings are the most common economic
evaluation methods of nuclear power plants. Minimum annual cost is kind of dynamic economy
analysis method used for choosing the optimal design scheme of dry cooling system in nuclear
power conventional island from several alternatives. Both the primary investment of every
alternative and the annual operating costs during the forecasted economic operation years are
converted into a specified year according to the dynamic economic law, and then shared equally
to each economic operation year. The alternative scheme of the minimum yearly shared value is
the optimal design scheme.
Maximum present value of earnings is a net present value method of dynamic analysis which is
used as the criterion for finding the optimal design of dry cooling system in conventional island
from several alternatives. The present value of earnings is the positive difference value between
the incremental net present revenue of nuclear power steam turbines during its economic
operation period and the primary investment of dry cooling system. The optimal scheme is the
alternative which having maximum present value of earnings.
Thermal power generation units often use minimum annual cost method for cold end
optimization, accumulating the present values of primary investment and annual operation costs.
The fuel cost of thermal power generation unit accounts for about 80% of its total generation
cost. Electricity cost of pumps and fans are usually calculated by unit generation cost, the
incremental output changes of steam turbines are showed by the quantity changes of steam
inflow. The steam consumption rate is converted into coal consumption, and the coal
consumption cost is calculated using the electricity generation cost multiplied by the reduction
coefficient of 0.8~0.9. For nuclear power units, its annual utilization hours are different with that
of thermal power generation units and the output changes of steam turbines should be calculated
under constant thermal power of nuclear island when optimizing the cold end of nuclear power
according to its characteristics. As the nuclear fuel cost only accounts for about 15% of the total
generation cost, the nuclear fuel cost and quantity of power generation change little along with
the parameter changes of cold end system, maximum present value of earnings is better for cold
end optimization of nuclear units.

-246-

6 THE LIFE OF AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER


The design life of AP1000 nuclear power plant is 60 years, with no renewal of nuclear reactor.
Major equipment such as steam turbine and generator of nuclear power conventional island in
domestic AP1000 projects under construction are also required for 60 years. As a major
equipment of the conventional island, the design life of air cooled heat exchanger should also be
consistent with the steam turbine and generator. The reasons are the large numbers, heavy weight
and long installation cycle of the equipment. In addition, heavy cranes need to be used and there
are complex pipeline system connected with air cooled heat exchanger. Moreover, the original
old equipment must be dismantled for installing the new equipment if replacing the major
equipment of indiect dry cooling system during the whole life period of nuclear power plant.
According to the installation experience of air cooled heat exchanger domestic, at least 6 months
are needed to replace the equipment of two air cooling towers in an AP1000 nuclear power plant.
At the present, air cooed heat exchanger of thermal power station is steel tube & steel sheet and
aluminum tube & aluminum sheet, both of which could meet the requirements of 30 years
service life for thermal power station. According to the technical data, a certain air cooling
power plant with steel tube & steel sheet heat exchanger in Germany has run more than 50 years,
and the 200MW air cooling power plant Matra with the aluminum tube & aluminum sheet in
Hungary has run nearly 45 years since being put into operation in early 1970s and is still in good
condition. There are also air cooled heat exchanger made of aluminum finned stainless steel
parent tubes and carbon steel finned stainless steel parent tubes for choice from air cooling
equipment manufacturers. The No.2 generation unit (1400MW) of Neckarwesttheim nuclear
power plant in Germany uses the dry and wet combined cooling system, and the air cooled heat
exchanger made of rounded carbon steel finned stainless steel parent tubes is used for dry
cooling system. Therefore, it is feasible for AP1000 nuclear power plant to adopt the air cooled
heat exchanger with design life of 60 years. It should also be required clearly that the life of air
cooling heat exchanger need to be consistent with that of the main equipment in conventional
island and nuclear island when ordering.
7 CONCLUSIONS
7.1 Water consumption of inland nuclear power plant using re-recycle water cooling system in
conventional island is approximately double as much as that of thermal power plant with the
same capacity. Water consumption will be saved more than 90% if dry cooling technology is
adopted in the conventional island of nuclear power plant, and meanwhile, different with thermal
power generation unit whose fuel cost will change greatly with the rising of unit back pressure,
the fuel cost of nuclear power plant changes little. So it is necessary to study dry cooling
technology in nuclear power unit in lack of water regions inland.
7.2 Based on the design and manufacture technology of air cooling steam turbines for thermal
power introduced, the steam turbine manufacturers should speed up the research and
development of air cooling steam turbine for AP1000 nuclear power plants, using the
development experience of air cooling steam turbines of thermal power.
7.3 The conventional island of nuclear power in lack of water inland region should adopt indirect
dry cooling system with surface condenser. Natural draft indirect dry cooling system should be
considered firstly because of its design and operation experiences at home and abroad, however,
as there are still lots of difficulties in design and construction of super large air cooling tower,
further study on design and wind tunnel tests should be carried out as early as possible to ensure
the safe operation of 60 years.

-247-

7.4 According to the characteristics of nuclear power generation units, maximum present value
of earnings is suggested to be used for optimization of dry cooling system.
7.5 The design life of the main euipments in conventional island of AP1000 nuclear power is 60
years, and the life of air cooled heat exchanger should been required clearly to be consistent with
the main euipments of conventional island and nuclear island when bidding.
Biography
Chai Jingyu: Tel. :86+10+58388531; Email: jychai@cpecc.net

-248-

-249-

-250-

-251-

-252-

1. 136 710032
2. 021410

200MW

1.

2.

NT = f1 ( N , Pk ) ......................................................................................................(1)
NT MW

N MW
Pk kPa
2

Pk = f 2 ( N , T , f ) ....................................................................................................(2)
T

f Hz
3

N p = f 3 ( f T )

.....................................................................................................(3)

N p kW
4
-253-

1
NT-Np
NT-Np f
2

3.
200MW
CZK185/N200-12.75/535/535/0.245 GEA 4 4 16
9.144m 525205m2
3.1

1
1

12

18.5

26

Hz

kW

kW

kW

kW

49.79

2134.59

2086.416

2041.66

1990.04

47.69

1864.67

1815.67

1769.5

1717

43.88

1451.33

1404.67

1360.697

1310.71

38.12

991.67

976

960.597

943.812

33.14

665

662.67

660.458

657.968

-254-

3.2
13:00-16:00 21:00-24:00
12 2 6
2 120MW

Np

NT

NT-Np

Hz

MW

kPa

MW

MW

MW

MW

47.69

1.815

8.065

119.082

1.335

2.164

0.829

43.88

1.404

8.342

119.02

0.924

2.102

1.178

38.12

0.976

9.097

118.871

0.496

1.953

1.457

33.14

0.662

10.274

118.125

0.182

1.207

1.025

28.31

0.48

11.611

116.918

3 140MW

Np

NT

NT-Np

Hz

MW

kPa

MW

MW

MW

MW

47.69

1.816

8.424

140.311

1.153

2.505

1.352

43.88

1.405

8.863

140.099

0.742

2.293

1.551

38.12

0.976

9.834

139.388

0.313

1.582

1.269

33.14

0.663

10.988

137.806

4 160MW

Np

NT

NT-Np

Hz

MW

kPa

MW

MW

MW

MW

47.69

1.816

9.601

161.311

1.153

3.428

2.275

43.88

1.405

10.17

160.812

0.43

2.929

2.499

-255-

38.12

0.976

11.66

159.868

0.31

1.985

1.675

33.14

0.663

12.9

157.883

5 180MW

Np

NT

NT-Np

Hz

MW

kPa

MW

MW

MW

MW

47.69

1.816

10.533

179.481

1.153

4.15

2.997

43.88

1.405

11.47

179.081

0.742

3.75

3.008

38.12

0.976

12.76

177.428

0.313

2.098

1.784

33.14

0.663

15.1

175.331

6 200MW

Np

NT

NT-Np

Hz

MW

kPa

MW

MW

MW

MW

47.69

1.816

11.533

199.359

1.153

8.375

7.222

43.88

1.405

13.07

198.229

0.742

7.245

6.503

38.12

0.976

15.26

194.641

0.313

3.657

3.343

33.14

0.663

17.91

190.984

4 8

120MW

-256-

140MW

160MW

180MW

200MW

3.3
715 19
-- 7
7

12

15

19

MW

/Hz

/Hz

/Hz

/Hz

120

34

38.5

42.3

46

140

37

41.5

44.5

47.5

160

39.3

43.5

46.7

49.6

180

42

45.6

48.9

52.2

200

44.1

48

51

54

-257-

200MWfopt=38.20456+ 0.83554T
180MWfopt =35.74202+ 0.86287T
160MWfopt =33.22117+ 0.87199T
140MWfopt =30.90717+ 0.88436T
120MWfopt =26.75147+ 1.01498T
fopt T
3.4
8
8

MW

Hz

Hz

MW

MW

38

34

0.11

12

44

38.5

0.19

15

45

42.3

0.11

19

45

46

12

44

41.5

0.45

15

45

44.5

38

39.3

0.09

12

44

43.5

15

45

46.7

0.26

19

45

49.6

0.39

12

44

45.6

0.11

19

48

52.2

0.75

44

44.1

12

44

51

0.68

19

48

54

1.3

120

140

160

180

200

0.65g/(kWh)

-258-

0.1025

0.225

0.185

0.43

0.66

4.
1

2 0.65g/(kWh)
3

136 710032
jingtao@tpri.com.cn 13892869024

-259-

Experimental Investigation of Performance Optimization of Direct


air-cooling system
Jingtao1; Hou jianhua2;Chen shengli1; Li gaochao1; Lvkai1; Wanchao1
1 Xi'an thermal power institute Co. Ltd. No. 136, Xingqing Road, Xian, 710032
2 Manzhouli Da Lai Nor Lake Power Plant, Zhalainuoer, Manzhouli, 021410

Abstract: At a fixed load and environmental temperature, the increment difference of air-cooling
fan power consumption and the turbine power output (which is called as increment of net output)
will change with the fan frequency varying. When the fan frequency achieves a certain value, the
net turbine power output reached its maximum, In this condition, the fan frequency obtained is
known as the optimum frequency. The experimental investigation of optimization of direct
air-cooling system was carried out relying on a 200MW direct air-cooling power plant, from
which the optimum frequency is acquired at the different load and the deferent ambient
temperature. The experiment result indicates that after air-cooling optimization, an evident
energy-consumption benefit is obtained.
Key words: Direct air-cooling system; increment of net output; performance optimization
1. Summary
As a result of excellent water-saving property, the direct air-cooling units have been applied
widely where is lack of water but rich in coal and the installed capacity increases continuously.
Optimizing the operation parameters of the direct air-cooling system will both enhance the
economic benefit of the air-cooling power plant and conform to the " energy conservation and
environmental protection " policy, which has a remarkable economic value and social
significance.
2. The method and calculation of the experiment
Optimal operating mode of air cooling unit's fan is obtained by testing influence of outlet
pressure to fan's output and optimization fan's air-cooling energy consumption, the minute
calculation is as follows.
1) The relationship between unit output and unit outlet pressure
under a certain load ,from the electrical power of the unit under different outlet pressure obtained
from test, the relationship between unit output and unit outlet pressure could be derivate.
NT = f1 ( N , Pk ) ................................................................................................................(1)
in the equation: unit output change ,MW
unit load ,MW
unit outlet pressure ,kPa
2) Air cooling system characteristic under varying conditions
the relationship between turbine outlet pressure and air cooling fan operating frequency under
current load and environment temperature ,once the environment temperature changes ,this could
be corrected by characteristic of air cooling condenser under varying condition.

-260-

Pk = f 2 ( N , T , f ) .................................................................................................................(2)
in the equation: environment temperature ,
air cooling fan's operating frequency ,Hz
3) Air cooling fan power consumption
By altering the air cooling fan's operating mode ,the relationship between fan's power
consumption and fan's operating frequency .
N p = f 3 ( f T )

.................................................................................................................(3)

in the equation ,air cooling power consumption .


4) The best air cooling fan operation frequency
when unit steam inlet flow rate maintains, under certain environment temperature ,the fan's
power consumption increases when air cooling fan's operating frequency increases, the turbine
outlet vacuum degree increases, turbine's output increases;
Both from theory facet and practical facet indicates that ,fan's power consumption increment
increases when fan's operating frequency increases, the unit power output decreases, as shown in
fig.1
Differential between increment of turbine power output and increment of air cooling fan power
consumption changes when air cooling fan operating frequency changes ,when the frequency
adjusts to a certain value ,the differential reaches maximal value ,thus ,the air cooling fan's
operating frequency and outlet pressure could be set as the optimal fan's operating frequency and
unit economical operating back pressure, as shown in fig.2

Fig1 the relationship between the power and the fan frequency

Fig2 determination of optimal frequency

During the test ,main steam flow rate is stabilized by fixed valve position. Main steam
pressure ,temperature ,reheat pressure and reheat pressure loss are hardly to be
constant ,however ,this parameters have impacts on electrical power output .hence ,the influence
of boundary parameter on electrical power output must be eliminated via correct method .the
cooling water supply cut and the thermal system isolated during the test ,the outlet pressure's
-261-

influence
well .

factor on the electrical power has been obtained ,test accuracy has been increased as

3. Experimental investigation of performance optimization of air-cooling system


the turbine unit investigated on is 200MW-lever ultra high pressure, once reheat unit, which
model is CZK185/N200-12.75/535/535/0.245. The air-cooling condenser designed and
manufactured by GEA contains 44 units, where 16 air-cooling axial-flow fans is configured.
The total heat radiating area of the air-cooling condenser is 525205m2.
3.1 test of air-cooling fan power consumption
The relationship is obtained by measuring the fan power consumption on different temperature
and frequency, which serves as the basis of the air-cooling optimization. The rest result is shown
in Table 1:
Table 1 test data of air-cooling fans
ambient temperature

ambient temperature

ambient temperature

ambient temperature

12

18.5

26

Hz

kW

kW

kW

kW

49.79

2134.59

2086.416

2041.66

1990.04

47.69

1864.67

1815.67

1769.5

1717

43.88

1451.33

1404.67

1360.697

1310.71

38.12

991.67

976

960.597

943.812

33.14

665

662.67

660.458

657.968

Fan frequency

the relationship about fan power, fan frequency and ambient temperature is shown in Fig 3

Fig3 the relationship about fan power, fan frequency and ambient temperature

The law between fan power and frequency closely approximates cubic function and fan power
decreases linearly with ambient temperature raising. In the optimization of air-cooling
experiment, the value of fan power is get by interpolation using fan frequency and ambient
temperature.
3.2 optimization of air-cooling system
The optimization test is conducted when the ambient temperature keeps steady, for minimizing
-262-

the impact of test accuracy in varying environmental temperature. Due to the limited space, only
the optimized result is listed in table 2 to table 6 when ambient temperature maintains 12.
Tab2 the calculation result of optimization test of 120MW load
Fan frequency

Fan power

Back pressure

Turbine power

Np

NT

NT-Np

Hz

MW

kPa

MW

MW

MW

MW

47.69

1.815

8.065

119.082

1.335

2.164

0.829

43.88

1.404

8.342

119.02

0.924

2.102

1.178

38.12

0.976

9.097

118.871

0.496

1.953

1.457

33.14

0.662

10.274

118.125

0.182

1.207

1.025

28.31

0.48

11.611

116.918

Tab 3 the calculation result of optimization test of 140MW load


Fan frequency

Fan power

Back pressure

Turbine power

Np

NT

NT-Np

Hz

MW

kPa

MW

MW

MW

MW

47.69

1.816

8.424

140.311

1.153

2.505

1.352

43.88

1.405

8.863

140.099

0.742

2.293

1.551

38.12

0.976

9.834

139.388

0.313

1.582

1.269

33.14

0.663

10.988

137.806

Tab 4 the calculation result of optimization test of 160MW load


Fan frequency

Fan power

Back pressure

Turbine power

Np

NT

NT-Np

Hz

MW

kPa

MW

MW

MW

MW

47.69

1.816

9.601

161.311

1.153

3.428

2.275

43.88

1.405

10.17

160.812

0.43

2.929

2.499

38.12

0.976

11.66

159.868

0.31

1.985

1.675

33.14

0.663

12.9

157.883

Tab 5 the calculation result of optimization test of 180MW load


Fan frequency

Fan power

Back pressure

Turbine power

Np

NT

NT-Np

Hz

MW

kPa

MW

MW

MW

MW

47.69

1.816

10.533

179.481

1.153

4.15

2.997

43.88

1.405

11.47

179.081

0.742

3.75

3.008

38.12

0.976

12.76

177.428

0.313

2.098

1.784

33.14

0.663

15.1

175.331

Tab 6 the calculation result of optimization test of 200MW load


Fan frequency

Fan power

Back pressure

Turbine power

Np

NT

NT-Np

Hz

MW

kPa

MW

MW

MW

MW

-263-

47.69

1.816

11.533

199.359

1.153

8.375

7.222

43.88

1.405

13.07

198.229

0.742

7.245

6.503

38.12

0.976

15.26

194.641

0.313

3.657

3.343

33.14

0.663

17.91

190.984

the relationship between the increment (NT-Np) and fan frequency (f) is shown in Fig4 to Fig6.
The climax of the curve corresponds to the optimal frequency in a certain turbine load and
ambient temperature.

Fig4 calculation of optimal frequency on 120MW load Fig 5 calculation of optimal frequency on 140MW load

Fig 6 calculation of optimal frequency on 160MW load Fig 7 calculation of optimal frequency on180MW load

Fig 8

calculation of optimal frequency on 200MW load


-264-

3.3 The air-cooling optimized curve


The optimization test was conducted in a load range from 60% rated load to 100% rated load and
in a ambient temperature range from 7 to 19, from which the optimum frequency is
acquired at the different load and the deferent ambient temperature. By the way, some optimized
results are gotten via the curve fitting. The relation of optimum frequency-unit loud-ambient
temperature is shown in Table 7:
Tab7 calculating table of optimum fan frequency
load

ambient temperature
7

ambient temperature
12

ambient temperature
15

ambient temperature
19

MW

optimum
frequency /Hz

optimum
frequency /Hz

optimum
frequency /Hz

optimum
frequency /Hz

120

34

38.5

42.3

46

140

37

41.5

44.5

47.5

160

39.3

43.5

46.7

49.6

180

42

45.6

48.9

52.2

200

44.1

48

51

54

the air-cooling optimization curve is shown in Fig1:

Fig 7 the air-cooling optimization curve

The linear fitting formulas are listed below, which provides a convenience for the operator to
adjust the fan frequency according to the load and the ambient temperature. (satisfying the
limits of current of the fan and the demand of freeze-proofing of the air-cooling condenser)
200MWfopt=38.20456+ 0.83554T
180MWfopt =35.74202+ 0.86287T
160MWfopt =33.22117+ 0.87199T
140MWfopt =30.90717+ 0.88436T
120MWfopt =26.75147+ 1.01498T

where fopt is abbreviation for the optimum frequency, and T for the ambient temperature.
3.4 the calculation of energy-saving
The energy-consumption comparison between the usual operating method and optimized
operating strategy is listed in Table 8.
-265-

Tab8 comparison of the energy saving quantity


Load

ambient
temperature

usual frequency

Optimized
frequency

Net output

Ave. Net output

increment

increment

MW

Hz

Hz

MW

MW

38

34

0.11

12

44

38.5

0.19

15

45

42.3

0.11

19

45

46

12

44

41.5

0.45

15

45

44.5

38

39.3

0.09

12

44

43.5

15

45

46.7

0.26

19

45

49.6

0.39

12

44

45.6

0.11

19

48

52.2

0.75

44

44.1

12

44

51

0.68

19

48

54

1.3

120

140

160

180

200

0.1025

0.225

0.185

0.43

0.66

After air-cooling optimization, the net turbine power output always has a increment on the
different load, which is an evident energy-consumption benefit. According to estimation, the
optimization will save coal consumption by 0.65 g/(kWh).
4. conclusion
1) The experimental investigation of performance optimization is carried on by calculating the
increment of net output. The relationship about optimal fan frequency, turbine load and ambient
temperature is obtained, which will be a guideline for the power plant.

2) After air-cooling optimization, the optimization will save coal consumption by 0.65 g/(kWh).
which is an evident energy-consumption benefit. According to estimation,
3) Experimental investigation of performance optimization of direct air-cooling system can be
popularized to direct air-cooling power plant with all capacity, which has a remarkable economic
value and social significance.
Biograph
jingtaoXi'an thermal power institute Co. Ltd. No. 136, Xingqing Road, Xian, 710032
jingtao@tpri.com.cn 13892869024

-266-

( 710075)

600MW

8 7 56 5 2 1
18
3 100%

2
A
DCS
DCS

DAS
MCS
SCS

DCS I/O 1329 AI 192 380


AO 56 DI 425 DO 273 SOE 3

DCS CPU

UPS I/O
-267-

//
PsPsH
PsL PsL=0.9PsPsH=1.1Ps
(Pt)
Pt-Ps Ps-Pt
ZL=(Pt-Ps)dtZH=(Ps-Pt)dtPt>Ps Pt<Ps
1 ZH>Zp Zp<ZL

dPt
0 Pt>Ps
dt
2ZH>Zp Zp<ZL

dPt
0 Pt<Ps
dt
ZL ZH
Pt>PsHH Pt<PsLL
8.5kPa
1
1

4
1

-268-

3 3
3

13Min
3kPa 3kPa
2

PID
1kPaPID

RB PID

M/A PID 8
M/A M/A
M/A 8 M/A
M/A
PID
PID 56
13
M/A 18
M/A
M/A M/A
M/A M/A
M/A
M/A
M/A
15Hz
25Hz 50 Hz
55 Hz

-269-

DCS
5 -3C 5 2C

25C
3kPa
3kPa 30
30C 3kPa
1

6
DCS

:
[1]600MW [J]
200725(3)35-39
[2] 600 MW [J]2006(6)29-31
[3] 300MW [J]199722(1)96-99
(1979-)E-mail:qiutao@nwepdi.com 029-8835851415389090080
22 710075

-270-

Research on Control Strategy on the direct air-cooling of 600 MW units


Qiu TaoBi Jian-huiLv Qi
(I&C Section, Northwest Electric Power Design Institute, Xian 710075, China)

Abstract: This article gives a detailed description on direct air-cooling control system of 600
MW units in Pucheng Power Plant. The paper introduces control theory of turbine counter
pressure, and analyses control method of air-cooling system. Finally it gives frost protection
strategy of air-cooling system.
Key words: direct air-cooling; control strategy; counter pressure adjust; frost protection
Introduction
Direct air cooling technology has been developed in China in recent years. It has solved the
problem of building power station at the coal rich poor water area in North China, and has made
outstanding contributions to the development of China's electric power industry and
water-saving technology.
Direct air cooling system is also known as air cooling system, which uses the air cooling steam
turbine exhaust steam, Surface heat exchange between air and exhaust gas; Steam turbine
low-pressure cylinder exhaust pipe through the large diameter pipe into the air cooling radiator
tube bundle (condenser), axial flow fan get cold air through suction, by the fin tube external
surface heat transfer, the exhaust gas is cooling to condensed water. The system mainly includes
air cooling condenser, air supply system, fin and tube cleaning system. This thesis takes the third
phase project of PuCheng Shaanxi power plant as an example to study the control scheme of
600MW direct air cooling unit.
Air cooling island project of the third phase of PuCheng Shaanxi power plant host directly air
cooling system including exhaust system, condensate system, pumping vacuum system, cleaning
system, air cooling device. Air cooled condenser consists of 8 rows and 7 lines total 56 bundle
units, each row has 5 downstream and 2 counter flow bundles unit configuration, Each unit is
equipped with 1 frequency conversion speed regulation fan, and the counter current unit
frequency conversion and speed governing fan can be reversed and run. #1, #8 rows of
condenser exhaust pipe, water pipe, and vacuum pumping pipe is arranged on the electric door.
Vacuum system has three 100% capacity of mechanical vacuum pump, with a vacuum between
the exhaust bypass mother pipe and evacuated mother pipe, the bypass pipe is fitted with electric
door.
Direct Air Cooling Control System Configuration
The air cooling equipment of direct air cooling unit is close to the main plant layout, its position
is usually outside the main building A, therefore, the air cooling system in the central control
room to control, not to set up a separate control room. Direct air cooling system monitoring,
regulation and control should be incorporated into the DCS system, the normal operating
conditions and special operation mode (starting, running, freezing measures and stopping, etc.),

-271-

the DCS to complete the air cooling system to start, stop, low load operation and the operation
process of antifreeze protection, to achieve a unified operation management.
The entire air cooling system is provided with fan control function sub-group (including step
sequence control air handling units, fan body interlock protection, back-pressure steam turbine
control, air cooler frost protection function)Valve control subgroup (including exhaust valve
air-cooled condenser belongs, condensation valve, vacuum pump control valve), the pump
control subgroup (including vacuum control, vacuum bypass valve control), air-cooled electrical
parts control subgroup (including air-cooled variable control, into the line and tie switches
control), direct air-cooling system data acquisition system (DAS), the analog control system
(MCS), the sequential control system (SCS) function.
As a direct air-cooled turbine exhaust is directly cooled by the air, between the air and steam by
heat exchange, the required cooling air is supplied by the axial fan. Taking into account the
ambient temperature varies greatly year, wind speed and direction is different, therefore, the
number of inputs required axial wind speed axial fan unit and the speed of each axis of the wind
turbine change frequently. Using variable frequency motor fan can be used to achieve the speed
of the wind speed of the stepless speed regulation, when the unit is only a small amount of low
load the fan is running, it can continuously adjust the turbine exhaust pressure, avoid large
pressure fluctuations. In addition, variable frequency motor also has auxiliary power savings,
reducing fan energy consumption, low noise advantages; countercurrent variable speed axial fans
can also reverse operation. Each axial fan with an inverter control device, frequency regulation
within the means disposed below the air-cooled condenser room.
Direct Air Cooling System into DCS initial I / O points to about 1329 points (excluding spare
point) where AI about 192 points, heat resistance of about 380 points, AO about 56 points, DI
about 425 points, DO about 273 points, SOE approximately 3 points. Control room does not
need to set up direct air-cooling system back-up hard handheld devices.
Direct air cooling unit distributed control system (DCS) in the communication network, a
network interface, power supply, controller CPU are redundant configuration. The important
signal for regulating protection using one of many design principles: important protection circuit
measuring signal, measured three times, and take two out of three; important regulation loop
measurement signalmeasured three times and take the intermediate value. Optional control
devices are designed with a complete self-diagnostic function. The main control device set
redundancy power supply, which is a power system from the UPS power supply. Remote I/O
communication bus, trunk network all set redundant configuration. The control system uses
reliable and good grounding in order to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the measurement
and control signals.
Control mode of direct air cooling control system
The requirements of the direct air cooling system are: according to the environment temperature,
the steam turbine load changes, adjust the speed of the axial fan, the cooling capacity of the air
cooling heat sink to meet the requirements of the air cooling steam turbine, to ensure the safety
-272-

and economic operation of the air cooling turbo generator unit.Control system based on the
turbine backpressure measured value and pressure set value, selection of fan speed combinations
and steam / condensation water / vacuum isolation valve position.
Back pressure setting (Ps) can be automatically set by the operator or by the control system, set
the back pressure limit (PsH) and the lower back pressure (PsL), setting values can be adjusted
by the control system software. Such as PsL=0.9Ps, PsH=1.1Ps. I In order to avoid too frequent
action, as long as the back-pressure measured value (Pt) between the back pressure in the lower
and upper back pressure, you can keep running the same sequence of steps.
Running the exhaust back pressure value through turbine row steam pipeline of multiple
transmitters for continuous measurement, control system by the back pressure adjust the
difference of Pt-Ps Ps-Pt, regulating system ZL= f (Pt-Ps) DT, ZH= [Ps-Pt DT. When the
following conditions exist, Pt>Ps, choose a step sequence. Pt<Ps returned to a step sequence.
1 ZH>Zp OR Zp<ZL

dPt
0 Pt>Ps
dt
2ZH>Zp OR Zp<ZL

dPt
0 Pt<Ps
dt
If the integration process, the back pressure is restored to within the deadband range, the ZL or
ZH reset to zero.
As long as the back pressure measured value Pt> PsHH, the system will automatically select the
next sequence step until the back pressure measured value returns to within the deadband range.
If Pt <PsLL, or lowest equal 8.5KPa, the system will return to the previous step sequence until
the back pressure measured value returns to within the deadband range. Each step sequence run
time can be adjusted, but at least one minute to ensure that, in order to switch between the two
step sequence. But the back pressure measured value exceeds the maximum set value or less than
the minimum set value, one minute of the time is not appropriate.
Turbine backpressure regulator circuit ontrol strategy

Direct Air Cooling Unit backpressure steam turbine regulation control strategy shown in Figure
1

-273-

Fig1. Adjustment block diagram of counter pressure

Turbine and motor side exhaust means each have three pressure measuring points. After
averaging three measuring points in the value of the pressure side of the turbine exhaust
apparatus 3 pressure measuring points in value and the motor side exhaust system, exhaust
system backpressure obtained measurements. ctual operation, when the back pressure deviates
from the normal range backpressure steam turbine protection curve required, the control system
will automatically alarm to alert operators to make timely adjustments.
Back pressure setting values are given by the operator manual.In normal operation, the setting
value of the artificial adjustment will cause the back pressure controller output mutation, is not
conducive to the stable operation of the air cooling system, and therefore a ramp generator to set
the value of the jump to limit processing (1 ~ 3Min).When any row of downstream frost
protection action, improve the automatic setting back pressure 3KPa.
After the release of downstream frost protection, automatically reduce the back pressure set
value 3KPa. The turbine back pressure protection curve is shown in figure 2.

-274-

Fig2.Protection curve of counter pressure

The deviation of setting value and measuring value of back pressure, are inputted for the PID
regulator. In operation, to avoid the disturbance of the small back pressure fluctuation of the fan
speed, the dead time limit (1KPa) is set for the deviation of the setting value and the measured
value. When back pressure automatic control input, the output of the PID controller after
conversion gain and balancer role, as each row of the frequency conversion fan unit speed
(frequency) input instructions. When the load of the dramatic change occurs to the unit, such as
RB or turbine trip mode, the response speed of the PID controller must be quick enough to (the
variable parameters), by immediately cut or cut fan step to eliminate the disturbance.
When the back pressure controls the M/A station in the automatic mode, the back pressure
regulation PID controller's output will be the air cooler 8 row frequency instruction. The operator
can set the back pressure setting value through the M/A station. When the back pressure controls
the M/A station in the manual way, the back pressure regulation loop is removed, the operation
personnel through the M/A station to manually adjust the air cooler 8 row of frequency
instruction. Back pressure setting value, back pressure measurement value, M/A output value can
be displayed in the M/A station. When the back pressure setting value and feedback value
deviation is large, the back pressure control must not be caused by the manual.
In order to avoid too frequent switching the fan, the fan should be switched every step of the
grade, the back pressure PID controller output value remains at the value before switching,
automatic recovery PID control function after a period of delay. In order to obtain sufficient
delay time, the delay time of cut down (5 ~ 6 min) was greater than that of cut up (1 ~ 3).
Conversion gain and balancer will backpressure control m / a output frequency balance reference
station do use 1 ~ 8 rows of the frequency conversion fan, to ensure that air cooler has operation
blocks get balanced cooling effect. When some row of M/A station in the manual mode,
conversion gain and balancer can automatic Once there is a row of M / A station to vote
automatically, conversion gain should be ranked and balancer of output, the output will be at this
time of the M / A station as the initial value of the output, according to pre-set rate of change
-275-

approaching backpressure M / A station output value, so as to form a free switching. Once a row
of M / a station automatically, conversion gain and balancer can according to has been voted the
number of blocks of automatic gain adjust its output value, the fan speed matching the current
running back pressure to avoid block M / a input automatic station caused by perturbations of the
back pressure turbine.
Due to the operating conditions, natural environment, and equipment of their own conditions,
each row of M / a station at the frequency of the input control instructions to be restricted by the
following conditions: frequency conversion fan rotation frequency should not be less than 15Hz;
frequency conversion fan in the opening and stop order execution phase, maximum rotational
frequency should not 25Hz than; the constraints do not exist, fan frequency maximum rotational
frequency should not be higher than 50 Hz.Under summer conditions, the operating personnel
can be considered the unit operation manual overclocking fan to 55 Hz (allowing long run).
Direct Air Cooling System frost protection

Direct Air Cooling System Air Cooled Condenser arranged directly in the ambient atmosphere,
the impact of its own performance and security by environmental factors is relatively large,
especially in the cold winter prone to freeze, resulting in damage to the air-cooled condenser.
Direct Air Cooling System for frost protection measures, in addition to setting the isolation valve
according to the system and the ambient temperature, set the fan to pick countercurrent other
measures, but also by the control system software design frost protection, these protection
functions by the DCS system implementation, the specific content including:
When the ambient temperature is below -3 C for 5 minutes, the frost protection function is
activated. When the ambient temperature is higher than 2 C, the frost protection function is
automatically released. The specific environmental temperature values of the frost protection
function and the different suppliers are different.
In cold mode, when the condenser tube is collected in the condensate temperature (steam valve
opening) is less than 25 C, will improve the operation of the steam turbine back pressure value,
which automatically changes the turbine back pressure set value, increase 3 KPa operation, at the
same time. if the condensing water temperature is still very low, still can continue to increase the
back pressure turbine set value 3KPa, every time increase the back pressure set value intervals
requires at least 30 minutes.
But when the water temperature is higher than 30 degrees C, should not increase the back
pressure setting value, and should reduce the back pressure setting value of 3KPa, and also
should have a certain time interval of about 1 hour.
If the system is equipped with a separate valve, according to different heat capacity requirements,
removal of a certain cooling unit, in order to ensure the system's most low heat capacity
requirements to achieve the purpose of anti-freeze. When the environment temperature is lower
than the set value, the counter current unit can be reversed to the anti-freeze.
-276-

Conclusion

In this paper, the control scheme of direct air cooling unit is studied, and the realization method
and control strategy of DCS is put forward. For the control of direct air cooling unit, we still
need to continue to explore and improve in practice, I hope this paper can provide reference for
the control system design of the same type of unit.

-277-



214444
2660MW NHT
FLUENT

DACC

DACC

DACC

2 DACC
12km2660MW
DACC, Direct Air Cooled Condenser
1,708,184m21,518,386m2189,798m281
2.26m/sTRLDACCA56
A8752
9.754mDACC9087.78m
0.5m[1]
2.1 DACC
DACC DACC
[2]DACC TRL TMCR THA
THA
17.01010.3hPa450m3/s
1254.78t/h2454.67kJ/kg231.60kJ/kg
ITD34.0413kPa
3.5m/s1.5m
2.2
45
TMCRTHATHA/TMCR
THATMCR
TMCRTHADACC
-278-


2.3DACC

DACCDACC[3]

3.1
DACC

[4]

div( U ) div( grad ) S


1

kg/m3 U m/s u v w T
S
1
c p S T
1

ui

/ cp

p
Si
xi

ST

3.2

2660MW20002000800m1
ESP
10
1801#~4#90270
1#2#3#4#

-279-

180

225

135

270

90

325
45
0(360)
1

38.5m4.0m45m13.8m
3.03.058.8m1.8m1.0m0.5m
2

3#1~16
1~7

-280-

11.2512.54m44.23m9.754m2.1m
10.354m6059.4602.0
61.76
2.0m

112224
3.3

-1000, -1000, 01000, 1000,


800m[5]
14,655,2479,288,742
3.4

3.4.1 [6]
2

vi hi

v 0 h0

h0 v 0 h0 hi vi hi

A 0.12 B
0.16 C
0.22 D 0.30
0.16
10mUDF
VGB-R131Me[7,8]DACC1.0m
1.5m60.3m
2.63m/s1.5m
3.5m/s
3.4.2

3.4.3 [9]

9.754m
81.45m
[10]
-281-

1TRL
TRL18.5100%
61.7rpm540m3/s96.9Pa

P 190 0.1133v 1.7849v 2

17.5100%61.7rpm524m3/s95.9Pa

P 190 0.48v 1.8666v 2

2THA

DACC
[11]
THATHA100%
6.88%THA5
6

P 210 2.0376v 1.7813v 2

P 210 2.4627v 1.8631v 2

THA450m3/s540 m3/s83.33%
300~617m3/s4.0~8.25m/s83.33%51.4rpm
450m3/s6.022m/sTHA83.33%7

P 145 1.421v 1.8032v 2

436.667m3/s524m3/s83.33%83.33%51.4rpm
436.667m3/s5.84m/sTHA83.33%
8

P 145 1.7705v 1.886v 2

3.4.4
DACCA
DACC

FLUENTinternal
energy sourceheat exchangerradiator[12]
NTU[13]
FLUENT
[14]

(porous media zone)(porous jump)

-282-

3.4.5 [15,16]
10.510.6m100100mm
3t100kg/m2
100mm

robust

Darcy law
Forchheimer

p v C 2 v 2 m
2

Ns/m2 permeabilitym2 C2
1/m v m/s m m

insect-proof screen
14~200.16~0.28mm

4.1

4.1.1

[17]
PVC

302304304L316316L
304
4.1.2

mono-filament thread, woven screen100Pa


-283-

10%~20%DACC

0.6
012Pa

DCSACC
DACC

4.1.3

/500kV220kV

4.2
screenporositymesh size
textureknittedwoven

[18]

Va / V

10

Va m3 V m3
[19]

(l d )(m d )
11
ml
l m m d m

[20,21]

nd

1
*100
25400

12

d m n
1112

-284-

4.3


i 1

[22]
Cd coefficient of discharge porous
media
4.4

THA

140.4mm0.6077
DACC

5
HP Z800 82.67GHz32GBWindows
Professional XP 64Exceed11Gambit2.4.6ANSYS Fluent6.3.26
5.1
THA83.33%
40180
90270DACC
DACC3#DACC
4#4#DACC4.20%

-285-


2000
1800

(MW)

1600
1400
1200
1000
800

3#
4#

600
400
200
0
0

60

120

180
240

300

360

4 DACC

THADACC1550.6MWDACC775.3MW DACC
115.08%3#4#DACC
115.19%114.93%
5.2
THA5
4DACC14
0.4mm3#DACC
4#4#DACC1.08%

2000
1800

MW

1600
1400
1200

3#
4#

1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

60

120

180
240

300

360

5 DACC

THADACC1550.6MWDACC775.3MW DACC
111.25%3#4#DACC
111.32%111.14%
4m/s12Pa
-286-

100Pa12%10%
10%DACC3~4%
DACCDACC
-3.83%-3.87%-3.79%3~4%

5.3
DACC

5.3.1
6
1 2 1
16 1 16

650
600
kg/s

550
500
450

400
350
300
250
200
0

14

28

42

56
70

84

98

112

5.3.2
7

-287-


10

(MW)

9
8
7

5
4
3
2
0

14

28

42

56

70

84

98 112 126 140 154 168 182 196 210 224

7
DACC

DACC

0.4mm0.607714
THADACC
3#4#DACCTHA103.68%
101.08%DACC

DACC

[1] . [R].
, 2010.02
[2] . 2660MW
[R]. , 2007.07
[3] . [R].:
. 2007.12.
[4] . 2[M].,2001
[5] P. J. Roache. Perspective: a method for uniform reporting of grid refinement studies[J]. Journal of fluid
engineering, 1994, 116(9): 405-413
[6] . GB50009-2001[M]. 2002.01
[7] DL/T244-2012 [S]. 2012
[8] VGBVGBR131Me
[9] . 2660MW
-288-

[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]

[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
[20]
[21]
[22]
[23]
[24]
[25]
[26]
[27]

[28]

[29]
[30]
[31]
[32]

[R]. , 2008.01
, . [J]., 2011, 40(1): 31-34
. : , 2005
, , . [J]. , 2010,39(6):
21-23.
Krger D. G. Air-cooled heat exchangers and cooling tower: thermal-flow performance and design,
Volume &. Penwell corporation, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 2005.
FLUENT 6.3 User's Guide, 2006. Fluent Inc.
Shi L., J. Wang, C. Shi and Y. D. Cheng. Investigation on the Performance Characteristics of Direct Air
Cooled Sample Unit[C]. 2009 Second International Conference on Modelling and Simulation.
Manchester (ICMS 2009), Vol.1, Manchester, England, UK, May.21-22, 2009, ISTP.
, , , . [J]., 2009,
24(1):73-76
, , , . [J]. , 2005, 170(12):
35-37
Antonio F. Miguel. Airflow through porous screens: from theory to practical considerations [J]. Energy
and buildings, 1998, 28: 63-69
Meir Teitel. The effect of screened openings on greenhouse microclimate [J]. Agricultural and Forest
Meteorology, 2007, 143:159-175
. [M]. : , 1980
. [D]. , 2003
P. Munoz; J. I. Montero; A. AntoH n; F. Giuffrida. Effect of Insect-proof Screens and Roof Openings on
Greenhouse Ventilation[J]. Journal of Agriculture Engineering Resources. 1999, 73: 171-178
Lin Y P, Chiang C M, Chen N T, et al. The influence of porous screens on natural ventilation in a
dwelling unit[P]Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005, V(IV): 3137-3141.
, , . [M]. : . 1985
Brundrett E. Prediction of pressure drop for incompressible flow through screens [J]. Journal of Fluids
Engineering, 1993, 115, 239242.
Bailey, B.J., Montero, J.I., Perez Parra, J., Robertson, A.P., Baeza, E., Kamaruddin, R., 2003. Airflow
resistance of greenhouse ventilators with and without insect screens. Biosyst. Eng. 86(2), 217229.
Ishizuka, M., Hayama, S., Peng, G., 2000. Measurement of flow resistance coefficients for wire nets in
natural air convection flow. In: Proceedings of Sixth Triennal International Symposium on Fluid Control,
Measurement and Visualization (FLUCOME2000), Sherbrook, Canada, 1317 August, p. 6.
Linker, R., Tranopolsky, M., Seginer, I., 2002. Increased resistance to flow and temperature rise
resulting from dust accumulation on greenhouse insect-proof screens. In: ASAE Annual International
Meeting, Chicago, USA, 2831 July.
Wieghardt, G.E.K., 1953. On the resistance of screens. Aeronaut. Q. 4, 186.
Meir Teitel. On the applicability of the Forchheimer equation in simulating flow through woven screens
[J]. Biosystems engineering, 2011,130-139
Meir Teitel. Using computational fluid dynamics simulations to determine pressure drops on woven
screens [J]. biosystems engineering, 2010, 105: 172-179
Antonio F. Miguel, N . J . van de Braak, G . P . A . Bot. Analysis of the Airflow Characteristics of
Greenhouse Screening Materials [J]. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 1997, 67: 105-112

1973
E-mail: lshi@bjtu.edu.cn
-289-

Numerical Research on Direct Air Cooled Condenser with Floccule-Proof


Screen of a Power Plant
SHI Lei, XUE Haijun, WANG Yongxin
Shuangliang Eco-energy System Co., Ltd., Jiangyin 214444, Jiangsu Province, P.R. China

Abstract: This paper solves the floccule-proof problem encountered in actual operation of air
cooled condenser by relying on the technological alteration project of a built 2660MW power
plant. Numerical simulation, analysis and research are conducted on the flow and heat exchange
performance of the direct air-cooled condenser (DACC) in different wind directions under
performance assessment conditions. The material, structural style, porosity, resistance coefficient
and installation position of the floccule-proof screen are determined. Floccule-proof purpose is
realized by utilizing engineering design margin while the air-cooled condenser is ensured to meet
the requirements of performance assessment conditions. The research provides theoretical basis
for operation and optimal design of DACC.
Keywords: direct air cooled radiator; floccule-proof screen; numeral simulation; porosity;
optimal design
1 Research background
Willow and poplar are common tree species in China, every year in spring the willow and poplar
catkins fly in the air like spring snow, scatter with the wind everywhere, drop like snow and
lots of snow clusters can be seen everywhere. When the willow and poplar catkins flutter to
the vicinity of direct air cooling power plant, they often build up on the radiator, forming a thick
layer of felt, which seriously affects the heat transfer performance of the radiator. Therefore,
the floccule-proof problem of radiator has certain general character in Chinese air cooling power
plants. At present, there has not yet been reliable and reasonable floccule-proof solution for the
air-cooling power plants at home and abroad.
This paper solves the floccule-proof problem of DACC by relying on the technological alteration
project of the already built power plant. Realizes the floccule-proof purpose by utilizing
engineering design margin to ensure DACC meets the requirements of performance assessment
conditions. Conducts numerical simulation research on the variation in heat transfer performance
of DACC with and without floccule-proof screen in different wind directions under the
performance assessment conditions of DACC, and finally determines the material, structural
style, porosity, resistance coefficient and installation position of the floccule-proof screen. This
research provides theoretical basis for operation and optimal design of DACC.
2 Performance assessment and numerical simulation test conditions of DACC
Dingzhou Power Plant is located at the place of 12km in southwest of Dingzhou in the municipal
district of Baoding, Hebei Province. The phase II project is 2660MW supercritical units and
adopts mechanical draft direct air-cooled condenser (DACC) system. The cooling elements
adopt single-row tubes, the total finned tube area for a single unit is 1,708,184m2, of which
parallel flow area is 1,518,386m2 and counterflow area is 189,798m2, the ratio of parallel flow
area to counterflow area is 8:1; the design wind velocity of frontal face is 2.26 m/s
(corresponding to TRL operating conditions). DACCs are arranged outside row A of turbine
house, each unit is provided with 56 cooling units, 8 columns of DACCs are arranged in the
direction of row A, each column contains 7 cooling units, of which 5 cooling units are
parallel-flow units and 2 are counter-flow units. The parallel-flow and counterflow units are
-290-

provided with parallel-flow and counter-flow axial fans, respectively, and the fan diameter is
9.754m. The area of DACC platform for each unit is 9087.78m, and walkway of 0.5m width is
provided between DACC platforms of the two units [1].
2.1 Performance assessment conditions of DACC
The performance assessment conditions of DACC are divided into assessment conditions of air
cooling island and DACC, the performance assessment points are respectively located at outlet
of low pressure cylinder of the turbine and inlet of DACC. According to the technical agreement
for finned tube bundles[2], the main performance assessment conditions of DACC include TRL
operating conditions, TMCR operating conditions, THA operating conditions, chocking
backpressure operating conditions, etc. Among them, THA operating conditions for performance
guarantee of finned tube bundles are required as follows:
Under the condition that air dry temperature is 17.0, atmospheric pressure is 1010.3hPa,
volume flow rate of a single axial fan is 450m3/s, the mass flow rate of exhaust wet steam is
1254.78t/h, enthalpy of exhaust steam is 2454.67kJ/kg and enthalpy of condensate is
231.60kJ/kg, the temperature difference between exhaust temperature and ambient temperature
(initial temperature difference, ITD) at the inlet of DACC is 34.04, and the back pressure at
the inlet of DACC is 13kPa.
In the performance assessment conditions, 3.5 m/s wind velocity refers to external horizontal
wind velocity at the place of 1.5m higher than the top of steam distribution duct.
2.2 Numerical simulation test conditions
Because the floccule-proof screen is used mainly in April and May, and will be removed before
advent of summer in order to reduce resistance of air supply system. Likewise, floccule-proof
screen is not required for winter operation. Therefore, the performance assessment conditions of
turbine involved in the use of floccule-proof screen are TMCR and THA conditions. Under
THA/TMCR conditions, the meteorological condition of the environment and design frontal
wind velocity are totally same. Compared to THA conditions, under TMCR conditions, the
thermal load and backpressure is slightly higher. Since the performance assessment of the entire
air cooling island does not include TMCR conditions, this paper carries out numerical simulation
research on performance of DACC under THA conditions of the turbine.
2.3Resistance and heat exchange performance of DACC
For the Dingzhou Power Plant project, Shuangliang Eco-energy Systems Co., Ltd. has
commissioned Xi'an Thermal Power Research Institute (TPRI) to conduct performance test
under the performance assessment conditions for DACC with single-row tubes. For the
resistance and heat transfer characteristics of DACC refer to the experiment report [3].
3 Numerical research on direct air cooling island
The research focus is to determine the influence of floccule-proof scheme on operation of the
power plant under performance assessment conditions. The mathematic model of the research
problem is built through reasonable simplification according to the physical model.
3.1 Mathematic model
Under the influence of steady-state incompressible ideal gas, buoyancy effect, the flow and heat
transfer of air should satisfy equations of mass conservation (continuity), momentum
conservation and energy conservation.

-291-

For the purpose of analysis of each control equation and solution to each control process using
unified program, it is required to develop a general form of basic control equations. The
continuity equation, momentum equation and energy equation that describe flow and heat
exchange of the air cooling island as well as thermal conduction differential equation that
describes thermal conduction of solid wall surface can be written into the following general form
uniformly [4]:

div( U ) div( grad ) S


(1)

Where, is air density, kg/m3; U is air velocity vector, m/s; is general variable, which

can be solved by representing u , v , w , T , etc.; is the generalized diffusion coefficient;


S
and is the term of generalized source.
Table 1 gives the corresponding relationships between the three symbols and specific equations.
Where, is the dynamic viscosity coefficient of air, is the thermal conduction coefficient
c
of air, p is specific heat capacity, and S T is the term of viscous dissipation.
Table 1

Specific forms of symbols in the general control equation

Symbol

Continuity equation

0
p

Si
xi

Momentum equation

ui

Energy equation

/ cp

ST

3.2 Geometric model


The numerical computation model includes geometric model, grid scheme and boundary
conditions. The detailed geometric model of the DACC island is built according to the as-built
drawing. The range of the entire computational area is 20002000800m. As shown in Fig. 1,
within the computational area there are such high-rise buildings and structures as turbine house,
coal bunker bay, boiler house, electroprecipitator (ESP), stack, elevator, etc.
For the definition of the azimuth angle of wind direction in the numerical simulation, refer to Fig.
1. From right to left are 1#, 2#, 3# and 4# units. Phase project is 1# and 2# units, Phase II
project is 3# and 4# units. The incoming wind from the main air intake side of DACC platform is
0 wind direction and rotates clockwise, and the incoming wind from the back of boiler house is
180 wind direction. Parallel to the direction of 1#~4# units, the incoming wind from direction of
phase II project is 90 wind direction, and the incoming wind from direction of phase I project is
270 direction.

-292-

Fig. 1 Definition of azimuth angle of wind direction

The detailed geometric model of air cooling island includes concrete support columns,
maintenance walkway, windbreak wall, steam distribution pipe, unit partition wall,
floccule-proof screen, fan air funnel, etc. The height of concrete support column is 38.5m and its
diameter is 4.0m. The elevation of DACC platform is 45m and the height of windbreak wall is
13.8m. The dimensions of the elevator are 3.03.058.8m. The widths of corridor on the ACC
platform are 1.8m, 1.0m and 0.5m, respectively.
The numbers of parallel-flow and counterflow air cooling units and fans are shown in Fig. 2, the
numbers with white background are parallel-flow fan units and numbers with gray background
are counterflow fan units. Each air cooling unit and fan unit has two radiators. The fan unit only
has unit partition wall and there is no partition wall between two columns of air cooling units.
Along the direction perpendicular to steam distribution pipe, from right to left starting from
elevator side of 3# unit, they are column 1~column 16, respectively. Along the direction parallel
to steam distribution pipe are row 1~row 7, respectively.

Fig. 2 Definition of parallel-flow and counterflow air cooling units and fan units

The plane dimensions of air cooling unit are 11.2512.54m, elevation of fan is 44.23m, fan
diameter is 9.754m, height of air duct is 2.1m and inlet diameter of fan air funnel is 10.354m.
The angle between tube bundles of DACC is usually 60, and the actual angle between tube
bundles for this project is 59.4. In modeling, the actual angle between tube bundles of DACC is
61.76. Assume the diameter of each steam distribution pipe is 2.0m, and neglect upper and
-293-

lower headers of tube bundle.


Each air cooling fan unit has two radiators. The numbering rule of radiators is: designate and
number from right to left according to the sequence of air cooling units and fan units. A single
unit has 112 radiators and two units have total 224 radiators.
3.3 Grid scheme
In order to satisfy the requirements for computation accuracy and time, we adopt the method of
segmental grid division to divide the grids of the computational area. Non-structured grids are
adopted for the interior of the air cooling island and structured grids are adopted to other
computational areas. The entire computational area is from (-1000, -1000, 0) to (1000, 1000, 800)
m, the center of DACC is located at the origin of the computational area. After the irrelevance
inspection of grid numbers [5], the total grid cells is 14,655,247 and the nodes is 9,288,742.
3.4 Boundary conditions
Boundary conditions are describes as follows respectively:
3.4.1 Velocity inlet[6]
Velocity inlet boundary condition is adopted for the inlet of the entire flow computational area.
The wind velocity is distributed along height and the function of atmospheric boundary layer of
equation (2) is adopted.

vi hi

v 0 h0

(2)

Where h0 is the height of anemometer; v0 is average wind speed at the location of h0 ; hi is


arbitrary height; vi is average wind speed at hi , is roughness index of ground.
The ground roughness can be divided into 4 kinds, A, B, C and D. Type A refers to offshore sea
surface, sea island, coast, lakeshore and desert area, 0.12 ; type B refers to field, countryside,
forest, hill as well as towns and suburb with sparse houses, 0.16 ; type C refers to urban area
with dense groups of buildings, 0.22 ; and type D refers to urban area with dense groups of
buildings and higher houses, 0.30 . In the simulation, the roughness coefficient of ground
takes 0.16 .
Generally, the height of anemometer in the meteorological station is 10m. User defined function
of inlet boundary is written. Usually, the wind velocity [7,8] is the mean velocity over time of the
undisturbed ambient air flow approximately 1m above the upper edge of steam distribution pipe
(1.5m in this project, the elevation at this place is 60.3m). When the ambient wind velocity
measured at the meteorological station is 2.63m/s the ambient wind velocity at performance
assessment condition is 3.5m/s.
3.4.2 Ambient boundary
The top surface of flow field does not have actual boundary and is treated as free slip boundary.
The peripheral boundary is relatively remote from the air cooling island, the flow field at this
location is basically not influenced by the air cooling island, and is thus taken as the ambient
parameter. The ground surface is no-slip condition of solid wall.
3.4.3 Air cooling axial fan [9]
-294-

Fan group mainly include axial fan, gearbox and motor. Fan group is divided into parallel-flow
fan group and counterflow fan group. When the parallel-flow and counterflow units have the
same tube bundles and dimensions, for the purpose of maintenance and service, same size and
different angle of blade can be selected for parallel-flow and counterflow fans.
Air cooling low-noise axial fan of 9.754m diameter for power station is selected. Both
parallel-flow and counterflow axial fan has 8 blades and the hub diameter is 1.45m.
The accurate position of each fan is determined in the model, considering effect of swirling flow.
Radial speed and tangential speed are set to the given fans [10].
1) Fan performance under TRL performance assessment conditions
The meteorological parameters under TRL performance assessment conditions of the turbine are
the design conditions of air cooling fan. The blade angle of parallel-flow fan is 18.5, and at
100% nominal rotating speed (about 61.7rpm), the air volume of the fan is 540m3/s and static
pressure is 96.9 Pa. Fit the fan performance curve according to the test data. The relationship
between static pressure of parallel-flow fan and wind velocity is shown in the following
expression:
(3)
P 190 0.1133v 1.7849v 2
The blade angle of counterflow fan is 17.5, and at 100% nominal rotating speed (about
61.7rpm), the air volume of the fan is 524 m3/s and static pressure is 95.9 Pa. Fit the fan
performance curve according to the test data. The relationship between static pressure of
counterflow fan and wind velocity is shown in the following expression:
P 190 0.48v 1.8666v 2
(4)

2) Fan Performance under THA performance assessment conditions


Performance parameters of the fan are generally based on the meteorological condition of the
plant site, delivery conditions or standard design conditions. During design and selection of fan,
attention should be paid to the changes in operating conditions. In the variable-condition
computation of DACC, fan performance, particularly shaft power, should be corrected due to
change in atmospheric pressure, ambient temperature and rotating speed of fan [11].
At nominal rotating speed under THA conditions, the performance curve of parallel-flow and
counterflow fans is as shown in equation (5) and (6).
P 210 2.0376v 1.7813v 2
(5)
2
(6)
P 210 2.4627v 1.8631v
Under THA performance assessment conditions, the operating air volume of parallel-flow fan is
450m3/s, which is about 83.33% of design volumetric air flow. The range of volumetric air flow
during stable operation of the fan is 300~617m3/s, and range of wind velocity is 4.0~8.25m/s. At
83.33% nominal rotating speed (about 51.4 rpm), the volumetric air flow at design point of
parallel-flow fan is 450m3/s, and wind velocity is 6.022m/s. At 83.33% nominal rotating speed
under THA conditions, the performance curve of parallel-flow fan is as shown in Equation (7).
P 145 1.421v 1.8032v 2
(7)
The volumetric air flow of counterflow fan is 436.667m3/s, which is about 83.33% of design air
-295-

volume of 524m3/s. At 83.33% nominal rotating speed (about 51.4 rpm), the volumetric air flow
at design point of counterflow fan is 436.667m3/s, and wind velocity is 5.84m/s. At 83.33%
nominal rotating speed under THA conditions, the performance curve of counterflow fan is as
shown in Equation (8).
(8)
P 145 1.7705v 1.886v 2
3.4.4Air cooled heat exchange unit
The basic heat exchange elements of DACC are the single-row tubes. Tube bundles composed of
multiple heat exchange elements constitute A Frame and constitutes one heat exchange unit
with large-diameter axial fan provided underneath. Multiple heat exchange units constitute
DACC. Therefore, the geometric structure of DACC is very complex. If the model is built
according to actual situation, this will certainly result in huge amount of computation work,
insufficient computer resources, and it is difficult to obtain reasonable and accurate computation
results. Therefore, it is needed to reasonably simplify the air cooling unit.
In FLUENT, the heat transfer and resistance models that can be used for simulating
characteristics of air cooled unit and DACC include internal energy source model, heat
exchanger model and radiator model [12]. In the computation of internal energy source model,
temperature singularity tends to occur. Heat exchanger model is divided into two types: simple
heat exchanger efficiency model and model for number of heat transfer units (NTU)[13]. In the
input of heat exchanger model, there are lacks of test data on some parameters; at the same time,
some limiting conditions need to be considered when FLUENT heat exchanger model is used [14].
Radiator model can be set flexibly according to actual resistance and heat transfer characteristics
of DACC, therefore, this paper adopts radiator model.
The resistance characteristics of DACC includes porous media zone, resistance coefficient
method, porous jump, etc. The porous media zone and porous jump method can better simulate
the characteristics of DACC at different frontal wind velocity of tube bundles. In the research,
the method of resistance coefficient is adopted to simulate resistance characteristics of DACC
radiator at different frontal wind velocity of tube bundles and porous jump is adopted to simulate
resistance characteristics of floccule-proof screen.
Both the parallel-flow unit and counterflow unit adopt the same heat transfer and resistance
characteristics. The surrounding windbreak wall and unit partition wall adopt the solid wall
boundary condition.
3.4.5Porous jump model for fan protection screen and floccule-proof screen[15,16]
The fan protection screen is rectangular and its dimensions are 10.510.6m. Hot dip galvanized
steel grille is adopted and its grids are not smaller than 100100mm. The weight of the fan
protection screen of each cooling unit is about 3 tons and the load of fan protection screen is not
less than 100kg/m2. The perpendicular distance between fan protection screen and inlet plane of
air funnel is about 100mm.
The resistance of fan protection screen is negligible in the simulation because it is very small.
The resistance characteristic of floccule-proof screen is determined by the test. The porous jump
boundary condition is used for simulating the thin membrane with known speed/pressure drop. It
is essentially a one-dimensional simplification of porous media zone model. The application
example includes simulation of pressure drop across filter paper, screen mesh, filter, perforated
plate, array of pipes as well as radiator without heat transfer. Because the porous jump model has
very good robustness and convergence, the porous jump model should be adopted as far as
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possible to substitute the full porous media model.


The membrane medium has limited thickness. The pressure drop through it is defined as the
combination of Darcy law and additional inertia loss, that is, Forchheimers equation:
1

(9)
p v C 2 v 2 m

Where, is the dynamic coefficient of viscosity of laminar fluid, Ns/m2; is the


permeability of the medium, m2; C2 is pressure-jump coefficient, which can be obtained
through test, l/m; v the velocity of fluid perpendicular to the porous surface, m/s; and m is
thickness of the membrane, m.
4 Determination of floccule-proof screen

Screen is widely used in industry, for example, turbulence reduction in wind tunnel, various
kinds of dehydration processes and filtration process, etc. in paper making and drying as well as
window screen for preventing entry of mosquito and insects, insect-proof screen for preventing
entry of insects in agriculture, etc. In buildings, the common screen windows are usually of
14~20 meshes with 0.16~0.28mm filament, and the mesh hole is of rectangular or square shape.
In recent years, people are interested in determination of resistance coefficient of screen through
test and theory under different flow conditions.
4.1 Form of floccule-proof screen
The characteristics of floccule-proof screen mainly include material, structural style, cleaning,
installation position, etc.
4.1.1 Material
The characteristics of floccule-proof screen include material, structural style, number of frictions,
mass per unit area, softness, longitudinal and latitudinal deformation, longitudinal and latitudinal
deformation pull force, shear adhesiveness, solvent resistance, resistance to microbe attack,
low-temperature resistance, outdoor exposure, self-pollution, toxicity, tensile strength, bending
endurance, etc. [17].
There are metallic and nonmetallic materials for the floccule-proof screen, including plastic
filament, chemical fiber filament (e.g., nylon filament), PVC filament, fiberglass plastic-coated
filament, stainless steel wire, aluminum-magnesium alloy wire, zinc-plated wire, aluminum wire,
etc.
Nonmetallic mesh screen, e.g. plastic window screening is susceptible to thermal expansion and
cold contraction with relatively big deformation probability and poor fire resistance.
The metallic mesh screen is characterized by: high strength and high toughness; resistance to
mosquito, flies and insects; resistance to high temperature and flame retardancy; resistance to
low temperature, air permeability and photopermeability, bright and pretty surface color and
luster and small resistance compared to common nylon window screen.
Stainless steel screen has the advantages of resistance to acid and alkali, corrosion, no
deformation, resistance to tension, resistance to microbe attack, ease of cleaning, etc. Stainless
steel grade is divided into 302, 304, 304L, 316, 316L, etc. In order to prevent increased
resistance of floccule-proof screen due to oxidation of metal surface and to facilitate cleaning,
this paper selects stainless steel 304 to fabricate floccule-proof screen.
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4.1.2Structural style and cleaning


There are various structural types of industrial screen. For the direct air cooling system, the
structural style of the floccule-proof screen should be simple in order to reduce resistance of the
floccule-proof screen, avoid adhesion of foreign matter, reduce cleaning difficulty as well as
prevent damage of floccule-proof screen due to too high cleaning water pressure. This paper
adopts mono-filament thread woven screen. The static pressure of axial fan for DACC is about
100Pa, the resistance o floccule-proof screen generally accounts for about 10%~20% of total
resistance of air supply system, too high resistance will affect operating economy of DACC
system. In actual operation, the static pressure and power of the fan can be increased
appropriately in order to avoid frequent flushing of the floccule-proof screen and save water
resources. Technical and economic comparison should be made for the balance between
increased electric consumption of the fan and water conservation.
In the actual operation, the porosity and resistance of floccule-proof screen are in the process of
dynamic change, its porosity ranges from 0.6 when it is clean to 0 when it is totally blocked, and
the resistance is increased from 12Pa to infinity. When the metallic screen is working, the
floccule is accumulated on the screen. The floccule prevention and interception effect between
different kinds of floccule-proof screens is gradually reduced and finally tends to become the
same. In actual operation, we can decide whether the floccule-proof screen should be cleaned or
not according to the exhaust pressure of the turbine, outlet pressure of exhaust steam box or inlet
pressure of ACC measured by DCS system of the direct air cooling system. The water source for
cleaning can adopt softened water of DACC cleaning system or atomizing humidifier.
4.1.3Installation position
The floccule-proof screen can be installed on the inlet plane of fan air funnel or plane of fan
protection screen. Installation on the fan protection screen helps to increase the strength of the
floccule-proof screen, reduce resistance of air supply system and protect important equipment
below the air cooling island.
When there is too much foreign matter covering the floccule-proof screen, the weight of the
screen is increased and it is stretched downward when the fan stops running or decelerates; and
cleaning of floccule-proof screen will also cause downward deformation of the screen. When the
fan is running, the screen is pulled up under the action of wind pressure due to increase in
resistance. Such long-term repeated action may cause breakage of the floccule-proof screen.
When the cleaning water pressure of the floccule-proof screen is too high, this may also cause
breakage of it. When the floccule-proof screen is installed on the fan protection screen, the fan
protection screen can provide effective support.
Because the resistance of floccule-proof screen is proportional to square of its frontal wind
velocity, the floccule-proof screen installed on the fan protection screen is helpful to reducing the
resistance of the air supply system. Because the frontal area of the floccule-proof screen installed
on the fan protection screen is bigger than that of fan air funnel, under the same volumetric air
flow, the frontal wind velocity of the floccule-proof screen can be reduced, thus reducing the
resistance of air supply system of DACC and electricity consumption of the fan and improving
operating economy of the power plant.
The floccule-proof screen should be installed before advent of willow and poplar catkins during
the operation of the power plant. After poplar and willow catkins disappear, generally, the
floccule-proof screen should be dismantled in order to reduce the resistance of air supply system.
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There are many important devices under the DACC platform, for example, HV plant transformer,
main transformer, starting/standby transformer, 500kV outgoing line and 220kV incoming line,
etc. In order to prevent accident, it is also very convenient to install and dismantle the
floccule-proof screen on the fan protection screen.
4.2 Mesh and porosity
Different types of screen have different characteristics. For example: porosity, mesh size, wire
thread size (e.g. diameter or thickness), texture (e.g. knitted, woven, or braided). Among them,
porosity is the most important characteristic of screen.
The porosity of three-dimensional porous media refers to the ratio of fluid volume to total
volume (including fluids and screen) [18]. The porosity of three-dimensional porous media can be
determined by measuring the mass of the solid under vacuum state and atmospheric condition. In
addition, when screen is deformed, the porosity is not a constant.
10
Va / V
Where Va is the fluid volume, m3; Va is the total volume of fluid and screen, m3.
Because the porous material is very thin, so it can be simplified to two-dimensional problem.
For rectangular screen of monofilament simple structure, the porosity is defined as [19]:
(l d )(m d )
11

ml

Where l and m are respectively the distance between weft threads and between warp threads
of adjacent threads, m; and d is the diameter of thread, m.
For the two-dimensional square screen, the porosity expressed in percentage is defined
as follows[20, 21]:

nd
*100
25400

(12)

Where d is the diameter of the thread, m; d is mesh number.


In order to keep consistent with past research, the present paper adopts Equations (11, (12) to
determine porosity of filter screen.

Fig. 3 Axonometric drawing (left) and sectional drawing (right) of filter screen

4.3 Resistance characteristics of screen


When steady-state incompressible fluid passes the screen, generally 2 ways [22] are adopted to
determine the characteristics of screen. One is the method of discharge coefficient Cd that
combines Bernoulli equation or method of resistance coefficient Cd ; the other is porous media
method.
4.4 Determination of form of floccule-proof screen
Determine the influence of floccule-proof screen on resistance of air supply system at different
porosity and different Reynolds number. And then, conduct numerical simulation of air cooling
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island with floccule-proof screen of different stainless steel so as to screen out the porosity of
floccule-proof screen that meets THA performance assessment conditions of the air cooling
island. Finally, determine the form of floccule-proof screen, and control its influence on the
performance of air cooled condenser within the margin range reserved for air-cooled condenser
in the original design.
Finally select the floccule-proof screen of stainless steel with 14-mesh square holes, 0.4mm wire
diameter and about 0.6077 porosity. Build porous jump model of floccule-proof screen, and
determine the change in heat exchange of DACC system before and after the installation of
floccule-proof screen through numerical study.
5 Test results and comparison and analysis

The computer hardware adopts parallel computing graphic workstation HP Z800 with 8 cores,
2.67GHz processor and 32GB memory. The software adopts Exceed 11, Gambit 2.4.6, ANSYS
Fluent 6.3.26 for study under Windows Professional XP 64-bit operating system.
5.1 Absence of floccule-proof screen
Under THA condition of the steam turbine and when the fan works at 83.33% nominal speed, the
heat exchange capacity of DACC in different wind direction is shown in Fig. 4. In the design of
DACC, the main windward side of DACC platform generally faces the prevailing wind direction
in summer, i.e. 0 wind direction. It can be seen from the figure that the incoming wind from
back of the boiler at 180 is the adverse operating condition. In the 90 and 270 wind direction,
the heat exchange of DACC is better. In other wind directions, the heat exchange capacity of
air-cooled radiator is slightly reduced. In the absence of floccule-proof screen, DACC system
can realize full capacity of unit in summer. Under the adverse operating conditions, the heat
exchange capacity of DACC of 3# unit is a little bit higher than that of 4# unit; the heat exchange
capacity of 4# unit is 4.20% higher than rated heat load.

Fig. 4 Heat exchange capacity of DACC in different wind directions in absence of floccule-proof screen

Compared with rated heat exchange capacity of 1550.6MW of DACC (the heat exchange
capacity for a single DACC is 775.3MW) under THA performance assessment conditions, the
average value of total heat exchange capacity of DACC in each wind direction is 115.08% of the
design heat exchange capacity; and the average value of heat exchange capacity of DACC for 3#
unit and 4# unit in each wind direction are respectively 115.19% and 114.93% of the design heat
exchange capacity.
5.2 Presence of floccule-proof screen
Conduct the simulation of all wind directions under THA conditions when the floccule-proof
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screen is being placed on the fan protection screen, the computation results are shown in Fig. 5.
Compared to Fig. 4, in the presence of the floccule-proof screen, the heat exchange capacity of
DACC has somewhat decreased. Even in the adverse wind direction, the selected floccule-proof
screen can also meet the requirements of full capacity of power unit in summer. Under the
adverse operating conditions, the heat exchange capacity of DACC of 3# unit is a little higher
than 4# unit; the heat exchange capacity of 4# unit is 1.08% higher than rated heat exchange
capacity.

Fig. 5 Heat exchange capacity of DACC in each wind direction in the presence of floccule-proof screen

Compared with rated heat exchange capacity of 1550.6MW of DACC (the heat exchange
capacity for a single DACC is 775.3MW) under THA performance assessment conditions, the
average value of total heat exchange capacity of DACC in each wind direction is 111.25% of the
design heat exchange capacity; and the average value of heat exchange capacity of DACC for 3#
unit and 4# unit in each wind direction are respectively 111.32% and 111.14% of the design heat
exchange capacity.
Take 4m/s incoming flow velocity (frontal wind velocity of floccule-proof screen) as an example,
after the floccule-proof screen is installed, the resistance will be increased by about 12Pa. If the
design wind pressure of the fan is 100 Pa, i.e. the resistance of air supply system is increased by
12%, according to the relationship between air volume of the fan and wind pressure, the air
volume will be reduced by about 10%. According to the computation based on this air volume,
the frontal wind velocity of tube bundle will also be reduced by about 10%, and heat exchange
capacity of DACC will be reduced by about 3~4%.
Compared to the average value of heat exchange capacity of DACC in each wind direction in
absence of floccule-proof screen, the average total heat exchange capacity of DACC and the
average heat exchange capacity of each unit in the presence of floccule-proof screen is
respectively reduced by 3.83%, 3.87% and 3.79%, which are within the range of 3~4% of above
engineering design. Therefore, the resistance coefficient of floccule-proof screen does not need
to be corrected.
5.3 Comparison and analysis
Conduct numerical simulation of the performance of air-cooling island in different
environmental wind direction and obtain the volumetric flow of each fan of DACC and heat
exchange capacity of air-cooling unit in absence and presence of floccule-proof screen. Analyze
volumetric flow of each fan of DACC and heat exchange capacity of air-cooling unit with or
without floccule-proof screen by taking the wind coming from behind the boiler house as an
example.
5.3.1 Effect on operation condition of the fan
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For the operation condition of each fan with and without floccule-proof screen when the wind
comes from behind the boiler house, see Fig. 6. For each column of air-cooling units, the first
row of fans of the air-cooling unit on the windward side has the minimum air volume; next is the
second row of counter-flow fan units. The fans in the first column and 16th column of air-cooling
units exposed to outside of the steam turbine house have smaller air volume. In addition, because
the first column and 16th column have different position relative to the steam turbine house, the
air volume is also different.
After installation of the floccule-proof screen, the air volume of each air-cooling unit is reduced
somewhat except for several middle air-cooling units in the first row.

Fig. 6

Air volumetric flow of each fan with and without floccule-proof screen

5.3.2 Effect on the performance of air-cooled condenser


For the heat exchange capacity of each radiator of the unit with and without floccule-proof
screen when the wind comes from behind boiler, see Fig. 7. The unit heat dissipation capacity of
each column of units is also minimum because the air volume of air cooling unit on the
windward side. In the column of heat exchange units exposed to outside of the steam turbine
house, the heat dissipation capacity of air-cooling units at right and left side is smaller; in the
same unit, the heat dissipation capacity of tube bundles at both sides presents a very big
difference. In the air-cooling units of the middle column, the difference of the heat dissipation
capacity between the radiators at right and left side is smaller.
After installation of the floccule-proof screen, the heat exchange capacity of each air-cooling unit
is reduced somewhat except for several middle air-cooling units in the first row.

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Fig. 7

Heat exchange capacity of each radiator with and without floccule-proof screen

Above computations are the simulation results under the condition of steady incoming flow and
steady-state heat transfer. In fact, the atmospheric boundary-layer theory and DACC numerical
model are still kept improving, and because the outdoor meteorological parameters have the
nature of randomness, the airflow state parameter for a given direction is hard to be sustained
and kept stable. Therefore, in actual operation, there exists certain difference between the
performance of DACC and the results of above simulation computations.
6 Conclusion

In this paper the authors conducted research and analysis on different types of floccule-proof
screen, and determined the material, texture, porosity, resistance coefficient and installation
position of the floccule-proof screen in combination with numerical simulation of air cooling
island. The resistance characteristics of the floccule-proof screen at different porosity and
Reynolds number are determined. The floccule-proof screen finally determined is the round
stainless steel wire screen of 14-mesh square hole with 0.4mm wire diameter and 0.6077
porosity.
The numerical simulation of the air cooling island shows that: under THA performance
assessment conditions of the steam turbine, the adverse wind direction of DACC is the wind
from behind the boiler house. After the floccule-proof screen is installed on the fan protection
screen, the heat exchange capacity of DACC for 3# and 4# units under THA conditions is
respectively 103.68% and 101.08% of the originally designed heat exchange capacity, which
meets the original design requirements. That is to say, the floccule-proof purpose is realized by
utilizing engineering design margin while DACC is ensured to meet the requirements of
performance assessment conditions.
The present research provides theoretical basis for operation and optimal design of DACC.
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Biography
Shi Lei (1972~), male, Chinese, born in Xinyang city, Henan Province, doctor of engineering, registered utility
engineer of PRC, senior engineer. He is mainly engaged in research of complex flow and heat transfer. E-mail:
lshi@bjtu.edu.cn

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Peak-load Condenser Operation Optimization Analysis for a Air-cooled


Condenser
Haisheng Yang
Thermal Department Hebei Electric Power Research Institute. Hebei Shijiazhuang, P. R. China

Abstract: For improving the economic benefit of the generation unit with ACC (air-cooled
condenser) in summer season, a peak-load condenser system was updated for the ACC system.
Optimization of the peak-load condenser operation was studied using the site test and system
simulation methods. Based on the site test data, certain characteristic performance parameter was
calculated such as cleanness factor and etc.. Final optimized operation scheme was studied using the
simulation software for various ambient conditions. It is shown that, for the example unit, based on
the current equipment conditions, for most of the weather conditions except for winter, the peakload condenser with one cooling pump in operation can improve the unit performance.
Keywords: Optimization; Peak-load Condenser; Fossil-fired Generation Unit; ACC (air-cooled
condenser)
Introduction
Air-cooled condenser has been used more and more widely in fossil-fired generation units in China
for the past ten years, especially in northern China where water resource is limited. Yet, the owners
of fossil-fired units with ACC are disturbed and challenged by the following issues: (1) higher back
pressure of the steam turbine causing the poor performance of the units compared with other types of
generation units; (2) inevitable deteriorating of the air-cooled condensers performance due to aging;
(3) full load operation ability of the units are influenced by the performance of the air-cooled
condensers, especially in extreme weather conditions in summer season.
Peak-load condenser system is selected for upgrading of the current air-cooled condenser system in
some power plants, which provide some answers for the challenges facing the plant owners.
Common equipment in the peak-load condenser system includes peak load condenser, cooling pumps,
auxiliary cooling towers. The performance of the peak load condenser and cooling tower has direct
influence on the performance of the system.
For an existing upgraded air-cooled condenser with peak-load condenser, the following operation
problems need to be solved for the owners: (1) how much benefit can be achieved for various
operation load conditions? (2) under what weather conditions should the peak-load condenser be put
into operation? (3) which operation scheme is the optimized operation condition for the peak-load
condenser, one cooling pump or two cooling pumps?
Optimization Methods Adopted in the Analysis
To provide answers for the above plant owners concerns, site test method is one option. But
considering the various load conditions and weather conditions will lead to unacceptable test cases.
Thus the optimization of the peak-load condenser has to be solved combining the site test method
with the system simulation method.
1 Site Test Method

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Based on site tests, various operation parameters of the peak-load condenser system can be collected.
For the three main equipment of the peak-load condenser system, the following parameters should be
measured and collected.
Peak-load condenser: cooling water flow, condenser pressure, cooling water inlet and outlet
temperatures;
Cooling pumps: cooling water flow under various cooling pump operation conditions, for example
one pump or two pumps operation;
Cooling towers: ambient temperature and pressure, relative humidity, cooling water flow, cooling
water inlet and outlet temperatures of the cooling tower.
2 System Simulation Method
To calculate and simulate the performance of the peak-load condenser, the GateCycle physically
based computer model is used.
Firstly, calculation model under design rated condition is established using the computer code for the
condenser and cooling tower. These models are checked and verified using the design data under
rated condition and other operation conditions.
Secondly, the calculation models are tuned to get close calculation results as the test data for various
operation conditions. For example, the cleanness factor can be adjusted to make the condenser
performance adapted to the actual operation data, and the cooling tower performance factor can be
adjusted to make the tower performance adapted to the actual cooling tower operation data.
Finally, after satisfying validation of the calculation models and the actual operation data, the peakload condenser operation can be simulated for various operation load and ambient conditions, and the
optimization problems can be solved using the calculation models.
Example of the Optimization of Peak-load Condenser Operation
One 600MW fossil-fired generation unit with air-cooled condenser was upgraded to air-cooled
condenser with peak-load condenser system. The following are some of the design data for the
generation unit and the condenser system equipment.
Table 1 steam turbine design data
Items
Unit Output

Unit
kW

Data
600012

Unit Heat Rate

kJ/kWh

7999

Main Steam Pressure

MPa(a)

24.2

Reheat Steam Pressure

MPa(a)

3.746

Main Steam Temperature

566

Reheat Steam Temperature

566

Main Steam Flow

t/h

1782.1

Reheat Steam Flow

t/h

1484.7

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Turbine Back Pressure

kPa

16.00

Table 2 Air-cooled Condenser Design Data


Items
Ambient Temperature

Unit

Data
33.0

Ambient Pressure

kPa

97.4

Turbine Back Pressure

kPa

29

Turbine Exhaust Flow

t/h

1217.502

Turbine Exhaust Heat Load

MW

785

Fan Numbers Primary Modules

38

Fan Numbers Second Modules

16

Fan Speed Primary Modules

r/min

73

Fan Speed Second Modules

r/min

73

Fan Motor Input Power

kW

3458

Condensate Temperature

67.6

Condensate Sub-cooling

Table 3 Peak-load Condenser Design Data


Items
Exhaust Steam Flow

Unit
t/h

Data
300

Cooling Water Flow

m3/s

3.89

Cooling Water Inlet Temperature

43

Cooling Water Flow Pass

Condenser Pressure

kPa

22.5

Condenser Condensate Temperature

62.63

Condenser Heating Load

kJ/s

195825.77

Cooling Water Temperature Rise

12.03

Terminal Temperature Difference

7.6

Actual Cooling Area

5001.31

Effective Cooling Tube Length

mm

15300

Cooling Tube Material

TP316L

Cooling Tube Number

4162

Cooling Tube Outer Diameter

mm

25

Table 4 Auxiliary Cooling Tower Design Data


Items
Ambient Dry Ball Temperature

Unit

Data
26.8

Ambient Wet Ball Temperature

24.9

Ambient Pressure

kPa

97.54

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Fan Diameter

mm

9140

Fan Volume Flow

m /h

220104

Fan Power

kW

160

Cooling Water Flow

m /h

5000

Cooling Water Inlet Temperature

55

Cooling Water Outlet Temperature

43

1 Site Test for various Operation Conditions


Three load operation conditions are selected for the site test. For each load condition, three operation
modes of the peak-load condenser system are tested, that is, one pump mode, two-pump mode and
no-pump mode.All the operation data for the peak-load condenser system equipment are collected for
further modeling validation.
2 Peak-load Condenser Equipment Model Design and Validation (Design Case)
Equipment model is built using the GateCycle software for the design case. The peak-load condenser
and the auxiliary cooling tower are modeled separately.

Figure 1 Peak-load Condenser Model Built-up

Figure 2 Auxiliary Cooling Tower Model Built-up

3 Peak-load Condenser Equipment Model Validation with Testing Data


The design models of the condenser equipment are adapted to the testing data for various conditions by
adjusting certain performance parameters.
The final performance parameters are verified to fulfill the above requirement:

The peak-load condenser cleanness factor is set to 0.257 for two-pump operation mode,
while the cleanness factor is set to 0.318 for one-pump operation mode.

The cooling tower performance factor is set to two separate functions of tower temperature
drop for one pump operation mode and two-pump mode.

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Cooling Tower Performance Factor

1
0.95

y = -0.0023x2 + 0.071x + 0.4352

0.9
0.85
0.8
0.75
0.7
0.65
0.6
0.55
0.5
0

10

12

Tower Temperature Drop ()

Figure 3 Cooling Tower Performance Factor as a Function of Tower Temperature Drop for one-pump operation mode

4 Peak-load Condenser System Modeling and Simulation


After the validation of the equipment models using the actual test data, the peak-load condenser system
can be modeled as one complete system.
The performance of the peak-load condenser system can be simulated based on the following boundary
parameters: (1) Ambient pressure and temperature, relative humidity; (2) Cooling water flow; (3)
Condenser inlet steam flow and steam enthalpy.
The following performance of the condenser system can be calculated: (1) The condenser pressure; (2)
Cooling water inlet temperature and outlet temperature of the condenser; (3) Condenser TTD; (4) Cooling
tower approach.
For each ambient weather condition and cooling water pump operation mode, the performance curve of the
condenser can be simulated. Considering the performance of the air-cooled condenser, the complete ACCpeak load condenser system performance can be illustrated. An example is shown in Fig.5 for ambient
pressure of 97kPa and ambient temperature of 31 and relative humidity of 20%.

Figure 4 Peak-load Condenser System Model Built-up

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Figure 5 Peak-load Condenser System Model Built-up

Taking Fig.5 as an example, the following information can be inferred for guidance of the condenser
system:
The condenser pressure is not influenced much by the adding of the second cooling pump. That is,
one-pump mode is the optimized operation mode for the peak-load condenser.
Under this ambient condition, the condenser pressure can be lowered by 5kPa for 100% load, nearly
3kPa for 75% load, and nearly 1.5kPa for 50% load.
5 Simulation Results for Operation Optimization of Peak-load Condenser System
The following simulation results are got for operation optimization of peak-load condenser system:
Under ambient temperature 31 or around, one-pump mode is the optimized operation mode for
the peak-load condenser. Compared with the ACC operation without peak-load condenser, the
condenser pressure can be lowered by more that 5kPa for 100% load (600MW).
Under ambient temperature 25 or around, one-pump mode is the optimized operation mode for
the peak-load condenser. Compared with the ACC operation without peak-load condenser, the
condenser pressure can be lowered by more that 1.6kPa for 75% load (450MW).
Under ambient temperature 24 or around, one-pump mode is the optimized operation mode for
the peak-load condenser. Compared with the ACC operation without peak-load condenser, the
condenser pressure can be lowered by around 0.7kPa for 50% load (300MW).
Under ambient temperature 18 or around, compared with the ACC operation without peak-load
condenser, the condenser pressure can be lowered by around 0.67kPa for 50% load (300MW) when
the first cooling pump is put into operation for the peak-load condenser. One-pump mode is still the
optimized operation mode for the peak-load condenser.
Under full load operation condition, the calculated TTD (around 16) for the peak-load condenser
is much higher than the design value. The design TTD is 7.6 for 300t/h inlet steam and 14000t/h
cooling water condition. Higher TTD indicates poor heat exchange effect of the peak-load
condenser, which is also reflected by the low tube cleanness factor calculated. Poor heat exchange
also causes the little performance difference for the one-pump and two pump operation mode. It is
suggested proper measures be taken to improve the cleanness of the condenser tubes.
Conclusions
Optimization of the peak-load condenser operation is studied using the site test and system simulation
methods. Based on the site test data, certain characteristic performance parameter is calculated such as

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cleanness factor and etc.. Final optimized operation scheme is studied using the simulation software for
various ambient conditions.
It is shown that, for the example unit studied, based on the current equipment conditions, for most of the
weather conditions except for winter, the peak-load condenser with one cooling pump in operation can
improve the unit performance.
Biography
Haisheng Yang, Male, Thermal Department Hebei Electric Power Research Institute.
E-mail: hs.yang2010@qq.com, Tel

-312-

Opening

Essence of Indirect Dry Cooling Systems-Steel Tower &


Heller System
:

Andras Balogh
822101100004

GEA Large Power Solutions

GEA Heat Exchangers

Indirect Dry Systems with Natural Draft

Content

Natural Draft Steel Tower vs. Concrete Tower

Heller System or IDCT with Surface Condenser ?

GEA Heat Exchangers

The NDCT can be built either with a conventional reinforced concrete shell or with a steel structure covered
by corrugated aluminum clad.

Light weight tower structure


introducing to China

Common and widely applied


in China already

---

---

GEA Heat Exchangers

Indirect Dry Systems with Natural Draft

Indirect Dry Systems with Natural Draft

Armenia: High altitude & seismicity


In the background: towers of the original plant for 4 x 200 MWe built in the 1970s
In the foreground: cooling tower to serve 620 MW e supercritical extension (mid 1990)
4 x 200 MW1970
620MW1990
Altitude: 1760 m
1760
Tower for 620 MWe

GEA Heat Exchangers

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GEA Heat Exchangers

Indirect Dry Systems with Natural Draft

Steel tower types

Benefits of applying Steel Cooling Tower

Conical tower

Significantly less material need for the same tower dimension compared to concrete tower

Steel weight is comparable to the reinforcement of a concrete tower


Excellent solution for medium or high seismicity areas

Cylindrical tower

up to 300MWe unit size

for any unit size

300MW

welded structure

welded or bolted structure

Requires significantly less foundation and excavation work


Easy erection, tower shell sub-assemblies can be assembled on the ground
Tax saving
Waste steel recycle

Various structural options

Welded conical +

Welded cylindrical +

Bolted cylindrical +

GEA Heat Exchangers

Cylindrical tower internal & foundation

Delta foundation ring

Inner foundation ring

GEA Heat Exchangers

Conical tower internal & foundation

Common foundation ring

Inner foundation ring

Tower & Delta foundation ring

GEA Heat Exchangers

10

Steel Natural Draft Cooling Tower Erection

GEA Heat Exchangers

Steel Natural Draft Cooling Tower Erection

Cylindrical tower

11

GEA Heat Exchangers

12

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GEA Heat Exchangers

Steel Natural Draft Cooling Tower Erection

13

Steel Natural Draft Cooling Tower Erection

GEA Heat Exchangers

14

Steel Natural Draft Cooling Tower Erection

15

GEA Heat Exchangers

Steel Natural Draft Cooling Tower Erection

GEA Heat Exchangers

GEA Heat Exchangers

16

Steel Natural Draft Cooling Tower Erection

Steel Natural Draft Cooling Tower Erection

Conical tower

17

GEA Heat Exchangers

18

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GEA Heat Exchangers

Steel Natural Draft Cooling Tower Erection

Sub-summary to the Steel Tower


Significantly material saving
Suitable for high seismicity areas
Less foundation work
Erection easy and short
Tax saving
Waste steel recycle

GEA Heat Exchangers

20

Benefits & Merits of Dry Cooling HELLER System

General considerations to Heller System


In case of any dry cooled units the condenser temperatures, thus the turbine back-pressures too, (at least at their
medium or high level values) thoroughly follow the increase in ambient temperature. Dry cooling in general leads to
high back-pressure in summer, and meanwhile the indirect HELLER System allows also low back-pressure at lower
ambient temperatures. Therefore, dry cooling not only requires steam turbines with higher maximum allowable backpressure, but in ideal case would need turbines allowing wider back-pressure range.

The ITD value is not only a driving force but being a quasi constant value at constant heat rejection, it is a figure
characterizing well the dry (& dry/wet) cooling systems independently from the plant size. ITD
ITD

According to the present value investigations and practical experiences the optimum ITD range for combined cycles
is 23-30 K, for coal fired plants it is 26-34 K, and for LWR nuclear power plants: 23-30 K. The actual value
depends on the economic and site conditions. ITD
23-30K26-34KLWR23-30K

Cooling plant capacities (CPC) can be best characterized with a factor, what is the design point ratio of the heat
rejection from the steam cycle and the ITD value. CPC
ITD
CPC = Qdis / ITD

Key Benefits for Power Plants when Using HELLER Systems

(MWth / K)

GEA Heat Exchangers

21

GEA Heat Exchangers

significantly smaller condenser TTD can be achieved

lowest auxiliary power consumption due to smaller water flow rates

no contamination ingress to the condenser space

no any degradation of condensate water quality

low maintenance (no internal tubing)

inherent high availability and reliability (no internal tubing)

GEA Heat Exchangers

22

Differences between DC Jet and Surface condenser

Differences between DC Jet and Surface condenser

Direct Contact Jet

Surface

Direct Contact Jet

Surface

only 25-30% cost of surface condenser


25-30%
maintenance-free
100% availability 100%

costly surface of SS or brass tubes

regular repair and maintenance


needed, reduce plant availability

More efficient equipment (TTD ~ 0.5


K)
0.5 K
Requires smaller cooling tower

Inherent safety to avoid contamination


from CW.

Requires no maintenance

Practically 100% availability/reliability


100%
Less expensive equipment

Less efficient equipment (TTD ~3 K)


3 K
Requires larger cooling tower

Separated steam and cooling water


cycles (contamination concerns)

Requires some maintenance

Lower availability

More expensive equipment

Recommendation
Application of DC Jet Condenser except special cases (e.g. nuclear power stations) - resulting in an
overall cooling system savings of 15-20%.
15-20%

GEA Heat Exchangers

GEA Heat Exchangers

-316-

Impact of condenser selection


on required heat transfer surface in cooling tower

Effect of the condenser type on the cooling tower size

DC Jet Condenser

Alu. Vertical Surface

Steel Horizontal Surface

HIGHEST

MODERATE
LOWEST

Rejected heat Q = k x F x Tln, where


k: heat transfer rate (kcal/h,m2,oC)
F: heat exchanger surface, (m2)
Tln: logarithmic mean temperature difference
Condenser TTD = ~0.5C
T ln = 100%
K = 100%
F (surface) = 100%

Condenser TTD = ~3C


T ln = 96.3%
k = 99.9%
F (surface) = 104%

Condenser TTD = ~3C


T ln = 92%
k = 83.5%
F (surface) = 130.1%

Using DC JET CONDENSER results smaller cooling tower with LOWER investment cost

GEA Heat Exchangers

25

GEA Heat Exchangers

DC Jet Condenser - Spraying Nozzle


-

DC Jet Condenser - General View

CW. is sprayed into condenser space


GEA Heat Exchangers

27

GEA Heat Exchangers

28

Application of Heller System

Operating Parameter

Shaanxi Baoji No.2 Generating LLC

The excellent heat economy performance results from the DC jet condenser.
For example, when the back pressure is 10kPa, the exhaust steam saturation
temperature is 46, and the temperature of condensation water is 46.12.
the terminal temperature difference is less than 1.

The 2660MW supercritical unit was


the first Heller system put into operation
in China and abroad. The performance

110kPa
4646.12

test showed that under the ambient


temperature of 33, the back pressure
is 23.3KPa, the terminal temperature

Load %

difference is 0.701 , which meet the

Summer

design requirement.
Winter

660MW

Spring
&
Autumn

33

50%(330MW)

Ambient
Temp.

Back Pressure
kPa

34

12.57

Inflow/Outlet Temp.

50/42

Pumps in
Operation

Sections in
Operation

10

Louver
openning
%
100

80%(500MW)

31

21

60/50

10

100

100%(600MW)

33

23.2

63/50

10

100

50%(330MW)

-2

35

8.9

36/27

80%(500MW)

-2

9.8

46/31

45

100%(655MW)

-2

7.7

45/29

55

50%(330MW)

15

7.7

38/29

10

37

80%(500MW)

12

9.4

44/32

10

43

100%(655MW)

20

12.8

50/35

10

100

23.2KPa0.701
29

GEA Heat Exchangers

30

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GEA Heat Exchangers

Circulating Water Quality Control

Application Effects
Economic
Generating cost saving 48 million every year 4800
Energy saving 8640KWh every day 38640KWh
Excellent heat performance with nearly 0 condenser terminal difference

The Heller system uses the circulating cooling water with the same water
quality as condensation water. There are two metallic elements in the system:
Ferrous and Aluminum which need different PH value of water. To meet the
requirement, we should keep and ensure the oxygen content between
150~250ppb, and keep the pH value between 7~8.5.

Safety & reliability


Automatic input rate 100%, safe and stable operation is ensured 100%

PH
150~250ppbpH7~8.5

Design requirement is satisfied during the whole year operation

Environmental friendliness
No any noise to the environment
Maintenance
No maintenance needed by the DC jet condenser
No tubule in the condenser, so no cleaning is needed

No maintenance needed by the spray nozzle


Great in energy saving, electricity consumption is low and water makeup rate is 0

GEA Heat Exchangers

31

32

GEA Heat Exchangers

Social Benefit

Sub-summary to the Heller System

Compared with ACC, lower back pressure results in coal consumption saving at about 5g/kwh.

Excellent thermal efficiency and economic

Compared with surface condenser, lower condenser terminal difference results in coal consumption

Lower cost of cooling tower

saving at about 1.2g/kwh.

If the 100GW ACC in China adopt Heller system, 2.5 million tons of standard coal will saved every

Suitable for large capacity unit

year, reduce SO2 emissions 21,250 tons, reduce NOx emissions 18.5 tons, reduce CO2 emissions
6.5 million tons, reduce smoke emissions 12,000 tons.

Operating noise is lower than national standard which keeps the nearby residents away from
noise pollution.

The water makeup rate is 0 which saves the water resource.


5g/kwh
1.2g/kwh
1250SO22.125
NOx1.85CO26501.2

GEA Heat Exchangers

33

GEA Heat Exchangers

34

As the top leader, GEA is also ready to serve the Chinese cooling

Andras Balogh

industry.

010-65907049-139
13488806537

sophie.dong@gea.com
822101100004

35

GEA Heat Exchangers

36

-318-

GEA Heat Exchangers

Experimental study on direct Air-Cooling System


Shengli Chen, Chao Wan, Gaochao Li, Tao Jing, Kai Lv, Zhiguo Zhang, Lin Mu, Xiaofei Cheng
Xian Thermal Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., Xian, P. R. China

Abstract: By way of field performance test, the factors affecting the performance of the direct
air-cooling system were studied. The results show that, there are certain problems on the Direct
air-cooling system such as too large exhaust resistance, poor vacuum tight, condensate
subcooling etc. Due to the influence of external environmental conditions and equipment and
installation factors, there is a certain gap between the run performance and design performance
of some units. Through further optimization test research, the steam turbine units with direct
air-cooling system operate in the best economic way. To improve the performance of direct
air-cooling system, it is necessary to take comprehensive implements by design parameter
optimization, equipment installation and maintenance, operation optimization etc.
Key wordsdirect air-cooling; field test; operate performance; optimization research
Introduction
After recent years of rapid development, the direct air-cooling unit of our country has been in the
world's advanced ranks.With the introduction of technology, independent research and
development and other technical means, the direct air-cooling system in China is completely
achieved.The direct air-cooling unit has exposed some problems after several years of operation,
so it also needs us to carry on the unceasing technology research, the improvement and
enhancement, in order to speed up the air-cooling profession technological progress, enhance the
air-cooling technology level of our country.
Through several years of direct air-cooling system performance test results, this paper
summarizes the problems in the design and operation of direct air-cooling system, and provides
reference for process design, equipment design and manufacturing.In addition.
The design of direct air-cooling system and the existing problems
1 combined exhaust device
(1) Design performance of the combined exhaust device
When a 600 MW subcritical exhaust device of direct air-cooling unit works under the designing
condition of THA of steam turbine, exhaust steam pressure is 15 kPa, low pressure cylinder
exhaust steam flow rate of 1211.86t/h, the designing steam resistance of exhaust device is 0.1
kPa.
Table 1 Combined exhaust system design parameters of a direct air-cooling turbine
Name

Unit

Design parameter

Turbine Model

NZK600-16.7/538/538-2

Turbine rated power

MW

600

Exhaust pressure

kPa

15

-319-

Exhaust steam flow of low pressure cylinder

kg/h

1211860

Steam inlet size

mm

49126580

Exhaust port size

mm

600020

Condensate tank size

mm

658010000

Normal water level

mm

2200

Vapor resistance

kPa

0.1

Dissolved oxygen in condensate

ppb

30

Subcooling

(2) 1.1.1.2 Measurement of steam resistance of combined exhaust device


Table 2 Combined exhaust steam resistance test results
Test conditions

Uint

100% of
rated load

90% of
rated load

80% of
rated load

70% of
rated load

60% of
rated load

Unit Load

MW

598.1

561.6

473.38

418.65

361.4

Exhaust steam pressure of


Low pressure cylinder

kPa

32.81

34

19.95

13.96

11.39

Exhaust outlet pressure

kPa

32.39

33.59

19.58

13.62

11.06

Exhaust steam resistance

kPa

0.43

0.41

0.36

0.34

0.33

kPa
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30
0.25
0.20
300.00

400.00

500.00

600.00

700.00 MW

Figure 1 The curve of the relationship between the steam resistance of exhaust gas and the load of the unit

Conclusion of pressure testing:


1) Rated load of steam turbine In the experimental condition: The load of the unit is 598.10MW,
the pressure of the low-pressure cylinder exhaust gas is 32.81 kPa, outlet steam pressure of
the exhaust device is 32.39 kPa, the steam flow resistance of the exhaust device is 0.43
kPa.Although the pressure of the low-pressure cylinder exhaust gas is higher than the design
value, the exhaust steam flow rate is greater than the design value, but the steam flow
resistance of the exhaust device is far greater than the design value0.1kPafor 0.33kPa.
And the steam flow resistance of each working condition is much larger than the design
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value.
2) With the increase of steam turbine power, The discharge flow of the low pressure cylinder of
steam turbine is increasing, the exhaust steam flow of the low pressure cylinder of steam
turbine is increasing, the steam flow resistance of the exhaust device is also increasing.
3) Further research is suggested to study the relationship between the resistance of the exhaust
device and the discharge of the low-pressure cylinder, we can get the formula of drag
coefficient on the combined exhaust device
4) Study on the effect of combined exhaust device on steam pressure of steam turbine.
2 The steam flow resistance no deaeration device mounted in the internal steam exhaust device
Steam exhaust device of a subcritical 600MW direct air-cooling unit has no built-in condensate
dearation, test for steam flow resistance of the device, the unit power is 553.1MW in testing.
kPa

21.900
21.800
21.700
21.600
21.500
21.400
21.300

21.200
17:03:50 17:05:17 17:06:43 17:08:10 17:09:36 17:11:02 17:12:29

Figure 2 The exhaust steam resistance test curve of device without a built-oxygen

1) Variation of air pressure during the test, The resistance of the exhaust device is basically
unchanged, maintain at around 0.276kPa.
2) In the design of air-cooling system, the steam resistance value of the exhaust device is
0.1kPa,higher than the design value 0.176kPa, obviously the design value is too small.
3) Compared to the combined exhaust device with built-in condensate deaeration, the steam
resistance of the exhaust device is obviously smaller, in the same case less than 0.234 kPa.
The steam resistance of the exhaust device is far greater than the design value. So, combined
exhaust device has the advantages of condensed water oxygen, at the same time, it has brought
the shortcomings of the increase of steam resistance; further research should be further studied to
reduce the resistance of the combined exhaust device.
3 Sealing performance of vacuum system
Direct air-cooling unit of vacuum sealing performance is particularly important for the
water-cooling unitif vacuum sealing performance is inefficient, it will affect the vacuum,
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dissolved oxygen in condensate, condensate sub cooling and other performance indicators, and
seriously affects the performance of the condenser.
Main reasons leading to the freezing of air cooled condenser
Air-cooling: One is air-cooling system in the air appear to gather air-cooling formation of cold
zone; Two is the air-cooling system of steam flow is too small (Mainly occurs in the winter
air-cooling system to start and stop), in addition, the condenser of the condenser is not uniform,
the steam flow is too small for some heat sink, easy to freeze. Actual operation of air-cooling
system, the factor that affect the frost most is air, so freezing often occurs in counter current
units.

Figure 3 Air Cooled Condenser steam flow

Figure 4 condenser cooling zone

If the K2 fan and K3 fan to stop running, and then full load operation, in the K3 region formed a
strong cold zone and K2 is like to steam distribution pipe, and thus it is possible to cause the
steam to enter the K3 from the tube bundle. If it contains air in the steam it will form a cold area
in the K3, as shown in Figure 4.
In the cold area, with little steam content, condensation heat is very small, and because the heat
capacity of the air is small, it is easy to be cooled to the ambient temperature.
In the cold winter period, when the condensate flow through the cold zone, it will be cooled
down, If it is cooled to freezing point in cold zone, so it will be Frozen. So, all the factors that
may cause the air to gather will increase the risk of freezing. And, when the cold zone is formed,
the air of the aggregate is blocked by the steam flow, and the steam of cooling pipe is reduced,
and the freezing of the cooling pipe is accelerated.
The reason of air accumulation in air-cooling system: (1)The sealing performance of the vacuum
system is low, and the leakage of the system is large;(2) The performance of vacuum pump
(system) is decreased, and the ability of pumping gas is reduced;(3) The heat exchange of the
radiator is not uniform.

-322-


1000Pa/min
3%

100Pa/min
9%

500
1000Pa/min
9%

400
500Pa/min
12%

100
200Pa/min
26%

300
400Pa/min
18%

200
300Pa/min
23%

Figure 5 The vacuum tightness of the direct air-cooling units

The results of vacuum tightness of the direct air-cooling units show that most of the vacuum
tightness performance of the vacuum system is more than that of the 200Pa/min, which reaches
64.7%. Therefore, to the vacuum tight control to 200Pa/min following is difficult.
4 Condensate water system
(1) The sucooling of condensation water
The condensed water of air-cooling units in large undercooling than water-cooling unit, he actual
operation value is often larger than the design value. From the measurement results, some
operating conditions of the over cooling of the design value of 1.5 C, the excessive condensation
of water is also reflected in the air-cooling system of the air side resistance
Table 3 Measurement results of the subcooling of condensation water
Unit No.

Unit

Unit capacity

MW

600

600

600

Unit Type

Subcritical

Subcritical

supercritical

Design subcooling of TRL condition

1.04

0.65

0.73

Measure subcooling of TRL condition

1.78

2.16

0.875

Difference between measured and design

0.7

1.5

0.1

(2) Dissolved oxygen content of condensation


While the operation of direct air-cooling units, the dissolved oxygen content of condensation of
condensate pump outlet is larger than water-cooling unit most time. The main reason is that the
volume of the vacuum system of the direct air-cooling unit is very large, the amount of air
leakage is very large, and the vacuum system cant effectively exhaust the air .

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In order to reduce the dissolved oxygen content of condensation, the indicators meet the
requirements in regulations, Some units configuration external type condensate deaerating device.
China developed the condenser condensate deaeration water combined exhaust device, add the
condensation water deaeration function to the interior of the exhaust steam device.
Take some space of built-in deaerator combined exhaust device for regeneration, condensate
water from the air condenser back through the condensation of water pipe and spray out, a thin
film of water is formed when the water droplets pass through the filler layer, increase the contact
area and time of condensate water and steam, in a filler layer below, take use of part of the
low-pressure cylinder exhaust steam for heating and deoxygenation while eliminating
condensation water cooling degree.
In order to study the performance of combined exhaust device deaerator, the performance tests of
600MW subcritical exhaust facility for direct air-cooling unit were carried out. The value of the
design of the condenser water dissolved oxygen is not more than 30 ppb.
Dissolved oxygen in condensate of condensate pump outlet
1)

Non water supply operation test


Table 4 Non water supply operation test data
Test conditions

Unit

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

Unit Load

MW

598.1

561.6

473.38

418.65

361.4

Exhaust steam pressure of low pressure


cylinder

kPa

32.81

34

19.95

13.96

11.39

The saturation temperature corresponding to


exhaust pressure

71.2

72.03

60.03

52.51

48.4

Condensate temperature of exhaust device


outlet

70.82

72.51

60.36

52.81

48.46

Condensate subcooling

0.38

-0.48

-0.33

-0.3

-0.06

Supplementary condensate water flow

t/h

Condensate dissolved oxygen of condensate


pump outlet

ppb

30

15

15.97

21

26.4

Condensate dissolved oxygen of deaerator


outlet

ppb

During the test, the condensate water is not added, because the unit vacuum system sealing
performance is not qualified, the test, start 2 vacuum pump. Tests are carried out under 5
conditions of rated load (600MW), 90% (540MW), 80% (480MW), 70% (420MW), 60%
(360MW).
a) Under the condition of rated load test, the condensate dissolved oxygen of condensate
pump export is 30 ppb, the condensate dissolved oxygen of deaerator outlet is 8 ppb, the
-324-

degree of condensation water is 0.38.


b) In all other test conditions, the condensate dissolved oxygen of condensate pump
export are less than or equal to 30 ppb, 7 ppb for deaerator outlet, it meet the design
requirements.
c) The condensation water of each test case is less than 2, which is in accordance with
the design requirements.
d) The sealing performance of the vacuum system of the unit is 345.5Pa/min, and the
operation of the 2 vacuum pump has little effect on the dissolved oxygen content and
the degree of cold.
2) Water supply condition test
In order to test ability of the combined exhaust equipment deoxidization, the condensation test
under the condition of water deaeration ability, to test the ability of oxygen in condensate water
conditions.
Table 5 water supply operation test data
Unit Load

MW

597.1

563.6

Exhaust steam pressure of low pressure cylinder

kPa

32.81

34

Supplementary condensate water flow

t/h

65.36

45.75

Dissolved oxygen in supplementary water

ppb

50

50

Condensate dissolved oxygen of condensate pump outlet

ppb

33.2

24.46

Condensate dissolved oxygen of deaerator outlet

ppb

a) When the unit load of 597.1 MW, the exhaust gas pressure of 32.81 kPa, the flow of
condensate water 65.36 t/h, and dissolved oxygen 50ppb; After the combined exhaust
device to remove oxygen, oxygen content of condensation water is 33.2 ppb, the export
of deaerator condensate water dissolved oxygen is 8 ppb.
b) In the case of unit load is 563.6 MW, steam pressure is 34 kPa, condensate water supply
flow is 45.75 t/h, the replenishment of dissolved oxygen content is 50 ppb; After the
combined exhaust device to remove oxygen, oxygen content of condensation water is
24.46ppb, the export of deaerator condensate water dissolved oxygen is 7 ppb.
c) Due to the high dissolved oxygen in condensate water, when the amount of water is
reduced, the dissolved oxygen in condensate pump is also decreased.
d) To various test conditions, in the operation of the unit under the condition of water
supplement, dissolved oxygen in condensed water basically reached the requirements of
-325-

the design shows that combined discharge of steam deaerator ability is effective.
e) Comparison between the no-deaerator exhaust device performance function2 sets of
subcritical 600MW direct air-cooling generating unit of a power plant, the steam turbine
exhaust steam device is also provided with a condensed water tank, through the direct
air-cooled steam condenser condensate steam exhaust device into the condensate tank,
but exhaust device can not heat water remove oxygen.
3) Comparison
Table6 Comparison between the no-deaerator exhaust device performance function
Time

Condensate dissolved oxygen


of Unit 1ppb

time

Condensate dissolved oxygen


of Unit 2ppb

2007-6-29 2:00

100

2007-7-11 0:00

80

2007-6-29 4:00

100

2007-7-11 0:00

50

2007-6-29 0:00

65

2007-7-11 0:00

70

2007-7-11 0:00

30

2007-7-12 0:00

80

2007-7-12 0:00

50

2007-7-12 0:00

100

2007-7-12 0:00

50

2007-7-12 0:00

80

2007-7-12 0:00

30

2007-7-12 0:00

80

a) At the normal operation of unit 1, the dissolved oxygen content is 30~100ppb, and most
of the time is over standard, and the degree of condensation water is about 1.8.
b) In the normal operation of unit 2, the dissolved oxygen content is 50~100ppb, which is
higher than that of unit 1, so that seriously exceeds the standard, and the degree of
condensation water is 0.54 to 1.74
c) The dissolved oxygen of condensate water of No. 1 and 2 units are more than with
built-in deaeration function combined exhaust device unit 1 to 2 times; The degree of
condensation of water is also higher.
d) So the combined discharge of steam device has certain effect for removing oxygen of
condensation water; at the same time, it can heat condensed water, so that the degree of
condensation water decreases.
Table 7 Condensate subcooling of a direct air-cooling unit of 2 600MW
Parameter name

Unit

Power generation

MW

601.657

574.907

575.735

610.856

Exhaust steam pressure of low pressure cylinder

kPa

33.591

29.134

27.23

19.702

Condensate temperature

69.97

66.59

66.38

58.02

-326-

N0.1

N0.2

Condensate subcooling

1.78

1.86

0.54

1.74

Air supply system (air-cooling fan)


Air supply system is one of the main system of direct air-cooling system, directly determines the
air-cooling condenser cooling performance, Air-cooling fan is the key equipment in air supply
system, its performance affect the size of the cooling air volume. Because it is difficult to
directly measure the cooling air flow rate in the field test, so according to the power measured
values reflect the cooling air volume of air-cooling fan.
35 units, TRL working condition of the fan power measurement results: Meet or exceed the
design value of 8 units, accounting for more than 22.9%; There are 6 units of cooling air volume
is smaller than 5% of the design value, accounted for 17.1%; Smaller than design value 5% to 10%
of the 6 units, accounted for 17.1%; 11 units is smaller than design value of 10% to 20%,
accounted for 31.4%; Smaller than design value more than 20% of the 4 units, accounted for
11.4%; Smaller than design value more than 5% of the 21 units, accounted for 60%.
Therefore air-cooling system in the actual operation, the majority of the unit cooling air volume
is lower than the design value, result in the unit operation back pressure is higher. Main cause of
the cooling air volume is lower than the design value:1) Fan blade installation angle is less than
the design angle;2) Fan performance didn't meet the design performance;3) Air supply system
resistance is higher than the design value.
Some problems which need to be studied further:
(1) Fan actual running performance;
(2) The radiator actual wind resistance.
The Operate and design performance of direct air-cooling system
There are many factors affect the performance of the direct air-cooling system, and the
mechanism is complex. The following table statistics test results of air cooling system
performance of 35 units, and to compare them with design performance.
Air Cooling System Performance Test has certain test conditions, the test results are completely
under design conditions, such as ambient temperature, wind speed, heat load, cooling air flow,
the radiator clean design etc,are all under the same conditions, this can reflect the performance
gap between performance and design of the equipment and systems in order to improve the
design for the designer.
35 units in TRL conditions steam turbine back pressure design values and assessment results:
35 units in TRL conditions steam turbine back pressure: 22 reached or exceeded the design value,
accounting for 62.9%; 13 units did not meet the design value, accounting for 37.1%, accounting
for more than one third.
And for 22 units which has reached the design value, the fan power (cooling air flow) of 13 units
-327-

is less than the design value at more than 5%. Without fan power (cooling air volume) modifying,
26 units would be less than the design value, accounting for 74.3%, the majority of units can not
meet the design performance.
The main reasons leading to air cooling system performance lower than the design value:
1) The radiator heat transfer coefficient is lower than the design value; 2) Frontal velocity is
low; 3)problems of installation and construction quality, air-cooled Island leakage rate is high; 4)
Cooling Island cleaning system problems, air-side surface cleaning is not clear.
The economic operation of direct air-cooling turbine unit
The design and process design of the unit is not provided with the economic operation mode
(economic operation parameter or curve), or the economic operation scheme, so the user can not
carry out the optimization operation.
In order to achieve economic operation of the direct air-cooling turbine unit , we must carry out
research on operation optimization test.
The operation optimization test of the direct air-cooling turbine unit includes two aspects:the
operation optimization test of the steam turbine and the operation optimization test of the
air-cooling system.
In a certain load of the unit, with the decrease of main steam pressure, the steam inlet valve
opening degree increases, the throttle losses reduces and the efficiency of HP cylinder
improves ,however, the circulation efficiency reduces. So there is a best main steam pressure,
which makes its heat economy the best. Therefore, the steam turbine operation optimization test
is to determine the best main steam pressure or valve position under a certain load.
Air-cooling condenser pressure is a function of the environmental temperature, the air-cooling
fan speed (frequency) and the load of the unit, that is, p=f (ta, f, Pn). For a certain environmental
temperature and load, there is a best fan speed(frequency),which makes the network power
increment(the difference of the steam turbine power increment and the air-cooling fan power
consumption increment) reach the maximum.The operation optimization test of the air-cooling
system, that is to determine the best operation frequency of the air-cooling fan under the different
load and environmental temperature of the unit.
Taking a 600MW sub critical steam turbine as an example, the process and effect of operation
optimization are described. The 600MW steam turbine is sub critical, one intermediate reheating,
four cylinders and four exhaust, direct air-cooling condensing steam turbine, the model is
ZK600-16.7/538/538.The steam turbine has 2 high pressure adjusting valves and 2 steam
compensating valves, which control the inlet of the high pressure cylinder. Feedwater heating
system consists of 3 sets of high pressure heater, 3 sets of low pressure heater and a set of
deaerator. The air-cooling condenser adopts the single row tube bundle, the total heat dissipation
area is 1501520m2,the downstream units than countercurrent units (K:D)is 5:2,and the
air-cooling island equipped with 56 sets of axial fan.
-328-

1 The ooperation opptimization test


t of the s team turbin
ne
Sequencce valve opperation mo
ode is adoptted in the operation
o
parameter opptimization
n test of thee
steam tturbine. In order to determine
d
thhe influencce of different main ssteam presssure on thee
econom
mic performance of thee unit operaation, the main
m
steam pressure i s not correected in thee
calculattion of operration param
meter optim
mization, on
nly the main steam teemperature,, the reheatt
temperaature, reheaat pressure loss and tuurbine back
k pressure are
a correcteed, then thee economicc
perform
mance of thee unit under different m
main steam pressure
p
is compared.
c

Fig66 Relationshiip between main


m steam preessure and loaad after operaation ptimizat
ation of steam
m turbine

Fig77 Unit coal co


onsumption aafter the operation optimizzation of steam
m turbine

n the load is 510MW oor above, the economicc


Accordiing to the reesults of thee test calcullation, When
-329-

performance is relatively high ,operating at rated main steam pressure. When the load is below
510MW,in order to reduce the valve throttling loss, the main steam valve should be opened as
much as possible, the compensating valves are closed, and the economic performance is
relatively high.
Compared with the original operating power supply coal consumption, the operating power
supply coal consumption after optimization generally reduces 1 to 2 g/ (kW.h) at different loads,
energy saving effect is obvious.
2 The operation optimization test of the air-cooling system
The air-cooling optimization test of this unit carries on the research at 3 load
points(540MW,510MW,420MW) in different environmental temperature and different operating
frequency of the fans.
According to the test data,the relationship between the operating frequency of the fans f and the
network power increment N (the difference of the steam turbine power increment and the
air-cooling fan power consumption increment) in different environmental temperature and load.
20

N / ( MW )

16

12

540MW 23.4 C

0
40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

f / ( Hz )

Fig 8 The relationship of f-N at temperature of 23.4 and load of 540MW


45
40
35

N / ( MW )

30
25

510MW 23.8 C

20
15
10
5
0
34

36

38

40

42

44

46

48

50

f / ( Hz )

Fig9 The relationship of f- N at temperature of 23.8 and load of 510MW

-330-

18
16
14

N / ( MW )

12

420MW 26.6 C
10
8
6
4
2
0
40

41

42

43

44

45
46
f / ( Hz )

47

48

49

50

Fig10 The relationship of f-N at temperature of 26.6 and load of 420MW

It is concluded that when the unit has certain load, When in a certain environment temperature,
along with the increase of the fan frequency f, the power of unite provided is also increasing
(the difference between the unit power increment and air-cooling fan power consumption
increment) When the fan operating frequency reaches a certain value, a maximum value of N.
At this time, the unit and the direct air-cooling system is the best way to run the matching mode;
In this case, the operating frequency of the f is the most economical frequency and the vacuum is
the optimum vacuum.
According to the experimental results, the following conclusions are obtained:
(1) When the ambient air temperature is 23.4, the unit load 540MW, the economic
performance of the best operating frequency of 50Hz comparison of 45Hz is improved by
7.33MW, 20.64MW comparison of 40Hz.
(2) When the ambient air temperature is 23.8, the unit load 510MW, the economic
performance of the best operating frequency of 50Hz comparison of 48.5Hz is improved by
0.68MW, 42.73MW comparison of 35Hz.
(3) When the ambient air temperature is 26.6, the unit load 420MW, the economic
performance of the best operating frequency of 50Hz comparison of 48.3Hz is improved by
0.58MW, 2.51MW comparison of 45Hz,and. 16.74MW comparison of 40Hz,
(4) In the case of the same ambient temperature, if the load is reduced, the optimal fan
frequency of the corresponding wind turbine is also reduced, if the load is increased, the optimal
fan frequency of the corresponding wind turbine is also increased.
Conclusion
1)The field trial tests show that, there are certain problems on the Direct air-cooling system such
as too large exhaust resistance, poor vacuum tight, condensate subcooling etc. It is necessary to
further optimize the design parameters.
2)Due to the influence of external environmental conditions and equipment and installation
factors, as is shown in performance evaluation results, there is a certain gap between the run
performance and design performance of some units.
3)By optimization test research, the steam turbine units with direct air-cooling system run in the
-331-

best economic way. Optimization test research includes two aspects: steam turbine operation and
air-cooling system operation optimization test.
4)To improve the performance of direct air-cooling system, it is necessary to take comprehensive
implements by design parameter optimization, equipment installation and maintenance,
operation optimization etc.
Reference
[1] Zheng Tikuan. Thermal Power Plants[M]. Beijing: China Electric Power Press, 2001.
[2] Wen Gao. Air-cooling Technology in Thermal Power Plants[M]. Beijing: China Electric Power Press, 2008.
[3] Performance test code on direct air-cooling system. DL/T 244-2012.

Biography
Shengli Chen, Male, Manager, Xian Thermal Power Research Institute Co. Ltd.
E-mail: chenshengli@tpri.com.cn Tel13909278400

-332-



710054

[1]
[2]

[3]

SCAL [4]

CFD
[5]
CFD
[6]
2 600MW SCAL

2
2.1
[7]

( ) +
( u j ) = 0
t
x j

( u) + ( ui u) = ( gradui ) p + S i
t

k
( T ) + div( uT ) = div( gradT ) + ST
t
cp


u m/s
P kPa
T
Si
-333-

ST
k kJ/kgm2
Cp , kJ/kgk

RNGk-

SIMPLE
SIMPLE [8]

k-
2.2
2600MW ISC

1000m1000m500m

-334-

2.3

860
3

2.4

8
W 8 1 8 4

2.5
1
FLUENT RADIATORFLUENT

2
-335-

velocity-inlet

Ui
Z
= ( i )
U
Z

4 Z m U Z
4m/s

Z i m U i Z i m/s

UDF
Z =10m =0.2
3
pressure-outlet

4
wall

3
W 10 4m/s 515.72532.5
38

m /s
3

15.7

25

32.5

38

35258.95

35660.90

35511.94

35803.76

35574.18

1.17

1.14

1.11

1.09

41799.98

40312.57

39642.10

38695.04

kg/m

1.22

kg/s

42938.33

m /s
3

kg/m

kg/s

15.7

25

32.5

38

34877.80

35167.12

35068.78

35357.65

35169.25

1.22

1.17

1.14

1.11

1.09

42474.17

41221.19

39809.50

39148.17

38254.58

3.1
5

-336-

3.2
7
5 42938.33kg/s 38
38695.04 kg/s 4243.29 kg/s 9.88%

5 769.99MW 22.67 38
851.52MW
58.72
81.53MW
36.05
-337-

8 9

3.3
10 12
5 25 38

10 5

-338-

11 25

12 38

4
2600MW

:
[1] [M]2001
[2] [M]2008
-339-

[3] [C]//
2006219225
[4] SCAL [C]..2011
[5] John D, Anderson J R[M]2002
[6] 2 1000MW
[J]2012(6)2780-2785
[7] [M]2006
[8] [M]2002
wanchao@tpri.com.cn 18392134881

-340-

030001

FLUENT 2600 MW 3

[1 2]

2600 MW 3
radiator

1
2600MW
1 mm 1
2 603825
2 6m

1.
-341-

2600MW

1
2 radiator

2
2600 MW
1
1

THA

TRL

TMCR

VWO

/MW

600.0

600.0

638.7

664.8

652.0

/kPa

13

28

13

13

5.36

51

67.5

51

51

34.1

0.09405

0.18673

0.09429

0.09452

0.04131

/kgm-3
/%

0.9276

0.9601

0.9252

0.9230

0.9170

/ms-1

148.1

157.7

156.9

162.9

152.1

[3 4]

2
3
4
, N-S FLUENT k-
[5]
[6]
1

( ) ( u) 0
t

(1)

( u ) ( uu ) p g FD (u u )
p
t

(2 )

t u u p
u p 0 ; FD (u u p )
-342-


T
E ui E p keff h j ' J j ' u j ij eff Sh
t
xi
xi
xi
j'

keff J j ' j ' keff


uij

ij eff

(3)

T
h j ' J j '
xi
j'

S h

3 E h

ui 2

4 K

( )
( U j )
( D
) S
t
x j
x j
x j

D S

3
8m 7.51m 15m
(FVM) SIMPLE

1 3
radiator 1
2 3 2 4
0.29 2 radiator
0.29
2 1
THA

TRL

TMCR

VWO

-1

44.97

24.12

47.53

49.22

105.15

-1

/ms

57.32

30.88

60.56

62.72

135.62

/Pa

173

101

193

208

424

/ms

3 2
THA

TRL

TMCR

VWO

-1

44.97

24.12

47.53

49.22

105.15

-1

/ms

56.08

30.09

59.42

61.53

130.4

/Pa

189

109

216

232

438

VWO

/ms

4 3

THA

TRL
-343-

TMCR

/ms-1

44.97

24.12

47.53

49.222

105.15

-1

/ms

55.66

29.58

58.32

60.338

129.04

/Paa

249

132

260

2779

559

TRL

21

3
12

33
12
30%
%
THA
3YZ
ZX=6m
mXY
Z=-2.5m

27

2 1TH
HA
P
Pa

3 1THA
A
m
m/s

4 2TH
HA
P
Pa
-344-

5 2THA
A
m
m/s

6 3TH
HA
P
Pa

7 3THA
A
m
m/s

2Pj

Re
e

vd e

Pj

Pa

k
kgm-3 v

ms d e

m
m2s

-345-

5
5
THA

TRL

TMCR

VWO

249

132

260

279

559

44.97

24.12

47.53

49.22

105.15

/kgm

0.09405

0.18673

0.09429

0.09452

0.04131

Re

2.17106

2.28106

2.29106

2.38106

2.32106

/ Pa
-1

/ms
-3

2.62

2.44

2.44

2.44

2.44

5Re10
5
5
7Re210 ReRe210
Re7

4
2600MW3

[1] 600MW [J]2006 351


46-50
[2] .[J]2007361 63-66
[3] [J]20082 122
[4] . [M]4 .2001
[5] [M] 2002.22-30
[6] [M]2 .2001
[7] .[M].4 .1999.
0351-823273713834168035zxh1868@sxed.com.cn 255
030001

-346-

Numerical Simulation of Resistance Behavior for Exhaust Steam Box


of Direct Air Cooled Unit
CAO Rongxiu, ZHANG Xinhai, LI Rixin, CHAI Yanqin
China Energy Engineering Group Shanxi Electric Power Engineering Co., Ltd.,
Taiyuan 030001, China

Abstract Study of the resistance behavior for exhaust steam box of direct air cooled unit is of
great importance to optimal design of direct air cooled system. Based on actual project, Using
computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT, the performance of three type models for
exhaust steam box of a 2600 MW direct air cooled unit under different operating conditions has
been simulated. Contrast, analyses and research the simulated result. Provides basis for optimal
design of direct air cooling system.
Keyboards direct air cooling system; exhaust steam box; numerical simulation; optimal design
Direct air cooling system is using air which can cooling exhaust steam of turbine by air cooled
condenser. In some years, it get widely used. Exhaust steam box is a important part of direct air
cooled unit, it connects low pressure cylinder out of turbine and exhaust steam pipe, it has
function of transmitting exhaust steam, condensate deaerating, condensate collecting, drain
expansion, etc[12].It needs ascertain resistance losing between low pressure cylinder out of
turbine and exhaust steam box out when optimal design is processing. The resistance losing of
exhaust steam box provided by factories of turbine is less than actual operation. It leads to high
backpressure and the decrease of the heat exchange surface. But now, the study of flowing and
resistance losing of exhaust steam box is still fewer in the country, So, it is necessary to study the
flowing and resistance losing of exhaust steam box for direct air cooling system, to provide the
resistance losing of exhaust steam box which can satisfied reliability running and improve
economy for direct air cooling unitand provide the basis for optimal design of direct air cooling
system.
The exhaust steam box of a 2600MW direct air cooling unit has two boxes. In this paper, three
different type models (without regard to support bars, assume support bars to radiator boundary
condition, considering the effect of support bars)were built for one box, which were numerical
simulated ,analyzed and contrasted.And the performance of exhaust steam box under different
operating conditions will be confirmed.
1 Geometric Model
The exhaust steam box of a 2600MW direct air cooling unit is made up of rectangle expander,
laryngeal, shell, exhaust pipe, condensate tank(hotwell), supports, etc. The shell size and
geometric structure is presented in Fig 1(mm).Each turbine has a exhaust steam box of double
shell, which is connected by circulating water concatenation pipe. Low pressure cylinder of each
turbine has two exhaust out, Its size is603825. Stainless steel ripple expander is founded
between exhaust steam box with condensate tank and low pressure cylinder. Rigidity support is
under exhaust steam box. Exhaust steam box is connected with two main exhaust pipes, which
are 6 meters. The main exhaust pipes are connected with air cooled condenser by exhaust branch
-347-

pipes. condensate tank of air cooled unit is in the bottom of exhaust steam box. Through the
exhaust steam box and the exhaust pipe, the exhaust steam of low pressure cylinder of turbine
came into air cooled condenser, and was cooled to be condensate by air cooled condenser. And
then the condensate returned to the exhaust steam box, and sprayed by water, heated up and
deoxidize. At last, the condensate came into the cond tank that situated the below of exhaust
steam box.

Figure1 The exhaust box dimensions and structure diagram

The internal structure of exhaust steam box is complex, which has some equipment and
numerous vertically and horizontally crossed support bars. Three reasonable assumptions were
taken and numerical simulation was made for the exhaust steam box of a 2600MW direct air
cooled unit in this paper.
(1)Ignore the role of other device on the exhaust steam box, consider only impact of low press
heaters , pressure and temperature reducing on flows.
(2)Consider the impact of low press heaters , pressure and temperature reducing on flows, and
predigest internal support bube to radiator model(take a plan of support bars to simulate, draw
the corresponding resistance coefficient).
(3)Consider the impact of low press heaters , pressure and temperature reducing and inernal
support bube of actual structure on flows.
2 Mathematical Model
The typical operating conditions(ie, performance assessment point, inspect point or guaranteed
point, etc of direct air cooled system) in table 1.
Tble 1 Typical operating conditions parameters of direct air cooled turbine
Typical operating conditions of direct air cooled turbine
project

Generators output/MW
Exhaust backjpressure/kPa

THA
conditions

TRL
conditions

TMCR
conditions

VWO
conditions

600.0
13

600.0
28

638.7
13

664.8
13

-348-

Blocking
backpressure
conditions
652.0
5.36

Saturated steam
temjperature/
Wet vapor density/kgm-3

51

67.5

51

51

34.1
0.04131

0.09405

Low pressure cylinder


exhaust steam dryness/%
Low pressure cylinder
exhaust steam flow/ms-1

0.18673

0.09429

0.09452

0.9276

0.9601

0.9252

0.9230

0.9170

148.1

157.7

156.9

162.9

152.1

From table 1,steam in direct air cooled exhaust steam box has characteristic of high mass flow,
low density, high specific volume and high velocity. When steam flowing in exhaust steam box,
which has energy exchange with the environment, part of steam condenses into water.
Meanwhile, local pressure rises when steam flowing, it may cause steam to condense. So, the
steam flow field in actual exhaust steam box is a complex three dimensional vapor-liquid two
phase flow.[34]
Numerical simulation of the flow field appropriately simplified, make the following reasonable
assumptions in order to simplify the calculation ignores the secondary factors
(1) When steam flow throat of exhaust steam box, distance is short, velocity is fast, the amount
of steam phase change is small, it is assumed that the flow of refrigerant vapor is
incompressible.
(2) Because heat exchange between steam and environment is too late in flowing, so assume that
the temperature of entire flow field is constant.
(3) Ignore the effects of gravity.
(4) Since inlet steam of exhaust steam box distributed is very uneven, it is difficult to know in
advance precisely, this paper assumes that inlet velocity is uniform.
After physically simplified of the flow field in exhaust steam box, Reynolds-averaged N-S
equations from the time of departure, select k- two equation model in FLUENT software for
numerical simulation [5]
Steam flowing in direct air cooled exhaust steam box satisfy the following equations[6]
1) The mass conservation equation

( ) ( u) 0
t
2) Momentum equation

(1)

-349-


( u ) ( uu ) p g FD (u u )
p
t

(2)

Where is fluid density, t is time, u is fluid velocity vector, is stress tensor, u p is discrete
phase particle velocity, when ignore discrete phase, u p 0 ; FD (u u p ) is discrete phase particles
per unit mass drag.
3) Energy conservation equation


T
E ui E p keff h j ' J j ' u j ij eff
t
xi
xi
xi
j'

Sh

(3)Where keff is effective thermal conductivity, J j ' diffusion flow of component j ' , keff
energy transport caused by the heat conduction,

j'

T
is
xi

J j ' is diffusion caused by the energy

j'

component of transport, uij ij eff is viscous dissipation caused by the energy transport, Sh
including chemical reaction heat and the volume of the heat source term of other user-defined
In the formula (3) E h

ui 2

4 K equation

( )
( U j )
( D
) S
t
x j
x j
x j

where is solving physical, D S is the diffusion coefficient and source term


3 Analysis

The dimensions of exhaust steam device is 8m7.51m15mLWH. Regional discrete


with structured grids, and second-order accuracy finite volume method (FVM) to space discrete
control equations, coupled pressure speed with SIMPLE algorithm. Entrance using mass flow
boundary conditions, export using pressure outlet boundary conditions. Exhaust steam box shell
side, low pressure heaters and pressure and temperature reducing adopt adiabatic solid wall
boundary conditions. Steam inlet temperature is taken as the corresponding saturated steam
temperature of exhaust steam backpressure. According to table 1 steam turbine typical working
conditions of exhaust steam box has three kinds of models (respectively, the definition does not
consider the support rod, the support rod is assumed for radiator boundary, considering the
support rod actual structure model respectively for model 1, model 2, model 3) numerical
simulation, obtained resistance loss of the steam flow through the exhaust steam box, see Table 2
~ 4.

-350-

Taking crossbar layer steel support rods to simulate, draw its resistance coefficient is 0.29.
Therefore, model 2 radiator boundary is defined as 0.29 for resistance coefficient.
Table2 Model1 under different operating conditions of the steam flow through the exhaust steam box of
resistance loss

project
The average flow rate of steam
inlet/ms-1
The average flow rate of steam
outlet/ms-1
Resistance loss/Pa

THA
conditions

TRL
TMCR
conditions conditions

VWO
conditions

Blocking
backpressure
conditions

44.97

24.12

47.53

49.22

105.15

57.32

30.88

60.56

62.72

135.62

173

101

193

208

424

Table3 Model2 under different operating conditions of the steam flow through the exhaust steam box of
resistance loss

project
The average flow rate of steam
inlet/ms-1
The average flow rate of steam
outlet/ms-1
Resistance loss/Pa

THA
conditions

TRL
conditions

TMCR
conditions

VWO
conditions

Blocking
backpressure
conditions

44.97

24.12

47.53

49.22

105.15

56.08

30.09

59.42

61.53

130.4

189

109

216

232

438

Table4 Model3 under different operating conditions of the steam flow through the exhaust steam box of
resistance loss
THA

TRL

TMCR

VWO

Blocking backpressure

conditions

conditions

conditions

conditions

conditions

The average flow rate of steam inlet/ms-1

44.97

24.12

47.53

49.22

105.15

The average flow rate of steam outlet/ms-1

55.66

29.58

58.32

60.38

129.04

Resistance loss/Pa

249

132

260

279

559

project

From the above calculation results, it can be seen that the resistance loss of the exhaust steam
box in the condition of TRL is the smallest, and the blocking back pressure condition is the most.
The results of Model 1 and Model 2 did not change significantly , compared with the
computational result of model 3, the resistance loss of model 3 is larger than model 1, 2 about
30%.
Figure 2 to 7 respectively the three kinds of model under the THA condition of YZ section
-351-

X=6m
m, XY seection (Z =-2.5 m) for ssteam veloccity contourrs and staticc pressure co
ontours. Ass
can be sseen from thhe figure, th
he steam cirrcle flow fields are forrmed when steam throu
ugh the low
w
pressuree heater andd the pressure and tem
mperature reducing,
r
th
he throat ouutlet section
n flow fieldd
appears low eddy zone
z
directlly below, thhe front section appearr high pressuure low vellocity zone..
A high speed and low
l
pressurre area is foormed betw
ween the low
w pressure hheater, the temperature
t
e
and pressure reduccer and the external waall of the th
hroat. Form
ming a low-sspeed zone at the fourr
w field is not uniform
m. A large number off
corners,, the velociity distribution of thee whole flow
vertical and horizoontal cross steel suppoort tube in exhausted steam
s
devicce has som
me diversionn
effect.

F
Fig2
Model 1 static pressuure contours of
o steam in THA
T
conditionnsPa

Fig3 Modeel 1 velocity ccontours of stteam in THA


A conditions
m/s

F
Fig4
Model 2 static pressuure contours of
o steam in THA
T
conditionnsPa
-352-

F
Fig5
Model 2 velocity conntours of steaam in THA co
onditionsm
m/s

F
Fig6
Model 3 static pressuure contours of
o steam in THA
T
conditionnsPa

Fig7 Modeel 3 velocity ccontours of stteam in THA


A conditions
m/s

The sim
mulation reesult with the
t actual structure of
o the mod
del 3 to caalculate thee resistancee
coefficient of exhauust steam bo
ox,calculateed as

2Pj

R
Re

vd e

Where Pj is exxhaust steam


m box pressuure loss, Paa
-353-

is exhaust steam box resistance coefficient

is saturated steam density, kgm-3


v is saturated steam inlet velocity, ms

d e is exhaust steam box imports equivalent diameter

is kinematic viscosity of saturated steam,m2s.


Resistance coefficient of exhaust steam box in different conditions results in table 5.
Table 5 resistance coefficient of exhaust steam box in different conditions

project

THA
conditions

TRL
conditions

TMCR
conditions

VWO
conditions

Blocking
backpressure
conditions

Resistance loss/ Pa

249

132

260

279

559

44.97

24.12

47.53

49.22

105.15

0.09405
6
2.1710
2.62

0.18673
6
2.2810
2.44

0.09429
6
2.2910
2.44

0.09452
6
2.3810
2.44

0.04131
6
2.3210
2.44

The average flow rate of steam


inlet /ms-1
Wet vapor density /kgm-3
Re

As can be seen from Table 5,when the steam at high Reynolds number flows through the exhaust
steam box,Re is greater than 106,the resistance coefficient of exhaust steam box in different
conditions remains substantially uniform, did not change significantly. Document 7 mentioned,
when Re2105, should consider the impact of Re. when Re2105, almost independent of
Re. Conclusion the numerical results and literature 7 is consistent.
Conclusion

In this paper, three different models of a exhaust steam box of a 2 600MW Direct Air Cooled
Unit in different operating conditions has been simulated, obtained pressure, velocity and flow
resistance in various conditions, but The simulation results also need experimental verification.
The numerical simulation, analysis and research to can obtain the different exhaust steam box
resistance loss and resistance coefficient, and the comparison with the experimental results,
multiplied by the appropriate factor to obtain a more reasonable exhaust steam box resistance
coefficient, to provide the basis for the optimal design of direct air cooling system.
References
[1] YAN WeichunStructure, Installation and Operation for Exhaust Facility of Direct Air Cooled 600MW
Steam Turbine[J]THERMAL TURBINE,2006,351:46-50
[2] TAN ShunkeCENG Lingang, etc. Research and Application for Exhaust Equipment of Large Direct Air
Cooling Turbine[J]THERMAL TURBINE,2007,361:63-66
[3] WANG Songling, LIU Yang, LI ShengqiangStudy on Characteristics of Exhaust Piping of Direct Cooling
-354-

System[J]APPLIED ENERGY TECHNOLOGY,20082:122


[4] ZHANG Ximin. HEAT TRANSFER[M].Fourth Edition. Beijing: China Building Industry Press,2001
[5] ZHOU Lixin. Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Two Phase Flow and Combustion[M].Beijing: Tsinghua
University Press.2002.22-30
[6] TAO WenquanNumerical Heat Transfer[M].Second Edition. Xian: Xian Jiaotong University Press2001
[7] CAI Zengji, LONG Tianyu. Hydrodynamic Pumps and Fans[M]. Fouth Edition. Beijing: China Building
Industry Press,1999.

Biography
ZHANG Xinhai0351-823273713834168035zxh1868@sxed.com.cn
Shan Xi Tai Yuan Avenue 255 Shanxi Electric Power Engineering Co.,Ltd.030001

-355-

Session 4

Corrosion Protection

The Members of IAPWS

International Association for the


Properties of Water and Steam

are countries or neighbouring countries

Members

IAPWS and IAPWS Cycle Chemistry


Guidance Documents for Plants
with ACC

BIAPWS [Britain and Ireland] Canada


Czech Republic
Germany
Japan
Russia
USA
Scandinavia [Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden]

International ACC Conference


Xian, China
13th 16th October 2015

Associate Members
Argentina and Brazil
Italy
Australia
Greece

BarryDooley
IAPWSExecutiveSecretary

IAPWS Working Groups (WG)

France
Switzerland
New Zealand
(South Africa)

International Association for the


Properties of Water and Steam

(meet every year to conduct the IAPWS work & business


with work continuing through the year by Task Groups)

Thermophysical Properties of Water and


Steam, TPWS

IAPWS
Technical Guidance Documents
for
Fossil and Combined Cycle Plants

- Established IAPWS area (1929) Steam Tables

Industrial Requirements and Solutions, IRS


- Steam turbine manufacturers worldwide are members

Subcommittee on Seawater, SCSW


- Formed in 2008/2009 to address global seawater needs

(with particular relevance for plants with ACC)

Physical Chemistry of Aqueous Solutions, PCAS


- Formed in 1990 to support power plant chemistry

Power Cycle Chemistry, PCC


- Technical Guidance Documents for all Generating Sources
Details of each WG are on website (www.IAPWS.org)

-359-

IAPWS Technical Guidance Documents (TGD)


for Plants with ACC

Procedures for the Measurement of Carryover of Boiler Water


and Steam (September 2008). This document includes the
procedures to measure carryover from drum boilers to assist in
preventing steam turbine failure/damage.

Instrumentation for monitoring and control of cycle chemistry


for the steam-water circuits of fossil-fired and combined-cycle
power plants (September 2015). This document includes a table
that can be used to determine the minimum key level of
instrumentation required for any fossil or combined cycle/HRSG
plant.

IAPWS Technical Guidance Documents (TGD)


for Plants with ACC

Volatile treatments for the steam-water circuits of fossil and


combined cycle / HRSG power plants (July 2015). This document
includes the basis for AVT and OT for all plants with customization
for plants with ACC and using ammonia and amines. Recently
added guidance for fast start and frequently started HRSGs.

Phosphate and NaOH treatments for the steam-water circuits of


fossil and combined cycle / HRSG power plants (Oct 2015). This
document includes the basis for selecting the optimum boiler/HRSG
evaporator water treatment for (phosphate and NaOH treatments)
for all drum plants including customization for plants with ACC.

Steam Purity for Turbine Operation (Sept 2013). This document


covers guidance for a wide range of turbines (fossil, nuclear,
industrial, geothermal, etc) and failure mechanisms. It includes
customizations for plants using amines and with carbon dioxide.

Corrosion Product Sampling and Analysis (May 2014). This


document covers the optimum procedures and techniques for
monitoring iron and copper. Includes a table of achievable iron
levels for plants with ACC
Freely available and downloadable on IAPWS website www.IAPWS.org

Freely available and downloadable on IAPWS website www.IAPWS.org

International Association for the


Properties of Water and Steam

International Association for the


Properties of Water and Steam

A few examples of
IAPWS Guidance
for
Fossil and Combined Cycle Plants

Technical Guidance Document

Monitoring and Analyzing Total Iron and


Copper in Fossil and Combined Cycle
Plants

(with particular relevance for plants with ACC)

Consensus of 21 Countries
Issued 1st May 2014
8

-360-

Achievable Total Fe & Cu Levels


Different Plant Types/Optimized Chemistry

Introduction and Rationale for


Corrosion Product Sampling (CPS)

Feedwater
OT:
Total Fe =
AVT:
Total Fe =
AVT (Mixed):
Total Fe & Cu =
HP/LP Heater Drains:
Total Fe & Cu =
HRSG Evaporators/Drums
AVT/PT/CT:
Total Fe =
Air - cooled Condenser (ACC)
ACC Outlet:
Total Fe =
Post Condensate Filter: Total Fe =
Cogeneration Plants
Condensate Return:
Total Fe =
*Depends on cogen plant design and function

Significant problems with reliable and effective


corrosion product sampling observed worldwide in
fossil & combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plants.
Particularly needed in plants with ACC
Corrosion product levels critical to determining
effectiveness or otherwise of cycle chemistry
programs - Total Fe and Cu levels key aspects of
IAPWS cycle chemistry Technical Guidance
Documents (TGD)
Critical activity either not done at all or conducted
incorrectly

< 1 g/kg
< 2 g/kg
< 2 g/kg
< 10 g/kg
< 5 g/kg
< 10 g/kg
< 5 g/kg
< 10 g/kg*

10

Analytical Methods for Total Iron

Key Highlights of CPS TGD


1. Sampling system design critical for CPS
turbulent flow in all aspects of system most
important aspect

Suitable methods
Post sample digestion UV-Vis (Ferrozine) with
a 5 cm cell - Fe only
Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption spectrometry
(GF-AA) post sample digestion
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
(ICP-MS) post sample digestion

2. CPS of steam not required


3. CPS is a periodic activity
4. CPS should be undertaken during constant unit
operating conditions rather than at a convenient
time of the day

Key points are:


1. Full digestion for all samples required
2. Detection limit of < 2 g/kg required
(lower the DL the better)

5. Most common CPS problems are a lack of


sample digestion and analytical method with
high DL
11

12

-361-

Customization for Turbine Types and


Chemistries

International Association for the


Properties of Water and Steam
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Technical Guidance Document


Steam Purity for Turbine Operation
Consensus of 21 Countries
Issued September 2013

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Steam Turbine Systems and Operations


Cycling or Peaking Operation
Extended Periods of Shutdown
Backpressure Turbines
Industry and Process Supply
Solar and Biomass Steam Generating Systems
Geothermal Steam
Nuclear Power Plants
Ultrasupercritical Turbines (>600 C)
Chemistry Parameters
Boilers using Phosphate Treatment
Elevated Levels of Carbon Dioxide
Organic Decomposition Products
Elevated Levels of Silica
Major Components with Copper or Aluminum

Customization for Turbine Types:

Customization for Turbine Types:

Example for OrganicDecompositionProducts

Example for BoilersusingPhosphateTreatment

Natural organic matter:


Will partly decompose to organic acids
No allowance to standard case CACE limits

With drum boilers that use solid alkalizing agents it may be


difficult to meet the standard case Na limits in steam
because of carryover of boiler water.

Amines for feedwater treatment:


Will partly decompose to organic acids; depending on
temperature, some amine may pass into the steam and
neutralize or over-compensate the effect of the acid
Allowance on CACE is possible, but only under conditions:
The exact composition of the product must be known
The species of decomposition products must be known
The decomposition products will not decrease pH in the
liquid films in the turbine
Regular ion chromatography analysis
Always use on-line monitoring of Na

Tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) is not known to be corrosive to


turbine materials. Relaxed Na limit in steam is possible.
Customized Na limit will depend on turbine inspection results
indicating which quantities lead to excessive turbine deposits.
Maximum allowance is up to a Na limit of < 5 g/kg
But no allowance is possible if other products than TSP are
used (Phosphate blends, NaOH, proprietary chemicals of
undisclosed composition)

-362-

New IAPWS TGD for 2015 / 2016

Customization for Turbine Types:


Example for Elevated Levels of Carbon Dioxide

- Amendment of IAPWS TGD for Fast Start HRSGs. 2015

Moderate concentrations of carbon dioxide do not


significantly influence turbine chemistry in alkalized steam.

A limited allowance to CACE (max 2 S/cm) can be applied in


systems with feedwater pH>8.5, and the absence of corrosive
anions like Cl and SO4 can be reasonably excluded:

Instrumentation
Volatile Treatments (AVT and OT)
PT and CT

- New IAPWS TGD on HRSG HP Evaporator Sampling


for Internal Deposit Determination. 2016

Use of degassed CACE


Regular ion chromatography analysis
Always use on-line monitoring of Na

- New IAPWS TGD on Ensuring the Integrity and


Reliability of Demineralized Make-up Water Supply to
the Unit Cycle. 2016
- New series of Guidelines on Amines
-

International Association for the


Properties of Water and Steam

Neutralizing Amines (2016)


Film Forming Amines (FFA) (2016)

IAPWS Deposition Map for HP Evaporators

Technical Guidance Documents

HRSG HP Evaporator Sampling for


Internal Deposit Determination
Currently in development with input from 21 countries including
most of the HRSG Manufacturers worldwide

For Publication 2016


Original Dooley / Weiss PPChem 2010
(45) Latest Data May 2015 (>80)

19

-363-

PCCTechnicalGuidanceDocuments

International Association for the


Properties of Water and Steam

Film Forming Amine TGD


Task Group Members

Technical Guidance Documents

Chemical Supply Companies


Kurita
GE Water
Anodamine
Helamin
Nalco
Reicon
Manufacturers
HRSG
Steam Turbine
Instruments
IAPWS Members Worldwide from 21 Countries

Film Forming Amines

Currently in development by IAPWS Task Group which


includes many of the chemical supply companies.
Also with input from 21 countries including most of the
HRSG Manufacturers
For publication in 2016

IAPWS TGD will be non-commercial and contain no proprietary items

21

PCC Technical Guidance Documents


Film Forming Amine TGD

PCCTechnicalGuidanceDocuments
Film Forming Amine TGD

1.

Some Initial Questions that Fossil and Combined Cycle Plants Need
Answering and the IAPWS TGD will Address

Base Case
Operation. All-ferrous fossil, combined cycle and
biomass plants
-

Information on what FFA are and what they can do. Operationally
and for shutdown and/or layup?
How to determine which to use for which application and how to
determine the amount to use and optimize?
Are they applicable to different metallurgies (all-ferrous, mixed
metallurgy and aluminium containing systems)?
How to analyze and confirm content? What instrumentation is
needed? Is there a need for additional instruments than
included in IAPWS TGD?
How to determine if successful? Monitoring of Total Iron / Copper?
Is there a need for additions to the IAPWS TGD?
How to use in Boilers, Feedwater, Steam Turbines, ACC?

Which FFA to use


Monitoring #1 baseline before use
How much to dose and where
How to analyze content of FFA in cycle
How to determine optimum use (Monitoring #2)

2. Shutdown/Layup
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

IAPWS TGD will be non-commercial and contain no proprietary items

Customizations
Different FFAs and Combinative Mixtures
Major Components with Copper or Aluminum
Different Temperature/Pressures
Systems with ACC and Condensate Polishers
Seawater Cooling
Industrial Plants

IAPWS TGD will be non-commercial and contain no proprietary items

-364-

ThePremierInternationalResource
forallareasofwaterandsteam
Freely available and downloadable on IAPWS website
-

www.IAPWS.org

Please give full attribution to IAPWS


New areas of interest and involvement from China?

-365-

710032
pH

70%[1]

FAC[2]
pH

1
1.1
FAC
CP6 1

1.2

[3]

10min 700min

-366-

2
2.1 pH
NH3 pH pH 8.8 10 50
100g/L 6.2m/s pH
1 2
1 pH

pH

kcm2

8.8
9.25
9.4
9.5
9.55
9.65
9.75
9.8
9.9
10.0

21.2
28.6
31.1
48.5
49.4
50.1
52.4
80.4
83.4
84.3

2 pH

2 pH pH
pH FAC
pH
pH 9.610.0FAC
FAC FAC pH
FAC pH [4]

-367-

2.2
GB/T 12145-2008 100g/L
30g/L[5]<10g/L4555g/L150200g/L
200500g/L pH 9.4 50 6m/s 2 3
2

g/L

(kcm2)

<10
4060
100120
150200
200500

2.9
81.8
119.5
140.3
162.1

3 100120g/L
0 g/L100g/L
100g/L

Fe3O4 Fe3O4

FAC Fe3O4
Fe2O3 Fe2O3 FAC [6]
2.3
70 40
40
505560 70 pH 9.4 150g/L 8.5m/s
3 4

-368-

kcm2

40
50
55
60
70

45.5
33.8
32.5
29.2
24.4

4
FAC

FAC
pH
Fe2+ Fe3+Fe3O4
[7]

2.4
50pH 9.5 20g/L 1.9m/s8.5m/s
4 5
4

m/s

kcm2

1.9
3.5
4.9
7.1
8.5

34.1
27.1
20.2
14.6
4.9
-369-

5 FAC
(Fe2+)

(Fe2+)
FAC [8]
Cr
FAC FAC 1 FAC
[9] FAC

3
1 pH FAC
pH
2 100g/L FAC

3 FAC

4 FAC FAC
FAC

[1] ;;;;;. [J]. ,


2014. 12.
[2] , , . [J]. , 2013, 25(7): 38-41.
-370-

[3]. [M]. : , 2008: 127-128.


[4]Bindi Chexal, Jeffrey Horowitz, Barry Dooley, et al. Flow-accelerated corrosion in power plants[R]. EPRI,
1998.
[5], , . GB12145-2008, [S]. 2008.
[6]Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto. Chemistry Effects on Flow-Accelerated Corrosion[J]. EPRI. 2005. 9.
[7]Bindi Chexal, Jeffrey Horowitz, Barry Dooley, et al. Flow-accelerated corrosion in power plants[R]. EPRI,
1998
[8]Z.H. Walker. managing Flow Accelerated Corrosion in Carbon steel Piping in Nuclear Plants[A]. American
society of mechanical Engineers[C].san Diego, California USA: 2004. 1-11.
[9], , . [J]. , 2012,
32(2): 170-176.

-371-

Research of flow accelerated corrosion influencing factors on air cooling


condenser
Meng Long, Hang Wanqi, Sun Benda, Gao Wenfeng
Xian Thermal Power Research Institute Co LtdXian P. R. China

AbstractThis paper mainly studies the various factors affecting the flow accelerated corrosion
of air cooling condenser, and put forward corrosion protection measures. Studies show that the
air cooling condenser FAC can be inhibited by measures of improving initial condensate pH
value, improving dissolved oxygen concentration, reducing running temperature.
Key wordsAir cooling condenser; Flow accelerated corrosion; Influence factor
In recent years, the construction of thermal power unit in northern China is mainly direct
air-cooling unit. Direct air-cooling unit using air to cool the waste steam, it saves the water
greatly. According to the statistics, using direct air-cooling unit can save more than 70 of the
water than water-coolingunit[1]. Direct air-cooling condenser is usually built by carbon steel,
which is poor in corrosion resistance, moreover the exhaust-steam velocity is very fast, which
scour the pipe surface mixed with water droplets leading to single phase and gas-liquid two
phase flow accelerated corrosion(FAC)[2]. This paper studies on the key factors of FAC, pH of
the initial condensation, dissolved oxygen, temperature, flow rate, and puts forward the method
to inhibit FAC.
1 Test equipment and method
1.1 Test equipment
Air cooling system FAC simulation experiment is conducted on self-made FAC test bed. This
test bed contains the main loop of the test, water quality monitoring loop and CP6
electrochemical measurement device. The operation process of the experiment is shown in figure
1

Fig.1The flow chart of flow accelerated corrosion test

-372-

1.2 Test method


This experiment uses the method two electrodes system which consist of two electrodes with the
same area. The polarization resistance result is the difference between the two electrodes
potential, which is the anode polarization value minus the cathode polarization value. Divide the
value by two is the target value. It is more exact than the single direction linear polarization.
Moreover, two electrodes system can reduce the measuring error caused by the corrosion
potential drift during the experiment[3]. Measuring solution resistance by current step method to
counteract the influence of solution resistance. When the polarization resistance is stable
measure a number every 10 min, the test period for 700 min, The greater the polarization
resistance, the smaller the corrosion rate. So we can evaluate the corrosion speed according to
the value of the polarization resistance.
2 Test results and analysis
2.1 Test results and analysis of pH value influence
According to the operation condition of the air cooling condenser, adding NH3 to keep pH value,
keeping the pH range change from 8.8 to 10, keeping the temperature 50 , keeping the
dissolved oxygen 100 mu g/L and the flow velocity through the electrode 6.2 m/s, start the
experiment each time when pH is changed, adopt the average polarization resistance value in
each test. Table 1 gives the polarization resistance of the electrode surface under different pH.
Table 1 The polarization resistance of the electrode surface under different pH
pH

The polarization resistance of the electrode surfacekcm2

8.8
9.25
9.4
9.5
9.55
9.65
9.75
9.8
9.9
10.0

21.2
28.6
31.1
48.5
49.4
50.1
52.4
80.4
83.4
84.3

-373-

Figure 2 The surface of the electrode polarization resistance trend line under different pH

It can be seen from figure 2 that the electrode polarization resistance grows in quadratic function
with the rise of pH. The higher the pH value, the slower the corrosion rate. It proved that raising
the pH value can restrain the FAC.
In the low pH condition, the corrosion rate of metal is quick, affected by the high-speed flow of
water the dissolve of magnetic iron oxide layer will be accelerated. But if the pH value can reach
9.6~10.0, the rate of FAC will drop significantly. The FAC of air cooling condenser is mainly
gas-liquid two phase FAC, under the condition of two phase flow, the root cause of corrosion is
the low pH value of the liquid phase, So the key to control air cooling condenser FAC is to
improve the pH value of the liquid phase[4]. TPRI has ever solve this problem through adding
organic amine which has low vapor liquid distribution coefficient.
2.2 Test results and analysis of dissolved oxygen influence
According to the standards of GB/T 12145-2008, direct air cooling unit condensated water
dissolved oxygen concentration values should be less than 100g/L, the expected value is less
than 30g/L[5]. The dissolved oxygen of air cooling unit is relatively high. This test control the
oxygen content<10g/L, 4555g/L, 150200g/L and 200500g/L, respectively. Add
ammonia to keep the pH value9.4, keeping the temperature 50 , keeping the flow velocity
through the electrode 6.2 m/s. Table 2 gives the electrode polarization resistance in under the
condition of different dissolved oxygen.
Table 2 Electrode polarization resistance under the condition of different dissolved oxygen
dissolved oxygeng/L

Electrode polarization resistance (kcm2)

<10
4060
100120
150200
200500

2.9
81.8
119.5
140.3
162.1

Figure 3 The influence of dissolved oxygen content on electrode surface polarization resistance
-374-

As shown in figure 3, inflection point come out when the oxygen content is between 100 ~
120g/L, when the oxygen content is between 0~100g/L, the polarization resistance rise
accelerated with the rise of oxygen content, when the oxygen content more than 100g/L, the
polarization resistance rises lower with the rise of oxygen content.
When the dissolved oxygen content is low, the oxidation film of carbon steel surface is
constructed of double layer oxide film with compact Fe3O4 inside and loose Fe3O4 outside.
LooseFe3O4 is not resistant to water impact, and has no resist to hydrogen ion entrance and
corrosion products of iron ions out, so the FAC is severe under this working condition. When the
dissolved oxygen content in the system reaches a certain value, it will promote Fe3O4 oxide film
changing into Fe2O3 oxide film, Fe2O3 oxide film is compact and solid, FAC can be restrained
effectively[6].
2.3 Test results and analysis of temperature influence
For the air cooling unit, the highest condensation temperature reached over 70 in summer, and
lowest drops to 40 in winter. Under the experimental conditions, temperature is 40, 50,
55, 60 and 70, respectively; pH is around 9.4; dissolved oxygen level is around 150g/L;
drainage line velocity is 8.5m/s. Table 3 gives the electrode polarization resistance under
different temperatures.
Table 3 The electrode polarization resistance under different temperatures
temperature

electrode polarization resistancekcm2

40
50
55
60
70

45.5
33.8
32.5
29.2
24.4

Fig.4 The effects of temperature on electrode polarization resistance of electrode

Under operating temperatures of air-cooling island, the equation for the polarization
resistance(Fig.4) has almost a linear with temperature, that is FAC velocity increases as the
-375-

temperature rises. So corrosion rates of air-cooling island in summer is growing faster than that
in winter. The corrosion rates under high load of the unit is greater than that at a low capacity.
Temperature is a important factor which affected on FAC of carbon steel, low-alloy steel. The
higher the temperature is, the faster the speed rate of corrosion of high-carbon steel grows, the
lower pH of water phase and vapor phase is. Meanwhile, lower pH can accelerate velocity that
corrosion products leave the substrate metal. Under air cooled condenser operating temperature,
the water is poor in oxidising property. As result of low temperatures, Fe2+ will not happen to
oxidate into Fe3+. Fe3O4 oxide films has high activity, porous and looseness property, so
corrosion products through the pore more easily. And this increasing mass transfer rate is
growing due to higher temperature. Therefore it is suited to clear the air-cooling island and spray
water at the high temperature afternoon in summer .
2.4 Test results and analysis of velocity influence
Under the experimental conditions, temperature is 50; pH is 9.5; dissolved oxygen level is
20g/L; drainage line velocity range from 1.9m/s to 8.5m/s. The electrode polarization resistance
under different flow velocity are present in Table 4.
Table 4 The electrode polarization resistance under different flow velocity
flow velocitym/s

electrode polarization resistancekcm2

1.9
3.5
4.9
7.1
8.5

34.1
27.1
20.2
14.6
4.9

Fig.5 The effects of velocity on polarization resistance of electrode

In the trials, the velocity of FAC increases with the increasing of the liquid velocity(Fig.5). Not
only does liquid velocity promote the mass transfer rate that corrosion products(Fe2+) flow to
bulk solution , but also a shearing force is generated by flushing pipe. As shear force increases,
the thinner oxide layer of wall is, the less mass transfer resistance becomes.
The mass transfer rate that corrosion products(Fe2+) flow to the bulk solution accelerates the
increasing of flow velocity. Moreover, shear is generated by high speed liquid flows flushing
-376-

pipe. The resulting shear force makes the oxide films of the condenser surface thinner. So the
velocity of FAC accelerates with the increasing of resistance of mass transfer. The study shows
that the flow accelerates corrosion(FAC) to equipments mainly takes place at where local
velocity is higher and occurs turbulence. The levels of the element Cr in carbon steel also
suppresses increasing of the FAC velocity. What is more, low alloy steel have great higher
corrosion resistance than carbon steel. One percentage mass fraction of element Chromium also
can make the FAC velocity lower or even a negligible effect. So low alloy materials will be suit
for the design where occurred FAC easily.
3 Conclusion and prospect
(1) Improving initial condensate pH value can effectively restrain the speed of the FAC, Without
affecting the condensate polishing treatment capacity adding organic amine which has low
vapor liquid distribution coefficient can be considered.
(2) Studies have shown that increase the dissolved oxygen content to more than 100 mu g/L can
effectively restrain the FAC, In the operation adding oxygen affects the vacuum of the
condenser and is unfavorable to judge the condenser leakage according to the oxygen content,
whether we can improve the dissolved oxygen content through adding appropriate hydrogen
peroxide needs to be further research.
(3) The FAC velocity of air-cooling condenser will raise according to the raise of temperature,
Therefore during summer runtime monitoring of air cooling condenser back pressure and
temperature of the condensate is necessary, and then spraying water or regulating fan speed
to reduce temperature In time.
(4) The FAC speed corresponds to the flow velocity, FAC usually occurs in areas of turbulence,
velocity cannot be controlled artificially, so we may consider using low alloy steel to Inhibit
FAC in area that has disturbance such as variable diameter or bend place.
References
[1] Meng Long; Yang Jing; Sun Benda; Zhang Xingjin; Qi Dongdong; Ni Ruitao. The influence factors of
the direct air cooling condenser flow accelerated corrosion [J]. Thermal Power Generation, 2014. 12.
[2] Zhu Yujie, Liu Wei, Zhu Huazhang. The review of thermal Power plant water saving technology [J].
North Environment, 2013, 25(7): 38-41.
[3] Cao Chunan. Principle of corrosion electrochemistry [M]. Bei Jing: Chemical Industry Press, 2008:
127-128.
[4] Bindi Chexal, Jeffrey Horowitz, Barry Dooley, et al. Flow-accelerated corrosion in power plants[R].
EPRI, 1998.
[5] Cao Jieyu, Song Jingxia, Sun Benda. GB12145-2008, Thermal power unit and steam power equipment
water vapor quality [S]. 2008.
[6] Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto. Chemistry Effects on Flow-Accelerated Corrosion[J]. EPRI. 2005. 9.
[7] Bindi Chexal, Jeffrey Horowitz, Barry Dooley, et al. Flow-accelerated corrosion in power plants[R].
EPRI, 1998
[8] Z.H. Walker. managing Flow Accelerated Corrosion in Carbon steel Piping in Nuclear Plants[A].
American society of mechanical Engineers[C].san Diego, California USA: 2004. 1-11.
[9] Zhang Guiying, Gu Yu, Sao Jie. The flow accelerated corrosion analysis and countermeasures of nuclear
plant steaming-water pipe [J]. Journal of Power Engineering, 2012, 32(2): 170-176.
-377-

Overview

Background
Medupi ACC hot cleaning - general
Initial ACC hot cleaning plan

Medupi Unit 6 ACC hot


cleaning:
Method and results

Revised ACC hot cleaning plan


Hot cleaning: photos, inspections and observations

Johannes Pretorius and Pieter Rosslee

Hot cleaning results

China International ACC users group meeting


13-16 October 2015

Conclusion
Acknowledgements

13-16 October 2015

Background

Background
Lateral exhaust turbines supplied by Alstom

Eskom is South Africas main electricity provider, with installed


capacity of approx. 44 000 MW

Medupis ACC is supplied by GEA

A new coal fired base load power station is currently under


construction called Medupi

8 rows (streets) per Unit


GEAs 2-row galvanized steel heat exchanger tubes employed

Medupi is a 6 x 794 MW power station

64 x 34 Howden ELF8 fans per Unit

Construction started from Unit 6

225 kW Alstom motors & Hansen gearboxes

The power station is dry-cooled and employs Air Cooled Condensers

2 x 6m diameter exhaust steam ducts, 50m gap between turbine hall


and ACC

A significant milestone during commissioning is the hot commissioning


or so called hot cleaning of the ACC

Wind-cross incorporated into design

Hot cleaning of the Unit 6 Medupi ACC was performed during the last
days of Jan 2015 and first days of Feb 2015
13-16 October 2015

13-16 October 2015

Background

Background

Medupi Unit 1-6 Air Cooled Condensers (Feb 2015)

ACC auxiliary building underneath the ACC, containing the main


condensate extraction pumps, ACC condensate tank and steam jet air
ejectors (2 x 100% hogging ejectors, 2 x 100% holding ejectors)
200 m3 ACC condensate tank, located within ACC auxiliary building
under the ACC
100 m3 Turbine condensate tank (TCT), for collecting miscellaneous
turbine and ACC ducting drains, located in the turbine hall
1 x 200% (start-up) TCT drain pump
2 x 100% (normal operation) TCT drain pump
(TCT drain pumps return ACC ducting & turbine drains to ACC
condensate tank)
13-16 October 2015

13-16 October 2015

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Background

Background

Medupi Unit 6 Air Cooled Condenser (Feb 2015)

13-16 October 2015

Medupi ACC fan bridges under construction

13-16 October 2015

Background

Background

Medupi exhaust steam ducting and ACC auxiliary building under the ACC

13-16 October 2015

Medupi ACC wind-cross panel with door

13-16 October 2015

Medupi ACC hot cleaning - general

10

Medupi ACC hot cleaning - general

In general, the following methodology was followed for hot cleaning:

In general, the following methodology was followed for hot cleaning:

ACC cleaned mechanically (brushing / sweeping) prior to steam


admission to ACC

During bypass phase, CPP to remove remaining impurities with pre-filters


as well as resin beds if required

Steam from LP bypass flows into ACC to remove impurities and debris

When operating fans in specific rows, ensure mirror operation on both


sides (LP turbine A and B side) of ACC, i.e. one row operating on left side
and one row on right side of ACC

Two phases employed dump phase, where condensate is dumped and


bypass phase, where condensate is returned to cycle for circulation as
per normal operation

Dephlegmator fans should always be running when operating fans in a


particular row

During dump phase condensate is re-routed prior to reaching the ACC


condensate tank to a dump line. Dump line routes dirty condensate to a
dump tank, located next to the ACC auxiliary building under the ACC.
Dumped condensate is routed from dump tank via discharge line to
station drains for disposal

Hot cleaning steam flow approx. 25% (380 t/h) of MCR steam flow
Dirt / debris collected in TCT from ACC ducting pumped to water
treatment plant to avoid fouling the ACC condensate tank

During bypass phase, condensate is routed to the CPP before returning


condensate to the rest of the water-steam cycle

13-16 October 2015

11

13-16 October 2015

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12

Medupi ACC hot cleaning - general

Medupi ACC hot cleaning - general

In general, the following methodology was followed for hot cleaning:

ACC auxiliary building, with dump line routed to ground level (on the right)

Online TSS sensor in dump line prior to dump tank, for measuring TSS
during dump phase
Samples taken at CPP for measuring TSS during bypass phase
Criteria to stop dump phase TSS = 150 ppm
Criteria to stop bypass phase TSS = 10 ppm
CPP includes pre-filters, 20 micron commissioning filters and 5 micron
operational filters
Temperature limitations on CPP pre-filters and resins taken into account

13-16 October 2015

13

13-16 October 2015

Medupi ACC hot cleaning - general

14

Initial hot cleaning plan


The initial hot cleaning plan included the following aspects:

ACC hot cleaning dump tank (container), with dump line entering the tank,
and discharge line routed to station drains

6 of 8 ACC steam distribution ducts (rows) blanked internally per cleaning


cycle. Therefore 4 cleaning cycles (2 rows at a time) to clean one Unit
Intention to sustain high steam / condensate temperature (approx. 80C)
within ACC throughout the process, by reducing ACC area with blanked
rows and only operating limited fans within those rows at a time
(depending on ambient air temperature)
Change-over of blanking plates after each cleaning cycle (2 rows); shutdown (3 hours), cool down (9 hours) and change-over time (6 hours)
required

Disadvantage of the initial method is the time required for blanking


plate change-over

13-16 October 2015

15

13-16 October 2015

Revised hot cleaning plan

16

Revised hot cleaning plan


The revised hot cleaning plan included the following aspects:

Due to pressure to synchronize Medupi Unit 6, Eskom Engineering


requested to investigate methods to accelerate the ACC hot cleaning
duration

Steam admitted to all 8 rows simultaneously


Generally cleaning of ACC in row pairs, fans operated in those rows only
in order to concentrate steam flow to the specific fans operated.
Switching to the next row pair after a certain time period.

Eskom Engineering recommended the removal of the requirement for


blanking plates, in order to save time on Unit shut-downs and changeovers

Intention to use a combination of high steam / condensate temperature


(high backpressure) and high steam velocity (low backpressure) during
alternate periods in order to aim to achieve best cleaning effect

The above is the same as method followed on Eskoms previous


power stations with ACCs Matimba and Majuba, as well as similar
to the method proposed on Eskoms Kusile power station ACC (SPX)

High backpressures achieved by running small number of fans during


higher ambient temperatures.

(Kusile power station is currently being constructed. It is a sister


station to Medupi and is a 6 x 798 MW coal-fired base load power
station. The Contract for Kusile was placed somewhat behind
Medupi).
13-16 October 2015

During times of low backpressures (low ambient temperatures), alternate


between running a small number of fans to obtain high steam velocities
at heat exchanger tubes or all 64 fans to obtain high steam velocities in
main ducting

17

13-16 October 2015

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18

Revised hot cleaning plan

Revised hot cleaning plan

The revised hot cleaning plan included the following aspects:

Eskom calculations:
Case 1: achieving high steam velocities at heat exchanger tubes
Case 2: achieving high steam temperatures
Case 3: achieving high steam velocities in exhaust ducting

Calculations performed with Eskom in-house software to determine


approx. temperatures and velocities in different areas of the ACC which
could be expected during ACC hot cleaning

Typical ambient temperatures taken into account for time of the year and
time of day at Medupi site

Case 1: Low ambient temperature, run limited number of fans


Case 2: Higher ambient temperatures, run limited number of fans
Case 3: Low ambient temperatures, run all fans

19



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13-16 October 2015

Revised hot cleaning plan

Z

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3 Cases specified, based on calculations (independent on whether in


dump or bypass phase)

13-16 October 2015

(Refer to yellow highlighted cells in reference to above)


(Natural convection and wind effects ignored)
(Steam flow of approx. 105 kg/s or 380 t/h)

20

Revised hot cleaning plan


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Revised hot cleaning plan

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28

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13-16 October 2015

32

Hot cleaning: photos, inspections and


observations

Revised hot cleaning plan

Thermal photographs during hot cleaning: ducting


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33

13-16 October 2015

Hot cleaning: photos, inspections and


observations

Hot cleaning: photos, inspections and


observations

Thermal photographs during hot cleaning: drain pot and dump tank

13-16 October 2015

34

Thermal photographs during hot cleaning: dump line and condensate drain lines

35

13-16 October 2015

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36

Hot cleaning: photos, inspections and


observations

Hot cleaning: photos, inspections and


observations

Thermal photographs during hot cleaning: bundles and ducting

13-16 October 2015

Debris from the ACC found in the dump tank part-way through the process

37

13-16 October 2015

Hot cleaning: photos, inspections and


observations

38

Hot cleaning: photos, inspections and


observations
Thermal photographs of various components did not reveal any cold
spots, blockages or evident problems

Some of the larger objects found in the dump tank (grinder handles, rocks and
desiccant bags)

Initially blocking of TCT drain pump strainers a major problem


150 micron strainers of all 3 TCT drain pumps blocked (pressure
differential measurement) within 2 minutes of steam admission to ACC
Hot cleaning process has to stop (boiler shut down) to avoid filling ACC
exhaust ducting with condensate and over-filling TCT
Strainers opened, cleaned and replaced after blocking taking approx.
30 minutes per strainer
Source of major delays to ACC hot cleaning process, exacerbated by
instability of the Unit at the time.
Problem eventually solved by installing a 1mm strainer on one of the TCT
drains pumps to avoid constant blocking
13-16 October 2015

39

13-16 October 2015

Hot cleaning: photos, inspections and


observations

40

Hot cleaning: photos, inspections and


observations

Less debris collected in dump tank than expected. However some


large objects found in the dump tank

Blocked TCT drain pump strainer

Online TSS sensor proved to be inaccurate. Samples taken to lab for


analysis instead
Samples taken for mostly for each row-pair configuration in operation
Samples of condensate revealed how quickly ACC was being cleaned
Other delays during ACC hot cleaning not related to ACC:
Boiler trips, turbine barring gear motor trips, demin water supply shortage,
tank level controls
Due to the above, time required in terms of overall schedule to complete
the ACC hot cleaning activity was approx. 3 weeks

13-16 October 2015

41

13-16 October 2015

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42

Hot cleaning: photos, inspections and


observations

Hot cleaning results


Vacuum raising prior to hot cleaning done successfully on 1st attempt!

1st (left) and 2nd (right) condensate samples taken from the dump line during
ACC hot cleaning (samples taken a couple of hours from each other)

Actual steam flow for hot cleaning kept to approx. 120 kg/s (432 t/h),
to ensure stable operation with burners and mills in operation
During bypass phase steam flow increased for a short period up to 260
kg/s

When only taking into account effective ACC hot cleaning time (i.e.
steam admission time to ACC), condensate TSS of less than 10 ppm
was achieved in less than 3 days!
Much faster than Eskom or Contractors expected
TSS = 150 ppm limit was reached effectively within 1 day of cleaning time

13-16 October 2015

43

13-16 October 2015

Hot cleaning results

44

Hot cleaning results



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TSS results from dump phase

13-16 October 2015

d^^

Bypass phase started on 10 Feb 2015


TSS limit to stop ACC hot cleaning had in fact already been reached
Bypass phase continued for a couple of days to ensure proper
functioning of CPP and to ensure acceptable cycle chemistry is
obtained in an effort to send steam to set

45

13-16 October 2015

Hot cleaning results

46

Hot cleaning results

EI = Economiser inlet; SupSt = Superheated steam (main steam)


Medupi Unit 6 ACC Hot Clean : pH

Medupi Unit 6 ACC Hot Clean : Conductivity vs pH at Economiser Inlet

10.5

10.000

50

10.4
45

Electrical Conductivity (S/cm) at 25C

10.2
10.1
10.0

pH25

9.9
9.8
9.7
9.6
9.5
9.4
9.3
9.2

9.900

40

9.800
35

9.700

30

9.600

25

20

9.500

15

9.400
10

9.300

9.1

9.200

0
9.0

13-16 October 2015

EI

SupSt

47

Lim-Low

13-16 October 2015

Lim-High

-385-

48

EC

pH

pH at 25C

10.3

Hot cleaning results

Hot cleaning results

SupSt = Superheated steam (main steam)

CEP = Condensate extraction pump; EI = Economiser inlet

Medupi Unit 6 ACC Hot Clean : CACE vs DCACE in Main Steam

Medupi Unit 6 ACC Hot Clean : Iron

100

Iron (Fe), g/L

CACE /Degassed CACE, S/cm

1000

0.550

10

Condensate Polisher
in service for first time
- prefilter + 1 Cation
bed + 1 Anion bed
0.055

13-16 October 2015 SupSt-CACE

SupST-DCACE
49

13-16 October 2015

Normal Operating Limit

Hot cleaning results

50

CEP

EI

Lim

Hot cleaning results

Note particulate measurements were done manually every 2 hours

13-16 October 2015

CPP In

Note particulate measurements were done manually every 2 hours

51

13-16 October 2015

Conclusion

52

Acknowledgements

Medupi Unit 6 ACC hot cleaning was completed successfully


Hot cleaning duration (3 days) exceeded expectations substantially,
as initial estimations were between 10-14 days effective cleaning time
Revised hot cleaning plan proved to be the correct decision to
expedite hot cleaning activity

Ken Galt for chemistry measurement results

Given the Unit instability at the time, the requirement to shut-down,


change-over blanking plates and restart the Unit (as per the initial hot
cleaning plan), would in all probability have resulted delaying completion
of the hot cleaning activity by a number of weeks

Sarita Henning for Engineering support on Medupi site

Eskom recommendation for other Medupi Units would also be to follow


the revised hot cleaning plan

13-16 October 2015

53

13-16 October 2015

-386-

54

Thank you

-387-

Proprietary & Confidential

170
7
50000
50

Vanquish
Ultra HPLC

Q-Exactive HF

19%

QuantStudio
Dx R qPCR

25%

Gemini

19%

GlobalFiler
PCR

170

ImmunoCAP

Sorvall WX+

37%

Oral-Eze

E1 ClipTip

NXType

3800
201412

40000


2,000

400

13

100

2800

8400

40

20CFDA

5200

3200

12000

2800

3200

1800

-388-

DNA
Oilgo DNA

Apex

2014 LifeTechnologies

2013
2012

TraceGC

2011

2010

2009

2006
XL3

48i

UV

Flask

2005

2000

Multiskan FC

1980

1970


(HPIC)

(RFIC)


Chromeleon

Thermo Scientific ICS-4000

Thermo Scientific ICS-5000+

Thermo
Scientific
ICS-900

10

Proprietary & Confidential

1991

1998

2003

2009

IC Cube

2013

1.

2.

3.

4.

4um

--

11

Thermo
Scientific
ICS-1600

Proprietary & Confidential

-40
1975

Thermo
Scientific
ICS-1100

12

Proprietary & Confidential

-389-

Proprietary & Confidential

Thermo
Scientific
ICS-2100

KOH

F , CI ,

(KOH)

1975
1st Generation SC-1,SC-2

Counter Ions

SO42

KOH(1700us)
KF, KCl,
K2SO4 in KOH
K+

Waste

H+

Detector
13

SO42

H2
O

14

EluGen
KOH

[KOH]

H+ + OH-

1
2

2H+ + O2
+ 2e-

CR-ATC

[] Pt
(2H2O + 2e
2OH +
H2)

:
:

:
:
:
:

KOH +
H2

H2
O

H+ , X- in H2O

H2 O

H2 O
H2 O

0
35

H2

H2O

H2 + OH-

2 H2O + 2e2OH- + H2

Proprietary & Confidential

30

KOH

H2 O

K+

K+

2013

15

+
H + O2

ERS 500

OH
H

2008
SRS 300, MMS 300

Proprietary & Confidential

(H2O
)

KOH, H2

Time

[ + Pt
]2H+ + O2 + 2e

Waste/Vent

H+ + X-

H2O(<1us)

HF, HCI,
H2SO4 in H2O

Na+, X- in KOH Eluent

H2O, O2

1992 ~ 2007
SRS I ,MMS II,SRS II,
Ultra,MMS III,Atlas,Ultra II

Time

CI
F

Cathode

Waste/Vent

1985
3rd Generation MMS

Waste

SO42

CI

Anode

1981
2nd Generation FS-1,FS-2

4
:

KO
H

1 2

IonPac AG11, AS11, 4 mm


A: 15.5 mmol/L KOH
B: 0.5 to 25 mmol/L KOH
in 8 min
2 mL/min
25 L

ASRS, AutoSuppression
Recycle Mode

1.
2 mg/L
2.
3
3.
10
4.
15
5. 15

0
0

1453805
16

Proprietary & Confidential

4
6
Minutes

10

Proprietary & Confidential

History of Anion-exchange Column Development

Carbonate Based Columns

2014
2010
2006

AS22-Fast-4m
Hydroxide Selective Columns
AS22-Fast
2000
2014
AS22 & AS23
1997
2013
AS14A
AS27
2012
1996
AS9-HC
AS19-4m
2011
1994
AS18-4m, AS11-HC-4m
AS14
1992
2007
AS12A
AS25, AS26, AS24A

1991

AS9-SC

2005
AS24
2004
AS20, AS21
2003
AS19, Fast Anion III
2002
AS18
2000
Cryptand A1
AS4
1999
1981
AS15-5m
1998
AS2 & AS3
1980
AS17
1997
1992
AS1
AS15
&
AS16
1975
AS11-HC
1991
AS11
1989
AS10
1986
PAX-100 & PAX-500
1983
AS5A
1975
AS5
1987
1984
1982

4m

AS4A-SC
Fast Anion
AS4A

Small et al. Publish First IC Paper


15049
17

18

Proprietary & Confidential

-390-

Proprietary & Confidential

IonPac AS11-HC and AS11-HC-4m (4 250 mm)


Column:
Eluent Source:

7
Dionex IonPac AG11-HC-4m/AS11-HC-4m

22

See Chromatograms
Dionex EGC 500 KOH
cartridge
1mM KOH for 7min,
1-15mM KOH in 16 min;
15 to 30mM KOH in 25 min
30 to 60mM KOH in 33 min
1.5mL/min
10L
30C
Suppressed Conductivity,
Dionex ASRS 300 4mm,
AutoSuppression, recycle
mode

Eluent :

21
20
6
8

12
9 11

17
16

13
14

19

24
23

Flow Rate:
Inj. Volume:
Temperature:
Detection:

26

25

27 29

15

4 57
3
10

18

Peaks:

28

0
Dionex IonPac AG11-HC/AS11-HC

-4

10

IonPac AS18-4m

20
Minutes

30

40

mg/L
1. Quinate
5.0
2. Fluoride
1.5
3. Lactate
5.0
4. Acetate
5.0
5. Propionate
5.0
6. Formate
5.0
7. Butyrate
5.0
8. Methylsulfonate
5.0
9. Pyruvate
5.0
10. Valerate
5.0
11. Monochloroacetate 5.0
12. Bromate
5.0
13. Chloride
2.5
14. Nitrite
5.0
15. Triflouroacetate
5.0

mg/L
16. Bromide
5.0
17. Nitrate
5.0
18. Carbonate
--19. Malonate
7.5
20. Maleate
7.5
21. Sulfate
7.5
22. Oxalate
7.5
23. Tungstate
10.0
24. Phosphate
10.0
25. Phthalate
10.0
26. Citrate
10.0
27. Chromate
10.0
28. cis-Aconitate
--29. trans-Aconitate 10.0

Peak efficiencies improved by 50-60%


19

Operate at higher flow rates, maintain excellent peak efficienc


20

Proprietary & Confidential

Proprietary & Confidential

CS12A-5m 3min

Column: CS12A-5m 3-mm


Eluent:33 mN Methanesulfonic Acid

Column:
Eluent:

IonPac AG15, AS15, 2 mm


8 mM Potassium hydroxide for
6 min, 8 mM to 60 mM gradient
from 6 to 16 min
Eluent Source: EG50
Flow Rate:
0.5 mL/min
Inj. Volume:
1 mL
Temperature: 30 C
Detection:
Suppressed conductivity,
ASRS ULTRA,
AutoSuppression,
external water mode

3.0

Eluent Flow Rate: 0.8 mL/min,30 C


SRS Suppressor: CSRS 300 (2-mm)
Analyte

21

mg/L

1. Lithium

0.12

2. Sodium

0.5

3. Ammonium

0.62

4. Potassium

1.25

5. Magnesium

0.62

6. Calcium

1.25

0
0

22

Proprietary & Confidential

10
15
Minutes

20

25

0.1

23

1. Chloride
2. Carbonate
3. Sulfate

0.70 g/L

1.13

Proprietary & Confidential

IonPac AS17C
Column:
Eluent:

1.1

Peaks:

IonPac AG15, AS15-m


7 mM Potassium hydroxide for
6 min; 7 mM to 40 mM
gradient from 8 to 15 min
Eluent Source: EG50
Flow Rate:
0.5 mL/min
Inj. Volume: 1000 L
Temperature: 30 C
8
Detection:
Suppressed conductivity,
Anion AES, recycle mode
Spike Level
9
Peak :
1. Fluoride
0.4 g/L
2. Unknown

7
3. Acetate
3.0
4
4. Formate
3.0
10 Spiked Sample
3 5 6
5. Borate

11
6. Chloride
0.60
12
1
7. Nitrite
2.0
2
8. Carbonate
9. Sulfate
3.0
Unspiked Sample
10. Bromide
2.0
11. Nitrate
2.0
12.
Phosphate
3.0
Minutes
10
20
30

Column:
Eluent:

IonPac AG17C, AS17C, 2 mm


0.3 mM Potassium hydroxide for
6 min, 0.3 to 1 mM from 6 - 8 min
1 to 10 mM from 8 - 19 min,
10 to 40 mM from 19 - 36 min
Eluent Source: EG40
Flow Rate:
0.5 mL/min
Injection:
1 mL
Temperature: 30 C
Detection:
Suppressed conductivity,
ASRS-ULTRA, gas assisted recycle mode

1.7
11

Peaks:

S
2
7
1 3 4 5 6 89
10
0.7

24

Proprietary & Confidential

-391-

10

Proprietary & Confidential

15
20
Minutes

13
12

25

15
14
30

35

1. Fluoride
2. Acetate
3. Formate
4. Acrylate
5. Methacrylate
6. Chloride
7. Nitrite
8. Bromide

mg/L
0.50
6.6
2.3
2.9
2.7
0.75
2.6
1.7

9. Nitrate
10. Benzoate
11. Carbonate
12. Sulfate
13. Oxalate
14. Phthalate
15. Phosphate

1.0
3.1

1.4
2.6
2.7
2.5

IonPac CS15

IonPac CG12A, CS12A and


CS10
24 mM Methanesulfonic acid
1.0 mL/min
25 L
Suppressed conductivity,
CSRS
6 minutes

Column:

2.0

Eluent:
Flow Rate:
Inj. Volume:
Detection:
Switch Time:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1
5

3 4

Magnesium
Calcium
Lithium
Sodium
Ammonium

0.25 mg/L (ppm)


0.5
0.05
0.2
0.25

6. Ethanolamine
7. Potassium

0
0

10

15

20

Column:
Eluent:

2
1

Peaks:

4
5

Flow Rate:
Temperature:
Inj. Volume:
Detection:
AutoSuppression,

Peaks:

7
3
0

10.0
0.5

10

25

15
Minutes

20

IonPac CG15 and CS15


10 mN Sulfuric acid /
9% Acetonitrile
1.2 mL/min
40 C
25 L
Suppressed conductivity,
external water mode
1. Lithium
2. Sodium
3. Ethanolamine
4. Ammonium
5. Magnesium
6. Calcium
7. Potassium

25

Minutes
25

26

Proprietary & Confidential

GB/T 14642-2009
GB/T 15454-2009

IonPac CS15

Column:
Eluent:

IonPac CG15 and CS15


10 mN Sulfuric acid/
9% Acetonitrile
1.2 mL/min
25 mL
Suppressed conductivity,
CSRS-II, AutoSuppression
external water mode
40 C
1. Sodium
0.01 mg/L

Flow Rate:
Inj. Volume:
Detection:
Temperature:
Peaks:

Proprietary & Confidential

2. Ethanolamine

200

27

10

15
Minutes

CS16!!!

20

28

Proprietary & Confidential

120 20070323AS14A #5 [Administrator]


S

*10

ECD_1

80.0 070322-CS12A #5 [Administrator]


S

70.0

100

Proprietary & Confidential

10

ECD_1

1 - Na - 4.493

2 - Chloride - 4.870
60.0

80

IonPac AS15,AG15
0-34.0 min, 2 mmol/L KOH34.0-65.0 min2-55 mmol/L KOH
1.0ml/min
100L

,ASRS300(4mm),

50.0

60

40.0

0.22mRPNa

30.0

40

6 - Sulfate - 12.110
20.0

20
10.0

3 - Nitrite - 5.743

1 - Fluoride - 3.357

5 - Ca - 12.970

4 - Nitrate - 8.243

5 - Phosphate - 10.363

7 - 14.883

2 - NH4 - 5.080

0.0

3 - K - 6.777

4 - Mg - 10.027

min

-10
0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

11.0

12.0

13.0

14.0

15.0

16.1

-10.0
0.0

min
1.0

2.0

IonPac AS14A,AG12A()
8mM Na2CO3+1mMNaHCO3
1.0ml/min

ASRS300(4mm),()

10

29

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

11.0

12.0

13.0

14.0

15.0

16.0

IonPac CS12A, CG12A()


MSA
25L
CSRS ULTRA (4mm),60mA,

F-Cl- NO2- SO42-NO3-PO43Na+NH4+K+Mg2+Ca2+


30

Proprietary & Confidential

-392-

Proprietary & Confidential

CSRS-II,

1.0 mg/L
4.0
3.0
5.0
5.0
10.0
10.0

(g/L)

31

(g/L)

32

Proprietary & Confidential

H3BO3
100 mM

EGC-KOH

K+
Pump

OH

Proprietary & Confidential

RFIC

KOH

H3BO3/K+B(OH)4

AG14,4mm

5.0

Column:
Flow rate:
Eluant:
Gradient:

Detection cell

AS14,4mm

Injection valve

SRS-300

Detection:
Inj. volume:
Sample:

4
3

33

RFIC

3.5

34

Proprietary & Confidential

IonPac AS4A-SC, 4 mm
2 mL/min
100 mmol/L boric acid
Time (min) Conc. (KOH, mmol/L)
0
4.0
6
4.0
14
50
19
50
Suppressed conductivity
500 L
Primary Circuit Water sample
Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

Sample:
1. Boron*
2. Fluoride
3. Chloride
4. Sulfate

8 10
Minutes

12

14

16

18

5000 mg/L
0.01
0.01
0.01

*In the form of boric acid

Proprietary & Confidential

Fe<3ug/L,Cu<1ug/L-
DLT/867-2004
-

-//
///-

-Hg\Pb\As\Cd

35

36

Proprietary & Confidential

-393-

---


ppm ppb ppt ppq


Thermo Scientific
Element 2 ICP-MS

Thermo Scientific
iCAP Q ICP-MS

Thermo Scientific
iCAP 7000ICP-OES

Qtegra Software

ppm

Sub ppb

Rpt=3

<10s

3min~5min

Thermo Scientific iCE 3000 AA


37

38

Thermo Scientific iCE 3000


iCE3300iCE3400iCE35002000 Pittcon2002 IBO

iCE 3400/3500 - 0. 5 nm/ mm

39

40

Thermo Scientific iCE 3000 Series---

---

--

ELC2000@2800

(D2):

ELC
4-5

(Zeeman):

28002000

NewELC

+-

3A2A2
41

42

-394-

Thermo Scientific iCE 3000 Series---

Thermo Scientific iCE 3000 Series---

(
Pb
1.5pg5ppm Cu1.0A

VP100

0.1ppb


EC90

3A
2A2%

STAT

1ppm Cu7RSD%()
0.5%3ppb Cd7RSD%() 3%
Charact
Mass (pg)
Ag
As
Cd
Cr

1.0
5.2
0.6
0.7

Charact
Mass (pg)
Pb
1.5
Sb
9.9
Se
10.2
Tl
6.3

43

3 5

Flame characteristic concentrations

Ag
As
Bi
Cd
Cu
Pb
Zn

50mm
(mg/L)
0.03
0.24
0.29
0.03
0.04
0.07
0.008

100mm
(mg/L)
0.02
0.13
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.005

STAT
(mg/L)
0.01
0.06 (H2)
0.07
0.004
0.01
0.03
0.003

44

1% NH4NO3 [m/v]

-
Thermo iCE 3000

324.8nm

0.5nm

ELC

105

800

2300

Pd PO43-Pb
NH4Cl

25uL 20uL5uL
45

46

47

-395-

Direct Air Cooled Condensers (DACC)


)(5$1p
Aluminum clad steel for Power Plants
Direct Air Cooled Condensers (DACC)

DACC are used to regulate the efficiency of thermal energy


of power plants

DACC-systems are based on single tubes made of aluminum-clad


steel

Photo: Power plant

Photo: Roof of the power plant

Photo: DACC with FERAN

Source: GEA Energy Technology

Direct Air Cooled Condensers (DACC)

Why FERAN for DACC?

Power Station

Steam Turbine

Air Cooled Condenser

Source: GEA Energy Technology

Why FERAN for DACC?

Why FERAN for DACC?

FERAN is the only long term proven material in the world for
dry air cooling

Maximum power plant efficiency over life time guaranteed through:

Used to weld the single row tube in


DACC-systems

Aluminum-free edges guarantee a


highly efficient welding process,
achieved by edge free cladding

The aluminum surface is ready for


brazing

The tubes are used to form tube


bundles

Corrosion resistance of integral Aluminum-Layer (> 50 m)


Reliable heat transfer by stable bonding and brazing
connections
Aluminum-free inner tube surface

FERAN is a one-side
aluminum-clad steel

Aluminum
Steel

Brazed Al-Fins
Welded Al-clad steel tube

-396-

Why FERAN for DACC?

How to achieve the quality of FERAN

No delaminating
&ODGGHG $OXPLQLXP

No brittle regions in the


diffusion zone

Right material selection for the combination of aluminum-steel

Optimization of the production parameters for:

6WHHO

Tightest thickness tolerances


within each production lot of
several hundred of tons

Heat treatment
Rolling
Surface preparation
Edge free cladding

Consistency of production parameters over several hundred thousands


tons of material

Close cooperation between supplier and customers for welding and


brazing

Strong quality control of the whole process

0LFURVHFWLRQRI)(5$1p

Production & quality process of FERAN

Why FERAN from Wickeder


Westfalenstahl?

Certified
supplier of
hot-rolled
strip

Certified
supplier of
aluminum
foil

Wickeder Westfalenstahl has


over 90 years production
experience of Al-clad steel

Cladding
& Rolling

Heat
Treatment

Temper
rolling

speed of the
cladding
process
control of the
roll pressure
control of the
tape tension
etc.

control of the
temperature
of the oven
control of the
temperature
of the
material
etc.

speed of the
temper
rolling
process
control of the
stock gauge
control of the
temper
rolling grade
etc.

Cutting

Wickeder Westfalenstahl has


developed FERAN in the mid-90s
100% reliability over 20 years of
operation - no field failure ever
reported

Reference list includes more than


4.000 power plants worldwide with
an installed capacity of more than
550,000 MW (=550 GW)

Packaging

control of the control of the


strip width
packaging
etc
etc.

10

Why FERAN from Wickeder


Westfalenstahl?

Material Selection
Tight quality control of steel and aluminum is important
Metallurgical specification of certain elements is very critical

&ZE
FERAN
Alternative Material


99,5% Al
< 1,0 % Si

Best product
Best process
certified (by TV)

High % Si
> 90% Al
Aluminum

Aluminum
Intermetallic phases

Steel

50-80 m
No brittle Fe-Al-alloy at contact zone

virtually no Si-precipitations

11

12

-397-

Steel

Layer thickness
Consistence

appr. 25 m-90 m
Already, after the coil production an
appr. 5 m brittle Fe-Al-alloy shows up at
the contact zone,
heavy Si-precipitations in the Al-layer

Bahavior of the Al-layer


during brazing process

Rolling consistency and parameters

5ROOLQJSDUDPHWHUV KDYH EHHQ YDOLGDWHG


:LFNHGHU:HVWIDOHQVWDKOvV PDWHULDOUHDFKHV DYDULDWLRQ RI  PP
)(5$1pUHDFKHV DGHILQHG DQG FRQVLVWHG JUDLQ VL]H LQWKH VWHHO

FERAN

FERAN shows a very good Aluminum fin adhesion


Alternative material shows only single spots adhesion

FERAN

Alternative Material

Good aluminum fin adhesion

Layer is thicker
better tolerances

Layer is thinner
bad tolerances
worst protection

13

Only single spot adhesion

14

Corrosion test performed on tube samples

Alternative Material

Anti-Corrosion performance
Samples are tested by salt water spraying of strip with covered edges in a
welded and bend condition. FERAN shows no corrosion after 1.650 h,
whereas the alternative material already shows heavy corrosion after 850 h

6DPSOHVRI WXEHV EUD]HG ZLWK ILQV ZHUH WHVWHG E\ DQVDOW VSUD\WHVW


2SHUDWHG WKURXJK DQLQGHSHQGHQW LQVWLWXWH ,*26

FERAN
FERAN

Alternative material

360h

Appearance of
FERAN after 840 h
salt spray test

850 h

Appearance of
alternative material
after 840 h salt
spray test
Alternative Material
16

15

Why FERAN for DACC producers?


Immediate access to the raw materials / FERAN-coils

Wickeder Westfalenstahl has established a FERAN stock in several


warehouses to guarantee an immediate supply for the
DACC-companies 500 t per week

The stock volume enables to cover a continuous production of 8 weeks


for the customers

A continuous delivery system minimizes the needed stock at any time

Disaster recovery program covers continuous supply

Why FERAN for power plants?

17

-398-

1650 h

FERANp for Power Plant Applications

FERAN: Overview of the advantages


FERAN has a consistent and high
quality

DACC-systems with FERAN guarantee


and have demonstrated an excellent
yield of the power plant

Optimized behavior during hot/cold


periods

FERANp of Wickeder Westfalenstahl is especially developed and designed


for Power Plant Applications in very hot and very cold regions in the world

For evidence of the material toughness the Sharpy impact test was selected

The test was done close to DIN EN 10045

The graph shows that even at extreme temperatures up to -60rC or above


40rC there is no significant decrease of absorbed impact energy in
comparison to other Al-cladded materials available.

Cladded Al

Long life time of their products of more


than 25 years in respect to corrosion
resistance

Steel

Structure of FERAN

The material is installed in DACCsystems in deserts, tropic and cold


regions Resistance against sun, wind
and storm

19

FERANpfor Power Plant Applications


Avoidance of quality problems
and costs

Notched impact strength of FERAN


95
90

Absorbed impact energy (J)

85
80
75

parallel

70

across

65
60
55
50

20

-20

-40

-60

Testing temperature (C)

Statistical Data (Al-Layer thickness)

Statistical data (tensile strength)

Customer

Material

Dimension

Tolerance of layer thickness

All

Feran for ACC

1,52 x 460 mm

min. 50 m

Customer

Material

Dimension

Tolerance of tensile strength

All

Feran for ACC

1,52 x 460 mm

330 - 380 Mpa

100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55

480

50

330

455
430
405
380
355

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10

305
280
255
230

h >



205
180

0
2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2008

2014

2009

2010

Production date
Average + s

Average

Average - s

2011

2012

2013

Production date
Lower limit

Upper range Lower


range

Average + s

-399-

Average

Average - s

Lower limit

Upper limit

2014

Typical failures with not qualified materials

Typical failures with not qualified materials

Bundles after <1 year in the field


Not qualified material + wrong engineering

Delamination caused by brittle interlayer phases at the interface between


aluminum and steel
Alternative material big gap

Alternative material begining of the gap

25

26

Typical failures with not qualified materials

Efficiency of cooling systems


What can be the consequences of the usage of not qualified material?

Usage of not
qualified
material

Demages in the
cooling sysem

Increased
pressure in the
cooling systems
(10-15 milibar)

The whole
efficieny of the
cooling system
goes down

More energy is
needed

Additional costs
of 5 Mio. Euro in
a year

Delamination caused by brittle interlayer phases at the interface between aluminum


and steel

27

28

Why FERAN for power plant?

Safety through traceability

Safety through traceability

European Aluminum-clad material or Wickeder


FERAN is listed in your contract to ensure you
receive the proven Wickeder material

Wickeder Westfalenstahl has established a tracing


system based on:

Internal documentation & shipping and inspection


documents since more than 20 years

Special marking of every single production lot with


individual and not copyable parameters since two
years

All delivered FERAN coils are marked with


individual numeric marking since May 2014

In 2014: first projects were realized with a numeric


marking predetermined by the end-users



t
&ZE

29

30

-400-



W
^

Responsability for humam & environmental


saftey

Power Plant Application


Wickeder Westfalenstahl has delivered a high amount of FERAN
tons for DACC systems during the last 20 years:

With this it is possible to build:

460 power plants @ 2 x 600 MW

Become a responsible power plant!


Its the issue of your future!
Maximum power for power stations!

31

32

Keep on cooling!

:LFNHGHU:HVWIDOHQVWDKO*PE+
+DXSWVWUDH
:LFNHGHDQGHU5XKU
'HXWVFKODQG
3KRQH
+DQVMXHUJHQJDXJHU#ZLFNHGHUGH

-401-

073000
3 4
3

34 2 660MW
3 2009 9 4 2009 12
AVT(R)2010 4 3 4 AVT(O)2010 7 34

1
1.1

Flow-Accelerated
Corrosion FAC
[1]
FAC

1.2
FAC Fe3O4
[2] Fe3O4 Fe3O4
Fe2+ Fe3+
-Fe2O3 Fe3O4
FAC-Fe2O3
FAC
Fe3O4
Fe2O3+Fe3O4

1.3

pH [3]
pH [4]
pH [5]

2
2.1
a. pH 9.6-9.8
b.3 15g/L4 10g/L
-402-

c.
d. 2
2.2
a.34 2010 7 20 21
3h 100g/L 1
2h
b. 3
4050g/L4 40100g/L
c. 2010 8 15 3 30g/L
25 3 2010 8 19 4 50g/L
28 4
2.3
2.3.1 3
3 2 3
100g/L 3 30
150g/L 5080g/L0.14s/cm
0.10s/cm 0.30s/cm
0.12s/cm
2.3.2 4
4 4
100g/L 30150g/L 5080g/L
0.14s/cm
0.10s/cm
0.30s/cm
0.12s/cm
2.4 pH

pH
pH 9.69.8

3
3.1
34 168h 2012 3 2010 4 2
AVT(R)2010 4-6 AVT(O)2010 7
OT 2010 8 OT 3 1

-403-

20124

20122

201112

201110

20118

20116

20114

20112

201012

201010

20108

20106

20104

20102

200912

200910

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

20098

MPa

3 660MW

20123

20121

201111

20119

20117

20115

20113

20111

201011

20109

20107

20105

20103

6
5
4
3
2
1
0

20101

200911

MPa

1
a.3 0.81.0MPa
b.3 1.4MPa
2.4Mpa
c.3 2010 7
2.4MPa 1.82.1MPa

d.3 2011 7 2012 3 2.1MPa

4 2

4 660MW

2
a.4 0.70.9MPa
b.4 1.6 MPa
2.4MPa
c.4 2010 7
2.4MPa 2.02.2MPa

3.2
3 4 2010 1

a.3 4
b.3 4 4g/L
2g/L

-404-

c.3 4
2g/L
d.3 4
2g/L
3.3
2012 1-2 3 4 C 3 4

3 4 3 4
2012 3 4

4
34
pH
9.69.8

[1] .[J].,2004,37(11):47-52.
-405-

[2] .[J].200534(2): 52-53.


[3] .[J].200618(1):20-23.
[4] pH [J].2012
41(9):94-98.
[5] ,,. 300 MW [J].
2011,40(12):34-37.
1974
18132768323
E-mail090238@ghepc.com
073000

-406-

Application of Feed Water Oxygen Adding Treatment Technology for


Supercritical Direct Air Cooling Unit
Guo Yong
Shenhua Hebei Guohua Dingzhou Power Generation Co.LtdHebeiP. R. China

Abstract: This article describes purpose, principles and characteristics of the oxygen adding
treatment for the supercritical units. And taking the 3rd, the 4th unit of Shenhua Hebei Guohua
Dingzhou Power Company Limited as an example, the paper analysed the application of feed
water oxygen adding treatment technology for supercritical direct air cooling unit, and
illustrating the application effect from three aspects such as boiler pressure difference, iron
content changes and air cooling island conversion.
Keywords: supercritical; direct air cooling; feed water oxygen adding treatment
The 3rd unit and the 4th unit of Shenhua Hebei Guohua Dingzhou Power Company Limited
Hereinafter referred to as Dingzhou power plantboth are 660MW supercritical direct air
cooling units.The 3rd unit was put into operation in September 2009,and the 4th unit was put
into operation in december 2009,when they were put into operation,their feed water use
AVT(R) technology. In April 2010, the technology of feed water for the units was changed into
AVT(O).In July 2010, the 3rd unitand the 4th unit of Dingzhou power plant used oxygen
treatment to feed water for their supercritical direct air cooling units, and now, they run very well.
According to the running situation, iron content of water and steam get lower a lot then
before ,that we did not add oxygen to feed water. Differential pressure of boiler dropped much.
Effect of adding oxygen is very good.
1 The technology of adding oxygen to feed water of supercritical direct air cooling unit
1.1 The aim of adding oxygen to boiler feed water
Fouling and fouling rate of ferric oxide is very serious according to supercritical direct current
boiler, the rate of scaling is fast,and valves are jammed, differential pressure of boiler rises
quickly. they are issues of supercritical direct air cooling unit. search to the bottom, it is
Corrosion of flowing of feed water and drain water in the system of the unitFlow-Accelerated
CorrosionAbbreviation:FAC.
The aim of adding oxygen to feed water treatment for supercritical direct air cooling unit[1] is to
change the water treatment mode, so we can reduce the iron content in feed water, and restrain
the FAC of front boiler system, especially the boiler economizer Inlet tube and high pressure
heater tube. So that we achieve the goal of reducing the deposition rate of ferric oxide and the
chemical cleaning cycle of the boiler water wall tube.
1.2 Principle of adding oxygen treatment to feed water in supercritical units
The occurrence of FAC is related to water treatment. Under the conditions of reducing the total
volatile conditions, Double Fe3O4 oxide film[2] formed on the surface of steel, It consists of a
-407-

dense Fe3O4 layer and a porous and loose Fe3O4 epitaxial layer. When the local water flow
condition is deteriorating, due to the impact of the extension layer is not resistant to water flow,
but water as oxidant and its oxidation ability is very weak, it can not be oxidized Fe2+ to Fe3+ and
then converted to a protective effect of-Fe2O3 oxide film cover, so Fe3O4 oxide film is in active
state. At this time there will occur FAC in the local feed water system.
And adding oxygen treatment to feed water can improve the oxidation capacity. It is
advantageous for the formation of- Fe2O3 oxide film on the surface of metal, thus it can inhibit
the incidence rate of FAC. In short, in the condition of pure water, a certain concentration of
oxygen can make the carbon steel surface to form a protective film of Fe2O3+ Fe3O4, the double
protective film which is better than that of the magnetic Fe3O4 . The protective film has low
solubility in water, it can prevent the drainage system, the high pressure heater, feed water tube
and Economizer to accelerate FAC.
1.3 Characteristic of adding oxygen treatment in supercritical direct air cooling unit
Deffer from the supercritical wet cooling unit, Supercritical direct air cooling unit has large air
cooling island system, if wet steam flow in air cooling island, during the process of condensation,
the dual phase flow accelerated corrosion of the system is very easy. When oxygen leaks into air
cooling island, it will get oxygen enrichment characteristics. At the same time, when oxygen
leaks, carbon dioxide is also followed, this causes low PH and induced corrosion at Initial setting
area[3]. If we add oxygen to feed water of the air cooling unit ,we can improve the pH value of
feed water, it is favor to improve the ability of the air cooling island, which material is carbon
steel, that can resist the erosion of high speed steam in two phase of gas and liquid[4]and it is
favor to improve metal liquid film surface PH of air cooling island[5],it can reduce the flow
accelerated corrosion in air cooling island, and reduce the corrosion of Initial setting area, it can
improve the protective effect of adding oxygen treatment .
2 Application of adding oxygen treatment technology
2.1 conditions and working conditions of the pre - added oxygen
a. Control the pH value of feed water in 9.6-9.8;
b. concentration ofdissolved oxygen of the 3rd units condensate pump outlet less than15g/L;
c. The deaerator door is closed;
d. Adding oxygen equipment of condensate water and feed water get ready
2.2 Add oxygen process
a. Feed water system of low pressure heaterthe 3rd and the 4th unit respectively in July 20,
2010 and 21, began to work with adding oxygen, we add oxygen at the port of condensate water,
At the time of 3h, the concentration of dissolved oxygen of deaerator entrance can reach to 100
g/L; in adition of deaerator door closed,in 1-2h, the oxygen concentration of deaerater outlet is
rising.

-408-

b. Feed water system of high pressure heater: low because the oxygen content of the deaerator
outlet is low, we start to add oxygen at the oxygen point of feed water. Unit 3 complete part of
the transformation in about three days. dissolved oxygen of the economizer entrance is 4050
g/L; Unit 4 complete part of the transformation in about two days, dissolved oxygen of the
economizer entrance is 40100g/L.
c. main steam system: in August 15, 2010, main steam oxygen of unit 3 began to rise up to
30g/L, the amount of oxygen Increase in the main steam of unit 3 after 25 days, that we added
oxygen. In August 19, 2010, main steam oxygen of unit 4 began to rise up to 50g/L, the amount
of oxygen Increase in the main steam of unit 3 after 28 days, that we added oxygen.
2.3 The implementation of the conversion and the amount of oxygen control
2.3.1 Oxygen transfer and control of 3 unit
Unit 3 is in poor tightness. We add oxygen to the condensation water and the feed water by 2
points.We control the amount of oxygen to the condensate water of unit 3, so we can control the
oxygen of deaerator entrance around 100 g/L. We control the amount of oxygen that adding to
the feed water of unit 3, so we keep the standard value ofoxygen of the economizer entrance as
30150 g/L,and our expected value is 5080 g/L. When the economizer entrance DD(H+ )
0.14 s/cm ,we gave off the valve of adding oxygen to feed water; When the economizer
entrance DD(H+ ) 0.10 s/cm,we add oxygen again to feed water. When the economizer
entrance DD(H+ ) 0.30 s/cm,we stop adding,and close the valve; when the economizer
entrance DD(H+ ) 0.12 s/cm,regain adding oxygen.
2.3.2 Oxygen transfer and control of 4 unit
Unit 4 is in good tightness. We only add oxygen to the condensation water by one points. We
control the amount of oxygen to the condensate water of unit 4, so we can control the oxygen of
deaerator entrance around 100 g/L. And we keep the standard value ofoxygen of the
economizer entrance as 30150 g/L, and our expected value is 5080 g/L. When the
economizer entrance DD(H+ ) 0.14 s/cm ,we affirm it and send the letter of notice to Shift
supervisor to close the deoxidation valve of deaerator; When the economizer entrance DD(H+ )
0.10 s/cm,we add oxygen again to feed water. When the economizer entrance DD(H+ )
0.30s/cm ,we stop adding, and close the valve; when the economizer entrance DD(H+ ) 0.12
s/cm, regain adding oxygen.
2.4 Optimization of pH value of feed water
Different from supercritical water cooling units, Supercritical direct air cooling unit has large air
cooling island system, if wet steam flow in air cooling island, during the process of condensation,
the dual phase flow accelerated corrosion of the system is very easy. and it is favor to improve
the PH of feed water to restrain the dissolution of iron oxide in the metal surface. We control the
feed water pH value in 9.6 ~ 9.8 after experiment in Dingzhou power plant, so we ensure the air
cooling island is protected very well.

-409-

3 Application effect analysis


3.1 Minus of pressure of boiler changed
According to the statistics of unit 3 and unit 4 about minus of boiler pressure from initial time
when they began to run (keep running for168 h )to March 2012 .Among these statistics, the two
units both ran after the process of AVT(R) before April 2010, and in 2010, AVT (O) operation
process was used from April to June. In July 2010,OT process was used,but they were in the
period of commissioning .From then to now,the OT process of feed water treatment got into
operation period.The minus of boiler pressure of unit 3 are different between we added oxygen
and not ,it is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 The boiler pressure difference of unit 3 in full load (660MW) between we add oxygen and not

We can see from figure 1:


a. Before and after adding oxygen to unit 3, pressure difference of feed water pump outlet and
economizer keeped stabie, the range was in 0.81.0 MPa.
b. Before we added oxygen to unit 3, pressure difference between economizer and separator
outlet rised trend gradually.when we added oxygen to feed water, the figure chnged from 1.4
MPa to 2.4 Mpa.
c. When we added oxygen to feed water of unit 3 in July 2010, the pressure difference between
economizer and separator outlet has been a substantial drop-off, the figure dropped from
2.4 MPa to 1.8-2.1 Mpa. The effect of adding oxygen is good.
d. The pressure difference between economizer and separator keepped 2.1 MPa.During the
period from July 2011 to March 2012.That meaned the pressure difference of the boiler did
not increase after we added oxygen to feed water , The effect of adding oxygen is very good .
The boiler pressure difference of unit 4 in full load between we add oxygen and not.

-410-

Figure 2 The boiler pressure difference of unit 4 in full load (660MW) between we add oxygen and not

We can see from figure 2:


a. Before and after adding oxygen to unit 4, pressure difference of feed water pump outlet and
economizer keeped stabie, the range was in 0.70.9 MPa.
b. Before we added oxygen to unit 4, pressure difference between economizer and separator
outlet rised trend gradually.when we added oxygen to feed water, the figure chnged from 1.6
MPa to 2.4 Mpa.
c. When we added oxygen to feed water of unit 4 in July 2010, the pressure difference between
economizer and separator outlet has been a substantial drop-off, the figure dropped from
2.4 MPa to 2.0-2.2 Mpa, and has been stable in the pressure difference.The effect of adding
oxygen is very good.
3.2 The change of iron content in the water and vapor system
We counted the change of iron content in the water and vapor system from January 2010 up to
now, the results showed that:
a. Compared with the addition of addind oxygen, both of the two units ,the iron content in
condensed water decreased slightly;
b. Compared with the addition of addind oxygen, both of the two units ,the iron content in feed
water decreased obviously, the iron content in feed water almost was keepped 4 g/L
below,most of the time ,it was keepped at 2 g/L or below. The effect of adding oxygen is
obvious;
c. Compared with the addition of addind oxygen, both of the two units ,the iron content in main
steam decreased obviously, the iron content in main steam almost was keepped at 2 g/L or
below. The effect of adding oxygen is obvious;

-411-

d. Compared with the addition of addind oxygen, both of the two units ,the iron content in
reheat steam decreased obviously, the iron content in reheat steam almost was keepped at 2
g/L or below. The effect of adding oxygen is obvious;
3.3 Transformation of air cooling island
From January 2012 to February 2012,both of the two units had been reconditioned, the Internal
situations see Figure3 and Figure4.

Figure3: the air cooling island internal surface of unit3

Figure4: the air cooling island internal surface of unit4

We can see that most of the air cooling island internal surface of unit3 and unit4 looked red, the
remaining part was black, that is, at the beginning of 2012, the air cooling island of unit3 and
unit4 was still in the process of transformation.
Peroratin
We implemented treatments of adding oxygen to the feed water of unit 3 and unit 4 in Dingzhou
power plant, we inhibited the production of the boiler Thermodynamic system corrosion
products effectivelyand slow down the rise of the differential pressure of once-through boiler in
operating. So the boiler can be in a safe, economical, clean, efficient and stable operation for
long. The pH value of feed water is controlled in 9.6 ~ 9.8, condensed water Iron content was
-412-

decreased after adding oxygen, the corrosion of air cooling island is well controlled.
Supercritical direct air cooling units of Dingzhou power plant, adding oxygen to feed water
project were created to be a precedent for the same kind of domestic, The significance of the
implementation of adding oxygen to feed water process of the same unit is important.
Reference
[1] ,.[J].,2004,37(11):47-52.
[2] .[J].200534(2): 52-53.
[3] .[J].200618(1):20-23.
[4] . pH [J]. 2012
41(9):94-98.
[5] ,,. 300 MW [J].,
2011,40(12):34-37.
Author profileGuo Yong1974~
Gender: MaleEngineerMainly engaged in chemical management of power plant
Tel18132768323
E-mail090238@ghepc.com
addressShenhua Hebei Guohua Dingzhou Power Generation Co.LtdHebeiP. R. China
Post encoding073000

-413-

410114

TOC

TOCi

1.

pH

[1]
(NOM)(
)

[2]

2.

2.1

[3]
TOCi

2.1.1 DCC
CO2

[4,5]
CC

-414-

CO2
CO2

CO2 [6]
2.1.2 TOCi
TOC :CxHyOz H2O+CO2
CO2 CO2
CO2
Cl-SO42-NO3-
CO2 TOCi [7]

TOCi

[8]

1 TOCi

2.2

(DOC) 3.97-4.15 mg/L 4.03 mg/ L TOC 80%


1 k Dalton 36.14% 10kDalton
80%[9]

3.

1Cr13

-415-

3.1
3.1.1
NaClNa2SO4
AR1Cr13

3.1.2
pH9.0-9.65.5010-6mol/L-8.9010-5mol/L0.07mg/L
20.03mg/L23.80mg/L1Cr1310mm10mm
1105Hz 0.003Hz
0.010V 2s
0.2V 0.001V/s 2s
3.1.3

1Cr13

10mm 10mm

3.2
3 4 1Cr13
5
3 0mg/L Nyyuist

1Cr13

-416-

4 Elogi
Tafel

5
2
g/L

1.67

3.34

5.01

6.68

8.35

10.02

11.69

g/L

0.27

0.54

0.81

1.08

1.35

1.62

1.89

-0.293

-0.359

-0.319

-0.275

-0.280

-0.320

-0.309

A/cm2

9.74

10.06

10.52

5.80

5.53

15.65

13.33

4,5 2 1Cr13

1Cr13

4.
(1). CO2 (DCC)
(TOCi)
(2).

-417-

(3).CO2

[1],,,.[J]..2007,9:68-69.
[2].[J]..2006(05).
[3],.,[J],2013,06(33)51-55.
[4]M.B.Valcarce,M.Vazquez.Carbon steel passivity examined in solutions with a low degree of
carbonation:The effect of chloride and nitrite ions. Materials Chemistry and Physics,2009,313-321
[5] . (TOC)[J]..2009(04) .
[6]George R. Engelhardt, Digby D. Macdonald. Possible distribution of potential and corrosion current density
inside corroding crevices[J]. Electrochimica Acta,2012:266-274.
[7]Standard Test Method for On-Line Determina-tion of Anions and Carbon Dioxide in High Purity Water
byCation Exchange and Degassed Cation Conductivity. ASTM D4519-94 .
[8],,.[J].,2014,11:108-111.
[9],,,,,.[J]
,2012,1:022.

-418-

Study on the influence of organic matter decomposition


Products on the quality of water and steam in the heat supply unit
Nana Wang1Zhiping Zhu1
College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha
P. R. China

Abstract:With the increase of make-up water in the heat supply unit, the total amount of organic
matter increased significantly. With the increase of temperature, they could decomposed small
molecules of organic and inorganic acid, and they would affect the quality of steam. The
mechanism and process of organic matter how to decompose into carbonic acid, formic acid,
acetic acid and inorganic acid by heteroatom were analyzed. Explained the effect for the water
and vapor quality in thermal system by excessive organic matter content, especially on the
hydrogen conductivity and TOC. The migration and distribution law of small molecular products
was concluded. Three electrode system was used to demonstrate the effect of organic acid
decomposition products on the corrosion of steam turbine blade by the electrochemical corrosion
test under the room temperature, which with AC impedance and Tafel curve methods. The
experimental results showed that turbine blade corrosion resulted from hydrogen and organic
carbon content exceeded in the water and vapor system with low molecular organic acid in the
water vapor system. The experiments show that the existence of these low molecular organic
acid led to the acid corrosion of steam turbine blade. When the addition of organic acid was
increased, theincrease of turbine blade corrosion rate.
Keywords: organic acid decomposition products; degassing hydrogen conductivity; TOC; steam
turbine blade; electrochemical corrosion;
1 Introduction
Residual organic matter in boiler water supply problems is always a problem for chemical
workers, organic compounds enter the thermal system through the raw water pretreatment
system and desalination system, which are broken down at high temperatures and pressures to
produce some acid, leading to the pH value of boiler water decreased, the hydrogen conductivity
of superheated steam and saturated steam increased; also can lead to scaling and corrosion of
boiler water wall tube, causing the acid corrosion and stress corrosion damage of turbine blades
and impellers in alloy steel, reducing the life of turbine life[1].
The organisms in boiler make-up water including natural organic matter (NOM) and
anthropogenic pollutants, natural organic compounds generally refers to organic humus
(including humic acids and fulvic acid, humin), mainly humic acids. Organic compounds in
natural water by shape can also be divided into suspension, colloids and dissolved three parts.
Most of suspension and colloidal organic matter are removed by the coagulation, clarification
and filtration, the dissolved organic matter is the real danger in the water treatment[2].
2. Effect of organics on the core parameters of steam-water quality
Currently, organic compounds are widespread in the domestic power plant water vapor, with the
different water sources and water treatment, the content of organic acids in moisture is also
different.
2.1 Effect of organics on the core parameters of steam-water quality
Organic substances in boiler make-up water supply mainly refers to humic acid and fulvic acid in
-419-

poly-carboxylic acid compounds, carbon chain at high temperature breaks down into small
molecular organic acids, chloride ions, anions and carbon dioxide, these decomposition products
increases the hydrogen conductivity of water and steam. Due to the ion-exchange treatment to
remove organic compounds is limited, volatile acidity of organic matter decomposition products
is the main reason for the early steam turbine condensate rendering acidic, causing low pressure
systems of acidic corrosion of metals [3]. Therefore, its necessary to adopt some macro-control
of key parameters such as degassing hydrogen conductivity, total organic carbon content (TOCi)
indicators to measure water quality standards, established a standard system to monitor water
quality.
2.1.1 Effect of Organics on the degassing hydrogen conductivity
CO2 is not the only factor to affect the cation conductivity, studies have shown that, the water
into the boiler with high organic matter content make a high temperature decomposition ,
degraded into low molecular weight organic acid, can make hydrogen conductivity in water
vapor increased, which exceeded the standard value. Ultimately, these high organic matter
content is derived from the high levels of organic carbon in water supply-raw organic matter.
Make-up water of high organic content has two reasons, one is the high organic content of raw
water; the second is a bad make-up water treatment system for removal capacity. With a large
number of organic compounds of demineralized water is added to the condenser, high
temperature decomposition happened after entering the boiler, so as to make an abnormally high
cation conductivity of water vapor in the unit [4,5].
Hydrogen conductivity (CC) is one of the most important indicators of power supervision, which
is taken more and more attention since incorporated in the steam quality control index, because it
can reflect water quality change.Hydrogen conductivity is the parameter which react the total
anionic impurities in the water directly, but in recent years, the phenomenon of hydrogen
conductivity exceeding in power plant operation is always emerging, due to the presence of CO2,
making the hydrogen conductivity can not react the content of erosion impurities anion in water
vapor.Tests showed that, heated boiling degassing technology could remove the CO2 effectively
and the process didnt have an impact on other impurities, enabled the degassing hydrogen
conductivity to reflect the content of erosion anion except CO2 in water impurities [6].
2.1.2 Effect of Organics on the total organic carbon content
Determination of TOC is based on organic substances in water by oxidation of reaction
calculation as follows: CxHyOz H2O+CO2, CO2 produced by the oxidation of organic matter
is proportional to the total organic carbon in water, carbon content in organic can be calculated
through determining the change of the import and export content of CO2. But when organic
matter contains a lot of sulfur, chlorine, nitrogen impurity atoms, organic can produce
Cl-,SO42-,NO3-anions except CO2 and water,the water conductivity will be altered, by
determining the change of the import and export water conductivity,converted CO2 value is the
content of TOCi [7].
High levels of organic matter in water, impurity drugs joined to the heat supply system, high
content dissolution of sulfonate ion exchange resins, all above could lead to a higher level
content of organic matter in water vapor, therefore, TOCi value should be detected to monitor
organic matter content in the stream system. With the constant of heat supply unit,water supplies
continue to increase,no doubt the organic content be taken into increased.Studies showed that the
total orgnic carbon content of the supply system and steam was proportional to the
conductivity[8].
-420-

The content of TOCi / (ug/L)


Main steam hydrogen conductivity/ (us/cm)
Figure1 Relationship between TOCi content and Main steam hydrogen conductivity

2.2Migration and distribution of organic decomposition products


The existence of organic has a direct impact on the quality of water vapor, acidic decomposition
products of the organic matter in the water system (ethyl acetate, formic acid, carbonic acid and
formation of heteroatom in organic anions), its necessary to study the regular pattern of
migration and distribution of organic, it relates to apply suitable methods to remove organic
matter.
The content was 3.97-4.15 mg/L in raw water, with an average of 4.03 mg/L, and owned the
TOC content of about 80%. When dominated by small molecular weight organic compounds,
molecular weight in raw water of organic matter is less than 1 k Dalton accounted for 36.14%,
organic molecular weight of less than 10 k Dalton accounted for 80% of the total.Specific of
dissolved organics molecular weight distribution, as the follow figure [9].

Molecular weight/k Dalton

Figure 2 Molecular weight distribution of dissolved organic matter in water

3.Erosion experiment of organic decomposition for the turbine blade


Three electrodes system were used to demonstrate the effect of organic acid decomposition
products on the corrosion of steam turbine blade by the electrochemical corrosion test under the
room temperature, which with AC impedance and Tafel curve methods. Take electrochemical
experiments by electrochemical workstation, deploy a series of concentration gradients of formic
acid and acetic acid in simulated boiler water, study under the action of chlorine ion and sulfate
ion, the corrosion effect of formic acid and acetic acid on the 1Cr13 stainless steel (turbine blade
materials).
3.1 Experiments
3.1.1 Medicines and instruments
-421-

Basic medicines and instruments for electrochemical experiments including: NaCl, Na2SO4,
ammonia, acetic acid, formic acid, ethanol, acetone (specification of the above drugs are pure
AR), 1Cr13 three electrode system (graphite, calomel, platinum electrode), electrochemical
workstation, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen bottle, electronic scales, and so on.
3.1.2 Experimental conditions
Temperature:room temperature; pH:9.0-9.6; Ammonia concentration:5.5010-6mol/L-8.90
10-5mol/L; Dissolved oxygen:0.07mg/L; Chloride ion concentration:20.03mg/L, the sulfate ion
concentration:23.80mg/L; Test piece material:1Cr13; Specimen size: 10mm10mm;AC
impedance spectroscopy for the determination of parameter settings: initial level consistent with
the measured open circuit voltage, high frequency is 1105Hz, low frequency is set to 0.003Hz,
the amplitude is 0.010V, static duration 2s. Tafel curves measured parameters settings: initial
potential and termination of potential settings for the open circuit voltage measured 0.2V, scan
speed is 0.001V/s, static duration 2s, select auto sensitivity.
3.1.3 Experimental methods
Simple processes of electrochemical method are as follows:
polish 1Cr13 with different
types of sandpaper

making
working
electrodes

polish
electrodes

cut the test pieces into


size 10mm10mm
for experiments

with AC impedance and Tafel curve methods


by electrochemical workstation

configure the simulated


boiler water

room temperature
electrochemical test

final
treatments

adding a series gradient concentration use three electrodes getting


of formic acid and acetic acid system,setting appropriate matching
to the simulated boiler water
parameters
chart by Origin

3.2 Results and discussion


Figure 3 is impedance matching chart for different concentrations of mixed acids, figure 4 is
Tafel matching chart for different concentrations of mixed acids, figure 5 is Tafel curve without
acetic acid and formic acid which only has NaCl and Na2SO4.
The figure 3 showed that, when formic acid and acetic acid in aqueous solution at a
concentration of 0mg/L, Nyyuist by high frequency and low frequency impedance and
capacitance arc composed comes from two time constants. High-frequency capacitance arc
symbol of passivation film on external surface of charge transfer between the solution electric
double-layer capacitor and process. With the increase of acetic acid and formic acid content, the
impedance curve of capacitance arc was increased, as acetic acid and formic acid content
continued to increase, capacitance arc was reduced. This showed that the influence of acetic acid
and formic acid on 1Cr13 erosion slowed down by chloride ion and sulfate ion impact, but when
the acetic acid and formic acid content greater than a certain value, variety of mixed organic
matter decomposition products of corrosion also increased. With the increasing concentration of
formic acid and acetic acid, impedance Spectra characteristics did not change, only the
high-frequency capacitance arc decreased.
-422-

Figure3 Impedance matching chart for different


concentrations of mixed acids

Figure4 Tafel matching chart for different


concentrations of mixed acids

The figure 4 showed that, when adding a series gradient concentration of formic acid and acetic
acid to the boiler water, which curve (E-logi curves) presented a good linear relationships in a
certain region (Tafel). Get free corrosion potential by Tafel curves, analysis the degree of
reaction from the slope of the curves.

Figure5 Tafel curves without acetic acid and formic acid


Table 2 Parameters of Tafel fitting curve with acetic acid and formic acid
acetic acid

g/L

1.67

3.34

5.01

6.68

8.35

10.02

11.69

formic acid

g/L

0.27

0.54

0.81

1.08

1.35

1.62

1.89

-0.293

-0.359

-0.319

-0.275

-0.280

-0.320

-0.309

9.74

10.06

10.52

5.80

5.53

15.65

13.33

Corrosion potential

Corrosion current density A/cm2

From fig.4,5 and table2,compared with the corrosion conditions of 1Cr13 stainless steel in the
simulation water which only had NaCl and Na2SO4,the corrosion potentials were offset to the
right when adding acetic acid and formic acid into the water, corrosion current density of
electrode decreased firstly and then increased. Corrosion current density was increased when the
content of acetic acid and formic acid increased, showed that a higher concentration of acetic
acid, formic acid, and chloride ion and sulfate ion interaction, the corrosion rate of 1Cr13 steel
would be increased with the total content of anions.
-423-

4. Conclusions
(1).Due to the presence of CO2 and anionic impurities in the water and steam,the key parameters
to monitor steam quality should be degassing hydrogen conductivity (DCC) and total organic
carbon ions (TOCi).
(2).Hydrogen conductivity and organic carbon content exceeded in the water and vapor system
resulted from excess low molecular organic acids such as acetic acid.
(3).CO2,acetic acid and other acidic decomposition products of organic matter caused thickening
acid corrosion of steam turbine, corrosion test results showed that,when the addition of organic
acid was increased, the turbine blade corrosion rate also increased.
References
[1] Lu Peiping, Huang Xingde,You Zhe,Chen Zhen.Influence of organic matter in suppy water for the quality
of steam[J]. East China electric power.2007,9:68-69.
[2]Zhang Wenbin.Reasons of high hydrogen conductivity of steam heat supply unit and its control measures
[J].2006(05).
[3] Lin Qifeng, Liu Ming.Effect of organics on the quality of heat generator steam [J].Power and electrical
engineering,2013,06(33)51-55.
[4]M.B.Valcarce,M.Vazquez.Carbon steel passivity examined in solutions with a low degree of
carbonation:The effect of chloride and nitrite ions. Materials Chemistry and Physics,2009,313-321
[5] Guo Keyong. Total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer application in the power plant chemistry[J].
Zhe Jiang electric power.2009(04).
[6]George R. Engelhardt, Digby D. Macdonald. Possible distribution of potential and corrosion current density
inside corroding crevices[J]. Electrochimica Acta,2012:266-274.
[7]Standard Test Method for On-Line Determination of Anions and Carbon Dioxide in High Purity Water
byCation Exchange and Degassed Cation Conductivity. ASTM D4519-94.
[8]Tian Li, Dai Xin,Shen Xiao Xiang.Organic matter content in the power plant water vapor control index [J].
Thermal power generation, 2014,11:108-111.
[9] Zhang Jian, Hua Wei, Zhang Lu, Jiang Fuchun, Chen Wei, Lin Tao. Law of molecular weight distribution
of organic matter in water treatment process[J].Water resources protection,2012,1:022.

-424-

Agenda
Challenge of ACC Chemistry Control
Discussion of the fundamental problem

Chemistry Control Options


Options without advanced amines
Neutralizing Amine use
Filming Amine use

ACC Chemistry and


the Use of Amines

Path Forward

Mike Caravaggio
ACC Users Group
Xian, Shanxi
October 2015

2
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2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Air Cooled Condensers

Chemistry Challenge

Two Phase Lowered Liquid Phase pH

Massive Surface Area


Carbon Steel Construction
Two-phase Environment
Significant Iron Corrosion
Product Release
Significant Air-in-leakage
Aggravated by operating
at very high pH

Fully
Condensed
10
9.8
9.6
9.4
9.2

75% Steam
9.4
9.2
9.1
8.9
8.75

Elevated Iron is due to


lowered two-phase pH in
contact with tubing

Unit with ACC


~3x surface area
of water cooled
unit
3

4
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2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Control with Ammonia

Carbon Dioxide Absorption and pH

Increase pH to 10
with ammonia

If air enters
cycle in steam
phase the
cation
conductivity
increases
from CO2
(dependant on
pH of
condensate and
partial pressure
of CO2 )

>10 ppm of Ammonia


Safety/Environmental
issues
Large amount of
chemical handling

Deep bed polisher


must be run in
ammonia form
Increases leakage (chloride)
id )
Can cause significant sodium throw

Can significantly increase carbon dioxide ingress


5

6
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-425-

Neutralizing Amines 3Ds:


Distribution

Amine Treatment
Neutralizing Amine (Generic Chemicals)
Similar to ammonia
The 3Ds
adjust pH
Dissociation: NH3(aq) + H2O NH4+ + OH minimize corrosion through
Distribution: NH3(aq) NH3(g)
solubility minimization
Decomposition: Amine => NH3 + TOC + CO2
Generally short chain organic
with an amine group (NH)
Filming Amine (Proprietary Chemicals)
Longer chain organic not like ammonia
Hydrophilic and hydrophobic end
Film metallic surface
Minimize corrosion through breaking
the corrosion cell (requires metal +
water + oxygen)

Abbrev. Structure

Lower
Volatility
is
Stronger
affinity for
Liquid
Phase

DMA
CHA
NH3

NH3

MOPA
Morph

Formation of
Hydrophobic
film on metal
surfaces

Ethanolamine
potentially can
significantly
improve ACC
corrosion

ETA

8
2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

ACC Two Phase Flow

Neutralizing Amine Application


Source Bill Stroman /
Neil Hawkins

Combined Cycle Plant


with ACC
2009 Treatment

With
neutralizing
amines
possible to
have higher pH
in the
condensing
tubes than in
the fully
condensed
solution

All Ammonia
pH Target Value 9.1-9.2
Condensate Iron >100 ppb
2011 Treatment
Ammonia / Ethanolamine
Applied 4:1 Blend

pH Target Value 9.1-9.2


Condensate Iron <10-20
ppb

(800 ppb ETA)

10
2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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pH @ 40C

Modeling of Ammonia : Ethanolamine pH in ACC

Filming Amine Application

2 x Alstom Triple pressure HRSG, Steam pressure for LP / IP


/ HP units is 129 / 721 / 2,781 psi & 9 / 50 / 192 bar. HP steam
is reheated to 1,055 oF / 568 oC. Total generation capacity is
530 MW with two 134 MW Alstom Turbines.

8.7
8.6
8.5
8.4
8.3
8.2
8.1
8.0
7.9
7.8
7.7

Condensate
pump
discharge total
iron < 3 ppb
with frequent
startups

0%

20%

40%
60%
Steam Percentage

9.2 - NH3

80%

100%

Condensate
pH 9.6-9.8, 10
on startup with
ammonia

9.2 NH3:ETA (4:1)

Consistent 500
ppb Filming
Amine
Residual

Only 120 ppb of Ethanolamine!


Accomplished with ~500 ppb Ammonia
Anodamine Application Example EPRI ICCC11 Conference
11

12
2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

-426-

Control with Ammonia Alone

Nov 2011

2015: 11th International Conference on Cycle


Chemistry in Fossil and Combined Cycle
Plants with HRSG: Olszewski

Control with Ammonia Only

2015: 11th International Conference on Cycle


Chemistry in Fossil and Combined Cycle
Plants with HRSG: Olszewski

Nov. 2014
Nov 2014

Nov 2011

Before pH Increase Riser Duct Inlet


Louvers
Extensive white (bare metal) areas
Serious risk 4 based on DHACI

After pH Increase Riser Duct Inlet


Louvers
After ~16,500 hours of operation
Few white (bare metal) areas
Surfaces re-passivating
No shiny surfaces
Mild corrosion 3 based on DHACI

13

Before pH increase
pH of 9.2 in condensate
FAC observed on
o Cross beams
o Exterior & Inside tube entries
Serious risk 4 based on DHACI

After pH increase from 9.2 to 9.8


After ~16,500 hours of operation
Surfaces re-passivating (even on crossbeam)
No shiny surfaces
Minimal corrosion 2 based on DHACI

14
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2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Present Conclusions

Path Forward

Neutralizing Amine Properties demonstrate strong potential for


use to mitigate FAC and improve pH in the PTZ and early
condensate of Air Cooled Condensers (ACC).

EPRI has a goal for fully


developed / research
guidance for both
Neutralizing and Filming
Amine Treatments for all
cycles by 2018

Field data supports this using Ethanolamine

Filming Amines (Anodamine) been demonstrated to improve


surface appearance and reduce iron transport in ACC

EPRI Has many corrosion testing rigs in


the field looking to develop our knowledge
further on amine treatments

25

28

Insufficient

Independent Understanding Spectrum

Sufficient

15

16
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2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

TogetherShaping the Future of Electricity

17
2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

-427-

Session 5

New Technology in Air-Cooled


Condenser

System Design and Demonstration Project of Plate Evaporative


Condenser in Direct Air-cooling Unit
Kai Lv, Gaochao Li, Chao Wan, Tao Jing, Shengli Chen
Xian Thermal Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., Xian, P. R. China

Abstract: In order to solve the summer-spending problem of direct air-cooling unit, the plate
evaporative condensing technique was proposed to shunt turbine exhaust steam partly and reduce
the air cooling condenser (ACC) heat load, thus the unit operating back-pressure decreases and
the output increases. The plate evaporative condenser system was operated in a Direct Aircooling Unit and the operating characteristic was obtained. The results show that operating
efficiency increases with the increase of environmental temperature. With the increase of
environmental air humidity, the steam flow and supplement circulating water flow both decrease
and similar trends are observed. However, when the air humidity reaches a specified value, the
steam flow and supplement circulating water flow trend to be a definite value.
Keywords: Direct Air-cooling, Plate Evaporative Condenser, System Design, Demonstration
Introduction
There is a great demand for electricity with the rapid development of Chinese economy and
society. The installed capacity of power in 2015 will reach 1.437 billion kilowatts, ranking first
in the world. Compared to conventional power plants with water cooling technology which
consumes enormous water, air-cooling technology is widely used in the northern regions for its
outstanding performance in water-saving. The previous investigation indicates that the use of
direct air cooling system for cooling can save water approximately 2000m3/h in a 1000MW coalfired power unit compared to the use of wet cooling tower,. Therefore, the power plant air
cooling technology as an effective water-saving thermal power generation technology is being
used extensively in electric power industry at the regions lacking water.
In direct air-cooling unit, the exhausted steam from steam turbine is cooled directly by air, and
the air and the steam exchange heat through the radiator. In 1980s, Matimba in South Africa with
capacity of 6665MW was obliged to lower outload even stop operating several times because
of hot wind. In the northern China, the difference between dry bulb temperature and wet bulb
temperature is more than 6 , where almost all the direct air-cooling units were put into
operation (DING 1992). In particular, the heat transfer temperature difference between the steam
inside and outside of the Air Cooling Condenser (ACC) reduces in summer because of high
temperature and wind. The efficiency of ACC reduces and operating back pressure increases,
inducing a lower output power and economic efficiency of the air-cooling unit. However,
summer is the time when the electric power demand reaches peak, which calls for an increased
output power of the air-cooling unit from the practical utilization. This contradiction between the
power demand from society and the output limit from ACC has become the most urgent issue in
summer season (WANG 2008).
As China's installed capacity of air cooling power unit has accounted for the vast majority in the
world. Therefore, many researchers have been done on how to effectively solve this problem
both experimentally and theoretically. Some important technical plans have been proposed as
follows: 1) Developing Atomization Spraying System (MA2007, WANG2008, CHEN 2010).
The desalted water is first sprayed to atomization by spray nozzle and then brought to the heat
-431-

exchange surface of ACC by forced air-flow caused by axial fan. Desalted water is sprayed into
air and humidified the surface of ACC. Though the efficiency of heat transfer is improved and
hereby the efficiency of the system, the possibility of dust adhesion and dirty degree increase as
well. The heat transfer efficiency decreases and the improvement caused by atomization spraying
system are limited. 2) Extending the windbreak wall to prevent hot air recirculation and
installing diversion device to improve air quality of air inlet (ZHANG 2009, FANG 2009, SHI
2011, WANG 2010, ZHONG 2009, JIA 2009). The purpose of extending the windbreak wall is
to prevent the possibility of rapid increase of back pressure caused by hot air recirculation. In a
word, this pays attention to the safe operation of air cooling unit. The installation of diversion
device could optimize air flow, while the effect is quiet limited. 3) Spraying desalted water into
the steam inlet pipe of ACC to decrease the operating back pressure (CHEN 2011). In the term of
total circulation, the final thermodynamic state of what is the same as the condensate from ACC.
The heat transfer from condensate to the desalted water and the steam is sensible heat transfer
and latent heat transfer, respectively. From the view of thermodynamics, the demand of desalted
water is huge and realistic possibility is almost non-existent. 4) Adding surface condenser and
taking circulating water as cooling medium to distribute part of steam turbine exhaust and the
ACC heat load reduces. The effect is excellent but the cooling device of circulating water has to
be introduced at the same time. The introduction of numerous devices increases the complexity
and total cost of the whole system.
From the discussion talked above, the conclusion can be drawn that the exsiting methods
introduced above could not perfectly solve the contradiction between the power demand and the
output limit with the shortcomings either negative effect, or limited effect, or non-existent
realistic possibility or not suitable for technological transformation on operating unit. Aiming on
perfectly solves this contradiction, the plate evaporative cooling technology is proposed in this
paper. In this technology, a portion of turbine exhaust steam is bypassed to reduce heat load of
air-cooled island, thereby reducing turbine back pressure and improving output. The working
principle, engineering design, engineering application as well as performance test were
introduced successively.
Working Principle of Plate Evaporative Condenser
Combining the air-cooling and water-cooling together, a typical plate evaporative condenser
system has compact structure and is composed of plate evaporative condenser, water circulating
system and air supplying system. Since the air-cooling and water-cooling are combined together
and cooling device of circulating water is removed, the structure of the entire system is more
compact. Fig.1 shows the structure scheme of a plate evaporative condenser unit. Axial fan (1)
which provides forced air flow is located in the top-right side and works in negative pressure
conditions. Air convection cavity (3) is right below axial fan (1). Plate evaporative condenser (2)
is fixed in the top-left side, above which the spray distribution device (9) is arranged and the
water film is uniformly distributed. PVC filler (5) provides ample space for water cooled by
forced air and is located the down-left side, and circulating pump (6) lies outside of air inlet area.
Circulating basin (4) is located in the bottom of the unit.
The steam turbine exhaust steam flows from the upper inlet pipe (8) into the flow channel of heat
exchange plate, while the circulating water is uniformly sprayed on exterior surface of the heat
exchange plate with form of uniform thin water film. The heat transfer from the steam to water
film is accomplished through the heat transfer plate from the steam to water film, and air flow
enforced by axial fan promotes the evaporation of water film and strengthens the heat release of
exhausted steam. Condensate flows from outlet pipe (7) locating below of the plate. A portion of
the cooling water vaporizes to vapor due to heat gain from steam and is discharged into the
-432-

atmosphere by axial fan, while other cooling water is cooled by cooling air when flowing
through PVC filler (5) and gathers in circulating basin (4). This is called an entire circulation. In
addition, a floating ball valve located in circulating basin will automatically open and
supplement cooling water will flow into circulating basin to compensate the cooling water when
the cooling water consumes due to evaporation and air flow until water level reaches normal.
Heat transfer depends on latent heat of evaporation and the heat transfer efficiency of
evaporative condenser is mainly limited by the wet bulb temperature of the air.
The heat and mass transfer process of this plate evaporative condenser technology can be divided
into two steps: 1) steam in the plate condenses and transfers heat to the water film out of plate in
the way of convection and conduction; 2) heat and mass transfer between the water film and the
air. In step 2, air is humidified and its enthalpy increases. The heat transfer driving force for step
1 depends on the temperature difference between the steam in the plate and the water film out of
plate. The driving force for step 2 depends on the temperature difference between the air wetbulb and the water film as well as the humidity ratio difference between the air and water vapor.
Compared to the previous system, the characteristics of plate evaporative condenser system have
some significant advantages are as follows: 1) Compact structure. This system combines
condenser, water circulating system and air supplying system together. The unit specification is
about 6m3m6m (LWH) with condensation ability of 7 t/h. 2) Relative simple system. The
connections with main system are mainly steam inlet, condensate outlet and supplement cooling
water inlet. 3) Relative low requirement of water quality. The material quality is stainless steel,
so general industrial water can meet the requirement.

1 fan, 2 plate heat exchanger, 3 wind cavities, 4 circulating basin, 5 filler, 6 pump,
7 condensate outlet pipe, 8 steam inlet pipe, 9 spray distribution device
Figure 1: Structure scheme of a plate evaporative condenser unit

Engineering Design
Based on heat balance, empirical formula is employed to calculate heat transfer coefficient of the
exhausted steam, heat transfer coefficient of water film, as well as heat and mass transfer
coefficient of water-air. The test algorithm is used for the design of plate evaporative condenser,
which meets the requirements of engineering design (ZHONG 2011). Neglecting related heat
loss, when working in a stable thermal equilibrium state without considering the related heat loss,
the heat transferred from steam inside plate to water film outside plate is equal as the heat
transferred from water film to air, namely air takes off all the heat as heat carrier while water is
intermediate carrier. In the algorithm calculation, first a water film temperature is assumed in
advance. Specified condensation load is taken as objective function and iterative computation is
-433-

carried out following the process showed in Fig.2. Related design requirement is fulfilled
deviation of steam-water side and water-air side locates in allowable range.

Figure 2: Design and calculation chart for evaporative condenser

Engineering Support Unit


1. Unit Operation Condition
The experiments are carried out on a 300MW subcritical direct air cooling steam generator
which was put into operation since January 2010. The exhausted steam is cooled by mechanical
ventilation direct air cooling system. In summer, the back pressure reaches high and out load
limits. The design performance is that back pressure is 30kPa at 300MW and 30, while in
operation the back pressure reaches about as high as 40kPa at 29during actual operation. The
unit cant take full load due to the significant high back pressure and puts negative influence on
power supply task, especially when gale reaches the back pressure climbs rapidly and renders
negative influence on safe and economic operation. In addition, the high back pressure causes
higher coal consumption rate of power supply and induces a relative poor economy. Therefore,
for the safety and economic issues, reducing operating back pressure on summer and improving
output power are the primary task of the safety and economic operation of the unit on summer.
Through comparison and analysis discussed above, as well as actual situation of the unit, the
technology of the plate type evaporative condenser was chosen as the improvement project.
-434-

2. Design of Plate Type Evaporative Condenser


Turbine exhaust steam shunted by plate type evaporative condenser is 54t/h and the back
pressure decreases by 3kPa to TRL design condition at 30 with the fix fan running mode. The
correlation calculation formula is as follows:

(1)

where : ts is steam condensation temperature of ACC, .


1
expresses the heat exchange efficiency of ACC.
ta is air temperature rise of ACC, .
ta is ambient air temperature,.
t is temperature loss due to pipe line resistance,.
From the Eq. (1), the steam condensation temperature of ACC is the function of steam turbine
exhaust volume D0, total frontal area of ACC Aw, air face velocity vw, and ambient air
temperature ta. Therefore changing D0, or Aw, or vw, or ta will impose influence on steam
condensation temperature.
During the test, the design heat transfer area is 1272m2 following the design methods introduced
in Chapter 3. Equipment processing and manufacturing is accomplished by the relevant
manufacturers.
3. Auxiliary System
As shown in Fig.3, a portion of turbine exhaust steam is shunted to plate evaporative condenser
so as the heat load of ACC reduces as well as back pressure decreases. The steam is condensed
first, and then the condensate flows to water tank. Therefore the auxiliary system contains steam
distribution system, condensate system, vacuum pumping system, circulating and supplementary
water system, electrical system, and instrument and control system.
(1) Steam distribution system. A portion of turbine exhaust steam is extracted to plate
evaporative condenser. Pipe specification was calculated and determined according to the
amount of steam flow. Expansion joint, valve, manhole and pipe support etc. were installed
properly.
(2) Condensate system. Condensate flows to tank by gravity without pump.
(3) Vacuum pumping system. Similar to ACC, there is the accumulation of non-condensing gas
inside of the plate evaporative condenser. Vacuum pumping branch is installed on each unit and
incorporated with the main pipe which directly joins to the vacuum pumping pipe of ACC.
(4) Circulating and supplementary water system. According to the actual condition, circulating
and supplementary water can be supplied by auxiliary cooling water.
(5) Electrical system. Electrical equipment mainly contains pump, fan, electric valve, etc.
(6) Instrument and control system. Thermal control is an important part of normal operation of
the unit. The flow, pressure, temperature, and the drive motor power are the key monitoring
parameters for the normal operation of the plate evaporative condenser system. Distributed
control system has been selected and incorporated to the main DCS of unit.

-435-


Figure 3: System Schematic Diagram for Plate Evaporative Condenser

Results and Discussions


Atomization spraying system was installed to improve performance of ACC previor to this plate
evaporative condenser system. Hereby, operating performance was tested with and without
spraying system, respectively.
1. Effect of Operation
(1) On the condition of not-using spraying system, the number of back pressure decreased
exceeds design performance at 30 for 300MW outload.
1) At 30, before plate evaporative condenser is put into operation, steam turbine exhaust
pressure reaches 33.47 kPa, after operating the back pressure is 29.58kPa, 28.71kPa and
28.87kPa respectively for three test conditions. Namely, the back pressure decreases by 3.88kPa,
4.76 kPa and 4.60 kPa respectively with the average 4.42kPa, which exceeds design performance
of 3 kPa.
2) For TRL at 30 with wet bulb temperature 17.68 , the condensate flow of plate
evaporative condenser is 50.11t/h. According to performance curve of ACC, back pressure
decreases by 4.1kPa with 50.11t/h decrease of steam flow entered into ACC.
(2) On the condition of using spraying system, the condensate flow of plate evaporative
condenser is among 45t/h to 47t/h at air relative humidity of 30%. According to performance
curve of ACC, back pressure decreases by 3.7kPa with 46t/h (average) decrease of steam flow
entered into ACC.
(3) Water consumption of plate evaporative condenser. Water consumption rate representing the
ratio of circulating cooling supplement water to steam condensation is among 0.7~0.8.
2. Performance Analysis
Fig.4 shows the variation of back-pressure with ambient air temperature and Fig.5 depicts the
effect of the air humidity on the steam inlet flow and water supplement flow. All the tests here
are carried out with the unit load of 285~300MW.
-436-

(1) It is shown that the operation effect of plate evaporative condenser system increases with
environment temperature.
(2) With the increase of air relative humidity, steam inlet flow and supplement water flow
decrease accordingly, presenting the same tread. When the air humidity climes to a certain value,
slight variation of the steam flow and supplement circulating water flow is observed.
Heat transfer efficiency significantly depends on the temperature difference between steam and
water, namely heat transfer drive difference. Generally speaking, back pressure increases with
the increase of temperature for full outload, leading to the increase of the temperature difference
between steam and water as well as condensation ability. When the dry dulb temperature is
specified, the temperature difference between steam and water decreases with the increase of wet
dulb temperature inducing the final decrease of condensation ability, steam inlet flow, and
supplement water flow.
32

without plate evaporative system


with plate evaporative system

30
28

back pressure kPa

26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

dry bulb temperature degree Celsius

Figure 4: Variation of Back Pressure with Air Temperature Unit Load 285~300MW
60
55

steam inlet flow


supplyment water folw

50
45

flow t/h

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
20

30

40

50

60

air relative humidity %

70

80

Figure 5: Variation of Inlet Flow Steam and Supplement Water Flow with Air Humidity
Unit Load 285~300MW

-437-

Conclusion
In this paper, the plate evaporative condensing technique was proposed to decrease the unit
operating back-pressure and increase the output through shunting part of turbine exhaust steam
and reducing the ACC heat load. A 300MW ACC unit was employed as engineering
demonstration, the condenser design. Experiments were carried out with this developed system
to test the entire performances. The main conclusions are as follows:
(1)The plate type evaporative condenser was designed based on the idea of unit design.
Appropriate combination was introduced according to the actual situation of the condensing
capability. The noticeable feature of this technology is the high flexibility, compact structure,
relative simple system and relative low requirement of water quality.
(2) Test algorithm was adopted to meet the requirements of engineering design based on heat
balance. For an engineering demonstration unit with rated load 300MW, the performance of the
designed system fully fulfils the design requirements and stable performance has been achieved.
(3)Operation effect of plate evaporative condenser system increases with environment
temperature. With the increase of air relative humidity, steam inlet flow and supplement water
flow decrease accordingly and same trend has been obtained.
(4) Test shows that water consumption rate is among 0.7~0.8.
REFERENCES
[1]. DING Er-mou 1992. Air cooling technology of Power plant, Beiing, China,Water Resources and Electric
Power Press.
[2]. WANG Wenz-hong, LIU Zhen-hua, Etc. 2008. Causes and counter measures for the load limit in summer
for 600MW direct air-cooling units, ELECTRIC POWER,Being,China,Jan. 2008,56-59.
[3]. MA Qing-zhong, ZHANG Long-ying 2007. Application and Research on Peak Cooling System for ACC,
SHANXI ELECTRIC POWER ,Taiyuan,Shanxi, China,Dce. 2007,55-57.
[4]. WANG Song-ling, ZHAO Wen-sheng, Etc. 2008. The Study of Spray Humidification System Used in
Direct Air-cooled Unit, Journal of Power Engineering, Shanghai,Oct.2008, 722-726.
[5]. CHEN Ji-jun, Yin Hai-yu, Guo Min-chen 2010. Analysis of Spray Humidification on Air-cooled System
During Peakload Cooling Process in Power Plant, Modern Electric Power, Beijing, China,Jun. 2010, 5760.
[6]. ZHANG Xin-hai 2009. Analysis and Suggestions of Operation Status of Air-Cooling Units in China,
SHANXI ELECTRIC POWER, Taiyuan,Shanxi, China,Apr.2009, 109-112.
[7]. FANG Liang, LIU Jun 2009. Solution to Blocked Output of 600 MW Direct Air-cooling Units in High
Temperature of Summer, INNER MONGOLIA ELECTRIC POWER, Inner Mongolia,China, Dec.2009,
21-23.
[8]. SHI Quan-cheng, HAN Xiao-gang 2011. Analysis on ability to spend summer of direct air-cooled thermal
power unit in north burning hot area, Huadian Technology, Beijing,China, Nov.2011,28-34.
[9]. WANG Jin-ping, AN Lian-suo 2010. Measures and Development of Summer Operation of Directed Air
Cooling Unit, SHANDONG DIANLI JISHU, Jinan,China,Apr.2010, 45-48.
[10]. ZHONG Bo-xue 2009. Optimizing Research on Direct Air Cooled Turbine Unit and Air Cooled Islands
Structure of Wind Defend Wall, Beiing, China,North China Electric Power University2009.
[11]. JIA Bao-rong, YANG Li-jun, Etc. 2009. Influence of Flow Guiding Device Upon Flow and Heat Transfer
Characteristics of Air-cooled Condenser Cell, Proceedings of the CSEE, Beiing, China,Aug.2009, 14-19.
[12]. CHEN Sheng-li, Etc.2011. Energy-saving Cooling Device Applied on ACC, Beiing,China, 2011.
[13]. ZHONG Zhen-xing 2011. Study and Heat Transfer Characteristic of Plate Shell Evaporative Condenser
for Exhaust Steam Cooling, Guangzhou, China, South China University of Technolony, 2011.

Biography
Kai Lv, Male, Engineer, Xian Thermal Power Research Institute Co. Ltd.
Email: lvkai@tpri.com.cn Tel: 15891727854

-438-

ACC.01:
Guidelines for Internal Inspection
of Air-Cooled Condensers
Guidelines for Internal
Inspection of ACCs

Completed May, 2015


Scheduled for review & revision May, 2018

Dr. Andrew G. Howell

comments / suggestions are welcome

Posted on the ACCUG website:

International Air-Cooled Condenser


Meeting

http://acc-usersgroup.org/

October 13-15, 2015 Xian, China


1

Introduction

ACCs are very large structures with large


surface area of iron

Corrosion results in iron transport and air


inleakage, which can be big problems

Internal inspection is important to check on


status of steam cycle chemistry treatment,
and to identify changes that may be
needed.

Document Contents

Document Contents

Introduction

Plant Configuration

ACC Configuration

Operation

Frequency of Inspection

Other Internal Components

Preparation for Inspection

References

Safety

Photos

Physical (Visual) Inspection for Corrosion

Definitions

(continued)

DHACI Criteria for Quantifying Corrosion

ACC Visual Inspection Worksheet

Upper Section

Lower Section

ACC Inspection Worksheet: Background


Information

Inspection Regions
(continued)
5

-439-

Plant Configuration

ACC Configuration

Once through boiler

cooling tube length / entry shape

condensate polisher and filter likely

number of rows

high pH limits polisher effectiveness

Factors influencing internal corrosion:

no contamination allowed

number of fans / operational flexibility

Heat Recovery Steam Generators / Drum Boilers


can remove contaminants in boiler but often
not in preboiler system
can use amines instead of ammonia if no
polisher

condensate drainage
condensate deaerator
parallel cooling steam velocity

Frequency of Inspection

ACC Operation

Higher pH reduces iron transport

Neutralizing / filming amines may reduce


corrosion better than ammonia

Historical data on chemistry control, iron


transport, unit operation are important

ACC condition when off-line

Thoroughly during construction

10

11

12

-440-

Frequency of Inspection

Thoroughly during construction

Within first few months after


commissioning, if possible

13

14

Frequency of Inspection

Safety

Thoroughly during construction


Within first few months after
commissioning, if possible
Annually; select at least one duct for
repeat examination, rotate others.
If no problems observed after 3 or 4
years, may change inspection to
alternate years.

Falling appropriate railing, walkways,


elevators if possible

Upper distribution ducts permanent


ladders and platforms best

15

16

Safety

17

Falling appropriate railing, walkways,


elevators if possible
Upper distribution ducts permanent
ladders and platforms best
Insure adequate air inside ducts
Lighting
Floor drain ports
Plan for removal of personnel during injury
18

-441-

Inspection

Rating: DHACI (1 5)
Upper Section: duct, cooling tube entries

Record normal and abnormal surface


appearance with photographs

1 - Good condition: no corrosion found

shiny metal
different colors of iron oxide
deposition

19

20

Rating: DHACI (1 5)
Upper Section: duct, cooling tube entries

1 - Good condition: no corrosion found

2 - Minor corrosion: no bare metal, but


black deposits at tube entries

21

22

Rating: DHACI (1 5)
Upper Section: duct, cooling tube entries

23

1 - Good condition: no corrosion found

2 - Minor corrosion: no bare metal, but


black deposits at tube entries

3 Moderate corrosion: scattered spots of


bare metal, black deposits

24

-442-

Rating: DHACI (1 5)
Upper Section: duct, cooling tube entries

1 - Good condition: no corrosion found

2 - Minor corrosion: no bare metal, but


black deposits at tube entries

3 Moderate corrosion: scattered spots of


bare metal, black deposits

4 Serious corrosion: widespread bare


metal at tube entries along with widespread
black deposits

25

26

Rating: DHACI (1 5)
Upper Section: duct, cooling tube entries

1 - Good condition: no corrosion found

2 - Minor corrosion: no bare metal, but black


deposits at tube entries

3 Moderate corrosion: scattered spots of bare


metal, black deposits

4 Serious corrosion: widespread bare metal at


tube entries along with widespread black deposits

5 Very serious corrosion: holes in tubes or


welds, widespread corrosion in other tubes

27

28

29

30

-443-

Rating: DHACI (A C)
Lower Section: turbine exhaust, lower duct,
risers

A - Good condition: no corrosion found

31

32

33

34

35

36

Rating: DHACI (A C)
Lower Section: turbine exhaust, lower duct,
risers

A - Good condition: no corrosion found

B - Minor corrosion: some scattered spots


of bare metal

Rating: DHACI (A C)
Lower Section: turbine exhaust, lower duct,
risers

A - Good condition: no corrosion found

B - Minor corrosion: some scattered spots


of bare metal

C Serious corrosion: multiple,


widespread areas of bare metalscattered
spots of bare metal, black deposits

-444-

Inspection Worksheets
ACC Inspection Worksheet: Background Information

Rating: DHACI (A C)
Lower Section: turbine exhaust, lower duct, risers
A - Good condition: no corrosion found
B - Minor corrosion: some scattered spots of bare
metal
C Serious corrosion: multiple, widespread areas
of bare metalscattered spots of bare metal, black
deposits

LP turbine blades, last


stage(s)

Date inspected

LP turbine exhaust, direct


impact and vicinity

Inspector

Large steam exhaust duct

Plant contact

flow-related corrosion areas

ACC design

Lower distribution duct

ACC manufacturer & startup


year
Condensate T (seasonal)

Design steam flow


Condensate polishing?
(describe)
Condensate filtration?
(describe)

The lower duct area is generally not a major concern,


since the walls are thick compared with cooling
tube walls.

general surface

Unit design (general / MW


capacity)

Tube type

The DHACI is used to compare between units, or to


track changes with operating changes in a unit

ACC Inspection Worksheet: Locations

Unit name

flow-related corrosion areas

riser entries

other comments
Lower Duct DHACI rating:
A, B or C
Upper distribution duct
(which one?)

entry louvers

Condensate Fe levels: startup


entry duct region
Condensate Fe levels: routine
general duct
Condensate pH control range

37

tubesheet and crosssupports

38

Non-corrosion component integrity is also considered,


and expansion of this topic would be useful

Conclusions
The guidelines for internal inspection of ACCs is
intended for the benefit of users, and any suggestions to
further this intent are welcomed.
A complementary document for external inspection of
ACCs is in initial stages of preparation.
An additional guideline document to address external
cleaning of ACC finned tubing is under consideration.

39

40

Questions?

-445-

280 710032

ACC

1
2.5kg

ACC
ACC ACC ACC
[

] ACC ACC

1993 HAMON-LUMMUS Natural Draft Condenser


NDC ACC
ACC ACC

1994 GEA Natural Draft Air Cooled Condenser
NDACC
2014
3kW

2
ACC

-446-

O
O

NDC NDACC

3/4

ACC

600MW 3600
7
1 ACC
2 ACC

3 1
1725
-447-

4 DN300 2

3
1 1a ()
2

5 A-A 2
14

6 5
7 5 6

8 10

9
10
11
11a 11bHELLER
11c 11dSCAL
11e 11fHERTZ

-448-

1000MW HERTZ SCAL 1 7


Herts 217

1a

-449-

-450-

A
7
20

20

3 20

10
15

14

9
11

13

12

12

-451-

10

17

10
16

16

8
-452-

3-3

3-4

3-2

3-1
3-6

3-5

3-2

3-1

3-3

3-3

3-4

3-2

3-1
3-7

10
-453-

11

yanghuzhou@163.com
029-8259-3275 137-0919-1531
280

-454-

Lotus Condenser and Hertz Dry Cooling system


Yang Huzhou
(Lotus Flower Air Cooled Condenser and Radiation Type Reheat Direct Dry Cooling System With Natural
Draught Cooling Tower)

This invention is opening a radiation type reheat direct dry cooling system (Hertz system) with
lotus condenser. The condenser as stand bundle are erected on ground, surrounded the supporting
column of natural draught cooling tower. The condenser are consist of outside circle and Inside
circle, outside condenser is open as a lotus towards outside, inside condenser is open towards
inside, a condensate unit comprises a inside and outside flat condenser to share a steam
distribution duct. There is loop arrangement by unit made lotus air cooled condenser. The
condenser includes turned joints, division aslant board and rolling bearing etc.
The system also includes exhaust steam duct with plastic liner which between turbine house and
cooling tower, distribution steam silo with a cover, distribution steam bus duct, and distribution
steam bus pipe. The system includes condensate water recycle pipe, evacuating pipe and
reinforced concrete cooling tower etc.
The invention has advantage of lower investment, big heat exchange area, number of heat
exchange times is once, small resistance of cool air, simple system, convenient operating, and
heat recovery. There is no fan power and fan noise in Hertz system, while direct dry cooling
system ( ACC system) has its; There is no weight of circulating water in Hertz system, while
indirect dry cooling system has it. The fin of condenser tube can also be clear by pure water in
gravity direction and clearing method to be ensure recycle clearing water. The invention has not
louvers and its resistance. The condenser can be revolved around an axis to open as lotus flower
shape in freeze protection operating. The condensate water recycle pipe is used in the Hertz
system as a condensate tank.
Techno-field
Exhaust steam in the condenser is cooled to reduce it to condensate in power plant. This cooling
is effected by air through condenser fin tube. Lotus flower air cooled condenser and radiation
type reheat direct dry cooling system with natural draught cooling tower should be mention.
Background
The 2.5kg water consumption was economized by dry cooling instead of wet cooling for
generate a kWh electric power.
Cooling towers used for power plant purposes may be classified as follows:
(i)Wet type cooling towers,
(ii)Dry type cooling towers, and
(iii) Wet and dry cooling towers.
The dry type of cooling tower uses either air cooled condensers or air cooled heat exchangers,
and there is no contact between air and water.

-455-

Hamon-lummus company offers Natural Draft Condenser (NDC) concept in 1993, and GEA
company offers Natural Draft Air Cooled Condenser (NDACC) concept in 1994,Both do not
have the industrial applications.
At the year 2014, LI kaijian , a Chinese, had an industrial applications on his Patent for Direct
Dry Cooling With Natural Draught Cooling Tower in a 3kW power unit in China.
This invention was combination of advantage above 3 systems to efficient operation on
reliability, simplicity, safety, good working conditions, and ease of maintenance. The invention
also has advantage on low capital cost, minimum operating cost, and a pleasing appearance.
Key data
About 18465104 RMB was economized by Hertz system instead of Scal system in Yinchuan
city of China for an 1000 MW turbine unit.

Fig.1

1
1

Natural Draught Cooling Tower

-456-

2
2

Fig.2 Outside Flat Condenser of Lotus Condenser Close in the Summer

Fig.3 Outside Flat Condenser of Lotus Condenser Open in the Winter

-457-

A
7
3

Fig.4 Lotus Condenser Flat Arrangement Below A-A Axis

Fig.5 Pipe Arrangement Below A-A Axis

-458-

10

17
15

16

11
13

14

18
19

13

12

12
13
12

12

20
4

20
3

Fig.6 Big Size of Fig.5

-459-

10

17

Fig.7 Exhaust steam duct, distribution steam silo, and all steam pipe Arrangement Below A-A Axis

10
16

16

Fig.8 exhaust steam duct with plastic liner,

-460-

and distribution steam silo with a cover

Fig.9

Flow Diagram of Three Systems

-461-



710054

[1]

[2-4]20 60
200MW
1987 1988
2200MW
1992 4200MW

2004 9 1 300MW
300MW
350MW600MW1000MW1100MW SPXGEA

200MW

1987

200MW

1989

200MW

1993

600MW

2007

SCAL

200MW

2003

300MW

2004

-462-

600MW

2005

600MW

2008

600MW

2008

1000MW

2011

1100MW

2014

2
[5-7]

tn

D0 *(hs hw )
1
ta
*
'
3600* A * v * a1 * ca 1 e NTU

tn
D0t/h
hskJ/kg
hwkJ/kg
A m2
V m/s
a1kg/m3
cakJ/kgK
ta
NTU-
1
2
, , , , , ,
2

PckPa
D0t/h
GAt/h
KW/(m2K)

Am2
i(m2K) / W

o(m2K) / W

-463-

3
3.1

4
5 8

[8]

12

3.2

[9-11]
1~2kPa
12

3.3

[12]
1
2

-464-

1~1.5kPa
300MW600MW
3.4

[13-15] 3 4
2

-465-

600MW 33 28%
10 kPa

-466-

-467-

4
5

> >
1

10kPa

10kPa

10kPa

18000t/h
530t/h
1500kW

280t/h
1200kW

2300kW

>>

600MW TRL 10kPa

3.5

5%~9%5%~9%

-468-

600MW 15 33 1980kW
7.8kPa

1
2
3
600MW
33 28% 10kPa

4
600MW
15 33 1980kW
7.8kPa
5

[1] . [M], 1992.3, .


[2] ,,. [M]. : , 2006.
[3] ,. [J]. , 2009,25(3):1-4.
[4] . [J]. , 2006,7(3):5-7.
[5] . [M]. : , 1998.
[6] ,,,. [J]. ,
2000,15(6):601-604.
[7] ,,,. [J]. ,
2008,37(10):80-84.
[8] . [J]. , 2015,9: 114-115.
[9] , . [J]., 2011,6:32-34.
[10] . [D].,2010.
[11] ,. [J] .2007() : 55-57.
[12] ,. [J] .,2011,33(11),28-34.
[13] ,. [J] .,2011(
) :286-288.
[14] ,. 300MW [J] . ,2015..
[15] ,. [P] .
Emaillvkai@tpri.com.cn15891727854

-469-

Review of Technical Plans of Improving Operating Performance of ACC on


Summer
Kai Lv, Tao Jing, Chao Wan, Gaochao Li, Tingshan Ma, Shengli Chen
Xian Thermal Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., Xian, P. R. China

Abstract: Due to the obvious problems of ACC on summer such as high operating backpressure,
the limit out load, the high operating coal consumption rate, the technical improvement of ACC
is significantly imperative. The review of several technical plans of improving operating
performance of ACC on summer was made in this paper, which focus on the application
background, technical scheme and application effect. On the condition of fixed operating
parameters the peak cooling system distributes part of steam turbine exhaust and the ACC heat
load reduces, as well as the operating back-pressure. On the basis of original design parameters
of ACC the overall heat transfer area increases by adding several ACC units, the ACC overall
heat transfer performance improves and the operating back-pressure decreases.
Keywords: ACC, backpressure, peak cooling system, ACC capacity-increasing transformation
Introduction
There is a great demand for electricity with the rapid development of Chinese economy and
society. Compared to conventional power plants with water cooling technology which consumes
enormous water, air-cooling technology is widely used in the northern regions for its outstanding
performance in water-saving (DING 1992). Generally speaking, there are mainly three kinds of
air cooling system of power plant, which are direct air cooling system (ACC), indirect air
cooling system with jet condenser (Heller) and indirect air cooling system of surface condenser
(Harmon), respectively. Furthermore, air cooling radiator can be installed horizontally inside
tower or vertically outside tower. By reviewing development history on air cooling technology of
power plant, the conclusion can be drawn that the key factors are material processing,
manufacturing level and technical level of auxiliary devices [QIU 2006, DAI 2009, MA 2006].
Domestic research on air cooling technology of thermal power began in the 1960's. Two sets of
Heller type indirect air cooling system with jet condenser were imported from Hungary and
matched with domestic turbo generator. The two Heller type indirect air cooling units
(2200MW) were put into operation in Datong of Shanxi province in 1987 and 1988,
respectively. This was how the Heller type indirect air cooling technology was imported. In the
early 1990's, 2200 MW air cooling and heat supply unit were put into operation respectively in
Taiyuan, of which the cold end system was Harmon type indirect air cooling system with surface
condenser. Since 1992, 4200 MW indirect air cooling unit were put into operation successively
in Fengzhen of inner Mongolia, of which the cold end system was Heller type indirect air
cooling system with jet condenser.
Abundant experience in design, manufacture, installation, commissioning and operation was
accumulated with these water-saving air-cooling units running into operation, which has laid an
important technical foundation for the development of air cooling units with high-capacity. Since
Shanxi Zhang Shan power plant ---Chinese first 300MW subcritical direct air-cooled unit ---was
put into operation September 2004, direct air cooling unit has been developing rapidly for
decades towards higher parameters (Subcritical, supercritical, ultra supercritical), higher-capacity
(300MW350MW600MW1000MW1100MW) and total localization (At the beginning
all imported from foreign manufacturer such as SPXGEA, now all supplied form several
domestic manufacturers such as BEIJING SHOUHANG IHW RESOURCES SAVING
-470-

TECHNOLOGY CO.,LTD, HARBIN AIR CONDITIONING CO., LTD, Shuangliang EcoEnergy Systems Co.,ltd. , Beijing Longyuan Cooling Technology Co., Ltd). So far, the installed
capacity of direct aid-cooling units is far more than that of indirect aid-cooling units. Tab. 1 is
partial list of statistics of air-cooling power units which firstly put into operation in China.
Table 1: Partial list of statistics of air-cooling power units in China
Type fo air-cooling
mode
Indirect air cooling
system
with jet condenser
Indirect air cooling
system
with surface
condenser

Direct
air-cooling
system

Unit
capacity
200MW

Unit
parameter
Subcritical

Shanxi Datong second power plant

Operation
Year
1987

200MW

Subcritical

Inner Mongolia Fengzhen power plant

1989

200MW

Subcritical

Shanxi Taiyuan second thermal power


plant

1993

600MW

Subcritical

Shanxi Yangcheng Power Plant

2007

200MW
300MW
600MW
600MW
600MW

Subcritical
Subcritical
Subcritical
Subcritical
Supercritical
Ultra
supercritical
Ultra
supercritical

Shanxi Yungang thermal power plant


Shanxi Zhangshan power plant
Shanxi Datong second power plant
Tongliao power plant
Shangan power plant

2003
2004
2005
2008
2008

Ningxia Lingwu power plant

2011

Xinjiang agricultural six Division Coal


Co., Ltd.

2014

1000MW
1100MW

Power plant name

For direct air-cooling units, rich experience has been accumulated for decades of operation, but
many obvious problems aslo have been exposed, such as environmental sensitive, hot air reflux,
high back pressure, among which the problem that higher back-pressure caused mainly by high
temperature on summer is most serious. The higher back-pressure causes higher coal
consumption rate and lower output. However, summer is the time when the electric power
demand reaches peak, which calls for an increased output power of the air-cooling unit from the
practical utilization. This contradiction between the power demand from society and the output
limit from ACC has become the mosturgent issue in summer season. Therefore, many researches
have been done on how to effectively solve this problem both experimentally and theoretically,
and satisfactory results have been obtianed. Aiming to provide certain technical reference of the
economic operation of running ACC and optimized design of new ACC, this paper summarized
technical plans appeared recently of improving the operating performance of ACC on summer.
Hereby, this paper only concerns the technical principle and the effect of the introduction.
Brief introduction of idea on improving operating performance of ACC on summer
Taking ACC as a heat transfer, the expression of vapor condensation temperature of ACC system
is as follows (MA 1998, YAN 2000, LI 2008):
(1)
where: ts is steam condensation temperature of ACC, .
D0 is turbine exhaust flow, t/h.
hk is exhaust enthalpy, kJ/kg.
hc is condensate enthalpy, kJ/kg.
Aw is windward side area, m2.
vw is velocity of flow of air windward side, m/s.
-471-

a is air density flowing through ACC, m3/kg.


ca is air specific heat flowing through ACC, kJ/kgK.
1-e-NTU expresses the heat exchange efficiency of ACC.
ta is ambient air temperature, .
t is temperature loss due to pipe line resistance,.
Condensing pressure Pc of ACC can be calculated by Eq. (2).
.
.

0.1

(2)

Basing on Eq. (1) and Eq. (2), correlation equation of influence factors on condensing pressure
Pc can be expressed by Eq. (3).

, , , ,

(3)

where: Pc is vapor condensation pressure of ACC, kPa, representing steam turbine exhaust
pressure (back-pressure).
D0 is turbine exhaust flow, t/h, representing heat load of ACC.
GA is mass flow of cooling air flowing through ACC, t/h, representing operating
mode of axial flow fan.
K is overall heat transfer coefficient of ACC, W/(m2K), representing heat transfer
capability of ACC, which mainly consists of steam condensation inside finned tube,
heat conduction of tube wall and convective heat transfer outside finned tube.
A is overall heat transfer area, m2.
i is fouling resistance inside finned tube, (m2K) / W, representing foul
accumulation degree caused by vapor condensation.
o is fouling resistance outside finned tube, (m2K) / W, representing foul
accumulation degree caused by surrounding environment such as wind, dust.
From what discussed above, the ways to reduce back pressure are as follows:
1) Reduce environmental temperature, heat load of ACC and fouling degree of finned tube.
2) Increase the overall heat transfer area and overall heat transfer coefficient.
3) Increase mass flow of cooling air flowing through ACC caused by axial flow fan.
Operating mode of fans and environment wind both put influence on mass flow of cooling air.
For high temperature period on summer, output of fans reaches maximum. For this point, there
exists no realistic possibility of reducing back pressure from the perspective of increasing
cooling air mass flow.
According to heat transfer principle, heat transfer resistance of ACC is serially composed of
vapor condensation heat resistance inside tube, tube wall thermal conductivity, air convective
heat transfer thermal resistance outside tube and fouling resistance. The convection heat transfer
thermal resistance of air side is absolutely dominant in the total thermal resistance and owns the
maximal potential for changing the total thermal resistance. However, from what discussed
above, the output of fans and velocity of flow of air windward side reache maximum for high
temperature period on summer, so there exists few possibilities of reducing back pressure from
the perspective of increasing overall heat transfer coefficient.
In addition, fouling resistance inside tube cant be changed by physical and chemical method
-472-

basing unit operation and other reasons.


Therefore, among the factors in Eq. (3) that can be changed are environmental temperature, heat
load, overall heat transfer area and fouling degree outside tube.
Technical Scheme Introduction
1. Cleaning System
This technical scheme changes the fouling degree outside tube.
Application background: The back pressure directly affects the economy and security of direct
air cooling unit, while the fouling degree of ACC influences heat transfer efficiency, and then
affects operating back pressure. ACC is exposed to outdoor environment. Moreover, natural
environment is worse in the northern China, and massive ash, dust as well as other floating
debris is adhered to ACC surface by environmental wind, causing the ACC surface easily dirtied.
For this point, regular cleaning of ACC is significantly important.
Technical principle: This self-bring system of ACC puts into operation regularly on summer.
High pressure desalted water is sprayed to the heat exchange surface of ACC unit one by one.
The frequency of cleaning system depends on environment temperature and unit back pressure.
For a 300MW direct air-cooling unit located in northern China, generally speaking, the cleaning
work can start in May and end in October. In general case, the cleaning work lasts at high
temperature during the day and ends at relative low temperature during the night. When cleaning,
preventive measures such as outdoor electrical equipment below ACC short circuit because of
desalted water (WANG 2015).
Effect: The low temperature desalted water gains heat from the vapor inside the ACC unit, and
then condensate temperature decreases as well as the operating back-pressure. Disadvantages:
Since the number of ACC unit reaches 30 ~35(300MW) or 56~64(600MW) and the cleaning
system puts into operation one by one, the effect is significantly limited as well as considerable
consumption of desalted water.
2. Atomization Spraying System.
This technical scheme changes the inlet air temperature of ACC.
Application background: Natural air as cooling medium flows through ACC caused by axial flow
fan and gains heat from exhaust steam flowing through the tube bundle. Under the fixed other
factors, back pressure is directly affected by environmental temperature.
Technical principle: The desalted water is sprayed to atomization by spray nozzle and then
brought to the heat exchange surface of ACC by forced air-flow caused by axial fan. On the one
hand, the water parts evaporate and the inlet air temperature decreases. On the other hand, water
droplets which are brought to the heat exchange surface of ACC gain heat from the vapor inside
the ACC unit. Then the unit operating back pressure declines and output increases (WANG 2011,
FAN 2009, MA 2007 ).
Effect: On the condition of excellent atomization effect operating back pressure declines by 1~2
kPa on summer. Disadvantages: 1) The desalted water sprayed to air causes the air humidity
increase as well as the surface humidity of ACC, which increases the possiblity of dust and other
floating debris adhering to ACC surface as well as fouling degree of ACC, and then heat transfer
-473-

efficiency is given a band influence. 2) Considerable consumption of desalted water increases the
operating cost.
3. Guiding Device
This technical scheme changes air flow field of ACC.
Application background: The mass flow of cooling air distributes unevenly in the tube-length
direction and heat transfer area cant be fully utilized because of the special type frame
structure of ACC and complex three-dimensional flow field of axial flow fan outlet, which leads
a relative lower cooling capacity and poorer operating performance. Meanwhile, frequent
environmental wind with the form of transverse flow leads deterioration of inlet condition of
ACC, reduce on mechanical properties of the upper reaches of the wind field as well as increase
on possibility of hot air recirculation, which further limits the cooling capacity of ACC (JIA
2009).
Technical principle: 1) By theoretical analysis and numerical simulation of temperature field and
air flow field under different conditions, the law and characteristics of internal air flow field
varying with operating conditions can be obtained, and defects and deficiencies of existing air
flow field can be gained. 2) According to operating condition, equipment status as well as
characteristics of internal air flow field of type frame structure of ACC, the air flow field
guiding device is developed. Optimization design is carried out on guide plate structure, as well
as processing and manufacturing of air flow field guiding device.
Effect: Air flow field guiding device can overcome the structural defects of the existing ACC
units and conduct optimized organization of internal air flow filed inside ACC, which enables
heat transfer capacity of ACC. According to the design performance, the operating back pressure
can reduce by 1~1.5kPa after installing this guiding device.
4. Peak Cooling System
This technical scheme changes heat load of ACC.
Application background: Taking ACC as a heat exchanger, the heat load is the objective function.
As Eq. (1) shows, under the fixed other factors, back pressure is directly affected by heat load of
ACC.
Technical principle: As Fig.1 shows, on the condition of fixed operating parameters the peak
cooling system distributes part of steam turbine exhaust and the ACC heat load reduces. Finally
the operating back-pressure decreases as well as the coal consumption rate of power supply, and
the output increases as well as unit economy (CHEN 2012, LV 2015, CHEN 2013). In terms of
heat transfer process number and cooling medium, peak cooling system can be divided into wet
evaporative type cooler (two heat transfer process, take water and air as cooling medium) , wet
surface condenser (one heat transfer process, take water as cooling medium) and dry air cooling
system(one heat transfer process, take air as cooling medium). Dry air cooling system is similar
to direct air cooling system, which takes air as cooling medium. Fig.2 shows the schematic
diagram. Wet surface condenser is similar to the traditional condenser in the wet cooling unit,
and needs cooling device (whether build several mechanical ventilation cooling tower or
utilizing existing natural ventilation cooling tower) for circulating cooling water. The system is
relative complex and auxiliary facilities are as more as cold end system of wet cooling unit.
Evaporative condenser combines condenser, water circulating system and air supplying system
together, thus representing compact structure. Evaporative condenser can be divided into tube
-474-

bundle type and plate type. Fig.3 and Fig. 4 shows the engineering application.

Figure 1: System Schematic Diagram for Peak Cooling System

Axial flow fan


Exhaust pipe

Heat transfer tube bundle

Figure 2: Schematic Diagram for Dry air cooling system

-475-

Figure 3:
3 Engineering applicationn of tube bund
dle type evapo
orative condeenser system

Figuure 4: Engineeering applicattion of plate type


t
evaporattive condenseer system

Effect: The effect depends


d
on
n the distribbuting steam
m quantity. Take
T
a 600M
MW direct air coolingg
-476-

subcritical unit as example, to the TRL design condition the backpressure can decrease by 10 kPa
by distributing 28% of the steam turbine exhaust at 33.
Tab.2 gives the comprehensive comparison of the three types of peak cooling system.
Table 2 Comprehensive comparison of the three types of peak cooling system
Serial
number
1
2
3

4
5

Project name
Cooling medium
Needs cooling
device of cooling
medium or not
Auxiliary system

Device area
covered
back-pressure
reduce
(Objective
function)1
Energy
consumption index

Investment

Domestic
application
achievements

Wet surface condenser


water
yes
Exhaust system, vacuumpumping system,
Condensate water system,
Circulating water and
water supply system,
Thermal control and
electrical system

Wet evaporative type


cooler
water
no

Dry air cooling


system
air
no

Exhaust system,
vacuum-pumping
system, Condensate
water system, water
supply system,
Thermal control and
electrical system

Exhaust system,
vacuum-pumping
system, Condensate
water system, Air
supply system,
Spraying
system,Thermal
control and
electrical system
relative complex
relative simple
relative simple
Dry air cooling system> Wet evaporative type cooler>Wet surface
condenser
10kPa
10kPa
10kPa

Circulating water flow


Water consumption
Power consumption
18000t/h, Water
rate 280t/h, Power
rate 2300kW
consumption rate 530t/h,
consumption rate
Power consumption rate
1200kW
1500kW
Dry air cooling system>Wet surface condenser> Wet evaporative
type cooler
SHANGAN, YUSHE,
YUANYANGHU,
None temporarily
TUOKETUO
HUOLINHE

Note: For a 600MW subcritical direct air cooling unit, the objective function is that back
pressure reduces by 10kPa before and after adopting peak cooling system at TRL condition.
5. ACC capacity-increasing transformation
This technical scheme changes overall heat transfer area of ACC.
Application background: During the development of direct air cooling technology in China, the
design tolerance on overall heat transfer area of ACC is about 5% to 9% because of design idea
and device price at that time. However, the operating experience shows that the design tolerance
of 5% to 9% could obviously not to guarantee the design performance of ACC after putting into
operation. While taking ACC as a heat exchanger, the overall heat transfer area is an important
parameter. As Eq. (1) shows, under the fixed other factors, back pressure is directly affected by
the overall heat transfer area of ACC.
Technical principle: On the basis of original design parameters of ACC the overall heat transfer
-477-

area increases by adding several ACC units, the ACC overall heat transfer performance improves
and the operating back-pressure decreases. The air cooling tube bundles and axial flow fan can
be consistent with the original design, and platform height is the same as the original design.
Effect: The effect depends on the number of adding heat transfer area. Take a 600MW direct air
cooling subcritical unit as example, to the TRL design condition the backpressure can decrease
by 7.8 kPa by adding 24% of the original ACC heat transfer area at 33.
ACC units
added

ACC units
added

ACC units

ACC units

designed originally

designed originally

Figure 5: System Schematic Diagram for ACC capacity-increasing transformation

Conclusion
In this paper, several technical plans of improving operating performance of ACC on summer
were introduced and analyzed, including application background, technical principle and effect.
The main conclusions are as follows:
1) Due to the obvious problems of ACC on summer such as high operating backpressure, the
limit out load, the high operating coal consumption rate, the technical improvement of ACC is
significantly imperative.
2) Cleaning system and atomization spraying system make little contribution to improving ACC
performance on summer with considerable consumption of desalted water.
3) On the condition of fixed operating parameters, the peak cooling system distributes part of
steam turbine exhaust and the ACC heat load reduces. Finally the operating back-pressure
decreases and output increases. The effect depends on the distributing steam quantity. Take a
600MW direct air cooling subcritical unit as example, to the TRL design condition the
backpressure can decrease by 10 kPa by distributing 20% of the steam turbine exhaust at 28.
4) On the basis of original design parameters of ACC the overall heat transfer area increases by
adding several ACC units, the ACC overall heat transfer performance improves and the operating
back-pressure decreases. The effect depends on the number of adding heat transfer area. Take a
600MW direct air cooling subcritical unit as example, to the TRL design condition the
backpressure can decrease by 7.8 kPa by adding 24% of the original ACC heat transfer area at
33.
5) For a certain direct air cooling unit, technical plan of improving operating performance of
ACC chosen depends on unit actual situation, water resources, main devices layout.
-478-

This paper can provide certain technical reference to improving operating performance of ACC
on summer.
REFERENCES
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)

DING Er-mou 1992. Air cooling technology of Power plant, Beiing, China,Water Resources and Electric
Power Press.
QIU Li-xia, WANG Yan-hong 2006. Direct air cooling steam turbine and its thermodynamic system,
Beiing, China,China Electric Power Press,2006.
DAI Zhen-hui, SUN Feng-zhong, WANG Hong-guo 2009. Present Status and Development of Direct
Air-cooling Unit in the World, Power System Engineering ,Harbin, Heilongjiang, China,May. 2009,1-5.
MA Yi-wei 2006. Status and development of air cooling technology in power plant, Electrical Equipment,
Beijing, China, Mar.2006,5-7.
MA Yi-wei 1998. Design and application of air cooler, Harbin Institute of Technology press, Harbin,
Heilongjiang, China,1998.
YAN Jun-jie, ZHANG Chun-yu, LI Xiu-yun, LIN Wan-chao 2000. Theoretical study on the
characteristics of direct air cooling system, Thermal power engineering, Harbin, Heilongjiang,
China,Nov.2000, 601-604.
LI Gao-chao, ZHU Bao-tian, CHEN Shengli, PENG Na 2008. Calculation and analysis of the
characteristics of the direct air cooling system of air cooling system, THERMAL POWER GERATION,
Xi'an,Shannxi,China, Oct.2008, 80-83.
WANG Dong-yang 2015. Research on the technology of hot air cooling condenser cleaning group,
Science and Technolog, Yinchuan,Ningxia,China, 2015,114-115.
WANG Xi,DING Zhengyu 2011. Discussion on the thermal control of the spray cooling device
for direct air-cooling units, Ningxia Electric Power, Yinchuan,Ningxia,China, Dec.2011, 32-34.
FAN Zhi-qiang 2009. Study on Impacts of Air-cooled Island's Heat Transfer Performance Caused by
Spay Cooling System, Beiing, China,North China Electric Power University2009.
MA Qing-zhong, ZHANG Long-ying 2007. Application and Research on Peak Cooling System for ACC,
SHANXI ELECTRIC POWER ,Taiyuan,Shanxi, China,Dce. 2007,55-57.
JIA Bao-rong, YANG Li-jun, Etc. 2009. Influence of Flow Guiding Device Upon Flow and Heat Transfer
Characteristics of Air-cooled Condenser Cell, Proceedings of the CSEE, Beiing, China,Aug.2009, 14-19.
CHEN Shengli, Etc.2012. Investigation of the Application of Evaporative Cooling Technique on Summer
Spending of Direct Air-cooling Power Plant, Proceedings of the CSEE, Beiing, China,Dce.2012, 286-288.
LV Kai, Etc.2015. The Application of Plate Evaporative Condenser on Summer Spending of a 300MW
Direct Air-cooling Unit, THERMAL POWER GERATION, Xi'an,Shannxi,China, Already accepted.
CHEN Shengli, Etc.2013. A direct air cooling unit system using plate evaporative condenser,
Beiing,China, 2011.

Biography
Kai Lv, Male, Engineer, Xian Thermal Power Research Institute Co. Ltd.
Email: lvkai@tpri.com.cn Tel: 15891727854

-479-

050021

VGB
VGB

1Hz

VGB

VGB

2
VGB

2.1

p
m
2 AV L
m A
p LG

mk

pL
1

p

LG

VLG/VL
1
VGB

-480-

PLV p LG 273.15 L1


PL
p L 273.15 L1G

1 n

VLG/VL 1

2.2

(1)
VGB

m AG h A hK

m A h AG hKG

L1G

L1

VLG

VL

1G

VLG/VL 1
VGB
(2)

m AV VLG

m A VL G

VLG f G

VL
f

VGB

1 L1G
G
L1

(1 mk )

V
LG

VL

(1 mk )

L1G
1

L
1

45
6

(1 mk )

fG
m AV
f G

1
f

m A
f
f

(3)
VGB

-481-

m AV PLV

m A PLG

1
3 n

PLV
1
PLG

mk 1
3 n

PLV

VL L1

VLG L1G

n 1

3n PL

PLG

3n

L1G pLG 273.15 L1

L1 pL 273.15 L1G

10

VLG f G

VL
f

11

PLV p LG 273.15 L1


PL
p L 273.15 L1G

1 n

fG

f

3-n

12

3
600MW VGB 1
2
1

33.5

kPa

99.67

kPa

22.76

t/h

1166.63

MW

745.31

kJ/kg

2555

kW

5055

Items

Unit

Data

kPa

98.570

31.907

kW

4892.140

kPa

20.717

-482-

t/h

1149.580
0.965

Hz

50.600

VGB
3
3
VGB

0.9898

0.9898

1.0080

1.0080

0.9915

PLV/PL

PLV/PL

1.0040

0.9725

PLV/PLG

PLV/PLG

0.9716

0.9412

1.0078

1.0164

mAV*

98.1979

98.1979

1.0184

1.0184

(%)

mAV

100.9045

100.9025

(kPa)

PAV

22.4923

22.4929

f 1
VGB
3 VGB

f 3
f 3 VGB 3

4
(1).
VGB

(2).
-483-

VGB 1Hz

:
[1]VGB-R 131Me-1998, VGB Guideline Acceptance Test Measurements and Operation Monitoring of
Air-cooled Condensers under Vacuum[S].
hs.yang2010@qq.com

-484-

Discussion on the Fan Frequency Correction for


Performance Test of the Air-cooled Condensers
Haisheng Yang
Thermal Department Hebei Electric Power Research Institute. Hebei Shijiazhuang, P. R. China

AbstractIt is normally stated in the performance guarantee of the air-cooled condenser that the
air cooling fans be operated under rated speed condition. During the performance test on site, the
cooling fan speed or frequency is one of the boundary conditions that can be controlled, which
lead to the possibility of the deviation of the cooling fan speed from the rated condition. This
possible deviation of the fan speed or frequency is not covered in the related international
standard such as VGB test guideline and etc..In order to provide a solution for this possible
deviation factor on site test, a series of correction formulas are re-deduced for the VGB test
guideline based on the same principle of the guideline. Each time when the correction formula of
each variable is deduced, the other variables are considered constant in the process. The implied
conditions in the deduction of the correction formulas for ambient pressure and fan driving
power are discussed. Based on the analysis of the fan speed or frequency deviation, the
correction formula of the fan speed or frequency is added, and the correction formulas of the fan
driving power are modified. An example is provided for an actual site ACC performance test.
Two scenarios are calculated for the site test, one considering the deviation of the fan speed or
frequency, and the other based on the original test guideline. Its shown that within the fan
frequency deviation of 1Hz, the difference of calculation results of the two scenarios are minor
and can be neglected.
Key WordsAir-cooled CondensersPerformance TestFan FrequencyCorrection Formula
Introduction
It is normally stated in the performance guarantee of the air-cooled condenser that the air cooling
fans be operated under rated speed condition. During the performance test on site, the cooling
fan speed or frequency is one of the boundary conditions that can be controlled, which lead to
the possibility of the deviation of the cooling fan speed from the rated condition. This possible
deviation of the fan speed or frequency is not covered in the related international standard such
as VGB test guideline and etc.. The reason is all the correction formulas in the standard are
deducted under the assumption that the fan speed or frequency is controlled under the rated
speed condition.
In order to provide a solution for this possible deviation factor on site test, a series of correction
formulas are re-deduced for the VGB test guideline based on the same principle of the guideline.
Deduction of the Correction Formulas for Fan Speed or Frequency
In the VGB testing guideline of the air-cooled condenser, each time when the correction formula
of each variable is deduced, the other variables are considered constant in the correction process.
This same principle is applied when the correction formulas for fan speed or frequency are
deduced.
1 Overview of the Existing Correction Formulas

-485-

Among the four correction factors of the ACC test, the correction factors of atmospheric pressure
and fan driving power are related to the fan speed or frequency.
According to VGB testing guideline, the correction equation of atmospheric pressure is as
follows:

m AV p L

2
m A
p LG

mk

pL
1

p LG

(1)

The above formula can be deduced under the condition that the fans are operated at rated speed.
Under this condition, the volumetric air flow ratio VLG/VL can be assumed to be 1. However, this
precondition that the fans are operated at rated speed may not be fulfilled due to fan speed
control deviation on site.
In the VGB testing guideline, the correction equation of fan driving power is derived in two steps.
In the first step the testing fan driving power is corrected for the guarantee conditions such as
atmospheric pressure and inlet air temperature using the following equation:
PLV p LG

PL
p L

273.15 L1

273.15 L1G

1 n

(2)

It should be noted that the above fan driving power correction is derived under the same
precondition that the fans are operated at rated speed and the volumetric air flow ratio VLG/VL is
assumed to be 1.
In the second step, the correction of fan driving power is deducted based on the corrected fan
driving power, considering the effect on volumetric air flow and performance characteristic.
2 Introducing of Correction Formulas for Fan Speed or Frequency
Considering the deviation of the fan speed or frequency tested from the rated value, the
introducing of the correction of fan speed or frequency is divided in the following steps:
(1). Correction of atmospheric pressure
The general performance correction equation is listed per VGB guideline as:
m AG h A hK

m A h AG hKG

L1G

L1

VLG

VL

1G

(3)

In this step, the correction is made under the assumption that the corrected value is under the fan
speed or frequency tested. Therefore VLG/VL can be assumed to be 1, and the correction formula of
the atmospheric pressure is the same as the original formula.
(2). Correction of fan speed or frequency
-486-

In this step, the performance of the air-cooled condenser is corrected from the fan speed test
condition to the rated fan speed condition.
The deviation of the fan speed or frequency affects volumetric air flow and the performance
characteristic. The general correction equation is reduced to:
m AV VLG

m A VL G

(4)

For the change of the fan speed or frequency, there exists:


VLG f G

VL
f

(5)

The performance characteristic equation is as follows per VGB guideline:

1 L1G
G
L1

(1 mk )

V
LG

VL

(1 mk )

(6)

In the previous step, correction of the atmospheric pressure has changed the air density from test

L1G
1.
L1

conditions to rated conditions, thus there exists

The correction formula of the fan speed or frequency can be derived as:
m
f
f AV G
m A
f

(1 mk )

fG

(7)

(3). Correction of fan driving power


In the VGB test guideline, the correction factor of the fan driving power is given as:

m AV PLV

m A PLG

1
3 n

PLV
1
PLG

mk 1
3 n

(8)

Where PLV refers to the derived fan driving power corrected to rated atmospheric pressure and
inlet air temperature. Considering the fan speed deviation in the site test, the fan driving power
should be corrected to rated atmospheric pressure and inlet air temperature and rated speed
condition. The new correction formula can be derived based on the following equations:
VL L1

VLG L1G

n 1

3n PL

PLG

3n

(9)

L1G pLG 273.15 L1

L1 pL 273.15 L1G

(10)

VLG f G

VL
f

(11)
-487-

The final fan driving power formula is:


PLV p LG 273.15 L1


PL
p L 273.15 L1G

1 n

fG

f

3-n

(12)

Application of the Fan Speed Correction Formulas on site

One air-cooled condenser of 600MW fossil-fired generation unit is tested based on the VGB test
guideline. The following are design data of the air-cooled condenser.
Table 1 Air-cooled Condenser Design Data
Items

Unit

Data

Ambient Temperature

33.5

Ambient Pressure

kPa

99.67

Turbine Back Pressure

kPa

22.76

Turbine Exhaust Flow

t/h

1166.63

Turbine Exhaust Heat Load

MW

745.31

Turbine Exhaust Steam Enthalpy

kJ/kg

2555

Fan Motor Input Power

kW

5055

The site test data are listed on Tab. 2 below.


Table 2 Air-cooled Condenser Test Data
Items

Unit

Data

Atmospheric Pressure

kPa

98.570

Inlet Air Temperature

31.907

Fan Driving Power

kW

4892.140

Exhaust steam Pressure

kPa

20.717

Exhaust steam Mass Flow

t/h

1149.580

Steam Content, exhaust

0.965

Fan Frequency

Hz

50.600

The calculation is made for two scenarios, one is according to the original correction equations
in the VGB guideline, and the other is according to the new derived equations related to fan
speed. The results of the two scenarios are listed in Tab. 3.
Its shown that the difference of calculation results of the two scenarios is minor and can be
neglected. This can be explained as follows: Considering the fan speed or frequency is above the
rated value, when the fan speed or frequency correction is made, the correction factor f is
lower than 1; while the fan speed or frequency has an impact on the corrected fan driving power,
and the corrected fan driving power will decrease compared with the results in another scenario,
which will lead to the increasing of the correction factor 3. All the correction factors of the fan
speed (or frequency) and fan driving power are calculated and deduced based on the Ratio of the
-488-

Volumetric Air Flow and Ratio of Performance Characteristic, and have the same essence.
Therefore the multiplication of the two correction factors f 3 is nearly the same as the
results from another scenario (VGB original method), and the final results of the two scenarios
are very close.
Table 3 Test Results of Air-cooled Condenser
Calculated Item

Symbol

VGB
Equations

New Derived
Equations

Correction of steam content of exhaust steam

0.9898

0.9898

Correction of Atmospheric Pressure

1.0080

1.0080

Correction of Fan Frequency

0.9915

Correction of Fan Driving Power


PLV/PL

PLV/PL

1.0040

0.9725

PLV/PLG

PLV/PLG

0.9716

0.9412

Correction of Fan Driving Power

1.0078

1.0164

Steam Flow

mAV*

98.1979

98.1979

Correction of Exhaust pressure and inlet air temperature

1.0184

1.0184

Steam Flow Corrected (%)

mAV

100.9045

100.9025

Theoretical Turbine Exhaust Pressure at Guarantee


Condition (kPa)

PAV

22.4923

22.4929

Correction of Exhaust steam pressure and inlet air


temperature

Conclusions

(1). In order to provide a solution for this possible deviation factor on site test, a series of
correction formulas are re-deduced for the VGB test guideline based on the same principle of the
guideline. The implied conditions in the deduction of the correction formulas for ambient
pressure and fan driving power are discussed. Based on the analysis of the fan speed or
frequency deviation, the correction formula of the fan speed or frequency is added, and the
correction formulas of the fan driving power are modified.
(2). One example is provided for an actual site ACC performance test. Two scenarios are
calculated for the site test, one considering the deviation of the fan speed or frequency, and the
other based on the original VGB test guideline. Its shown that within the fan frequency
deviation of 1Hz, the difference of calculation results of the two scenarios are minor and can
be neglected.
Reference
[1]VGB-R 131Me-1998, VGB Guideline Acceptance Test Measurements and Operation Monitoring of
Air-cooled Condensers under Vacuum[S].
-489-

Biography
Haisheng Yang, Male, Thermal Department Hebei Electric Power Research Institute.
E-mail: hs.yang2010@qq.com,

-490-

Numerical investigation on the influence of ambient wind speed on the fans


of an air-cooled steam condenser
under different wind directions conditions
Hang Li1, Yi Wu1, Jiaying Wang1, Weifeng He2, Longying Zhang3,Yiping Dai1*
1. Turbomachinery Research Institute, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, Shaanxi 710049, China)
(2. College of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing,
210000, China)
3. Shanxi Electric Power Research Institute , Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001,China
*E-mail address: ypdai@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

Abstract: Water saving has been the focus of a great deal of research, so direct air-cooled power
plants with remarkable water saving performance have been popularized in the place with water
shortage and abundant coal production. In this paper, a mathematic model of a 2600 MW direct
air-cooled power plant was built. On the basis of the operating performance of fans under
windless conditions, considering the effects of workshops in the air-cooled plants and the
symmetry of wind directions, we selected 5 wind directions from =0 to
=180 ( 0 , 45 , 90 , 135 , 180 )and the range of certain wind speeds(2-10 m/s). The operating
performance of fans was investigated under the above selected conditions. The change laws of
the flow rate values of fans and the heat exchange rate values of heat exchangers under above
different wind directions and wind speeds conditions were researched. Results show that the
workshops have positive effects on adjacent fans under windless condition. When the wind
direction is90, the fans flow rates and the heat exchange rates of condensers reach the
maximum due to the facts that the amount of windward side fans is small and the workshops
have little influence on fans. When the wind direction is 180, the ambient wind is blocked by
the workshops leading to poor performance of condensers.
Keywords: Air-cooled steam condensers, axial fans, ambient wind directions, ambient wind
speeds
1. Introduction
With the development of the power industry, direct air-cooled power plants with remarkable
water saving performance have been popularized in the place with water shortage and abundant
coal production. The turbine exhaust enters the finned tube exchanger in the air-cooled steam
condensers (ACSC) after it flows into the steam duct, and then condenses while the cold ambient
air flows outside the tubes. As the cooling medium, air has a smaller specific heat than water and
the dry bulb temperature of air is higher than the wet bulb temperature during the process of heat
transfer [1]. Hence the forced draft axial-flow fans must be installed to generate enough air to
cool the turbine exhaust. As a type of key device in power plants, the ACSC exposed in the
environment generally is sensitive to the ambient conditions. Forced draft axial-flow fans
utilized to provide momentum for ACSC have great effects on the profit of an air-cooled power
plant.
As the interior power source of ACSC, the axial-flow fans blow air into the A-shaped cooling
chamber. The air then condenses the turbine exhaust. The analysis has drawn much attention and
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has been the subject of much research on the mechanisms of the fans performance decrease
resulting from the influence of the ambient wind on axial-flow fans. G.D. Thiart [2-3] based on the
disc actuator model and the blade element theory established a mathematical model to simulated
dynamic characteristics of fans. He studied the flow field near an axial-flow fan under distorted
inflow conditions. The simulative values agree well with the experimental data. The
mathematical model built by G.D. Thiart was adopted in much research to investigate the effects
of the transverse wind and distorted inflow on the operating performance of an air-cooled system
comprising single fan or several fans[4-7].On the basis of the blade element theory, Meyer and
Krger [8-9] simulated the flow field in the vicinity of an axial flow fan, and the comparison of the
numerical results with experimental data indicated the accuracy of the fan model in its prediction
of the axial fan performance characteristics. Stinnes [10] studied the effect of cross-flow and
off-axis inflow on the performance of air-cooled fans. The numerical research by P.J. Hotchkiss
[11]
confirmed the findings of Stinnes. Salta and Kroger [12] studied the effect of cross-flow and
inlet flow distortions on the performance of air-cooled fans and heat exchangers respectively by
experiments. Different fan structure as well as the platform height was modeled to characterize
the influence of the flow distortion on the fan performance [1315], and the simulation result was
confirmed by the previous experiments [16]. X.F. Gao et al. [17-18] established a simulation
calculation model about a whole air-cooled plant with condensers, workshops and chimneys.
FAN boundary condition in FLUENT was applied to simulate the pressure jump when the air
flows through the rotor. Their results showed that the ambient wind speed, direction and height
of the air-cooled platform all had great effects on the ASCS operating performance.
Simultaneously, a conclusion was drawn that the windward fans is more sensitive to the ambient
air than other fans. Rooyen [19] found that the flow distortions and corresponding low-pressure
region at the upstream edge fans mainly contribute to the net decrease of the ASCS performance
as the wind speed increases, but the wind does have a positive influence on certain fans.
In the process of the design of direct air-cooled power plants, the existing literature only
considers the influence of wind temperature on the operating performance of ACSC sufficiently
but ignores the influence of wind speed and wind direction, leading to worse operating economy
under off-design conditions. Thus it is necessary to investigate the influence of the ambient wind
on fans of the air-cooled power plant. Complex and variable environmental conditions limit the
experimental tests on the performance of air-cooled condensers. Advanced computer technology
makes the large scale numerical simulation, which is more flexible and economical. In this paper,
a mathematic model of a 2600 MW direct air-cooled power plant is built to simulate the flow
field around the ACSC. The change laws of the fans operating performance are researched and
the corresponding influence mechanisms are analyzed under different wind speeds and wind
directions conditions. This study could provide theoretical foundations for optimizing the power
plant structures and operating modes and promoting the operating economy.
2. Physical model and numerical method
2.1 Physical model and grids
Fig. 1 exhibits the model diagram and the geometric structure of an ACSC in a 2600MW power
plant. The plant mainly consisted of condenser, steam turbine room and boiler room. The
condenser was composed of 112 air-cooled cells, concluding 7 rows and 16 columns. The size of
the ACSC was 180.888.2 m, and 45 m in height. Meanwhile, screen wall of 15 m in height was
installed to prevent hot air recirculation. The distance between steam turbine room of 42.9 m in
height and boiler room of 108 m in height was 12.6 m. Deoxygenization room and coal bunker
room were 54.9 m and 68.9 m in height, respectively.
Fig. 2 presentsthe structure diagrams of the interior fan and the single row ALEX finned tube
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exchanger. The fan drum had a diameter of 9.14 m and height of 2.1m. The hub had a diameter
of 1.12m. The aluminum fin was 200mm in length, 19 mm in height and 0.3mm in thickness.
The spacing of fins along the direction of vapor flow is 2.5 mm. The base tube was 1.5 mm in
thickness.
Boiler room
Steam turbine
room

ACSC

Screen
wall
coal bunker
room Deoxygeniza
tion room

Concrete
column

(a) Model diagram


(b) Geometric structure
Fig. 1 Model diagram and geometric structure of an ACSC in a 2600 MW power plant

(a) Structure diagrams of axial fan

bStructure diagrams of single-row ALEX


finned tube exchanger
Fig. 2 Structure diagrams of axial fan and single-row ALEX finned tube exchanger

Fig. 3 shows the computational domain and grid distribution of an ACSC in a 2600 MW power
plant. The sizes of the computational domain were 900900300 m. Grids around the ACSC and
workshops were refined due to the fact that the ACSC is the disturbance source of the
computational domain. The intensive degree of grids in domain was inversely proportional to the
distance from the local position to the workshops. The computational domain was divided into
294 pieces to ensure convergence and accuracy during the simulation.3 sets of grids with
different amounts were selected to compare the heat exchange rate values of ACSCs. The
maximum deviation is less than 1%, therefore the grid independence is satisfied and the total
number of grids for the whole domain was 6,670,000 in Fig. 3. The maximum value of the
equiangle skew characterizing the orthogonality of grids was 0.71. Interfaces were utilized to
ensure fluid to flow regularly between the outlet of fan drum and the inlet of A-shaped cooling
chamber.

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Z
X
Y

300m

0m
90

900m

Fig. 3 Computational domain and grid distribution of an ACSC in a 2600 MW power plant

2.2 Reasonability validation of model


On the basis of the grids independence, the reasonability of model is necessary to be validated
before the model is simulated. According to the VGB guideline for the assessment of direct
air-cooled steam condenser boundary rules, we assume the wind speed is 3m/s and the local
prevailing wind direction is 22.5.
The operating performance of air-cooled power plant were achieved by simulation under 5 kinds
of design conditions, namely turbine heat acceptance (THA), turbine rating load (TRL), turbine
maximum continue rate (TMCR), valve wide open (VWO) and choked back pressure conditions.
Fig. 4depicts the comparison of simulative results with design parameters of a 2600 MW direct
ACSC. There is a high level of agreement between the simulative results and the design
parameters. The maximum error of volume flow rates of fans was 3% under the choked back
pressure conditions. And the maximum error of heat exchange rate of the heat exchanger was
1.4% under the same conditions.
case1

case2

case3

case4

case5

case1
60000

Design data
Simulative results

1800

50000

50000

40000

40000

30000

30000

20000

20000

10000

10000

0
case1

case2

case3

case4

case5

case3

case4

case5
1800
1600

1400

1400

1200

1200

1000

1000

800

800

600

600

400

400

200

200
0

0
case1

Serial number of cases

case2

Design data
Simulative results

1600

Heat exchange rate/MW

Volumetric flow rate/m3s-1

60000

case2

case3

case4

case5

Serial number of cases

(a)Volume flow rate of fans


(b) Heat exchange rateof heat exchanger
Fig. 4 Comparison of simulative results with design parameters of a 2600 MW direct ACSC

2.3 Numerical method and boundary conditions


The SIMPLE algorithm was applied in FLUENT for a steady-state solution. Turbulence was
modeled using the standard k- model and the governing equations were discretized utilizing the
finite volume method. Buoyancy effect was considered during simulation. For the direct
air-cooled system simulation, the wind speed is less than one-third of the local sonic velocity, so
the model is considered to be an incompressible steady flow. The general governing equations
are as follows [20]:

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u v w

t
x
y
z

S
x x y y z z

(1)

where stands for different variables, stands for the corresponding generalized diffusion
coefficient and S stands for the corresponding source term.
For the continuity equation:
1, 0, S 0
(2)
For the momentum equation:
x direction

p
u
v
w

u, eff t , S eff

eff

eff

x x
x y
x z
x

y direction

p
u
v
w (3)
v, eff t , S eff
eff
eff

y x
y y
y z
y

z direction

p
u
v
w
w, eff t , S eff
eff
eff

z x
z y
z z
z
For the energy equation:
T , / Pr t / T
(4)
For k equation:
k , t / k , S Gk
(5)
For equation:

C1 Gk C2
k
where is viscosity, t is turbulent viscosity, eff is effective turbulent viscosity.
, t / , S

t C

k2

(6)

(7)

Gb represents the generation of turbulent kinetic energy due to buoyancy effect which is caused
by temperature
T
Gb g t
(8)
T z
where is the thermal expansion coefficient
1
(9)
= T
Gk is a term which generates because of turbulence kinetic energy k caused by the gradient of the
average velocity.
u 2 v 2 w 2 u v 2 u w 2 v w 2
Gk t 2
(10)


x y z y x z x z y

C3 is constant determining the degree to which is affected by the buoyancy

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C3 tan

vz
u

(11)

where u is the component of the flow velocity perpendicular to the gravitational vector.
According to the recommended values that Launder verified through experiment, the empirical
constants which appear in the turbulence equations are assigned the values shown in Table 1[21]:
Table 1

Empirical constants in the turbulence equations

C1

C2

0.09

1.44

1.92

0.85

1.0

1.3

In additional, in view of the incompressibility, is calculated by the following equation.


p
(12)
op
RT
where pop is called the operation pressure, set in Fluent as the reference pressure during the
iterative process, and R is the universal gas constant.
FAN boundary condition in FLUENT is applied to simulate the pressure jump when the air flows
through the rotor. Fan is considered to be a thin enough face in this model.On the basis of the
lumped parameter theory, the interior face was equivalent to the fan. The relationship needed in
the model can be gained according to the supplied information by the fan manufacture.
p 173.92 3.33vn 0.61vn 2
(13)
where p is the pressure rise; vn is the normal velocity to the fan surface
The mechanical energy loss resulting from the fin-tube exchangers (corresponding pressure drop)
is taken into account by a viscous and an inertial loss with porous media model. The flow loss
term added to Navier-Stokes equations can be defined by [23]:

1
S ( v F C vF 2 )
(14)

2
where S is the momentum source term; is the permeability; C is the inertial loss
coefficient; vF is the frontal velocity, is the dynamic viscosity; is the density.
Turbine exhaust condensates in the exchangers and the physic parameters of the steam are all
variable during condensation. Hence UDF based on the actual water and steam property is
utilized to simulate the condensation of the steam in the fin tube exchangers. The heat exchanger
is considered to be fluid zone during simulation, and heat release in each grid is obtained initially
and then the sum of the grid release is just the total heat transfer rate between the ambient and
the turbine exhaust [24].
Fig. 5and Tab. 2show the detailed boundary conditions under windless condition of
the2600MW direct air-cooled power plant.

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Tab. 2 Boundary conditions under windless


condition of the2600MW direct
air-cooled power plant
Items
Boundary condition
Inlet
Pressure inlet
Outlet
Pressure outlet
Ground
Wall with ambient
temperature
Steam duct
Wall with exhaust
temperature
Fan drum
Coupled wall

Fig. 5 Boundary conditions under windless


condition of the2600MW direct
air-cooled power plant

Fig. 6 illustrates the boundary conditions under ambient wind condition of the2600MW direct
air-cooled power plant. The ground was wall with ambient temperature. The windward was
velocity inlet and the leeward was pressure outlet. On the basis of VGB-131Me, Equ. (15) can be
applied to describe the changes of ambient wind speeds with the height. Other boundary
conditions were the same as the windless boundary conditions.

z
v vw ( )b
10

(15)

where vw is the wind speed at the measured location which has a height of 10 m in general. In the
present analysis, a value of b = 0.2 is assumed.

(a) =0

(b) =45

(c) =90

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(d) =135

(e) =180

Fig. 6 Boundary conditions under ambient wind condition of the2600MW direct air-cooled power plant

3. Results and discussion


3.1 Operating performance of ACSC under windless condition
The influence mechanism on flow and heat transfer characteristics is easy to gain for the single
or double ACSC cells, due to the fact that there exists no workshop in the model [25-28]. A large
number of fans and finned tube exchangers complicate the analysis on the flow field for the
whole ACSC in the direct air-cooled power plant. In addition, the workshops block the ambient
wind resulting in more serious complexity. The analysis on fans performance under windless
condition is the foundation for further research, so we can start with windless condition. The
pressure distribution on the surface of the fan can reflect the fans performance since the ambient
wind could decrease the pressure at the inlet of fans. Besides, one new performance indicator,
volumetric effectiveness can be defined as the ratio of the actual fan volume flow rate and the
ideal fan volume flow rate. Hence pressure distribution on the surface of the fan and volumetric
effectiveness can be applied to assess the fans performance.
3.1.1 Operating performance of fans
Fig. 7 shows the flow rate distribution of direct ACSC in the 2600MW air-cooled power plant
under windless condition. When the ambient wind blows, the volumetric effectiveness of
leeward fan is higher than that of windward fan for double ACSC cells [25]. The suction of fans
results in smaller flow rate of peripheral fans than that of interior fans for a good number of fans.
The peripheral fans play a role of ensuring the air flow stably. It can be noted from the figure that
the volume flow rates of peripheral fans were less than design values, and conversely the volume
flow rates of interior fans were more than design values.

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Volumetric effectivenes
s/%

1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
7

Row

num 4 3
ber

0.0
1 16
12 4 mber
10
nu

umn
Col

Fig. 7 Flow rate distribution of direct ACSC under windless condition

It is difficult to analyze operating performance of each fan for the reason that the amount of fans
was large. Therefore, the operating performances of fans were researched on the basis of each
row and column. The influence mechanism that ambient wind and workshops affect operating
performances of fans can be obtained by comparison.
Fig. 8 depicts the row and column average volumetric effectiveness of the 2600MW direct
ACSC under windless condition. The Y direction was defined as the row direction. The air
coming from the positive Y direction could be inhaled directly. However, the air coming from the
negative Y direction has to bypass the workshops in order to be inhaled. On the basis of above
reason, the row average volumetric effectiveness on the workshop side was higher than that on
the free side, and the average volumetric effectiveness of the interior rows was higher than that
of the exterior rows. Column average volumetric effectiveness of fans was obviously symmetric
due to geometric symmetry.
1

7
1.08

1.06

1.06

1.04

1.04

1.02

1.02

1.00

1.00

0.98

0.98

0.96

0.96

0.94

0.94

0.92

0.92

Volumetric effectiveness/%

Volumetric effectiveness/%

1.06

1.08

10

12

14

16

1.04

1.04

1.02

1.02

1.00

1.00

0.98

0.98

0.96

0.96

0.94

0.94

0.92

0.92
0

Row number of fans

1.06

10

12

14

16

Column number of fans

(a)Row volumetric effectiveness


(b) Column volumetric effectiveness
Fig. 8 Row and column average volumetric effectiveness of the 2600MW direct ACSC under windless
condition.

Fig. 9 exhibits the pressure distribution of fans of the 2600MW ACSC under windless condition
corresponding to the flow rate distribution shown in Fig. 7. It can be seen from the figure that the
pressure of peripheral fans decreased obviously, especially the fans on the free side whose row
average volumetric effectiveness was only 0.93. The volumetric effectiveness of row on the
workshops side was 0.99. Meanwhile, the column volumetric effectiveness values of peripheral
fans were both 0.94 due to the symmetry. Hence, the operating performance of peripheral fans on
the free side suffered from the maximum decrease and the operating performance of peripheral
-499-

fans on the workshop side nearly reached the design values.

Fig. 9 Pressure distribution of fans of the 2600MW ACSC under windless condition

3.1.2 Heat exchange performance of heat exchangers


The velocity of air in the finned tube exchanger was perpendicular to the surface of heat
exchanger due to the inhaled function of fans. And the air component velocities of two other
directions can be ignored. Therefore, 7 air-cooled cells in one column can be considered as one
heat exchanger and we could study the relationship of the heat transfer rates of 32 heat
exchangers.

Fig. 10 shows the heat transfer rate distribution of the 2600 MW ACSC under windless
condition. The distribution law of heat transfer rate was similar to that of column volumetric
effectiveness. The volumetric effectiveness of peripheral fans decreased resulting in smaller heat
transfer, on both sides, namely 5.09 MW and 5.02 MW, respectively. The heat transfer values of
fans near the peripheral fans were 5.34 MW and 5.33MW, respectively. The heat transfer values
of interior 28 fans were relative even, and their mean value was 5.42 WM.

Heat exchange rate/MW

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

5.5

5.5

5.4

5.4

5.3

5.3

5.2

5.2

5.1

5.1

5.0

5.0
2

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

Column number of heat exchanger

Fig. 10 Heat transfer rate distribution of 2600MW ACSC under windless condition

3.2 Operating performance of fans under wind conditions


The operating performance of ACSC under windless condition is a kind of idea working
condition. However, frequency of the strong wind weather appears is high in the place of
abundant coal but lack of water. As a consequence, the study on the operating performance of
ACSC under wind conditions is the key to solve the question that the power plant operates
chronically with poor operating economy. The ambient wind has great effects on the flow fields
at the inlet of the fans and the hot air through heat exchangers.
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The numerical calculation model of the 2600MW direct ACSC power plant was symmetry on
the Y-coordinate. So 5 wind directions from =0 to =180 ( 0 , 45 , 90 , 135 , 180 ) were
selected to investigate the operating performance of fans under ambient wind conditions.
The location of windward fans is relative to the wind directions and the relative locations with
ACSC and workshops. When the wind direction was 0, 45 and 90, the fans influenced firstly
are the windward fans. When the wind direction was 135 and 180, the row near the workshops
cannot be affected directly by the ambient wind due to the block of workshops. The fans near the
workshops were considered to be windward fans as well. Due to symmetry of the wind
directions, this paper only studies the above 5 wind directions. Therefore, the serial number of
fans is shown in Fig. 11.

Fig. 11 Windward fans of 2600MW direct ACSC schematic diagram

1Wind direction =0
Fig. 12 illustrates the change laws of the row and column average volumetric effectiveness with
increasing of the wind speed under the wind direction of =0. As shown in Fig. 12(a), row
volumetric effectiveness increased along the Y direction and the increasing trend decreased
gradually under certain wind speed. And the row volumetric effectiveness increased with an
increase in wind speed. The volumetric effectiveness of the first row windward fans decreased
from 0.79 (vm=2ms-1) to 0.39 (vm=10ms-1) and the volumetric effectiveness of the seventh row
fans decreased from 1.11 to 1.03. Meanwhile, it can be noted from the figure that the effect of
the wind speeds on the operating performance of fans tended to be stable with an increase in
wind speed. For example, both row volumetric effectiveness values were equal when the wind
speeds were 8ms-1 and 10ms-1, respectively.

It is complex to analyze the effects of the wind speed on the column volumetric effectiveness. As
shown in Fig. 12(b),the column volumetric effectiveness of fans decreased with an increase in
the wind speed. The outside fans were not the windward fans, so the column volumetric
effectiveness values of the outside fans were slightly smaller than those of the interior fans.
When the wind speed vm6ms-1 , the column volumetric effectiveness values of outside fans
were smaller than those of fans near the outside fans. And the column volumetric effectiveness of
the interior fans changed slightly. When the wind speed vm>6ms-1 , the column volumetric
effectiveness values of outside fans were larger than those of fans near the outside fans and the
column volumetric effectiveness values of interior adjacent fans occurred vibration.

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7
1.1

1.0

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.6
0.5
0.4

10 11 12 13 14 15 16
-1

vm=2ms
-1
vm=4ms
-1
vm=6ms
-1
vm=8ms
-1
vm=10ms

1.10
1.05

1.15
1.10
1.05

0.95

0.90

0.90

0.85

0.85

0.4

0.80

0.80

0.3

0.75

0.5

0.95

0.6

0.3

1.00

0.7

-1

vm=2ms
-1
vm=4ms
-1
vm=6ms
-1
vm=8ms
-1
vm=10ms

1.00

0.8

0.7

1.15

Volumetric effectiveness/%

Volumetric effectiveness/%

1
1.1

0.75
1

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Column number of fans

Row number of fans

(a) Row average volumetric effectiveness

(b) Column average volumetric effectiveness

Fig. 12 Change laws of row and column average volumetric effectiveness with increasing of wind speed under
the wind direction of =0

Fig. 13 displays the pressure distribution of fan faces under the wind direction of =0. The same
pressure range was adopted to observe the pressure distribution. The first row fans were the
windward fans and the positive pressure zone appeared on the windward side. The positive
pressure values increased with the wind speed leading to a result that the row volumetric
effectiveness of the windward fans decreased with an increase in wind speed. Simultaneously, it
can be seen from Fig. 13 that, the negative pressure zone appeared on the windward side, and the
positive pressure zone appeared on the high-pressure side of the same fan face. The scale of high
pressure zone and the pressure values increased rapidly with the ambient wind speed.

(a) vm=2ms-1

(b) vm=4ms-1

(c) vm=6ms-1

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(d) vm=8ms-1

(e) vm=10ms-1

Fig. 13 Pressure distribution of fan faces under the wind direction of =0

2Wind direction =45


When the wind direction =45, the first row and the first column of fans were both windward
sides. Fig. 14 illustrates the change laws of the row and column average volumetric effectiveness
with increasing of the wind speed under the wind direction of =45. It can be seen that the
average volumetric effectiveness of the windward fans decreased with an increase in wind speed.
The average volumetric effectiveness value of the first row fans from 0.87 (vm=2ms-1) to 0.60
(vm=10ms-1) and the average volumetric effectiveness value of the first column fans from 0.85 to
0.61. Therefore, the decrements were nearly identical.

As shown in Fig. 14(a), the row average volumetric effectiveness values decreased with an
increase in wind speed. The decrement of row average volumetric effectiveness value under the
condition of vm=10ms-1 was smaller than that under the condition of vm=8 ms-1. Meanwhile, the
row average volumetric effectiveness value increased first and then decreased with the increase
of the serial number under the condition of vm=2 ms-1.The row average volumetric effectiveness
value increased with the serial number under the conditions of other wind speeds.
As shown in Fig. 14(b), the change laws of the column volumetric effectiveness values were the
same as those of the row volumetric effectiveness values. It can be noted that the volumetric
effectiveness values of the first and the second column fans stepped greatly. And the variation
trend of the volumetric effectiveness values of other column fans was gentler than the condition
of =0. The vibration did not occur.
2

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.0

1.0

0.9

0.9

-1

vm=2ms
-1
vm=4ms
-1
vm=6ms
-1
vm=8ms
-1
vm=10ms

0.8

0.7

0.8

0.7

0.6

Volumetric effectiveness/%

Volumetric effectiveness/%

0.6
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

1.1

1.0

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

-1

vm=2ms
-1
vm=4ms
-1
vm=6ms
-1
vm=8ms
-1
vm=10ms

0.7

0.6
1

10

0.7

0.6
11

12

13

14

15

16

Column number of fans

Row number of fans

(a) Row average volumetric effectiveness

(b) Column average volumetric effectiveness

Fig. 14 Change laws of row and column average volumetric effectiveness with increasing of wind speed under
the wind direction of =45
-503-

Fig. 15 displays the pressure distribution of fan faces under the wind direction of =45. The first
row and the first column of fans were both windward sides and the pressure decreased with an
increase in wind speed. On the basis of the above reason, the average volumetric effectiveness
values of the first row and the first column fans were lower than those of other fans in Fig. 14.
And the pressure decrement of the row windward fan faces was larger than that of the column
windward fan faces with the increasing wind speed. It can be seen from the figure that there
exists obvious pressure difference on the fan faces of the negative X coordinate and the positive
X coordinate. The negative pressure zone of the fan faces of the positive X coordinate extended,
and the pressure value was large. However, the windward side pressure on the fan faces of the
positive X coordinate decreased slightly, and the high pressure zone existed on the leeward side.

(a) vm=2ms-1

(b) vm=4ms-1

(c) vm=6ms-1

(d) vm=8ms-1

(e) vm=10ms-1

Fig. 15 Pressure distribution of fan faces under the wind direction of =45

3Wind direction =90


Fig. 16 depicts the change laws of the row and column average volumetric effectiveness with
increasing of the wind speed under the wind direction of =90. The steam turbine room and
boiler room had effects on the seventh row fans, resulting in the different flow fields between the
first row and the seventh row fans. Hence, as shown in Fig. 16 that the distribution laws of row
-504-

volumetric effectiveness values were not symmetric. The row volumetric effectiveness increased
first and then decreased under different ambient wind speed conditions. The average volumetric
effectiveness value of the seventh row fans decreased obviously due to the influence of the
workshops. The difference value of volumetric effectiveness between the sixth row fans and the
seventh fans decreased with the wind speed. The volumetric effectiveness decreased from 0.85
of the sixth row fans to 0.68 of the seventh row fans under the condition of vm=10ms-1.
As shown in Fig. 16(b), the first column fans were the windward fans which were sensitive to the
wind speed. The average volumetric effectiveness decreased from 0.80(vm=2 ms-1) to
0.36(vm=10 ms-1) and the decrement reached 0.44. The column volumetric effectiveness
increased with the serial number and the trend was gentle. Fierce vibration appeared among the
adjacent columns.
1

1.05

1.05

Volumetric effectiveness/%

1.10

1.00

1.00

0.95

0.95
0.90

0.90
0.85

0.85

-1

vm=2ms
-1
vm=4ms
-1
vm=6ms
-1
vm=8ms
-1
vm=10ms

0.80
0.75
0.70

0.80
0.75

0.65
1

Volumetric effectiveness/%

1.10

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

1.1

1.1

1.0

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.5
0.4

0.65

0.3

0.7

-1

vm=2ms
-1
vm=4ms
-1
vm=6ms
-1
vm=8ms
-1
vm=10ms

0.6

0.70

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Column number of fans

Row number of fans

(a) Row average volumetric effectiveness

(b) Column average volumetric effectiveness

Fig. 16 Change laws of row and column average volumetric effectiveness with increasing of wind speed under
the wind direction of =90

Fig. 17 displays the pressure distribution of fan faces under the wind direction of =90.
Obviously, the first column fans were the windward fans. The windward side pressure of the
windward fans decreased with an increase in the wind speed, resulting in that the average
volumetric effectiveness value of the windward fans decreased from 0.80 to 0.36. Meanwhile, it
can be seen from the figure that the fan faces pressures of the first and seventh row fans were
sensitive to the wind speed. The effects of the steam turbine room and the boiler room on the
seventh row fans caused the difference value between the above two rows.

(a) vm=2ms-1

(b) vm=4ms-1

-505-

(c) vm=6ms-1

(d) vm=8ms-1

(e) vm=10ms-1

Fig. 17 Pressure distribution of fan faces under the wind direction of =90

4Wind direction =135


Fig. 18 presents the change laws of the row and column average volumetric effectiveness with
increasing of the wind speed under the wind direction of =135. The seventh row fans and the
first column fans were considered to be the windward fans, although the wind was blocked by
the steam turbine room and the boiler room.

As Fig. 18(a) shows, the row volumetric effectiveness value decreased with an increase in the
wind speed. The decrement of the volumetric effectiveness value of the first and the seventh row
fans were both 0.29. The volumetric effectiveness value decreased from 1.06 and 0.86 (vm=2
ms-1) to 0.77 and 0.57(vm=10 ms-1), respectively. The volumetric effectiveness values of the first
three rows changed slightly under the conditions of vm= 2ms-1and vm= 4ms-1 and the downtrend
was obvious from the third row fans. Simultaneously, the average volumetric effectiveness value
of the first six rows changed slightly under the higher wind speed conditions. The volumetric
effectiveness value of the seventh row fans decreased greatly although the ambient wind was
blocked by the steam turbine room and the boiler room.
As Fig. 18(b) shows, the average volumetric effectiveness value of the first column decreased
from 0.80 (vm=2ms-1) to 0.31(vm=10ms-1). Except the condition of vm=2ms-1, the column
average volumetric effectiveness values increased continuously, and the increment decreased.
Besides, the volumetric effectiveness values of the sixteenth column fans were smaller than those
of the fifteenth column.

-506-

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

1.1

1.0

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

1.0

1.0

Volumetric effectiveness/%

1.1

1.1

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8
-1

vm=2ms
-1
vm=4ms
-1
vm=6ms
-1
vm=8ms
-1
vm=10ms

0.7

0.6
1

0.7

Volumetric effectiveness/%

1.1

0.6
4

0.7

0.7
-1

vm=2ms
-1
vm=4ms
-1
vm=6ms
-1
vm=8ms
-1
vm=10ms

0.6
0.5
0.4

0.5
0.4
0.3

0.3
1

0.6

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Column number of fans

Row number of fans

(a) Row average volumetric effectiveness(b) Column average volumetric effectiveness


Fig. 18 Change laws of row and column average volumetric effectiveness with increasing of wind speed under
the wind direction of =135

Fig. 19 displays the pressure distribution of fan faces under the wind direction of =135. The
seventh row fans and the first column fans were the windward fans. The fan faces pressure of the
first column fans decreased from 0.80 (vm=2ms-1) to 0.31(vm=10ms-1). Meanwhile, the fan faces
pressure of the seventh row fans decreased from 0.86 (vm=2ms-1) to 0.57 (vm=10ms-1) and the
decrement was relatively smaller than that of the first column fans.

(a) vm=2ms-1

(b) vm=4ms-1

(c) vm=6ms-1

(d) vm=8ms-1

(e) vm=10ms-1

Fig. 19 Pressure distribution of fan faces under the wind direction of =135
-507-

5Wind direction =180


Fig. 20 depicts the change laws of the row and column average volumetric effectiveness with
increasing of the wind speed under the wind direction of =180. The seventh column fans were
considered to be the windward fans. However, the height of the turbine room minimum step was
flush with the bottom of air-cooled platform. Therefore, the ambient wind could not reach the
bottom of air-cooled platform directly and the operating performance of the fans was impaired.

As Fig. 20(a) shows, the variation trend of the row volumetric effectiveness under the condition
of =180 was similar to the condition of =135. When the wind speed was 2ms-1, the row
volumetric effectiveness values were nearly consistent between the above conditions. And the
row volumetric effectiveness values were lower than the condition of =135 when the wind
speed was higher than 4ms-1. Especially the volumetric effectiveness values of the seventh row
fans decreased from 0.72, 0.67, 0.62 and 0.57 to 0.69, 0.53, 0.46 and 0.46 under four types of
wind speeds conditions. So it can be seen that the influence of the steam turbine room and the
boiler room was great on the seventh row windward fans. In addition, when =180, the
difference values of the row volumetric effectiveness was small under the conditions of vm=8
ms-1 and vm=10 ms-1, which was different from the condition of =135.
As Fig. 20(b) shows, the variation trend of the column volumetric effectiveness under the
condition of =180was symmetric and similar to the condition of =0.The column volumetric
effectiveness values of the peripheral fans were lower than those of the interior fans. When the
wind speed vm=2ms-1and vm=4ms-1, the volumetric effectiveness values of the eighth and ninth
column fans were slightly lower than those of their adjacent column fans. The maximum
volumetric effectiveness values appeared in the middle column when the wind speed increased.
Simultaneously, the both sides were the main channels of the ambient wind due to block of the
steam turbine room and the boiler room. However, the decrements of the column volumetric
effectiveness values were larger on the both sides than those of the interior fans. The column
volumetric effectiveness value decreased from 0.86(vm=2ms-1) to 0.37(vm=10ms-1) and the
decrement reached 0.49.
1

1.0

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.7

-1

vm=2ms
-1
vm=4ms
-1
vm=6ms
-1
vm=8ms
-1
vm=10ms

0.6
0.5

0.6

0.4
1

1.1

1.1

Volumetric effectiveness/%

Volumetric effectiveness/%

1.1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

1.1
1.0

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.7

-1

vm=2ms
-1
vm=4ms
-1
vm=6ms
-1
vm=8ms
-1
vm=10ms

0.6

0.4

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3

Row number of fans

1.0

0.5

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Column number of fans

(a) Row average volumetric effectiveness(b) Column average volumetric effectiveness


Fig. 20 Change laws of row and column average volumetric effectiveness with increasing of wind speed under
the wind direction of =180

Fig. 21 illustrates the pressure distribution of fan faces under the wind direction of =180.The
height of the turbine room minimum step was flush with the bottom of air-cooled platform.
Therefore, the ambient wind over the workshops could not reach the bottom of air-cooled
platform directly and had to dive into the air-cooled fans to condense the exhaust. As a result, the
-508-

row and column average volumetric effectiveness values of the peripheral fans decreased sharply
as shown in Fig. 20. There existed intervals between the boiler rooms, resulting in that the fan
faces pressure values of the middle column fans were different from those of the other column
fans. Hence, the column volumetric effectiveness values of fans increased first and then
decreased.

(a) vm=2ms-1

(b) vm=4ms-1

(c) vm=6ms-1

(d) vm=8ms-1

(e) vm=10ms-1

Fig. 21 Pressure distribution of fan faces under the wind direction of =180

3.3 Analysis on overall performance


The flow fields of the air-cooled platform was researched, and we have obtained the change laws
of the row and column average volumetric effectiveness values with increasing of the wind speed
under different wind directions and speeds. On the basis of above analysis, the change laws of
overall performance of the air-cooled platform can be achieved.
3.3.1 Volumetric flow rate values of fans
Fig. 22 shows the change laws of the volumetric flow rate values of the fans under different wind
directions and speeds conditions. On the basis of the above analysis on the pressure distribution,
we can gain such a conclusion that the volumetric flow rate values of the fans decreased with an
increase in the wind speed under different wind directions. Meanwhile, the operating
-509-

performance of air-cooled fans was sensitive to the wind directions. It can be seen from the
figure that when =90, the performances of air-cooled fans were all the best under different
wind speeds. In comparison, when =180 the performances of air-cooled fans were all the worst
due to the fact that the ambient wind had to bypass the workshops to condense the exhaust. In
addition, the volumetric flow rate values of fans under other wind directions were all between
the above two types of ambient wind directions. When vm=2ms-1, the difference value of
volumetric flow rate values of fans reached 896.8m3s-1under the both conditions of=0 and
=45. The difference values of volumetric flow rate values of fans were small under the
conditions of =0=45 and =135.
Besides, it can be noted from the figure that when vm=2ms-1, the difference values of the
volumetric flow rate values were relatively small under the conditions of 5 types of wind
directions. The maximum was only 1976.7 m3s-1.The volumetric flow rate values were nearly
same, which indicated that the influence of the lower ambient wind speeds on the operating
performance was finite. The maximum difference values could reach 6824.6 m3s-1 under the
condition of vm=10ms-1 and the volumetric flow rate values of fans is nearly same under the
condition of =0=45 and =90.

Volumetric flow rate/m3 s-1

10

54000

54000

52000

52000

50000

50000

48000

48000

46000

46000

44000

44000

=0
=45
=90
=135
=180

42000
40000
38000

42000
40000
38000
36000

36000
2

10

Ambient wind speed/m s-1

Fig. 22 Change laws of volumetric flow rate values of the fans under wind condition

3.3.2 Heat exchange rate of ACSC


The ambient wind was the cooling media. The volumetric flow rate was sensitive to the ambient
wind, and the change of operating performance of fans could affect the heat exchange rate of
ACSC. Fig. 23 depicts the change laws of heat exchange rate of the ACSC under wind condition.
It can be seen that, the heat exchange rate was not sensitive to the ambient wind under the
condition of vm=2ms-1. The difference of heat exchange rate was not obvious under different
wind directions. When the wind speed vm=10ms-1, the heat exchange rate of the case =45 was
higher than that of the case =90. And the difference values of the heat exchange rates between
the cases of =135 and=180 were small under the conditions of wind speed vm<8ms-1.

-510-

1700

Heat transfer rate/MW

10

Theoretical heat transfer


rate under TRL condition

1700

1600

1600

1500

1500

=0
=45
=90
=135
=180

1400

1300

1400

1300

1200

1200
2

10

Ambient wind speed/m s-1

Fig. 23 Change laws of heat exchange rate of ACSC under wind condition

Simultaneously, the Fig. 23 compares the heat exchange rate values under different ambient wind
conditions with the theoretical heat exchange rate value under TRL condition. The theoretical
heat exchange rate value was 1666.3MW under TRL condition. The ambient wind conditions
responding to the date points over the theoretical line of heat exchange rate would reduce the
back pressure. In comparison, the ambient wind conditions responding to the date points under
the theoretical line of heat exchange rate would increase the back pressure leading to poor
operating economy.
4. Conclusions

In this paper, a mathematic model of a 2600 MW direct air-cooled power plant has been built.
We have simulated the flow fields under the wind and windless conditions. The change laws of
fans operating performance and the interactional mechanism have been obtained. Such
conclusions can be drawn as follows:
1. According to the boundary conditions supplied by the VGB guideline, the design back
pressures under 5 types of typical working conditions were adopted to validate the reasonability
and accuracy of the model. The maximum relative error was 4.4% under the choked back
pressure conditions.
2. The heat exchange rate of the peripheral column fans was smaller than the interior
column fans under windless condition. Simultaneously, the row volumetric effectiveness values
of fans near the workshops was higher than those of fans on the free side. So, the workshops
could improve the operating performance of the adjacent fans.
3. When the wind direction =0 and =45, the row volumetric effectiveness values
increased from the fans on free side to the fans near the workshops side. The distribution of
column volumetric effectiveness was symmetric under the condition of =0.The column
volumetric effectiveness of the fans increased from the windward side to the leeward side and
the increment decreased with an increase in serial number under the condition of =45. The
increment of the volumetric effectiveness decreased with an increase in the wind speed under the
same ambient wind speed intervals.
4. When =90, the row volumetric effectiveness was not symmetric due to the influence of
the workshops on the seventh row fans. The row volumetric effectiveness increased first and
then decreased under different wind speeds conditions. Meanwhile, the decrement of the column
volumetric effectiveness decreased with an increase in the serial number. Moreover, the
volumetric effectiveness of the adjacent column fans presented vibrated tendency.
5. When =180, the ambient wind should bypass the workshops and dive into the bottom
of the air-cooled platform. The row volumetric effectiveness value of the windward fans was
-511-

lower than values of other row fans. When =135, the change laws of the column volumetric
effectiveness were similar to those under the condition of =45. When =180, the column
volumetric effectiveness value increased first and then decreased, and the column volumetric
effectiveness values of the fans corresponding to the clearance between the workshops were
obviously higher than other column fans.
6. When the wind direction is90, the fans flow rates and the heat exchange rates of
condensers reach the maximum due to the facts that the amount of windward side fans is small
and the workshops have little influence on fans. When the wind direction is180, the ambient
wind is blocked by the workshops leading to poor performance of condensers. The operating
performances were all between the above cases under other different wind directions conditions.
When the wind speed vm=10ms-1, the maximums of volumetric flow rate and heat exchange rate
could reach 6824.6m3s-1and 211.1MW, respectively.
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-513-


1 1 1 1 2 1 1*
(1. 710049
(2. 710032
Phone : +862982667034 E-mail:whj@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

M0
M1M2M3
M0 M3
M3 M0

[1]-[9][10]

M0 M3
M0 M3
M3

M0 2m/s 8m/s 1.2mm 1.9mm

1
3

-514-

(a )

M0

b M1

(c) M2

d M3

2
2.1 MO
1.2mm1.6mm1.9mm M0

1. 1.9mm M0

W/(m K)

m/s

Pa

300

353

2.5

369

327

131

34.8

300

343

4.1

367

322

199

100.8

300

337

5.2

366

318

242

188.0

300

332

6.0

365

316

275

293.8

2. 1.6mm M0

m/s

W/(m2K)

Pa

300

360

2.4

369

330

133

42.0

300

349

3.9

367

325

202

121.1

300

342

5.0

366

321

249

226.3

300

337

5.9

364

319

284

353.1

-515-

3. 1.2mm M0

m/s

300

365

300

6
8

Pa

W/(m K)

1.9

367

332

122

60.1

355

3.2

364

327

197

170.4

300

347

4.2

361

324

250

321.4

300

342

5.0

359

321

291

506.0

M0
M0 Nusselt
2 3

1.2mm Nusselt 1.9mm

1.6mm M0
1.6mm

2. M0 Nu

3. M0

2.2
M0M1M2M3
M0 2.3 4 6
-516-

4.M1

m/s

W/(m K)

Pa

300

362

2.4

366

331

153

50.5

300

350

3.9

363

325

226

141.3

300

342

5.0

361

321

280

264.3

300

337

5.8

360

319

315

410.1

5.M2

m/s

W/(m2K)

Pa

300

362

2.5

368

331

147

49.5

300

351

4.0

366

326

224

139.8

300

344

5.2

364

322

275

258.0

300

339

6.1

363

319

313

400.2

6. M3

m/s

W/(m K)

Pa

300

363

2.5

368

332

152

52.8

300

352

4.1

365

326

236

149.5

300

345

5.3

363

323

292

278.5

300

340

6.3

362

320

333

435.8

Reynolds Nusselt
friction factor 100

Nu = 1 Re 1 f = 2 Re 2

4
M3 M1M2 M0 M3 M1M2
M0 2.3

M0
M1
M2
M3

180

2.0

160

1.8

Ftiction factor

140

Nu

M0
M1
M2
M3

2.2

120

100

1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0

80

0.8
60
2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

2000

12000

4000

6000

Re

8000

10000

12000

Re

4.

2.3

A.
-517-

Nu / Nu0
1
( f / f 0 )1/ 3

M0 Nusselt friction factor


Nu0 f0 M0 Nusselt friction factor
7 9
M0 1021 M0 1549 M0 5.68.6
M3 M1M2M0
7. M1

Re

2993

5986

6
8

Nu
81

Nu / Nu0

f / f0

Nu / Nu0
( f / f 0 )1/ 3

1.9

1.15

1.20

1.08

120

1.4

1.12

1.17

1.07

8979

148

1.1

1.12

1.17

1.07

11972

166

1.0

1.11

1.16

1.05

1.125

1.175

1.0675

8. M2

Re

Nu

Nu / Nu0

f / f0

Nu / Nu0
( f / f 0 )1/ 3

2993

78

1.9

1.10

1.18

1.04

5986

119

1.3

1.11

1.15

1.06

8979

146

1.1

1.11

1.14

1.06

11972

166

1.0

1.10

1.13

1.06

1.105

1.15

1.055

9. M3

Re

Nu

Nu / Nu0

f / f0

Nu / Nu0
( f / f 0 )1/ 3

2993

80

2.0

1.14

1.26

1.05

5986

125

1.4

1.17

1.23

1.09

8979

154

1.2

1.17

1.23

1.09

11972

176

1.0

1.17

1.23

1.09

1.1625

1.2375

1.08

B. Identical Mass Flow Rate (IMF):

IMF Re1 = Re2


5 IMF M3
M1M2 M0

-518-

M0
M1
M2
M3

180

160

Nu

140

120

100

80

60
2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

Re

5. IMF

C. Identical Pressure Drop (IPD)

IPD

( f Re 2 )1 = ( f Re 2 ) 2

6 IPD M3
M1M2 M0
M0
M1
M2
M3

180

160

Nu

140

120

100

80

60
2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

Re
6. IPD

M0 Re
Re, Nu
-519-


M3

3
4m/s 7 8

7. 4m/s M0 M1

8. 4m/s M2 M3

M0

M1M2M3

[11]

M0 7

-520-

M1 7

M2 8

M3 8 M2
M2

M0 M3

M0 M3
M3 M0 , M3
9 M3 2m/s7m/s, 0m/s-1.5m/s
3
90w/(m2K)200w/(m2K)
9 M3 2m/s7m/s, 0m/s-1.5m/s
1 300Pa
1450Pa

9. M3

10 M3 M0 0m/s0.8m/s
2m/s7m/s M3 M0 M3 M0
1320 M3 M0 1418
10 M3 M0 0m/s0.8m/s
2m/s7m/s M3 M0 M3 M0 2025
M3 M0 2326

10. M3 M0

-521-

Nu / Nu0
1
( f / f 0 )1/ 3

M0 Nu f Nu0 f0
M0 Nu f
M3 M0 510

5
5.1

1) M0

2M1

3M2 M1

4M3 M2 M2
M3
5.2
M0 M3
1M3 2m/s7m/s, 0m/s1.5m/s M0 13
20
2M3 2m/s7m/s, 0m/s1.5m/s M0 2025
3M3 M0 510

[1] . [J].2014,35
51-3,13.
[2] . [J].
2014,13(3):235-239.
[3] . [D]..2012.
[4] . [J].
.2003,5(24):826-829.
[5] . [D].2008.
[6] . [J].
2005393229-232.
[7] . [J].
2004,38(10):1639-1642.
[8] .4 [J]. 2012,413

29-33.
[9] . X [J].
2008,598
1936-1941.
[10] . [D].2008.
-522-

[11] . [J].2014,02:15-18.

+862982667034

Email:whj@mail.xjtu.edu.

-523-

Numerical simulation and experimental study on heat transfer characteristics


of different fin structures
Lin Li1, Zhang Zhe1, Chen Qi1, Cai Benan1, Li Hongzhi2, Gu Hongfang1, Wang Haijun1*
1.

State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xian Jiaotong University, 710049
Xian, PR China
2. National Engineering Research Center of Clean Coal Combustion, Xian Thermal Power Research
Institute Co., Ltd., Xian 710032, PR China
*Corresponding author : E-mail:whj@mail.xjtu.edu.cn
Phone : +862982667034

Abstract : Fin structures in air side have a great influence on the heat transfer performance of
the cooler. Numerical simulation research is considered to be a useful tool for investigating
reliable heat transfer performance and providing better understanding in the heat transfer
mechanisms.
In the present paper, the flow and heat transfer characteristics of air side of cooler with four
different fin structures have been studied by numerical simulation. Four different fin models are
expressed as M0, M1, M2 and M3. The diameter, fin pitch and fin thickness of the four models
are the same. The only difficences of the four models are slotted structures. Based on numerical
simulation, the heat transfer and resistance properties of different slotted fin structures are
obtained. Based on the numerical simulation, the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics
of M0 and M3 air coolers have been researched, and the heat transfer and resistance of M3 and
M0 air coolers are compared quantitatively.
Key words: fin; heat transfer; resistance; comprehensive performance; slotted
0. Introduction
Cooler is a common cooling equipment, It will be pass part of heat of thermal fluid transfer to
cold stream. Heat exchanger applies to heat transfer process among two or more fluids which
occur thermal contact under different temperatures, or between the solid surface and the fluid, or
between the solid particles and the fluid. The basic direction of the development of the cooler is
improve the efficiency of heat transfer and improve the compactness of the structure of the
device. Fin-and-tube heat exchangers are widely used in refrigeration, air conditioning,
automobiles, computers and other fields because of its large heat transfer area and compact
structure. In recent years, more and more researches have been doing for fin-and-tube heat
exchanger. Experiments and numerical simulations have been done by a lot of scholars to study
the various factors on the finned tube heat exchanger. Such as the geometric structure of fins, fin
spacing, diameter size, arrangement and number of tubes, material properties, wall dirt, etc[1]-[9].
Fin structures in air side have a great influence on the heat transfer performance of the cooler[10].
In the present paper, the flow and heat transfer characteristics of air side of cooler with four
different fin structures have been studied by numerical simulation. Numerical simulation
research is considered to be a useful tool for investigating reliable heat transfer performance and
providing better understanding in the heat transfer mechanisms. Based on the numerical
simulation, the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of M0 and M3 air coolers have
been researched, and the heat transfer and resistance of M3 and M0 air coolers are compared
quantitatively.

-524-

1. A brief introduction to four different fin models


In present research report, M0 with 1.2mm~1.9mm fin pitch is investigated at 2m/s~8m/s inlet
velocity on flow and heat transfer characteristics. Furthermore the other three fin models which
are expressed as M1,M2 and M3 are designed and proposed. The figuration of four different fin
models are illustrated in Fig.1.

(a) M0 fin arrangement

(b) M1 fin arrangement

(c) M2 fin arrangement

(d) M3 fin arrangement

Fig.1. Fin arrangement of four different fin models

2. Comparison analysis of numerical simulation results


2.1 Numerical simulation results for M0
In present research report M0 with 1.2mm 1.6mm and 1.9mm fin pitch are computed
respectively. The computational results are listed in the following three tables.
Table1. Numerical simulation results for M0 with 1.9mm fin pitch
inlet

inlet

outlet

velocity

temperature

temperature
k

heat
transfer
rate

fin

average

temperature

air

average

temperature

transfer
coefficient
W/(m2K)

Pressure
drop

m/s

300

353

2.5

369

327

131

34.8

300

343

4.1

367

322

199

100.8

300

337

5.2

366

318

242

188.0

-525-

heat

Pa

300

332

6.0

365

316

275

293.8

Table2. Numerical simulation results for M0 with 1.6mm fin pitch


inlet

inlet

outlet

velocity

temperature

temperature

m/s

heat
transfer
rate

Fin

average

temperature

air average
temperature

heat
transfer
coefficient

Pressure
drop

W/(m2K)

Pa

300

360

2.4

369

330

133

42.0

300

349

3.9

367

325

202

121.1

300

342

5.0

366

321

249

226.3

300

337

5.9

364

319

284

353.1

Table3. Numerical simulation results for M0 with 1.2mm fin pitch


inlet

inlet

outlet

velocity

temperature

temperature

m/s

heat
transfer
rate

Fin

average

temperature

air average
temperature

heat
transfer
coefficient

W/(m2K)

Pressure
drop
Pa

300

365

1.9

367

332

122

60.1

300

355

3.2

364

327

197

170.4

300

347

4.2

361

324

250

321.4

300

342

5.0

359

321

291

506.0

The flow and heat transfer characteristics for M0 with three different fin pitch are compared
based on identical mass flow rate. The average heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number,
pressure drop between inlet and outlet and friction factor for M0 with three different fin pitch,
respectively are shown in Fig.2 and Fig.3.
From the figure we can see at the same mass flow rate, heat transfer rate increased but the flow
resistance increased with the decrease of the fin pitch. When the fin pitch reached 1.2mm Nusselt
number was maximum and the heat transfer is best, but at this point the friction factor is at the
top and flow resistance is strongest. Moreover we can see that the heat transfer will be enhanced
and friction factor decreases with the increase of the air mass flow rate.
Therefore a conclusion can be made that decreasing fin pitch could enhance the heat transfer at
the cost of the increase of the flow resistance. So there must be an optimized fin pitch. In present
research report we choose 1.6mm fin pitch in the following analysis for the four diffident fin
models.

Fig.2. Heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number for M0 with three fin pitch
-526-

Fig.3. Pressure drop and Friction factor for M0 with three fin pitch

2.2 Numerical simulation results for four different fin models


In this reportfour models of M0, M1, M2 and M3 are studied by numerical simulation, and the
heat transfer and resistance characteristics are compared and analyzed. The details are listed in
Table 4 to Table 6.
Table 4 Numerical simulation results for M1
inlet

inlet

outlet

velocity

temperature

temperature

m/s

heat
transfer
rate

fin average

air average

heat transfer

Pressure

temperature

temperature

coefficient

drop

W/(m2K)

Pa

300

362

2.4

366

331

153

50.5

300

350

3.9

363

325

226

141.3

300

342

5.0

361

321

280

264.3

300

337

5.8

360

319

315

410.1

Table 5 Numerical simulation results for M2


inlet
velocit
y
m/s

inlet
temperature

outlet

heat

temperatur

transfer

rate

fin average
temperature
k

air average
temperatur
e
k

heat transfer

Pressure

coefficient

drop

W/(m2K)

300

362

2.5

368

331

147

49.5

300

351

4.0

366

326

224

139.8

300

344

5.2

364

322

275

258.0

300

339

6.1

363

319

313

400.2

Pa

Table 6 Numerical simulation results for M3


inlet

inlet

outlet

velocity

temperature

temperature

m/s

heat
transfer
rate

fin average

air average

heat transfer

Pressure

temperature

temperature

coefficient

drop

W/(m2K)

Pa

300

363

2.5

368

332

152

52.8

300

352

4.1

365

326

236

149.5

300

345

5.3

363

323

292

278.5

300

340

6.3

362

320

333

435.8

-527-

The heat transfer curves and friction factor curves for four different fin models are shown in
Fig.4. From the figures we can see M3 is the best on heat transfer performance in the four
models, and the following is M1,M2 and M0. However, the friction factor of M3 is the highest
and the following is M1,M2 and M0. Therefore how to evaluate the integrated performance of
the four different fin models is the key point. The fin integrated performance of the four different
fin models will be discussed and compared in the section 2.3 of present research report.
M0
M1
M2
M3

180

M0
M1
M2
M3

2.2
2.0

160
1.8

Ftiction factor

Nu

140

120

100

1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0

80

0.8

60
2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

2000

4000

6000

Re

8000

10000

12000

Re

Fig. 4. Heat transfer characteristics and Friction factor of four different fin models

2.3 Integrated performance for four different fin models


Although the heat transfer characteristic of M3 is better than that of the other three models, but
the flow resistance is also increased correspondingly. Therefore how to evaluate the integrated
performance of four different fin models is the key point. In present report the integrated
performance of the three different fin models is compared under four evaluation criterions.
A. heat transfer enhancement evaluation criterion number
The integrated heat transfer performance results of four different fin models are given in Table 7
~Table 9. From the tables we can see that the heat transfer performance of the other three fin
models increased 1021 and the flow resistance increased 1549 compared to M0.
However the integrated heat transfer performance of the other three fin models increased
5.68.6 compared to M0..The integrated heat transfer performance of M3 is the best and
the following is M1M2 and M0.
Table 7 Integrated heat transfer performance for M1
inlet
velocity

Re

Nu

Nu / Nu0

f / f0

Nu / Nu0
( f / f 0 )1/ 3

2993

81

1.9

1.15

1.20

1.08

5986

120

1.4

1.12

1.17

1.07

8979

148

1.1

1.12

1.17

1.07

11972

166

1.0

1.11

1.16

1.05

1.125

1.175

1.0675

average

-528-

Table 8 Integrated heat transfer performance for M2


inlet
velocity

Re

Nu

Nu / Nu0

f / f0

Nu / Nu0
( f / f 0 )1/ 3

2993

78

1.9

1.10

1.18

1.04

5986

119

1.3

1.11

1.15

1.06

8979

146

1.1

1.11

1.14

1.06

11972

166

1.0

1.10

1.13

1.06

1.105

1. 15

1.055

average

Table 9 Integrated heat transfer performance for M3


inlet
velocity

Re

Nu

Nu / Nu0

f / f0

Nu / Nu0
( f / f 0 )1/ 3

2993

80

2.0

1.14

1.26

1.05

5986

125

1.4

1.17

1.23

1.09

8979

154

1.2

1.17

1.23

1.09

11972

176

1.0

1.17

1.23

1.09

1.1625

1.2375

1.08

average

B. Identical Mass Flow Rate (IMF):


The heat transfer rate of all the four different fin models is compared at the identical mass flow
rate. When air properties were assumed to be constant, the following restriction relation must
be satisfied.
IMF Re1 = Re 2
The integrated heat transfer performance for the four different fin models at IMF condition are
shown in Fig.5. Under this condition the integrated heat transfer performance of M3 is the best
and the following is M1M2 and M0.
C. Identical Pressure Drop (IPD)
The heat transfer rate of the four different fin models is compared at the identical pressure drop
between inlet and outlet. When air properties were assumed to be constant, the following
restriction relation must be satisfied.
IPD ( f Re 2 )1 = ( f Re 2 ) 2
The integrated heat transfer performance for four different fin models at IPD condition are
shown in Fig5. Under this condition the integrated heat transfer performance of M3 is the best
and the following is M1M2 and M0.
M0
M1
M2
M3

180

160

160

140

120

Nu

Nu

140

120

100

100

80

80

60
2000

M0
M1
M2
M3

180

4000

6000

8000

10000

60
2000

12000

Re

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

Re

Fig.5. Integrated performance for four different fin models at IMF and IPD
-529-

From the analysis above it can be seen though the criterion is different, M3 is the best in heat
transfer performance. However, its resistance is also the biggest. Therefore which fin model is
the best it will depend on the practical working conditions. In the following discussion a brief
analysis on the mechanism of heat transfer enhancement is given.
3. Comparison analysis on flow and temperature field of four different fin models
The temperature contours and velocity vectors of four different fin models at 4m/s inlet velocity
respectively are shown in Fig.6~Fig.7.

Fig.6. Temperature contours for M0 and M1 at 4m/s inlet velocity

Fig.7. Temperature contours for M2 and M3 at 4m/s inlet velocity

The pictures of the velocity vectors show that when the number of fin slit increased the velocity
gradient is also increased,, that means the variation of velocity is more strong. Moreover fin slit
disturb the boundary layer and therefore heat transfer is enhanced. The figures also show that
outside of the slit the value of the velocity is relative small and the variation is not large. So in
these positions the heat transfer should be enhanced.
Therefore, based on analyses above, the straight slit is applied in the other three fin models in
light of the merits M0, that means the slit angle is vertical to the flow direction. Moreover arc
transition along the tube is adopted. So the heat transfer would be enhanced at the least cost of
pressure drop.
According to field synergy theory, decreasing the angle between velocity vector and temperature
gradient the heat transfer rate may be increased. That means when the temperature contours are
vertical to the flow direction, the heat transfer performance is the best. From the pictures above it
can be seen that at the inlet the temperature contours are nearly vertical to the flow direction and
-530-

therefore the heat transfer is superior. However at the back of the second tube the temperature
contours are nearly parallel with the flow direction and therefore the heat transfer is relatively
inferior. Because the temperature difference is large at the inlet and it is small at the outlet.
For M0, In the Fig.6 on the left, in the middle of the slit position temperature contours are nearly
vertical to the flow direction so the heat transfer performance is superior. However in the middle
of the two tubes and outside the slit the angel between the temperature contours and the flow
direction is very small, so the heat transfer performance is weak in these positions.
For M1, In the Fig.6 on the right, when we adopted only one long slit between two tubes, around
the first tube temperature contours are nearly vertical to the flow direction so the heat transfer
performance is better. However around the second tube the heat transfer is weak.
For M2, In the Fig.7 on the left, the heat transfer performance is not bad as a whole, especially
inside the slit, the angle between the temperature contours and the flow direction has been
augment so the heat transfer was enhanced. However in the middle of the two tubes there was no
slit and the heat transfer should be enhanced
For M3, In the Fig.7 on the right, the heat transfer has been enhanced in the middle of the two
tubes after a trapezoidal slit is added on that position. Moreover the flow resistance increased
slightly.
4. A comparative study on the performance of M0 and M3 type air coolers
Based on the numerical simulation, the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of M0 and
M3 air coolers have been researched, and the heat transfer and resistance of M3 and M0 air
coolers are compared quantitatively. The heat transfer and resistance characteristic curves of M3
under different operating conditions are presented.
The heat transfer characteristic cures of M3 air cooler are shown in Fig.8, the air flow velocity is
range from 2m/s to 7m/s and the water flow velocity is range from 0m/s to 1.5m/s. As can be
seen from the picture, the upper and down test results are in good agreement with the overall
trend. The error between up and down is not more than 3%. The heat transfer coefficient is range
from 90W/(K) to 200 W/(K), and the greater the gas flow and water flow are, the greater
the heat transfer coefficient is.
The resistance characteristic cures of M3 air cooler are shown in Fig.8, the air flow velocity is
range from 2m/s to 7m/s and the water flow velocity is range from 0m/s to 1.5m/s. As can be
seen from the picture, the test results between up and down are very reproducible. The error
between up and down is not more than 1%. The differential pressure between inlet and outlet of
the test section is range from 300Pa to 1450Pa, and the greater the gas flow is, the greater the
differential pressure value is. The water flow has little effect on the differential pressure.

-531-

the water flow veiocity 0.38 down


the water flow veiocity 0.38 up
the water flow veiocity 0.5 down
the water flow veiocity 0.5 up
the water flow veiocity 0.63 down
the water flow veiocity 0.63 up
the water flow veiocity 0.82 down
the water flow veiocity 0.82 up
the water flow veiocity 1.07 down
the water flow veiocity 1.07 up
the water flow veiocity 1.26 down
the water flow veiocity 1.26 up

180

the water flow veiocity 0.38 down


the water flow veiocity 0.38 up
the water flow veiocity 0.5 down
the water flow veiocity 0.5 up
the water flow veiocity 0.63 down
the water flow veiocity 0.63 up
the water flow veiocity 0.82 down
the water flow veiocity 0.82 up
the water flow veiocity 1.07 down
the water flow veiocity 1.07 up
the water flow veiocity 1.26 down
the water flow veiocity 1.26 up

1600
1400

Differential pressure(Pa)

Heat transfer coefficient (w/(K))

200

160

140

120

1200
1000
800
600
400

100

200
2

the air flow velocity (m/s)

the air flow velocity (m/s)

Fig.8. Comparison of heat transfer coefficients and pressure difference between up and down of M3

A comparison of the heat transfer performance between M0 and M3 is shown in Fig.9. The heat
transfer performance of M3 significantly is higher than that of M0 when the air flow velocity is
range from 2m/s to 7m/s and the water flow velocity is range from 0m/s to 0.8m/s. The heat
transfer coefficient of M3 is 13% ~ 20% higher than that of M0. Numerical simulation result is
that the heat transfer coefficient of M3 is 14% ~ 18% higher than that of M0
A comparison of the resistance performance between M0 and M3 is shown in Fig.9. The
resistance coefficient of M3 is higher than that of M0 when the air flow velocity is range from
2m/s to 7m/s and the water flow velocity is range from 0m/s to 0.8m/s. The resistance coefficient
of M3 is 20% ~ 25% higher than that of M0, which is in good agreement with previous
numerical simulation result. Numerical simulation result is that the resistance coefficient of M3
is 23% ~ 26% higher than that of M0
the water flow velocity 0.38-M0
the water flow velocity 0.38 -M3
the water flow velocity 0.5 -M0
the water flow velocity 0.5 -M3
the water flow velocity 0.63 -M0
the water flow velocity 0.63 -M3

140

1400

Differential pressure (Pa)

the heat transfer coefficient (w/(K))

150

the water flow velocity 0.38-M0


the water flow velocity 0.38 -M3
the water flow velocity 0.5 -M0
the water flow velocity 0.5 -M3
the water flow velocity 0.63 -M0
the water flow velocity 0.63 -M3

1600

130
120
110
100

1200
1000
800
600
400

90

200
80
2

the air flow velocity (m/s)

the air flow velocity (m/s)

Fig.9. Comparison of heat transfer performance and resistance performance between M3 and M0

Nu / Nu0
. When the value is bigger than
( f / f 0 )1/3
one, the comprehensive heat transfer performance is improved. The bigger the value is, the more
improvement of comprehensive performance is. This paper is based on Nu number and friction
factor f of M0.

Evaluation criteria for enhanced heat transfer is =

The comprehensive heat transfer performance of M3 is 5% ~ 10% higher than that of M0 after
considering the resistance factor.
5. Conclusions
5.1 Numerical simulation results
-532-

The integrated heat transfer performance of all the four different fin models are proposed in
present research report. Moreover every fin model has its own features. The best model should
be chosen according to the practical working conditions.
In this chapter some recommendations would be given according to the fin structure, slit density,
heat transfer performance, flow resistance, integrated performance, strength and process.
The heat transfer and comprehensive performance of M0 are worse than that of the other three
models, the slit density is large and the strength is weak. Moreover, the flow resistance is
relatively small. However, the process is simple. Therefore the application scope of M0 is
narrow.
M1 has a middle performance on heat transfer and integrated characteristics. Moreover the slit
density is large and the strength is weak. However the flow resistance is relatively small and the
process is simple. Therefore M1 is applicable in the situation where there is no requirement on
strength and heat transfer rate.
M2 is similar with M1 on the heat transfer and integrated performance. But the slit density is
small and the strength is sufficient. Therefore M2 is applicable in the situation where there is
certain requirement on strength and nearly no requirement on heat transfer rate.
M3 is better than M2 on heat transfer and integrated performance. Moreover the slit density is
not large and the strength is sufficient. Therefore M3 could be widely used among all the fin
models.
5.2 Experimental conclusions
Through the experimental study on the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of M0 and
M3, the following conclusions are obtained.
(1) The heat transfer coefficient of M3 is 13% ~ 20% higher than that of M0, and the re sistance is 20% ~ 25% higher than that of M0 when the air flow velocity is range from 2m/s to
7m/s and the water flow velocity is range from 0m/s to 1.5m/s.
(2) The comprehensive heat transfer performance of M3 is 5% ~ 10% higher than that of M0.
6. References
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fin heat exchangers[J]. Chem Equip Tec, 2014,3551-3,13.
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characteristics of superslit finned tube exchanger[J]. Journal of Thermal Science and
Technology,2014,13(3):235-239.
[3] Chang Ling. Experimental Investigation on Flow and Heat Transfer Feature of tube-fin heat exchanger[D].
Liaoning: University of Science and Technology Liaoning,2012.
[4] Qu Zhiguo, He Yaling, Tao Wenquan. 3D Numerical simulation on heat transfer performance of slit fin
surfaces and analysis with field synergy principle[J]. Journal of Engineering Thermophysics,
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[6] Li Huizhen, Qu Zhiguo, Cheng Yongpan, et al. Experimental and Numerical study on heat transfer and
fluid flow characteristics of slotted fin and tube heat transfer surfaces[J].Journal of Xian Jiaotong University,
2005393229-232.
[7] Hu Junwei, Ding Guoliang. The Numerical simulation of pressure drop performance and heat transfer
performance of strip fin[J]. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University, 2004,38(10):1639-1642.
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arc-type slotted fin[J]. Petro Chem Equip,2012,41(14):2529-2539.


[9] Li Hongzhi, Luo Yushan, Wang Haijun, et al. Visualization experiments on air side heat transfer and fluid
flow characteristics of arc-type and X-type slotted fin surfaces[J].J of Chem Ind and
Eng(China),2008,59(8):1936-1941.(in Chinese).
[10] Zhang Kaifeng. Numerical research on flow and heat transfer characteristics of cooling air in fin-tube
bundles of air-cooled condensers[D].Beijing: North China Electric Power University,2008.
[11] Yang Hong, Xuan Yongmei. Review on field synergy theory for heat transfer enhancement technology[J].
CC&AC, 2014,02:15-18.
*Corresponding author : E-mail:whj@mail.xjtu.edu.cn
Phone : +862982667034

-534-

010020

1
150
14

1
2
3
4
5

2600MW

2
2.1
1

THA

TRL

16

32

kPa

13.2

31

kJ/kg

2434.9

2524.7

t/h

1218.33

1311.01

MW

749.7

815.1

MW

600.274

600.233

2.2
: 1648476m2;
9.144m110kW
64
8 8
2.3
30 35 kPa,
410

-535-


410 TRL

1
TRL
32 TRL
19.46
55%
901.7 hPa
410 3830
220 /MWh
342 /t
1.95 /t
5.5 /t
2
32 TRL 31KPa 24KPa
270t/h 163MW

3
3.1

1
2
3

3.2
3.2.1
1 8

2
1

3 2

-536-

3.2.2
2
2

451520

88

810 2 8 16

600MW 64 80

16

9.144 m

50m 22.31x183.4 m

110 kW

434764
10m9.75
135kW12
17mx15m,70

12

270t/h12

55 kW3

132kW

A
4122 m2

6000 m2

251.0mm250.7mm

TP316L19000t/h

1 5 2

10 3800t/h

-537-

10 132 kW

3280 m .

1 19000t/h
21m 1400 kW

3.3

3.3.1
3

kW

2470

kW

2112

2520

1012

1000

kW

kW

480

2112

2520

1492

3470

MW.h

808.9

965.2

571.4

1329

Rmb

177.96

212.34

125.7

292.4

3.3.2
1 2

3 20
16-24kPa 50-60
2
4

410
65.84 m 172 m/h 4
245.1 m 640 m/h
68
1/2
1/3
720h 20t/h 14400t
7.92 15.84
-538-

m/h

172

640

65.84

245.1

329.2

477.95

-15.84

-15.84

313.36

462.1

3.3.3
32 31kPa 24kPa

410 3830h
1kPa 1.2g/(kPah)
7kPa
1.92 t 3.84 t
1312.8

4
4.1

40
5
5

4.2

177.96

212.34

-15.84

-15.84

313.36

462.1

40

40

40

40

-1312.8

-1312.8

-1312.8

-1312.8

-1079

-1044.62

-833.74

-518.3

3
125.7

4
292.4

9352

11060

6438

7106

-1079

-1044.62

-833.74

-518.3

8.66

10.6

7.72

13.2

5.1 4
5.2

-539-

5.3

18686058580 E-mail : dhuixia@nmdsy.com


-540-

Study on peak cooling system for direct air cooling unit


Dong Huixia
Inner Mongolia Electric Power Survey and Design Institute Co. Ltd., Hohhot, 010020

Abstract: Through investigation of the operation conditions of direct air cooling units, several
peak cooling systems for raising the summer output capacity of direct air cooling units are
studied. The technology and economy stages of the peak cooling system are analyzed and
compared. Recommendations for improving the direct air cooling unit that has been put into
operation are provided.
Keywords: direct air cooling unit; peak cooling system; improvement
1

Introduction

At present, more than 150 direct air cooling units have been put into operation or under
construction. With the increase of operating units, more and more problems reveal in the
operation of direct air cooling system. According to the investigation of 14 power plants in Inner
Mongolia made byour Institute, the actual operating back pressure of most units is higher than
the design value. Especially in summer, non-full-load operating hours of unit are obviously
increased, resulting in lower load operation. The main reasons are as follows:
1Tightness of the vacuum system cannot reach the design and performance assessment
requirements;
2Radiator cooling capacity cannot reach the design requirements;
3The air quantity of air cooling fan is not enough. The drag is larger than the design value;
4There are frequent blown sands in Inner Mongolia, resulting in accumulating dust on the
surface of radiator, and thorough washing is difficult.
5Spray cooling leads to scaling phenomenon on the surface of the cooling radiator, reducing
the heat dissipation coefficient.
Because of the above problems, addition of the peak cooling system has been considered in most
power plants to lower back pressure in summer, increase the output capacity and reduce coal
consumption for the purpose of improving cooling capacity of the existing air cooling system,
operating situation of the cold end system, eliminating the various adverse factors caused by high
temperature, and improving the safety and economy of unit operation.
Based on 600MW power plant engineering examples, several peak cooling system for improving
the summer output capacity of direct air cooling unit are studied. Through technical and
economic comparison, reasonable and economic schemes are provided.
2

Design Conditions

2.1 Design parameters of steam turbine


Table 1

Design parameters of steam turbine

Item

Unit

THA

TRL

Design ambient temperature

16

32

Back pressure of the main unit

kPa

13.2

31

-541-

Thermal enthalpy of steam exhaust


of low pressure cylinder

kJ/kg

2434.9

2524.7

Flow of steam exhaust


of low pressure cylinder

t/h

1218.33

1311.01

Heat load of condenser

MW

749.7

815.1

Power of steam turbine-generator unit

MW

600.274

600.233

2.2 equipment allocation of air cooling island


Heat dissipation area: 1648476m2
Frequency varied induced draft fan:9.144m; Motor:110kW
No.: 64
Arrangement: 8 rows 8 columns
2.3 operation situation of main unit after retrofit and retrofit principles
During operation in summer time, when ambient temperature is 30 and mean back pressure is
35 kPa, based on performance curves of air cooling island, exhaust pressure of low pressure
cylinder is always above design value from April to October. This has great impact on
economics of unit operation and restricts output capacity under extreme temperature conditions.
Addition of peak cooling system is to reduce back pressure of the operating unit under high
temperature conditions in summer and increase output capacity.Operation time in summer is
determined to be from April to October, with TRL as total heat load. Boundary conditions and
principles for retrofit of peak cooling system are as follows:
boundary conditions of retrofit
Total heat load of cooling system: heat load under TRL
Maximum ambient temperature: 32 (under TRL)
Mean ambient temperature in summer: 19.46
Mean relative humidity: 55%
Mean air pressure: 901.7 hPa
Generating unit availability hours from April to October: 3830h
Generating cost: 220 Yuan RMB/MWh
Price of standard coal: 342 Yuan RMB /t
Service water: 1.95 Yuan RMB /t
Dematerialized water: 5.5 Yuan RMB /t (water from primary reverse osmosis device)
2Design principles for retrofit of cooling system
After retrofit, as the temperature reaches 32 under full load, back pressure under TRL
condition is reduced from 31Kpa to 24Kpa. Through calculation, 270t/h exhaust is required for
each unit to reach the above effect. Heat load of each unit for cooling is 163MW.
3

Retrofit scheme of peak cooling system

3.1 Introduction to retrofit schemes


At present, retrofit of peak cooling system for direct cooling unit is divided into three kinds: 1.
air cooling, i.e. capacity extension of original air cooling system or addition of other forms of
radiation unit; 2.combined dry and wet system of evaporative cooling tower; 3. provision of
-542-

additional surface condenser, with circulating water bearing some of the heat load of low
pressure cylinder. Basically, the retrofit project includes all three kinds of retrofit schemes. See
the following for detail:
Scheme 1Increase the air cooling heat dissipation area, number of fans, air cooled pillar and
platform size forthe existing air cooling island.
Scheme 2Add a small air cooling condenser system to divert part of the exhaust steam from
steam turbine to be cooled in the air cooling condenser system.
Scheme 3Provide a separate surface condenser to divert part of the exhaust steam from low
pressure cylinder to be cooled in the surface condenser. Cooling water of evaporative cooler is
sprayed onto the steam cooling pipe bundle for cooling of exhaust steam from steam turbine.
Scheme 4Provide a separate surface condenser to divert part of the exhaust steam from the low
pressure cylinder to the surface condenser. The cooling water of surface condenser is cooled by
circulating water system with induced draft mechanical cooling tower.
3.2 Layout of each scheme and equipment allocation
3.2.1 analysis of each scheme layout
For scheme 1, air cooling island of the two units will be extended outwards with eight air-cooled
pillars with corresponding steel frame structure. Comparatively, it has less impact on plant
general layout.
For scheme 2, newly added air cooling condenser unit is isolated from the existing air cooling
island. Considering that system pressure drop can not be too much, and arrangement of exhaust
steam pipe has no influence on general layout, the newly added air cooling condenser unit shall
be close to the existing air cooling island. Layout of scheme 1 is shown in Fig.1.
For scheme 3, the newly added evaporative cooling equipment shall be close to the air cooling
island and installed on open ground on both sides of the air cooling island.
For scheme 4, surface water-cooled condenser shall be close to exhaust steam pipe. Positions of
induced draft mechanical cooling tower and circulating water pump house can be determined
according to plant general layout. In consideration of investment on circulating water pipe and
influence on underground facilities, they shall not be far away.

-543-


Figure 1

layout of scheme 2

3.2.2 Main equipment allocation


Main equipment allocation for all the retrofit schemes is shown in the following table.
Table 2
item

Scheme 1

Scheme 2

Scheme 3

Layout of all retrofit schemes and equipment allocation


layout

Main equipment newly added


for single unit

Continue to use the existing air cooling


condensing pipe. Only number of rows is
increased, from 88 to 810;one unit
increase two rows, total 16 cooling unit
and 16 fansHeight of air cooling
platform is 50m. 22.31x183.4 m2 is
added.

451520 of dissipitation area is


added. Single-rowed aluminum fin
steel tube shall be used for pipe
bundle. Number of frequency-varied
draft fans is increased to 80 for each
600MW unit. Diameter of draft fan is
9.144m. Power of fan motor is 110kW.

Isolated from the existing air cooling


island. Triangular air cooled condenser is
used, with pipe bundle vertically fixed on
steel support. Induced draft fan is
installed on top of the condenser.Lateral
side of steel support without pipe bundle
shall be sealed with light steel plates to
avoid interaction of heat exchange unit.
Newly added land occupation of each
unit is about 31x102 m2.

Newly added heat dissipitation area is


about 434764. Single-row pipe
length is 10m. Diameter of draft fan is
9.144m. Power of fan motor is
135kW.Area of each cooling unit is
17mx15m with included angle of 70
degree. Exhaust steam pipe, vacuum
pumping pipe, electric vacuum
butterfly valve and expansion joints
for stainless steel corrugated pipe will
be provided correspondingly.

Peak cooling equipment is provided


outside Row-A columns.Evaporatice
cooler is adopted. Starting from the riser
outside Row-A, steam distribution pipe
goes through support of enclosed bus and

One evaporative cooling tower is


added for each of 12 units.Design
condensing steam is 270t/h, with 12
induced draft fans in power of 132kW.
There are three spray circulating water

-544-

Scheme 4

connected to the exhaust steam port of


peak cooling equipment. Condensate pipe
runs along the bottom of exhaust steam
pipe and goes into steam turbine house
through row-A columns. Vacuum pipe is
connected from peak condenser to the
nearest vacuum main pipe of the existing
vacuum system. Evaporative coolers for
the two units are installed on open
ground outside row-A columns. Land
occupation of evaporative cooler for each
unit is 4122 m2.

pumps (two in operation and one


standby). Power of pump motor is
132kW. Relevant steam distribution
system, spray circulating water
system, vacuum pipe and condensate
pipe will be provided.

A surface peak condenser workshop is


arranged outside row-A columns of the
main power building. Starting from the
riser of exhaust steam pipe outside
Row-A , steam distribution pipe is
connected to peak condenser. Condensate
pipe runs along the bottom of exhaust
steam pipe and goes into steam turbine
house through row-A columns. Vacuum
pipe is connected from peak condenser to
the nearest vacuum main pipe of the
existing vacuum system. Circulating
water pump house and mechanical draft
cooling tower for the two units are
provided on open ground outside row-A
columns. Land occupation of mechanical
draft cooling tower is 3280 m2.

One surface peak condenser is added


for each unit. Peak condenser: single
casing, single pass, cooling area of
6000 m2. Diameter of cooling pipe
is251.0mm or250.7mm, made of
TP316L. Rated cooling water is
19000t/h. A 5-grid mechanical draft
cooling tower is provided for each
unit, with water flow of 3800t/h for
each grid. There are 10 draft fans with
motor power of 132 kW. One
circulating water pump is added for
each unit, with water flow of 19000t/h
and head of 21m. Power of pump
motor is 1400kW.

3.3 Consumptions of each scheme


3.3.1 electricity consumption
Table 3

Electricity consumption (two units)

item

unit

Power consumption of
circulating water pump

kW

Power consumption of induced


draft fan

kW

Power consumption of spray


circulating water

kW

Power increment

kW

Total electricity consumption

MW.h

Scheme 1

Scheme 3

Scheme 4

2470

2520

1012

1000

480

2112

2520

1492

3470

808.9

965.2

571.4

1329

2112

-545-

Scheme 2

Total electricity rate

Ten thousand
Yuan Rmb

177.96

212.34

125.7

292.4

3.3.2 Water consumption


Since peak air cooling is used for scheme 1 and 2, there will be no water loss except for washing
of air cooling radiator.
For scheme 3, evaporative cooler is designed to spray water for cooling at ambient temperature
of 20. According to experiences of of similar projects, if plant service water is used as
replenishing water for spray, fouling phenomenon tends to exist on surface of evaporative cooler,
so demineralized water will be used instead. Relation between water apray of evaporative cooler
and ambient temperature is shown in Figure 2.
For scheme 4, water consumption is the total sum of evaporation, drift and blowdown losses of
wet circulating water system.

Figure 2

Relation between water apray of evaporative cooler and ambient temperature

Based on hourly dry bulb temperature in typical meteorological year, it is calculated for scheme
3 that water spray of two units during operation from april to October is 6,584,000 mwith
mean hourly water spray of 172 m. For scheme 4, water consumption of two units is 24,510,00
mincluding evaporative, drift and blowdown losses, with mean hourly consumption of 640 m.
Under present operation from June to August in summer, washing device of air cooling island
has been operating for about half a day. Demineralized water is used as washing water. After
retrofit, heat exchange capacity of air cooling island is increased, thus reducing operation time of
washing device. It is estimated that washing time can be decreased to 720h, about 1/3 of the
present washing time, with water consumption of 20t/h. According to estimation, consumption of
demineralized water will be decreased to about 14400t. Operation cost of 79200 Yuan RMB for
single unit can be reduced, totaling 158400 Yuan RMB for two units.

-546-

Table 4

item

Water consumption of each scheme (two units)

unit

Scheme

Scheme

Scheme

Scheme

172

640

Water consumption

m/h

Total water consumption

Ten thousand

65.84

245.1

Total water fee

Ten thousand Yuan

329.2

477.95

Actual water fee

Ten thousand Yuan

-15.84

-15.84

313.36

462.1

remark
Demineralized
water
for
scheme 3.
Service water
for scheme 4.

3.3.3 Coal consumption


After retrofit according to above schemes, original design back pressure of unit at 32 can be
reduced from 31kPa to 24kPa. Meanwhile, coal consumption will be greatly reduced. The
benefit of reduction in coal consumption is calculated as follows:
Number of availability hours of peak cooling system from April to October is 3830.
1.2g/(kPah) is required for 1kPa back pressure reduction.
Back pressure difference with the original design: 7kPa
Coal saving of each unit: 19200t; (two units: 38400 t)
Reduction in coal cost of two units per year is 1.3128 million Yuan RMB.
4

Total benefit analysis

4.1 Operation cost of each retrofit scheme


Benefit of coal saving, increase in plant power consumption and water consumption, O&M cost
of newly added equipment shall be taken into combined consideration for total benefit of retrofit.
Operation and maintenance cost is about 400000 Yuan RMB. Baed on above analysis, annul
operation cost of each scheme is calculated. The results are shown in table 5.
Table 5

Total annual operation cost of each scheme (two units)

Unit: ten thousand Yuan

Item

Scheme 1

Scheme 2

Scheme 3

Total electricity fee

177.96

212.34

Total water fee

-15.84

-15.84

313.36

462.1

O & M cost

40

40

40

40

Coal saving

-1312.8

-1312.8

-1312.8

-1312.8

Total annual operation cost

-1079

-1044.62

-833.74

-518.3

Rank of total annual operation cost

125.7

Scheme 4
292.4

4.2 Payback period


Table 6

Investment for each scheme (two units)

item

unit

Scheme 1

Scheme 2

Scheme 3

Scheme 4

Initial investment

Ten thousand

9352

11060

6438

7106

-547-

Yuan
Annual operation cost

Ten thousand
Yuan

-1079

-1044.62

-833.74

-518.3

Payback period

year

8.66

10.6

7.72

13.2

5. Conclusion
5.1 Technology adopted by these 4 schemes are mature and reliable.
5.2 rom the point of view of initial investment, scheme 3 is the most ecomomic one with the
shortest payback period. Reasons: low equipment cost and simple process system; High annual
water water consumption (demineralized water) and high operation cost due to combined
dry+wet cooling method.
5.3 In respect of cooling effect and stability in operation, scheme 4 is superior to the others.
However, water consumption and power consumption are the highest. Although initial
investment is low, it has high operation cost and long payback period. It is not in acordance with
state industrial policy, unsuitable for northern parts of China in shortage of water.
Biograph
Dong huixia

female, Tel 18686058580 ,E-mail : dhuixia@nmdsy.com

-548-

660MW

010025

660MW 7

660MW
CLNZK66024.2/566/566
1

2.

660MW 300MW 75%


300MW 660MW

8
8 7

3.
3.1
7 7
7
7 1

-549-

m3/kg

t/h

Di

THA

mm

mm

m/s

MPa

MPa

MPa

KPa

mm

h
mm

m
260

0.1

2.452702

273

259

26.07

0.2

0.16

60

0.133

0.028

35

3000

10
C W 10 12 3.36
2
C Z 2 8 0 .416
1
C T 46 .8
C J CW C Z CT 3.36 0.416 46.8 51.168

C 1 .05 C J 51 .168 1 .05 57 .7

PS

W 2v 26.07 26.07 2.452702

2
2
0.000307 MPa

Pg CPS 0 .018 MPa

2g
2 9.8
P0
10 -3
10 -3 0 .008 M Pa
v
2.452702
P P0 Pg 0 . 008 0 . 018 0 . 026 MPa
0.026MPa
47 7
7
3.2
2737
7 45 7
2

-550-

3.3
1
55kPa
8~10kPa 7 3~5kPa
2
7 7
7
3
WAWA
730kPaW
720kPa50kPa70kPaA
7
3.4
7
2
2 3 660MW

MPa

Pa

t/h

0.163

268.4

5.51

1.99

0.151

268.4

10.12

3.52

0.14

169.37

0.16

1.18

4.49

Q7

hyQy
h7

3008.91 4.49
4.80 t/h
2812

Q7 7 t/h

hy ; kJ/kg
h7 ; kJ/kg
Qy ;t/h

W7 Q7 h7 - hd 4.80 2812 - 2454.67


476.4 kW
W7 7 ;kW

hd ; kJ/kg

-551-

Qj

Q y h y W7
660

4.49 3008.9 476 . 4


660
Qy ; kJ/kwh
23 kJ/kwh

7 660MW 4.49t/h
0.78g/kwh
0.2g/kwh

4.
1 7
2 7

[1] ,,[J]
2009(02)12~15.
[2] ,,[J]2007(08)
27~30.
[3] ,,[J].
2008(20)5~7
010-85957136 18132768306, 494418726@qq.com,
75

-552-

Appllications of
o Shaft Seal
S Overrflow Reccycle of Steam Turrbine for 660MW
6
Air-coolled Generrating Un
nit
WEN Xiny
yu
(Shenhhua Guohua (Beijing)
(
Elecctric Power R
Research Instiitute CO,Ltd, Chaoyang D
District, Beijin
ng 010025,
China)

ABSTR
RACT: By means
m
of th
he technicall feasibility analysis, th
he successfu
ful implemeentation andd
energy-saving studdies on shafft seal steam
am overflow
w recycling technologyy of steam turbine forr
660MW
W air-cooledd generating
g unit in Dinngzhou Pow
wer Plant, th
he technicall plans and methods off
the shafft seal overrflow steam
m recycling are presentted. It is off benefit to the turbinee shaft seall
overflow
w recyclingg, and can be
b applied tto the simillar power generating
g
uunit to imprrove energyy
efficiency.
KEY W
WORDS: airr-cooled; sh
haft seal oveerflow; therrmal econom
my
1 Introd
duction
Labyrinnthine glandd seal system
m is primarrily adopted
d in current newly buillt steam turrbine powerr
plants in China. This
T
seal system can uutilize the auxiliary
a
steeam during unit startin
ng and low
w
capacityy operating conditions, adopt coooling sector reheat steaam as a stannd-by sourcce, and cann
also reccycle the diivulged steaam generateed from HP
P and IP Cy
ylinders at middle and
d high loadd
capacityy stages as a steam source supplyy for LP Cy
ylinder after spray dessuperheating
g. After thee
whole pprocess abovve, the exceess steam c an be dredg
ged to the exhaust
e
equiipment (con
ndenser) byy
overflow
w effect forr better economic beneefits. Take 660MW
6
airr cooling unnit in Dingzzhou powerr
plant foor examplee, which ad
dopts CLNZ
ZK66024
4.2/566/566
6 supercriticcalone in
ntermediatee
reheatsingle shaffttwo 2 casing
c
directt cooling co
ondensing steam
s
turbinne produced
d by Harbinn
steam tuurbine factoory. The seal system is shown in Fiig.1.

Fig. 1. S
Schematic off seal system

2 State--of-art for shaft


s
seal overflow
o
reecycling
Passive affects resulted from
m unit startt-stop alterrnations, lon
ng period lasting opeeration andd
vibratioon can leadd to malign
nant conseqquences succh as shaft end seal ffriction, steeam escapee
increasee from HP and IP Cyllinders andd steam neeed rise of LP
L shaft end
nd. These deterioratingg
influencces could loower self-seeal critical ppower rate gradually and extend tthe overflow
w rate from
m
-553-

seal system integrally. Take the 660MW Ding Zhou power plant as an example, the turbine
system self-seal reality at half power capacity falls far behind its designed request at three
quarter capacity. The overflow valve is in open condition when the capacity rate surpasses
300MW, while in whole flow status over 660MW. Massive seal overflow steam to exhaust
equipment can induce unwanted economic loss in operating conditions.
The current exported seal equipment from Hitachi can recycle the overflow to 8th LP Heater
system and some domestic system can also accomplish the same process through refinement,
while the expertise needed for recycling overflow to 7th LP Heater still lacks.
3 Recycle scheme
3.1 Feasibility analysis
Feasibility analysis is implemented for Ding Zhou power plant unit. The pressure loss of
recycling process of overflow seal steam passing through7th LP Heater is obtained based on the
operation parameters of the seal and 7th LP Heater systems. Ratify the scheme, choose the
matching tube diameter and control valve needed in the recycling system , and the relevant
parameters needed is listed in Table 1
Table 1 Parameters
Temperature T ()
Pressure P (MPa)
Specific volume V (m /kg)
Mass flow rate G (t/h)
Tube diameter (mm)
Bore size D (mm)
Medium velocity W (m/s)
Tube equivalent roughness (mm)
Total pressure P (MPa) (lowest seal pressure)
Total pressure P (MPa) (lowest 7th LP Heater pressure)
Total pressure P (MPa) (unit THA operating condition)
Tube friction coefficient
Branch tube stretching length L (m)
Safety working distance h (mm) (inlet height of 7th LP Heater)

Calculation:
(1) Friction coefficient:
Elbow (10) resistance coefficient:
C W 10 12 3 .36

Gate valve (2) resistance coefficient:


CZ

2 8 0 .416

Governing valve (1) resistance coefficient:


C T 46 .8

(2) Local pressure loss coefficient:


C J C W C Z C T 3.36 0.416 46.8 51.168

Total tube pressure loss coefficient:


C 1.05C J 51.168 1.05 57.7
-554-

260
0.1
2.0452702
3
2737
259
26.07
0.2
0.16
60
0.133
0.028
35
3000

(3) Entrrance dynam


mic pressuree
PS

W 2v 26
2 .07 26.07 2.452702

2
2
0.000307 MP
Pa

Tube syystem pressuure loss can


n be calculatted as:
Pg CPS 0 . 018 MPa

(4) Altittude pressurre loss:


P0

(5) Totaal pressure loss:


l
P0

2g
2 9..8
10
0 -3
10 -3 0 .008 M Pa
v
2.4527002

2g
2 9..8
10
0 -3
10 -3 0 .008 M Pa
v
2.4527002

Based oon the reasoonable calcu


ulation resullts, the overrflow steam
m can be recyycled to 7th
h LP Heaterr
successffully on noormal operaation condittion if the governing
g
valve
v
pressuure loss is lower thann
0.026M
MPa with thee resistancee coefficientt no more than
t
47.It can
c be referrred that thiis recyclingg
scheme can be appproached in accordancee with matching contro
ol valves in this air coo
oling powerr
plant.
3.2 Imp
plementatioon
During the plant unnit overhaull, stretch a ttube of 27
737 from th
he main seaal system steam supplyy
op left 45 of
o 7th LP Heeater, and in
nstall guardd
tube thrrough a tripllet, infix thee branch tubbe on the to
board innside the 7th
7 LP Heatter for not scathing tu
ube bundless. The scheematic is illlustrated inn
Fig.2:

Fig. 2. Schem
matic of plan
n implementattion

3.3 Prottection sch


heme
(1) Autoomatic conttrol
Seal sysstem steam
m supply preessure is seet 55kPa, while
w
the overflow steaam to dredg
ging system
m
and 7th LP Heater is 8~10kPa and 3~5kP
Pa separately
y.
-555-

(2) Precaution of 7th LP Heater divulgation and steam interception


Shut down the governing valve which controls overflow steam to 7th LP Heater when the water
line meets the high danger level, or both the inlet and outlet auto valves depart from opening
condition in 7th LP Heater, so that the overflow steam can flow to the exhaust system.
(3) Alarm set
Set both W and A alarm levels. W means reminder, while A represents danger alarm and needs
intervention. In order to satisfy safety requirement, set W alarm in condition that the steam
pressure drop between seal supply system and 7th LP Heater is lower than 30kPa. Make sure that
the A level alarm should activate as long as the pressure difference displays less than 20kPa, or
the pressure in seal system single side is lower than 50kPa or higher than 70kPa,and in that case,
the workers should manipulate the system valves in time.
3.4 Economy analysis
Test on mass flow rate illustrates that the overflow rate is approximately same before and after
reconstruction of 7th LP Heater. Neglect the tiny flow rate deviation. The test process is based on
the NO.3 power unit of the 660MW air cooling power plant in the normal operating condition
and the data is shown in Table 2.
Table 2 Test data of overflow steam mass flow rate
Test spots

Pressure
MPa

Temperature

Pressure drop
MPa

Mass flow rate


t/h

HP Seal sector

0.163

268.4

5.51

1.99

IP Seal sector

0.151

268.4

10.12

3.52

7th extraction sector

0.14

169.37

Seal DSH WTE

0.16

LP Seal steam supply sector

1.18

Overflow to dredging system

4.49

After reconstruction of the overflow steam to 7th LP Heater, the reduced extraction steam flow
rate can be calculated as:

Q7
where

Q7

hyQy 3008.91 4.49

4.80 t/h
h7
2812

is reduced 7th extraction steam flow rate, hy represents overflow steam enthalpy,

is 7th extraction steam enthalpy,

Qy

is the recycling seal overflow steam flow rate.

The beneficial power capacity can be shown as:


W7 Q7 h7 - hd 4.80 2812 - 2454.67
476.4 kW

-556-

h7

where hd is LP Cylinder extraction steam enthalpy.


The lessened thermal consumption can be illustrated as:
Qj

Q y h y W7
4.49 3008.9 476 . 4

660
660
23 kJ/kwh

The result shows that the seal overflow steam flow rate is 4.49t/h in 660MW operating condition
after the reconstruction, which could lessen standard coal consumption about 0.78g/kwh, and
according to the relations between the overflow rate and power capacity, the equivalent value
shows that the net coal consumption rate can be cut down about 0.2g/kwh.
4 Conclusions
1) Safety operation can be assured for the overflow steam recycling to 7th LP Heater of steam
turbine for air-cooled generating unit.
2) With the recycle system adopted, thermal efficiency can be improved and this approach could
also serve reference to the same type power generating units.
References
[1] Xu JQ, Jiang XH, Cao ZQ. Calculation approaches and error analysis for combined HP-IP casing with
separating seal steam divulgence. Thermal turbine 2009; 02:12~15.
[2] Liu Q, Guo MC, Liu PF. Effects of extraction steam pressure loss on unit thermal efficiency. Proceedings
of the CSEE 2007; 02:27~30.
[3] Zhang CF, Li XW, Li J. Universal calculation and application model of steam turbine gland seal system.
Proceedings of the CSEE 2008; 20:5~7.

Biography
WEN Xinyu ,Office tel: 010-85957136, cellphone: 18132768306, email: 494418726@qq.com,
Address: Shenhua Guohua (Beijing) Electric Power Research Institute CO. Ltd, Chaoyang District, Beijing
010025, China

-557-

Investigation of direct air-cooling system performance test method


Shengli Chen, Gaochao Li, Chao Wan, Tao Jing, Kai Lv
Xian thermal power research institute Co.Ltd., 710032, Xian

Abstract: According to the practice research of direct air-cooling system performance test, it is
showed in this paper where the VGB guideline is incomplete. The strategy is put forward for
improvement of air-cooling performance test, including test conditions, installation of measure
point, calculation technique and the like. It is discussed about method and index of vacuum
tightness test, measure of air-cooling condenser inlet air temperature, corrected coefficient and
examination of fan power and frequency and the choice of environmental wind speed in test
condition. At the same time, puts forward the need to further research content.
Keywords: Direct air-cooling systemPerformance test
Introduction
At present, the performance test of direct air cooling system in China is basically in accordance
with the German standard VGB-R131Me "vacuum condition of air condenser acceptance test
and operation monitoring guide". With China's direct air-cooled units put into operation
continuously, more and more direct air-cooling system performance test are carried out. Recent
years, according to the practice and test methods of research, it find that VGB guideline has
shortcomings in the arrangement of measuring points, test conditions, test calculation, which
should be improved.
Vacuum tightness test method of air-cooling system and the requirement of tightness
As the standard for the vacuum tightness test method and index requirement for air-cooling
system is lack at home and abroad, but the performance test of air cooling-system, especially the
acceptance test should be experimented without the influence of leaked air. Manufacturers put
forward the vacuum tightness requirements are often very high, and some even require 50Pa/min
which cannot be achieved by some system. And this may lead to the fail of the test.
On the vacuum tightness, the VGB guideline pointed out that the vacuum space of the condenser
and the associated steam turbine equipment must be tight and no leakage of air. Air leakage
should be evaluated according to vacuum pump 126L in VGB guideline. But VGB-R126Le
"design and operation of steam turbine vacuum pump design and operation suggestion", there is
no clear vacuum tightness test method and index requirements.
Currently the test is experimented under wet-cooling system vacuum tightness standards. As the
back pressure of air-cooling system is greatly influenced by the environmental conditions, the
fluctuation of air-cooling system pressure is very strong. So it is not appropriate to use vacuum
tightness standards to test air-cooling system.
1. Method of vacuum tightness test
According to the practice of vacuum tightness test of air-cooling system, the following test
method is put forward for reference.
Test condition: the ambient air velocity of the edge of the air-cooling condenser is not more than
3m/s.
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Test requirement: unit load at and above 80% of the rated load, steam turbine main steam and
reheated steam parameter stability is maintained, high voltage steam valve opening constant air
cooling island wind machine manual control, constant speed and stable operation.
Test procedures are as follows:
1) Close the vacuum pump and the vacuum pump.
2) Record the steam turbine exhaust pressure 1 time every 30 seconds sustaining 8 to 10
minutes.
3) After test, the vacuum pump should start and the vacuum pump gas valve should be
open.
4) Maintain the condition, continue to record the exhaust pressure, until the exhaust
pressure is almost returned to the condition before the test.
2. method of vacuum tightness calculation
The average rate of the pressure rise (vacuum drop) is calculated as the vacuum tightness index,
and cannot be calculated with the test data of 5 minutes and two minutes after the 5 minute data
from the pressure rise.
For the calculation of the 5 minute data, the rate of exhaust gas pressure rise should be consistent,
cannot have a big fluctuation.
As shown in Figure 1, the vacuum tightness test does not meet the requirements; the exhaust
pressure fluctuations are too large. The vacuum tightness test of the 2 and 4 can meet the
requirements of the test, the pressure fluctuation is small when the exhaust pressure is increased,
and the rate of exhaust pressure rise is basically the same.

Figure 1vacuum tightness test 1

Figure 2vacuum tightness test 2

3. vacuum tightness standards


In the vacuum tightness test, the rate of exhaust gas pressure is less than or equal to 200Pa/min,
and the time of the recovery of exhaust gas pressure is less than that of the time. At this point, the
air cooling system has no effect on the performance of the air cooling system, which does not
affect the performance of the air cooling system.
According to the experimental study, when the vacuum tightness index is less than 300Pa/min, a
vacuum pump working condition, leakage air volume has no effect on the unit vacuum.
For example, the vacuum tightness test data of a certain unit is shown in Figure 2, according to
the test results, the vacuum system tightness index is 305Pa/min.
In order to test the influence of vacuum tightness on the operation of the unit, the vacuum pump
operation was carried out. The influence of the vacuum pump on the unit's vacuum was tested.
-559-

The load of the unit was constant, the speed of the air cooling fan was constant, and the test
curve was shown in Figure 3.
In Figure 1, the operation of the 3 vacuum pump at 14:34, the steam turbine exhaust pressure
20.016kPa; 14:34, and then open a vacuum pump, 2 vacuum pump operation, steam turbine
exhaust pressure has no change; after 14:39, the power increase, steam turbine exhaust volume
increases, exhaust pressure increases.
Through the experimental study of different capacity units, when the vacuum tightness index is
less than 300Pa/min, a vacuum pump working condition, leakage air volume has no effect on the
operation of the unit.
When the air cooling system performance test, in order to eliminate the leakage of air volume on
the condenser heat transfer performance, the more stringent requirements, strict index is not
greater than 200Pa/min, it is considered that the vacuum tightness, does not affect the air cooling
system performance.

Figure 3 Influence of vacuum tightness on operation Figure 4vacuum tightness test 3

4. Determination of the number of operating vacuum pump during test.


As the direct air cooling unit has a large vacuum, the vacuum tightness is often poor, it is
difficult to meet the requirements of the test conditions, the effect of the air cooling system
performance test is normal.
If the vacuum tightness is not up to the requirements, recommended performance tests carried
out to open the vacuum pump. To determine the number of operating vacuum pump according to
the following methods.
The ambient air velocity is no more than 3m/s (1m height of the edge of the air cooled
condenser), the ambient temperature is not changed during the experiment, and the air cooler is
fixed at the fixed speed.
1) to maintain steam turbine main steam and reheated steam parameters in the stable invariant,
high-pressure inlet valve opening degree invariant conditions, additional a vacuum pump, 2 sets
of vacuum pump is running 10 minutes, in air cooling radiator inlet temperature is constant, if
there is no change in vacuum and unit power relative to a vacuum pump operation, performance
test, running machine, vacuum pump.
2) If the 1 vacuum pump is operated within 10 minutes, the vacuum pump is improved, or the
power of the unit is increased, and the 3 vacuum pump is run for 10 minutes.
If you run 10 vacuum pump 3 minutes, the operation of the 2 vacuum pump unit and steam
-560-

turbine power has not changed, the performance test, the operation of 3 vacuum pumps.
3) if the vacuum pump is 10 minutes, the vacuum pump is improved, or the power of the unit is
increased, the performance test of the air cooling system can not be carried out. Should be leak,
plugging the unit vacuum system, vacuum tightness after the test requirements, and performance
test of air cooling system. If the user and supplier agree to carry out the test, the test results of 3
vacuum pump, if the test results for air cooling system performance to achieve the value, it can
be considered that the air cooling system performance is qualified; if the test results for the air
cooling system performance is not up to the standard, it cannot come to the conclusion that the
performance of air cooling system, after the test requirements, re air cooling system performance
acceptance test.
For example, the vacuum tightness test data of a unit is shown in Figure 4, the test result is
444Pa/min.
Because of the vacuum tightness is greater than 200Pa/min, unqualified, additional vacuum
pump test, test of steam turbine main steam and reheated steam parameter stability remains the
same, high voltage steam valve opening constant.
One vacuum pump began to operate at 15:35:05; and ten minutes later another pump ran into
operate. Three pumps operated at 15:55:05.
According to the experimental results, the operation of the 2 vacuum pump is more than 1
vacuum pump units to improve the vacuum 0.57kPa; 3 vacuum pumps running 2 vacuum pumps
operating unit vacuum has not changed. Therefore, the performance test should run more than 2
vacuum pumps.
Measurement of ambient temperature (air cooled condenser inlet air temperature)
Due to the influence of hot air recirculation of air cooling island, the ambient temperature and air
temperature of the air condenser are often different, and the inlet air temperature is slightly
higher than the ambient temperature, and the average difference is within 0.3. And this may lead
to a relatively large deviation if there is a big difference between them, the difference may lead
to a relatively huge deviation after calculation.
When the performance test of the air cooling system in different power plants, the ambient
temperature and the air cooling condenser inlet air temperature measurement are shown in table
1.The environment temperature in the table is measured at the position between ground and air
inlet of the air cooler fan. Meanwhile, the air inlet temperature is measured between the outlet of
the air cooler fan and inlet of the radiator. Both these two temperature are collected based on
VGB guidelines.
Table 1.Ambient temperature and air condenser inlet air temperature
Unit Number

Units

Power plant 1

Power plant 2

Power plant 3

Power plant 4

Ambient temperature

23.172

26.763

15.392

22.381

Inlet air temperature

23.275

27.246

15.721

22.666

Difference

0.103

0.483

0.330

0.285

-561-

From the experimental results of Table 1, the ambient temperature and the air cooling steam inlet
air temperature difference is small. In the acceptance test, the wind speed of the air cooling
system can be calculated and used as the test data of the air cooling system; because the wind
speed is small (VGB guideline is not greater than 3m/s).
In addition, when the air cooling fan power correction calculation, it should also use the air
condenser inlet air temperature, should not use the ambient temperature.
However, when the air cooling system is designed, the inlet air temperature is designed with the
ambient temperature. According to the VGB guidelines, the air temperature is measured in the air
inlet of the air cooler. Because this position is very high, it is difficult to arrange the measuring
points in this position.
Therefore, it is suggested that different temperatures can be selected according to the purpose of
the experiment.
If air cooling island radiator performance test, the air inlet temperature should be in the air
cooling fan outlet and the radiator inlet plane between measurement, measuring point specific
arrangement in the fan motor platform below 0.3 ~ 0.5 meters, near the blower air duct, avoid the
influence of cooling of the gear box.
If the air cooling system performance test, inlet temperature and ambient temperature difference
within 0.3, the inlet air temperature should be measured between the air cooling fan outlet and
the radiator inlet plane, the measuring point is located in the 0.3~0.5 meter of the fan motor
platform.
If the air cooling system performance test, air temperature and ambient temperature difference is
greater than 0.3, the inlet air temperature should be measured in accordance with the VGB
guidelines in air cooling machine entrance, that is, if the wind turbine inlet height less than 10
meters, the height of the wind turbine inlet height is greater than 10 meters, the temperature
measurement point is arranged in three two and four points of the 1/4 plane.

Figure 5 Air side parameter plane of air cooled condenser

-562-

Correction and test of the fan power


1. Correction of the fan power
According to VGB guidelines, in the performance acceptance test, the test condition of the wind
turbine power to be modified to design power, that is, the cooling air quantity is modified to the
design wind. This is not scientific, unreasonable, because many units due to the design and
equipment problems, in the design environment and cannot meet the design cooling air quantity,
making the fan power correction coefficient is great, the correction of the vacuum is great, and
the actual operation cannot be achieved.
Recommended test conditions measurement of fan power corrections to the design
environmental conditions leeward function to achieve power, is the cooling air to air volume
design environmental conditions can achieve in the calculation of the evaluation performance of
the wind turbine driven power correction coefficient zeta 3.
VGB guideline for driving power correction factor for stroke machine:
P

3 = LV
PLG

1
3 n

(1 ) + LV
PLG

mK 1
3 n

(1)

3 - fan drive power correction factor;


PLV- design conditions, the actual driving power of the wind turbine;
PLG- design conditions, the design of the wind turbine driving power;
Mk- characteristic index;
n- air side resistance law index.
Fixed air cooling fan power under design condition:
p
= aG
p a

1 n

PL
PLV

PLV- design conditions, the actual driving power of the wind turbine;
PL- measured fan drive power;
PaG- design atmospheric pressure;
Pa- measuring the power of the wind turbine, the measured atmospheric pressure;
G- air condenser inlet air temperature of air condenser;
G- design into the wind temperature.
2. Assessment of air cooling fan
273.15 + L1

273.15 + L1G

(2)

At present, the air cooling technology agreement with the supplier and the supplier will be used
as the evaluation index, and the evaluation index is the overall power consumption. If you run
more than the design value, you do not have to meet the performance guarantee, to be fine, as
long as less than the design value, it is considered qualified. This is not fair to the user, but also
to promote the supplier to reduce the actual power consumption, avoids a fine; because of
reducing the power consumption, according to the VGB guidelines for the calculation and
correction method, does not affect the calculation and assessment of exhaust gas pressure.
Therefore, it is suggested that the energy consumption of the air cooling machine is specified as
the energy consumption under the design conditions, and the value of the 3% range of the design
value is reached. In this way, the impact of the actual operation of exhaust gas pressure is also
avoided. The users and suppliers are reasonable and fair.
-563-

3. Operating boundary conditions of the test case


In the VGB guide, the operating parameters of the performance test conditions require that the
motor end power and the design value of the air cooling fan are 10%.
This test condition is often not achieved. The difference between the ambient temperature and
the design value of the test is relatively high, and the difference between the actual performance
and the design performance of the wind turbine is 10, and the deviation of the operating mode of
the wind turbine is caused. And the operating frequency of the test case can be adjusted to the
design value of 10%. The operating frequency of the fan is not satisfied with the design
conditions (50Hz).
VGB guidelines for the operation of the wind turbine power requirements, the purpose is to the
power of the wind turbine, to avoid deviation from the design value is too far, the correction
error is too large. If the use of the method of Section 3.1, fan drive power correction coefficient
zeta 3 1, then there is no test condition fan power operation requirements. It is suggested that the
operation of the wind turbine power should be changed to the frequency of the fan operation, that
is, the operating frequency and the design value of the air cooling fan of the test conditions are
allowed to be 1Hz. Then, the operating frequency of the fan is modified in the test.
Fan frequency correction factor
In the VGB guide, the operating power of the air cooling fan is limited, and the operating power
of the wind turbine is modified. The power is determined by the operating frequency and the
power is fixed at the fixed frequency.
According to section 3 discusses, performance acceptance test, fan driving power correction
coefficient zeta 3 1, namely not fan drive power corrections, and fixed the fan operating
frequency.
Fan operating frequency correction, according to the change of the frequency of the wind turbine
in power change, cause the cooling air is different, the actual is to revise the test conditions of
cooling air to the design frequency wind turbine cooling air.
The operating frequency of the test case is f (Hz);
The driving power of the test case is PL (kW);
Design working condition of the wind turbine frequency is fG (Hz)
The driving power of the wind turbine under the design condition is fixed to the design
condition by PLV1
p
PLV 1 = aG
p a

273.15 + L1

273.15 + L1G

1 n

PL

PLV1- design conditions, the actual driving power of the wind turbine;
PL- measured fan drive power;
PaG- design atmospheric pressure;
Pa- measuring the power of the wind turbine, the measured atmospheric pressure;
1G - air condenser inlet air temperature of air condenser;
1G - design into the wind temperature.
Fixed to design conditions and design frequency of wind turbine drive power PLV
-564-

(3)

PLV

f
= G PLV 1
f

(4)

Fan frequency correction factor 3


3 mK 3
3

f 3 n
f 3 n
3 = (1 ) +

fG
fG

(5)

3 - fan frequency correction factor;


Mk- characteristic index;
n- air side resistance law index.

When the power consumption of the wind turbine is adj